On this Day in History ... 08 February

08 Feb is in February.

1250 Battle of Mansoura

1308 Coronation of Edward II and Isabella

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Henry VI

1544 Wyatt's Rebellion

1555 Protestant Executions

1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1601 Essex Rebellion

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 08 Feb 1139. A new Abbot at Gloucester. 1139. The feast of our Lord's Nativity being passed, and that of the Purification of St. Mary, his mother, drawing nigh, the venerable father Abbot Walter de Lady, abbot of Gloucester, gave up the ghost about the third hour of the day, after holding his preferment nine years and a half; he was buried by the venerable abbots, Reynold of Evesham, and Roger of Tewksbury, on the sixth of the ides [the 8th] of February. After his interment, two of the brethren were sent to Cluni to fetch our1 lord-elect, Gilbert; king Stephen having, on the report of his eminent worth, and at the request of Milo, his constable, conferred upon him at London the preferment of the abbey of Gloucester. Theobald (age 49), archbishop of Canterbury, Simon, bishop of Worcester, Roger, bishop of Coventry, Robert, bishop of Exeter, and Reynold, abbot of Evesham, having been unanimously chosen, proceeded by the pope's command to the threshold of St. Peter. On their arrival, they were received with great honour by the apostolic see, and allowed seats in the Roman council, a circumstance without parallel for many ages before. Having there freely opened their business, they returned home with joy, bringing with them the synodal decrees, now recorded far and wide throughout England. The two monks who had been sent to bring over the lord-abbot Gilbert, also returned in safety, and presented him to king Stephen, who received him graciously, and conferred on him, to hold freely, the fief of the church of Gloucester. He came to Worcester on the feast of Whitsuntide, which fell on the third of the ides [the 11th] of June, and was there ordained, with great rejoicings and divine lauds, by the venerable Robert, bishop of Hereford; and going from thence on the following day, was installed at Gloucester with great joy and exultation, and the acclamations of the commonalty of both orders, in a manner befitting such a man in the Lord.

Note 1. It has been supposed, from this expression, that the continuator was a monk of Gloucester; but he speaks thus of the new abbot as belonging to his own diocese of Worcester.

Battle of Mansoura

On 08 Feb 1250 the Battle of Mansoura was fought between Crusaders led by King Louis IX of France (age 35) commanded by Robert Capet Count of Artois (age 33) and Ayyubid forces.

Robert Capet Count of Artois (age 33) and William Longespée (age 42) were killed.

Alexander Giffard fought; possibly killed.

On 08 Feb 1291 Alfonso "Brave" IV King Portugal was born to Denis I King Portugal (age 29) and Elisabeth Barcelona Queen Consort Portugal (age 20). He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

Coronation of Edward II and Isabella

Calendars. 08 Feb 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23). Dover [Map]. To William Leybourne. Order to attend the king's coronation with his wife on Sunday next after the feast of St Valentine.

The like to seventy others in various counties.

On 08 Feb 1322 Thomas de Multon 1st Baron Multon (age 45) died. His son John de Multon 2nd Baron Multon Egremont (age 14) succeeded 2nd Baron Multon Egremont.

On 08 Feb 1387 Adam Everingham 2nd Baron Everingham of Laxton (age 80) died. His grandson Robert Everingham 3rd Baron Everingham of Laxton succeeded 3rd Baron Everingham of Laxton.

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Henry VI

On 08 Feb 1461 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39) created four Garter Knights two of whom would be killed nine days later at the Second Battle of St Albans:

181st Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32). Note. The date here appears unlikely since he was fighting against the King at the time?

182nd William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68).

183rd Thomas Kyriell (age 65).

184th John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61).

On 09 Feb 1498 John Welles 1st Viscount Welles (age 48) died in London. Viscount Welles extinct. His will reads ...

