On this Day in History ... 04 September

04 Sep is in September.

1526 Battle of Linlithgow Bridge

1536 Dissolution of the Monasteries

1555 Consecrations

1660 September Creation of Peerages

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Great Fire of London

On 04 Sep 925 King Æthelstan I of England (age 31) was crowned I King Anglo Saxons by Athelm Archbishop of Canterbury -926. It was the first coronation in which the King wore a Crown rather than a helmet.

On 04 Sep 1241 Alexander III King Scotland was born to Alexander II King Scotland (age 43) and Marie Coucy (age 23) at Roxburgh Castle, Roxburgh. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Before 04 Sep 1286 Roger Mowbray 1st Baron Mowbray (age 29) and Rohese Clare Baroness Mowbray (age 31) were married. She by marriage Baroness Mowbray. She the daughter of Richard Clare 6th Earl Gloucester 5th Earl Hertford and Maud Lacy Countess Gloucester and Hertford. They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

On 04 Sep 1286 John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray was born to Roger Mowbray 1st Baron Mowbray (age 29) and Rohese Clare Baroness Mowbray (age 31). He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 04 Sep 1454 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham was born to Humphrey Stafford (age 29) and Margaret Beaufort (age 17). He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.30%.

On 04 Sep 1475 Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings Baron Botreaux, Hungerford and Moleyns (age 8) and Mary Hungerford Baroness Hastings 4th Baroness Hungerford 5th Baroness Botreaux 2nd Baroness Moleyns (age 9) were married. They were second cousin once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Battle of Linlithgow Bridge

On 04 Sep 1526 the Battle of Linlithgow Bridge was fought between supporters of Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland (age 36), the king's mother, commanded by John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox (age 36) and supporters of Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus (age 37) commanded by James Hamilton 1st Earl Arran (age 51), over who would have control over King James V of Scotland (age 14) in his minority.

John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox (age 36) was killed possibly after surrendering. His son Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox (age 9) succeeded 4th Earl Lennox 2C 1488.

William Cunningham 4th Earl Glencairn (age 33) was captured.

Dissolution of the Monasteries

On 04 Sep 1536 Flaxby Abbey [Map] was dissolved as part of the Dissolution of the Monasteries.

On 04 Sep 1541 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 50) issued letters patent to convert Peterborough Abbey into a Cathedral [Map]. Bishop John Chambers was appointed Bishop of Peterborough.


Before 04 Sep 1550 Thomas Paston (age 35) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland.

1555 Consecrations

On 04 Sep 1555 Bishop Edmund "Bloody" Bonner of London (age 55) consecrated an Archbishop and two Bishops at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]:

Archbishop Hugh Curwen (age 55) was consecrated Archbishop of Dublin.

Bishop James Turbeville was consecrated Bishop of Exeter.

Bishop William Glynne (age 51) was consecrated Bishop of Bangor.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 Sep 1555. The iiij day of September the Quen('s) (age 39) grace and my lady Elsabeth (age 21), and all the court, dyd fast from flessh, and toke the Popes jubele and pardon grantyd to alle men.

On 04 Sep 1571 Alexander Stewart (age 39) was killed by supporters of Mary Queen of Scots (age 28) in Stirling [Map].

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On 04 Sep 1571 Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox (age 54) died at Stirling Castle [Map]. On 04 Sep 1571 His son Charles Stewart 5th Earl Lennox (age 14) succeeded 5th Earl Lennox 2C 1488.

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On 04 Sep 1626 John Holles 2nd Earl Clare (age 31) and Elizabeth Vere Countess Clare were married. She by marriage Countess Clare. He the son of John Holles 1st Earl Clare (age 62) and Anne Stanhope Countess Clare (age 50). They were second cousin once removed.

On 04 Sep 1634 Robert South was born at Hackney.

1660 September Creation of Peerages

In Sep 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded a further tranche of those who supported his Restoration ...