In the name of oure Lorde Jeshu, Amen. I, John, Viscounte lorde Wellis (age 48), uncle to the Kynge (age 41), oure soveraigne lorde, and brodre to the right noble prynces, Margaret, countes of Richemond (age 54), naturall and dere modre to oure said soveregne lord, beyng of goode and hole memory, ye viij daie of February, the yere of oure Lorde God 1498, and in the xiiij yere of the regne of our saide soverayne lorde, make this my testament. My bodie to be buried in suche place as [to] the kynge (age 41), the quene (age 31), my lady, his moder (age 54), and my lady, my wife (age 28), shalbe thought, most convenyent, and the costis and charge of the same burying, the obsequyes, masses, funeralles and all oder thynges therto convenyent and necessarie. And also I remyt the makyng of my tumbe to the ordre and discrecionn of my saide soverayne lady the quene (age 31), my lady his modre, and my wife (age 28). And after these charges and costis aforesaid had and done, I will that all the dettis nowe by me dewe or to be dewe be treuly contented and paied. And I will that to the honour of Almighty God in the aulter afore which my bodie shall next lie my executors shall delyver a pair of candelstickes of silver, a masse booke covered with clothe of goolde, a chales of silver and gilte, a vestament of blewe velvet enbrodered with my armes, a pair of litle cruettes of silver and parcellis gilte, and a crosse of silver p[arcell] gilt, which 1 will do remayne there to serve Almyghty God with for ever and in noo oder place. Also I geve and bequethe to my dere beloved lady and wife Cecille (age 28), for terme of her life, all my castelles, manors, landes and tenements, aswell suche as I have purchased as all odre duryng only her life, whome I trust above all oder, that if my goodes and catallis wilnot suffice for the performance of this my laste will, that she will thenne of the revenues of the profittes of my inheritance perform this my laste will. Also I will that a preste be founde for ever after my said wifes decease to sey masse daily for my sowle and all Cristen sowles at the said aulter of the yerely revenues of my purchased landes, and over which my saide lady hath promysed me faithfully to purchase to the same entent if my saide purchased landes suffice not therto. And I will yt suche residue as shall fortune to be of my goodes that my saide dere beloved lady aud wife have theym to her owne use. And I make executors the saide Cecill (age 28), my dere beloved wife, and Sr Raynold Bray (age 58), knyght, and in my mooste humble wise beseche my said soverayne lorde the kyng and the quenes grace, my lady the kynges modre, to be supervisours.

On 08 Feb 1515 William I Landgrave of Hesse (age 48) died. His brother William II Landgrave of Hesse succeeded I Landgrave Hesse.

Before 08 Feb 1542 Oliver St John 1st Baron St John Bletso (age 20) and Agnes Fisher Baroness St John Bletso (age 16) were married.


Wyatt's Rebellion

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Feb 1544. The viij day of Feybruarij was commondyd by the quene (age 27) and the bysshope of London (age 44) that Powlles and evere parryche that thay shuld syng Te Deum Laudamus, and ryngyng for the good vyctory that the quen('s) (age 27) grace had aganst Wyatt (age 23) and the rebellyous of Kent, the wyche wher over-come, thankes be unto God, with lytyll blud-shed, and the reseduw taken and had to presun, and after wher dyvers of them putt to deth in dyvers places in Londun and Kent, and prossessyon evere wher that day for joy.

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1555 Protestant Executions

On 20 Jan 1555 the statutes for burning heretics, originally enacted to repress Lollardism, De heretico comburendo was re-enacted to allow the burning of Protestants.

In early Feb 1555 the first of the Protestant executions took place:

On 04 Feb 1555 John Rogers (age 50) was burned at the stake at Smithfield [Map].

On 08 Feb 1555 Laurence Saunders Martyr (age 36) was burned at the stake at Coventry [Map].

On 09 Feb 1555 Bishop John Hooper (age 60) was burned at the stake at Gloucester, Gloucestershire [Map].

On 09 Feb 1555 Rowland Taylor Martyr was burned at the stake at Aldham Common. His wife and child were, reportedly, present.

PAINTINGS/FOXES/Laurence_Saunders.pngFoxe's Book of Martyrs. 08 Feb 1555. The next day, which was the eighth of February, he was led to the place of execntion in the park without the city, going in an old gown and a shirt, barefooted, and ofttimes fell flat on the ground, and prayed. When he was come nigh to the place, the officer appointed to see the execution done, said to Master Saunders, that he was one of them which marred the queen's realm with false doctrine and heresy, "wherefore thou hast deserved death," quoth he; "but yet, if thou wilt revoke thine heresies, the queen hath pardoned thee: if not, yonder fire is prepared for thee." To whom Master Saunders answered, "It is not I, nor my fellow preachers of God's truth, that have hurt the queen's realm, but it is yourself, and such as you are,which have always resisted God's holy word; it is you which have and do mar the queen's realm. I do hold no heresies; but the doctrine of God, the blessed gospel of Christ, that hold I; that believe I; that have I taught; and that will I never revoke." With that, this tormentor cried, "Away with him." And away from him went Master Saunders with a merry courage towards the fire. He fell to the ground, and prayed: he rose up again, and took the stake to which he should be chained in his arms, and kissed it, saying, "Welcome the cross of Christ! welcome everlasting life!" and being fastened to the stake, and fire put to him, full sweetly he slept in the Lord.

On 08 Feb 1562 James Stewart 1st Earl Moray Regent (age 31) and Agnes Keith Countess Moray and Argyll (age 31) were married at Holyrood. Agnes Keith Countess Moray and Argyll by marriage Countess Moray. She the daughter of William Keith 4th Earl Marischal (age 55) and Margaret Keith Countess Marischal. He the son of King James V of Scotland and Margaret Erskine (age 46). They were fourth cousins. He a great grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

PAINTINGS/EWORTH/James_Stewart_Earl_of_Moray.jpg PAINTINGS/UNKNOWN/James_Stewart_Earl_Moray.jpg

On 08 Feb 1575 Richard Myddelton (age 66) died. Brass memorial at St Marcella's Church, Denbigh [Map].

Richard Myddelton: Before 1509 he was born to Fulke Myddelton of Llansannan (age 25). In 1541 Richard Myddelton (age 32) and Jane Dryhurst (age 16) were married. They had nine sons and seven daughters. In 1542 Richard Myddelton (age 33) was elected MP Denbigh Boroughs. In 1563 Humphrey Llwyd aka Lluyd (age 36) lived at Denbigh Castle by permission of Sir John Salusbury (age 44) [Note. Some sources say Richard Myddelton (age 54)] who was then the Lord of the Manor of Denbigh.

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

The Letter Books of Amias Paulet Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots Published 1874 Marys Execution. Poulet (age 54), as has already been said, was made Chancellor of the Garter in April, 1587, but he did not retain this preferment for a whole year. He continued in the Captaincy of Jersey up to his death, but he appears to have resided in and near London. In the British Museum are two letters from him of small importance. One, addressed to the Lord High Admiral, is dated, "From my poor lodging in Fleet Street [Map], the 14th of January, 1587," about "right of tenths in Jersey, belonging to the Government." The other, "From my little lodge at Twickenham, the 24th of April, 1588," "on behalf of Berry," whose divorce was referred by the Justices of the Common Pleas to four Doctors of the Civil Law, of whom Mr. Doctor Caesar, Judge of the Admiralty, to whom the letter was written, was one.

His name also occurs in a letter, from Walsingham to Burghley, dated May 23, 1587, while Elizabeth still kept up the farce of Burghley's disgrace for despatching Mary Stuart's death-warrant. "Touching the Chancellorship of the Duchy, she told Sir Amias Poulet that in respect of her promise made unto me, she would not dispose of it otherwise. But yet hath he no power to deliver the seals unto me, though for that purpose the Attorney is commanded to attend him, who I suppose will be dismissed hence this day without any resolution." And on the 4th of January following, together with the other lords of the Council, he signed a letter addressed by the Privy Council to the Lord Admiral and to Lord Buckhurst, the Lieutenants of Sussex, against such Catholics as "most obstinately have refused to come to the church to prayers and divine service," requiring them to "cause the most obstinate and noted persons to be committed to such prisons as are fittest for their safe keeping: the rest that are of value, and not so obstinate, are to be referred to the custody of some -ecclesiastical persons and other gentlemen well affected, to remain at the charges of the recusant, to be restrained in such sort as they may be forthcoming, and kept from intelligence with one another." On the 26th of September, in the year in which this letter was written, 1588, Sir Amias Poulet died.

Poulet was buried in St. Martin-in-the-Fields, London. [Map]. When that church was pulled down to be rebuilt, his remains, with the handsome monument erected over them, were removed to the parish church of Hinton St. George. After various panegyrics in Latin, French, and English inscribed on his. Monument, a quatrain, expressive apparently of royal favour, pays the following tribute to the service rendered by him to the State as Keeper of the Queen of Scots: Never shall cease to spread wise Poulet's fame; These will speak, and men shall blush for shame: Without offence to speak what I do know, Great is the debt England to him doth owe.Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.

On 08 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (age 44) was beheaded in the Great Hall at Fotheringay Castle [Map].

George Talbot 6th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59), Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent (age 46), Richard Knightley (age 54) and Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton (age 13) witnessed her execution.