On 04 Sep 1660 John King 1st Baron Kingston was created 1st Baron Kingston of Kingston in Dublin 1C 1660.

On 05 Sep 1660 Roger Boyle 1st Earl Orrery (age 39) was created 1st Earl Orrery. Margaret Howard Countess Orrery (age 38) by marriage Countess Orrery.NOTEXT

On 05 Sep 1660 Oliver St George 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet St George of Carrickdrumrusk in Leitrim in the Peerage of England.

On 06 Sep 1660 Francis Boyle 1st Viscount Shannon (age 37) was created 1st Viscount Shannon. Elizabeth Killigrew Viscountess Shannon (age 38) by marriage Viscountess Shannon.

On 06 Sep 1660 Richard Coote 1st Baron Coote (age 40) was created 1st Baron Coote.

On 10 Sep 1660 Charles Gordon 1st Earl Aboyne (age 22) was created 1st Earl Aboyne.

On 04 Sep 1662 George Seton 4th Earl Winton (age 21) and Mary Montgomerie Countess Winton were married. She by marriage Countess Winton. She the daughter of Hugh Montgomerie 7th Earl Eglinton (age 49) and Mary Leslie Countess of Eglinton. They were second cousins.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1665. Writing letters all the morning, among others to my Baroness Carteret (age 63), the first I have wrote to her, telling her the state of the city as to health and other sorrowfull stories, and thence after dinner to Greenwich [Map], to Sir J. Minnes (age 66), where I found my Lord Bruncker (age 45), and having staid our hour for the justices by agreement, the time being past we to walk in the Park with Mr. Hammond and Turner, and there eat some fruit out of the King's garden and walked in the Parke, and so back to Sir J. Minnes (age 66), and thence walked home, my Lord Bruncker (age 45) giving me a very neat cane to walk with; but it troubled me to pass by Coome farme where about twenty-one people have died of the plague, and three or four days since I saw a dead corps in a coffin lie in the Close unburied, and a watch is constantly kept there night and day to keep the people in, the plague making us cruel, as doggs, one to another.

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. This afternoon, sitting melancholy with Sir W. Pen (age 45) in our garden, and thinking of the certain burning of this office, without extraordinary means, I did propose for the sending up of all our workmen from Woolwich [Map] and Deptford [Map] yards (none whereof yet appeared), and to write to Sir W. Coventry (age 38) to have the Duke of Yorke's (age 32) permission to pull down houses, rather than lose this office, which would, much hinder, the King's business. So Sir W. Pen (age 45) he went down this night, in order to the sending them up to-morrow morning; and I wrote to Sir W. Coventry (age 38) about the business, but received no answer. This night Mrs. Turner (age 43) (who, poor woman, was removing her goods all this day, good goods into the garden, and knows not how to dispose of them), and her husband supped with my wife and I at night, in the office; upon a shoulder of mutton from the cook's, without any napkin or any thing, in a sad manner, but were merry. Only now and then walking into the garden, and saw how horridly the sky looks, all on a fire in the night, was enough to put us out of our wits; and, indeed, it was extremely dreadful, for it looks just as if it was at us; and the whole heaven on fire. I after supper walked in the darke down to Tower-streete, and there saw it all on fire, at the Trinity House [Map] on that side, and the Dolphin Taverne on this side, which was very near us; and the fire with extraordinary vehemence.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Walked into Moorefields [Map] (our feet ready to burn, walking through the towne among the hot coles), and find that full of people, and poor wretches carrying their good there, and every body keeping his goods together by themselves (and a great blessing it is to them that it is fair weathe for them to keep abroad night and day); drank there, and paid two-pence for a plain penny loaf.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Up by break of day to get away the remainder of my things; which I did by a lighter at the Iron gate and my hands so few, that it was the afternoon before we could get them all away. Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I to Tower-streete [Map], and there met the fire burning three or four doors beyond Mr. Hovell's, whose goods, poor man, his trayes, and dishes, shovells, &c., were flung all along Tower-street in the kennels, and people working therewith from one end to the other; the fire coming on in that narrow streete, on both sides, with infinite fury. Sir W. Batten (age 65) not knowing how to remove his wine, did dig a pit in the garden, and laid it in there; and I took the opportunity of laying all the papers of my office that I could not otherwise dispose of.


Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Thence homeward, having passed through Cheapside and Newgate Market, all burned, and seen Anthony Joyce's House in fire. And took up (which I keep by me) a piece of glasse of Mercers' Chappell in the streete, where much more was, so melted and buckled with the heat of the fire like parchment. I also did see a poor cat taken out of a hole in the chimney, joyning to the wall of the Exchange [Map]; with, the hair all burned off the body, and yet alive.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. The burning still rages, and it is now gotten as far as the Inner Temple. All Fleet Street [Map], the Old Bailey, Ludgate hill, Warwick lane, Newgate, Paul's chain, Watling street, now flaming, and most of it reduced to ashes; the stones of Paul's [Map] flew like grenados, the melting lead running down the streets in a stream, and the very pavements glowing with fiery redness, so as no horse, nor man, was able to tread on them, and the demolition had stopped all the passages, so that no help could be applied. The eastern wind still more impetuously driving the flames forward. Nothing but the Almighty power of God was able to stop them; for vain was the help of man.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. And in the evening Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I did dig another, and put our wine in it; and I my Parmazan cheese, as well as my wine and some other things. The Duke of Yorke (age 32) was at the office this day, at Sir W. Pen's (age 45); but I happened not to be within.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Home; and whereas I expected to have seen our house on fire, it being now about seven o'clock, it was not. But to the fyre, and there find greater hopes than I expected; for my confidence of finding our Office on fire was such, that I durst not ask any body how it was with us, till I come and saw it not burned. But going to the fire, I find by the blowing up of houses, and the great helpe given by the workmen out of the King's yards, sent up by Sir W. Pen (age 45), there is a good stop given to it, as well as at Marke-lane [Map] end as ours; it having only burned the dyall of Barking Church [Map], and part of the porch, and was there quenched. I up to the top of Barking steeple, and there saw the saddest sight of desolation that I ever saw; every where great fires, oyle-cellars, and brimstone, and other things burning. I became afeard to stay there long, and therefore down again as fast as I could, the fire being spread as far as I could see it; and to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), and there eat a piece of cold meat, having eaten nothing since Sunday, but the remains of Sunday's dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Here I met with Mr. Young and Whistler; and having removed all my things, and received good hopes that the fire at our end; is stopped, they and I walked into the town, and find Fanchurch-streete [Map], Gracious-streete [Map]; and Lumbard-streete [Map] all in dust. The Exchange [Map] a sad sight, nothing standing there, of all the statues or pillars, but Sir Thomas Gresham's picture in the corner.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Now begins the practice of blowing up of houses in Tower-streete [Map], those next the Tower, which at first did frighten people more than anything, but it stopped the fire where it was done, it bringing down the1 houses to the ground in the same places they stood, and then it was easy to quench what little fire was in it, though it kindled nothing almost. W. Newer this day went to see how his mother did, and comes late home, telling us how he hath been forced to remove her to Islington [Map], her house in Pye-corner being burned; so that the fire is got so far that way, and all the Old Bayly, and was running down to Fleete-streete [Map]; and Paul's [Map] is burned, and all Cheapside [Map]. I wrote to my father this night, but the post-house being burned, the letter could not go2. 5th. I lay down in the office again upon W. Hewer's (age 24), quilt, being mighty weary, and sore in my feet with going till I was hardly able to stand. About two in the morning my wife calls me up and tells me of new cRye [Map]s of fire, it being come to Barkeing Church, which is the bottom of our lane. I up, and finding it so, resolved presently to take her away, and did, and took my gold, which was about £2350, W. Newer, and Jane, down by Proundy's boat to Woolwich [Map]; but, Lord! what sad sight it was by moone-light to see, the whole City almost on fire, that you might see it plain at Woolwich [Map], as if you were by it. There, when I come, I find the gates shut, but no guard kept at all, which troubled me, because of discourse now begun, that there is plot in it, and that the French had done it. I got the gates open, and to Mr. Shelden's, where I locked up my gold, and charged, my wife and W. Newer never to leave the room without one of them in it, night, or day. So back again, by the way seeing my goods well in the lighters at Deptford [Map], and watched well by people.