There are few extant original sources describing Mary's execution. Those that do exist are somewhat contradictory. They include The letter-books of Sir Amias Poulet, Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots, the Calendar of State Papers, Spain (known as the Simancas), Volume 4, 1587-1603 and Beale's sketch of the execution. The most reliable primary source appears to be Jebb's De vita et rebus gestis serenissimæ principis Mariæ Scotorum Reginæ published in Paris in 1589 in French; there doesn't appear to be an extant translation.

Original Letters Illustrative of English History Second Series Volume III. Ellis notes that "the present narrative is from the Lansdowne MS. 51. art. 46. It is indorsed in Lord Burghley's hand, "8 Feb. 1586. The Manner of the Q. of Scotts death at Fodrynghay, wr. by Ro. Wy.

A Reporte of the manner of the execution of the Sc. Q. performed the viijth. of February, Anno 1586 [modern dating 1587] in the great hall at Fotheringhay [Map], with relacion of speeches uttered and accions happening in the said execution, from the delivery of the said Sc. Q. to Mr Thomas Androwes Esquire Sherife of the County of Northampton unto the end of said execution..

THE READER shall now be presented with the Execution of the Queen of Scots (age 44) which was to the Court or three Statements of this Transaction were There was a Short one copies of which are Manuscripts Jul F vi foll 246 266 b and b Another a Copy of the Account of the Earl to the Lords of the Council dated on the day is MS Calig C ix fol 163 And there is a Office somewhat longer said to have been drawn evidently one of her servants present Narrative is from the Lansdowne MS in Lord Burghley s hand 8 Feb 1586 of Scotts death at Fodrynghay wr by Ro Wy Queen s death have been dressed up from writers but it is here given accurate and entire.

First, the said Scottish Queen, being carried by two of Sir Amias Paulett's (age 54) gentlemen, and the Sheriff (age 46) going before her, came most willingly out of her chamber into an entry next the Hall [Map], at which place the Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59) and the Earl of Kent (age 46), commissioners for the execution, with the two governors of her person, and divers knights and gentlemen did meet her, where they found one of the Scottish Queen's servants, named Melvin [NOTE. Possibly Andrew Melville of Garvock Steward], kneeling on his knees, who uttered these words with tears to the Queen of Scots (age 44), his mistress, "Madam, it will be the sorrowfullest message that ever I carried, when I shall report that my Queen (age 44) and dear mistress is dead." Then the Queen of Scots, shedding tears, answered him, "You ought to rejoice rather than weep for that the end of Mary Stuart's (age 44) troubles is now come. Thou knowest, Melvin, that all this world is but vanity, and full of troubles and sorrows; carry this message from me, and tell my friends that I die a true woman to my religion, and like a true Scottish woman and a true Frenchwoman. But God forgive them that have long desired my end; and He that is the true Judge of all secret thoughts knoweth my mind, how that it ever hath been my desire to have Scotland and England united together. Commend me to my son, and tell him that I have not done anything that may prejudice his kingdom of Scotland; and so, good Melvin, farewell;" and kissing him, she bade him pray for her.

Then she turned to the Lords and told them that she had certain requests to make unto them. One was for a sum of money, which she said Sir Amyas Paulet (age 54) knew of, to be paid to one Curle her servant; next, that all her poor servants might enjoy that quietly which by her Will and Testament she had given unto them; and lastly, that they might be all well entreated, and sent home safely and honestly into their countries. "And this I do conjure you, my Lords, to do.".

Answer was made by Sir Amyas Paulet (age 54), "I do well remember the money your Grace speaketh of, and your Grace need not to make any doubt of the not performance of your requests, for I do surely think they shall be granted.".

"I have," said she, "one other request to make unto you, my Lords, that you will suffer my poor servants to be present about me, at my death, that they may report when they come into their countries how I died a true woman to my religion.".

Then the Earl of Kent (age 46), one of the commissioners, answered, "Madam, it cannot well be granted, for that it is feared lest some of them would with speeches both trouble and grieve your Grace, and disquiet the company, of which we have had already some experience, or seek to wipe their napkins in some of your blood, which were not convenient." "My Lord," said the Queen of Scots, "I will give my word and promise for them that they shall not do any such thing as your Lordship has named. Alas! poor souls, it would do them good to bid me farewell. And I hope your Mistress (age 53), being a maiden Queen, in regard of womanhood, will suffer me to have some of my own people about me at my death. And I know she hath not given you so straight a commission, but that you may grant me more than this, if I were a far meaner woman than I am." And then (seeming to be grieved) with some tears uttered these words: "You know that I am cousin to your Queen (age 53) [NOTE. They were first-cousin once-removed], and descended from the blood of Henry the Seventh [NOTE. She was a Great Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509], a married Queen of France [NOTE. She had married Francis II King France King Consort Scotland], and the anointed Queen of Scotland.".

Whereupon, after some consultation, they granted that she might have some of her servants according to her Grace's request, and therefore desired her to make choice of half-a-dozen of her men and women: who presently said that of her men she would have Melvin, her apothecary, her surgeon, and one other old man beside; and of her women, those two that did use to lie in her chamber.

After this, she being supported by Sir Amias's (age 54) two gentlemen aforesaid, and Melvin carrying up her train, and also accompanied with the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen aforenamed, the Sheriff (age 46) going before her, she passed out of the entry into the Great Hall [Map], with her countenance careless, importing thereby rather mirth than mournful cheer, and so she willingly stepped up to the scaffold which was prepared for her in the Hall, being two feet high and twelve feet broad, with rails round about, hung and covered with black, with a low stool, long cushion, and block, covered with black also. Then, having the stool brought her, she sat her down; by her, on the right hand, sat the Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59) and the Earl of Kent (age 46), and on the left hand stood the Sheriff (age 46), and before her the two executioners; round about the rails stood Knights, Gentlemen, and others.

Then, silence being made, the Queen's Majesty's Commission for the execution of the Queen of Scots (age 44) was openly read by Mr. Beale, clerk of the Council (age 46); and these words pronounced by the Assembly, "God save the Queen." During the reading of which Commission the Queen of Scots (age 44) was silent, listening unto it with as small regard as if it had not concerned her at all; and with as cheerful a countenance as if it had been a pardon from her Majesty (age 53) for her life; using as much strangeness in word and deed as if she had never known any of the Assembly, or had been ignorant of the English language.

Then one Doctor Fletcher, Dean of Peterborough (age 42), standing directly before her, without the rail, bending his body with great reverence, began to utter this exhortation following: "Madam, the Queen's most excellent Majesty," &c, and iterating these words three or four times, she told him, "Mr. Dean (age 42), I am settled in the ancient Catholic Roman religion, and mind to spend my blood in defence of it." Then Mr. Dean (age 42) said: "Madam, change your opinion, and repent you of your former wickedness, and settle your faith only in Jesus Christ, by Him to be saved." Then she answered again and again, "Mr. Dean (age 42), trouble not yourself any more, for I am settled and resolved in this my religion, and am purposed therein to die." Then the Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59) and the Earl of Kent (age 46), perceiving her so obstinate, told her that since she would not hear the exhortation begun by Mr. Dean (age 42), "We will pray for your Grace, that it stand with God's will you may have your heart lightened, even at the last hour, with the true knowledge of God, and so die therein." Then she answered, "If you will pray for me, my Lords, I will thank you; but to join in prayer with you I will not, for that you and I are not of one religion.".

Then the Lords called for Mr. Dean (age 42), who, kneeling on the scaffold stairs, began this prayer, "O most gracious God and merciful Father," &c, all the Assembly, saving the Queen of Scots (age 44) and her servants, saying after him. During the saying of which prayer, the Queen of Scots (age 44), sitting upon a stool, having about her neck an Agnus Dei, in her hand a crucifix, at her girdle a pair of beads with a golden cross at the end of them, a Latin book in her hand, began with tears and with loud and fast voice to pray in Latin; and in the midst of her prayers she slided off from her stool, and kneeling, said divers Latin prayers; and after the end of Mr. Dean's (age 42) prayer, she kneeling, prayed in English to this effect: "For Christ His afflicted Church, and for an end of their troubles; for her son; and for the Queen's Majesty (age 53), that she might prosper and serve God aright." She confessed that she hoped to be saved "by and in the blood of Christ, at the foot of whose Crucifix she would shed her blood." Then said the Earl of Kent (age 46), "Madam, settle Christ Jesus in your heart, and leave those trumperies." Then she little regarding, or nothing at all, his good counsel, went forward with her prayers, desiring that "God would avert His wrath from this Island, and that He would give her grief and forgiveness for her sins." These, with other prayers she made in English, saying she forgave her enemies with all her heart that had long sought her blood, and desired God to convert them to the truth; and in the end of the prayer she desired all saints to make intercession for her to Jesus Christ, and so kissing the crucifix, and crossing of her also, said these words: "Even as Thy arms, O Jesus, were spread here upon the Cross, so receive me into Thy arms of mercy, and forgive me all my sins.".