Note 1. A copy of this letter, preserved among the Pepys MSS. in the author's own handwriting, is subjoined: "SIR, The fire is now very neere us as well on Tower Streete as Fanchurch Street side, and we little hope of our escape but by this remedy, to ye want whereof we doe certainly owe ye loss of ye City namely, ye pulling down of houses, in ye way of ye fire. This way Sir W. Pen (age 45) and myself have so far concluded upon ye practising, that he is gone to Woolwich [Map] and Deptford [Map] to supply himself with men and necessarys in order to the doeing thereof, in case at his returne our condition be not bettered and that he meets with his R. Hs. approbation, which I had thus undertaken to learn of you. Pray please to let me have this night (at whatever hour it is) what his R. Hs. directions are in this particular; Sir J. Minnes (age 67) and Sir W. Batten (age 65) having left us, we cannot add, though we are well assured of their, as well as all ye neighbourhood's concurrence. "Yr. obedient servnt. "S. P. "Sir W. Coventry (age 38), "Septr. 4, 1666"..

Note 2. J. Hickes wrote to Williamson on September 3rd from the "Golden Lyon", Red Cross Street Posthouse. Sir Philip (Frowde) and his lady fled from the (letter) office at midnight for: safety; stayed himself till 1 am. till his wife and childrens' patience could stay, no longer, fearing lest they should be quite stopped up; the passage was so tedious they had much ado to get where they are. The Chester and Irish, mails have come-in; sends him his letters, knows not how to dispose of the business (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 95).

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. So home at night, and find there good hopes of saving our office; but great endeavours of watching all night, and having men ready; and so we lodged them in the office, and had drink and bread and cheese for them. And I lay down and slept a good night about midnight, though when I rose I heard that there had been a great alarme of French and Dutch being risen, which proved, nothing. But it is a strange thing to see how long this time did look since Sunday, having been always full of variety of actions, and little sleep, that it looked like a week or more, and I had forgot, almost the day of the week.


On 04 Sep 1730 Colonel Fiennes Twisleton 5th or 11th Baron Saye and Sele (age 60) died. His son John Twisleton 6th or 12th Baron Saye and Sele (age 32) succeeded 6th or 12th Baron Saye and Sele 1C 1447.

On 04 Sep 1744 Francis Scott 2nd Duke Buccleuch (age 49) and Alice Powell Duchess Buccleuch (age 42) were married. She by marriage Duchess Buccleuch, Countess Doncaster. He a great grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 04 Sep 1745 Christian Ernst Saxe Coburg Saalfeld IV Duke Saxe Coburg Saalfeld (age 62) died at Saalfield.

On 04 Sep 1748 James Cecil 1st Marquess Salisbury was born to James "Wicked Earl" Cecil (age 34) and Elizabeth Keet.

After 04 Sep 1753. Church of St Mary Narford [Map]. Monument to Andrew Fountaine (deceased). Dark marble sarcophagus with a white marble bust - a copy of an original by Louis Francois Roubiliac (age 51) now in the Norwich Museum collection.

On 04 Sep 1755 Mary O'Brien 4th Countess Orkney was born to Murrough O'Brien 1st Marquess Thomond (age 29) and Mary O'Brien 3rd Countess Orkney and Inchquin (age 34). Coefficient of inbreeding 8.42%.