Her prayer being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death; who answered, "I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles." Then they, with her two women, helping of her up, began to disrobe her of her apparel; she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, "that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.".

Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin; she, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, "Ne criez vous; j'ay promis pour vous;" and so crossing and kissing them, bade them pray for her, and rejoice and not weep, for that now they should see an end of all their mistress's (age 44) troubles. Then she, with a smiling countenance, turning to her men servants, as Melvin and the rest, standing upon a bench nigh the scaffold, who sometime weeping, sometime crying out aloud, and continually crossing themselves, prayed in Latin, crossing them with her hand bade them farewell; and wishing them to pray for her even until the last hour.

This done, one of the women having a Corpus Christi cloth lapped up three-corner ways, kissing it, put it over the Queen of Scots' (age 44) face, and pinned it fast to the caul of her head. Then the two women departed from her, and she kneeling down upon the cushion most resolutely, and without any token or fear of death, she spake aloud this Psalm in Latin, "In te, Domine, confido, non confundar in eternum," &c. [Ps. xxv.]. Then, groping for the block, she laid down her head, Putting her chin over the block with both her hands, which holding there, still had been cut off, had they not been espied. Then lying upon the block most quietly, and stretching out her arms, cried, "In manus tuas, Domine," &c, three or four times. Then she lying very still on the block, one of the executioners holding of her slightly with one of his hands, she endured two strokes of the other executioner with an axe, she making very small noise or none at all, and not stirring any part of her from the place where she lay; and so the executioner cut off her head, saving one little grisle, which being cut asunder, he lifted up her head to the view of all the assembly, and bade "God save the Queen." Then her dressing of lawn falling off from her head, it appeared as grey as one of threescore and ten years old, polled very short, her face in a moment being so much altered from the form she had when she was alive, as few could remember her by her dead face. Her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off.

Then Mr. Dean (age 42) said with a loud voice, "So perish all the Queen's enemies;" and afterwards the Earl of Kent (age 46) came to the dead body, and standing over it, with a loud voice said, "Such end of all the Queen's and the Gospel's enemies.".

Then one of the executioners pulling off her garters, espied her little dog which was crept under her clothes, which could not be gotten forth but by force, yet afterward would not depart from the dead corpse, but came and lay between her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her blood, was carried away and washed, as all things else were that had any blood was either burned or clean washed; and the executioners sent away with money for their fees, not having any one thing that belonged unto her. And so, every man being commanded out of the Hall, except the Sheriff (age 46) and his men, she was carried by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to embalm her.

PAINTINGS/BEALE/Execution_MQS.png08 Feb 1587. Robert Beale (age 46) was an eye-witness to the Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. Those indicated include 1 George Talbot 6th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59), 2 Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent (age 46), 3 Amyas Paulett. The drawing appears to show three events rather than a moment in time: her being led into the Hall, her being disrobed and being beheaded.

Calendars. 28 Feb 1587. Paris [Map]. Bernardino De Mendoza Ambassador (age 47) to the King (age 59). Note. Assumed to be the Spanish King Philip II.