On 04 Sep 1765 John Manners (age 34) and Louisa Tollemache 7th Countess Dysart (age 20) were married. She the daughter of Lionel Tollemache 4th Earl Dysart (age 57) and Grace Carteret Countess Dysart.


On 04 Sep 1771 Frederick Calvert 6th Baron Baltimore (age 40) died at Naples.

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On 04 Sep 1801 John Yorke (age 73) died. He was buried at St Andrew's Church, Wimpole [Map]. Of white marble in the Greek manner, in bold relief; two parents, hands clasped, stand in attitudes of grief at a tomb, with a reclining child at their feet; below is an inscription; signed 'R. WESTMACOTT, A.R.A. LONDON' (age 26)

John Yorke: On 27 Aug 1728 he was born to Philip Yorke 1st Earl of Hardwicke (age 37) and Margaret Cocks Countess Hardwicke. In 1746 John Yorke (age 17) was appointed Clerk of the Chancery worth £1200 a year by his father Philip Yorke 1st Earl of Hardwicke (age 55). In 1753 John Yorke (age 24) was elected MP Higham Ferrers. In 1762 John Yorke (age 33) and Elizabeth Lygon (age 20) were married. He the son of Philip Yorke 1st Earl of Hardwicke (age 71) and Margaret Cocks Countess Hardwicke. In 1768 John Yorke (age 39) was elected MP Reigate.


On 04 Sep 1815 Harriet Susan Dashwood (age 32) died. Memorial in Christchurch Priory [Map] sculpted by Antonio Trentanove.

Harriet Susan Dashwood: In 1783 she was born to Francis Bateman Dashwood (age 33). On 17 Jun 1806 James Edward Harris 2nd Earl Malmesbury (age 27) and Harriet Susan Dashwood (age 23) were married. He the son of James Harris 1st Earl Malmesbury (age 60).

Antonio Trentanove: Around 1745 he was born in Rimini. Around 1812 Antonio Trentanove (age 67) died in Cararra.

On 04 Sep 1825 Frederick Howard 5th Earl Carlisle (age 77) died. His son George Howard 6th Earl Carlisle (age 51) succeeded 6th Earl Carlisle 3C 1661.NOTEXT

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On 04 Sep 1845 John Arthur Douglas Bloomfield 1st and 2nd Baron Bloomfield (age 42) and Georgiana Liddell Baroness Bloomfield (age 23) were married.

On 04 Sep 1873 George Arthur Hastings Forbes 7th Earl Granard (age 40) and Frances Mary Petre Countess Granard (age 27) were married. She by marriage Countess Granard. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.


On 04 Sep 1927 Bernard Coleridge 2nd Baron Coleridge (age 76) died. His son Geoffrey Duke Coleridge 3rd Baron Coleridge (age 50) succeeded 3rd Baron Coleridge of Ottery St Mary in Devon. Mary aka Jessie Alethea Mackarness Baroness Coleridge (age 47) by marriage Baroness Coleridge of Ottery St Mary in Devon.

Before 04 Sep 1960 John Ian Robert Russell 13th Duke Bedford (age 43) and Lydia Yarde-Buller Duchess Bedford (age 42) were divorced.

On 04 Sep 1960 John Ian Robert Russell 13th Duke Bedford (age 43) and Nicole Schnedier Duchess Bedford (age 40) were married. She by marriage Duchess Bedford. He the son of Hastings William Russell 12th Duke Bedford and Louisa Crommelin Roberta Jowitt Whitwell Duchess Bedford.

On 04 Sep 1963 Charles Duncombe 3rd Earl Feversham (age 56) died. Earl Feversham 3C 1868 extinct.

On 04 Sep 1975 David Brand 5th Viscount Hampden (age 73) died.

On 04 Sep 2016 Bishop David Jenkins (age 91) died.