The English ambassador sent the confidant (i.e., Charles Arundel (age 54)) to me this morning to say that as it was so important that your Majesty (age 59) should be informed instantly of the news he had received last night from England, that he sent to tell me of it, and openly to confess me his anxiety to serve your Majesty (age 59). He offered himself entirely through me, in the assurance that your Majesty (age 59) would not order him to do anything against the interest of his mistress the Queen (age 53), who however, he could plainly see, had not long to live now that she had allowed the execution of the Queen of Scotland (deceased). It happened in this way. The Lord Treasurer (age 66) being absent through illness, the earl of Leicester (age 54), Lord Hunsdon (age 60), Lord Admiral Howard (age 51) and Walsingham (age 55), had represented to the Queen (age 53) that the Parliament would resolutely refuse to vote any money to maintain the war in Holland, or to fit out a naval force to help Don Antonio, unless she executed the Queen of Scotland (deceased). Under this pressure she consented to sign a warrant, as they called it, that the Parliament might see, but which was not to be executed, unless it were proved that the Queen of Scotland (deceased) conspired again against her life. As Secretary Walsingham (age 55) was ill this warrant was taken to the Queen (age 53) for her signature by Davison (age 46), and after she had signed it she ordered him not to give it to anyone unless she gave him personally her authority to do so. Davison (age 46), who is a terrible heretic and an enemy of the Queen of Scotland (deceased), like the rest of the above-mentioned, delivered the warrant to them. They took a London executioner and sent him with the warrant to the justice of the county where the Queen of Scotland (deceased) was. The moment the justice received it, on the 8th [NOTE. Appears to be a typo; original says 18th], he entered the Queen of Scotland's (deceased) chamber with Paulet (age 54) and Lord Grey (age 46), who had charge of her, and there they had her head cut off with a hatchet in the presence of the four persons only. The Queen (age 53) orders her ambassador to inform this King (age 59) of it, and assure him, as she will more fully by a special envoy, that the deed was done against her will, and although she had signed the warrant she had no intention of having it carried out. She cannot avoid blaming herself for having trusted anyone but herself in such a matter. The ambassador is begging earnestly for an audience and is keeping the matter secret until he tells the King. In order that no time may be lost in informing your Majesty, I send this special courier in the name of merchants, by way of Bordeaux, whence he will go post to Irun; and as God has so willed that these accursed people, for His ends, should fall into "reprobrium sensum," and against all reason commit such an act as this, it is evidently His design to deliver those two kingdoms into your Majesty's hands. I thanked the ambassador in general terms for his offer, saying that I would give an account thereof to your Majesty. As I have formerly said, it will be most advisable to accept it, and pledge him to give us notice of any machinations here and in England against us. He reports that the fitting out of ships continues but in no greater number than he previously advised, although the rumour is current here that there would be 60 English, besides the Hollanders, but that the crews, etc. were not raised and no time fixed for the departure. The ambassador says he will have full information on the point when a gentleman of his has arrived whom he had sent to England to gain intelligence, as Cecil only writes now to say that the execution of the Queen of Scotland has been against his will, as he, the ambassador knew; and that the King, her son, was in great danger of suffering a similar fate. The execution was known in London on the 20th when the executioner returned, and great bonfires had been lit for joy all over the countryside. They did not even give her time to commend her soul to God. .NOTEXT

Essex Rebellion

On 08 Feb 1601 Thomas Egerton 1st Viscount Brackley (age 61) and three others were held hostage by Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 35) at Essex House. Thomas Egerton 1st Viscount Brackley (age 61) attempted to rouse London but his support never materialised. When he returned to Essex House he found the hostages gone. Essex House was besieged by the Queen's men under Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham (age 65). Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 35) and Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton (age 27) surrendered. Charles Danvers (age 33) and Christopher Blount (age 36) took part. Roger Manners 5th Earl of Rutland (age 24) was implicated and was imprisoned for several months. He was fined £30000; a staggering amount three times more than any other conspirator. NOTEXT

On 08 Feb 1601 Thomas Smythe (age 43) was visited by Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 35) at his house Gracechurch Street [Map]. Smythe was later accused of complicity in the Essex Rebellion, he was examined before the Privy Council. He was fired from his office of Sheriff of and committed to the Tower of London [Map].

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After 08 Feb 1601 Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton (age 27) was sentenced to death during the Essex Rebellion. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 67) on the advice of Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury (age 37) commuted the punishment to life imprisonment.

On 08 Feb 1609 Bernardino Fernández de Velasco 6th Duke of Frías was born to Juan Fernández de Velasco y Tovar 5th Duke of Frías (age 59) and Joana de Córdoba y Aragón.


On 08 Feb 1622 Richard Molyneux 1st Baronet (age 62) died. His son Richard Molyneux 1st Viscount Molyneux (age 28) succeeded 2nd Baronet Molyneux of Sefton. Mary Caryll Viscountess Molyneux (age 25) by marriage Lady Molyneux of Sefton.

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On 08 Feb 1650 Conyers Darcy 2nd Earl Holderness (age 28) and Frances Howard (age 23) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Berkshire (age 62) and Elizabeth Cecil Countess Berkshire (age 54). He the son of Conyers Darcy 1st Earl Holderness (age 51) and Grace Rokeby Countess Holderness (age 50).NOTEXT


On 08 Feb 1654 John Talbot 10th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 53) died. His son Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 31) succeeded 11th Earl of Shrewsbury 2C 1442, 11th Earl Waterford.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Feb 1678. Supping at my Lord Chamberlain's (age 60) I had a long discourse with the Count de Castel Mellor, lately Prime Minister in Portugal, who, taking part with his master, King Alphonso (age 34), was banished by his brother, Don Pedro (age 28), now Regent; but had behaved himself so uncorruptly in all his ministry that, though he was acquitted, and his estate restored, yet would they not suffer him to return. He is a very intelligent and worthy gentleman.

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On 08 Feb 1683 Charles Paulet 2nd Duke Bolton (age 22) and Frances Ramsden were married. His second marriage. He the son of Charles Paulet 1st Duke Bolton (age 53) and Mary Scrope 6th Marchioness Winchester.

On 08 Feb 1807 Dorcas Stevenson 1st Baroness Dufferin and Claneboye (age 81) died. Her son James Blackwood 2nd Baron Dufferin and Claneboye of Ballyleidy and Killyleagh in County Down (age 51) succeeded 2nd Baron Dufferin and Claneboye of Ballyleidy and Killyleagh in County Down.

On 08 Feb 1809 Brownlow Bertie 5th Duke Ancaster and Kesteven (age 79) died without male issue at Grimsthorpe, South Kesteven. He was buried at St Mary's Church Swinstead [Map] on 17 Feb 1809. Duke Ancaster and Kesteven, Marquess Lindsay extinct. His third cousin Albermarle Bertie 9th Earl Lindsey (age 64) succeeded 9th Earl Lindsey.

Sculpted by Richard Westmacott (age 33). A handsome white marble wall tablet in Grecian style depicting deceased and wife on a catafalque with mourning female figure, flanked by mother, children and angel. Above a scrolled cornice with Ducal coronet and palm. Beneath a rectangular inscription panel, flanked by scrolled brackets.

On 08 Feb 1812 Thomas Noel-Hill 2nd Baron Berwick (age 41) and Sophia Dubochet (age 17) were married at St Marylebone Church. The difference in their ages was 23 years.


On 08 Feb 1832 Charles Marsham 2nd Earl Romney (age 54) and Mary Elizabeth Townshend Countess Romney (age 32) were married. She by marriage Countess Romney. The difference in their ages was 22 years. He the son of Charles Marsham 1st Earl Romney and Frances Wyndham Countess Romney.

On 08 Feb 1851 Nicholas Vansittart 1st Baron Bexley (age 84) died. Baron Bexley of Bexley in Kent extinct.

On 08 Feb 1864 Leopold George Agar-Ellis 5th Viscount Clifden (age 34) and Harriet Stonor Viscountess Clifden (age 27) were married.

On 08 Feb 1868 Walter Rothschild 2nd Baron Rothschild was born to Nathan Meyer 1st Baron Rothschild (age 27) and Emma Louise von Rothschild Baroness Rothschild (age 24). Coefficient of inbreeding 3.91%.

On 08 Feb 1882 George Henry Lowther 4th Earl Lonsdale (age 26) died at a house in London he had purchased for Connie Gilchrist (age 17) and other girls of the Gaiety Theatre. He bequeathed the house, and a sizeable legacy, to Gilchrist. His brother Hugh Cecil Lowther 5th Earl Lonsdale (age 25) succeeded 5th Earl Lonsdale 2C 1807, 6th Viscount Lowther, 6th Baron Lowther. Grace Cecilie Gordon Countess Lonsdale (age 27) by marriage Countess Lonsdale.


On 08 Feb 1884 Montagu Bertie 6th Earl Abingdon (age 75) died. His son Montagu Arthur Bertie 7th Earl Abingdon (age 47) succeeded 7th Earl Abingdon.

After 08 Feb 1889. Monument [Map] to Charlotte Eva Edwards wife of Ebenezer Wood Edwards Vicar of Ruabon from 1862 to 1897. Signed Gaffin & Co but Thomas Gaffin and his son Thomas Gaffin were both dead; it isn't clear who was running the company?

On 08 Feb 1890 Henry Bentinck Boyle 5th Earl Shannon (age 56) died.

On 08 Feb 1911 Frederick Archibald Vaughan Campbell 3rd Earl Cawdor (age 63) died. His son Hugh Campbell 4th Earl Cawdor (age 41) succeeded 4th Earl Cawdor of Castlemartin in Pembrokeshire. Joan Emily Thynne Countess Cawdor (age 38) by marriage Countess Cawdor of Castlemartin in Pembrokeshire.

09 Feb 1911. Times Newspaper Obituaries. DEATH OF LORD CAWDOR. We record with much regret that Lord Cawdor (age 63) died peacefully in his sleep at 5:45 yesterday morning, a few days before his 64th birthday. Baroness Cadogan (age 67) and the members of their family were present. He had keen ill for some time. We announced on November 30 that he was suffering from an attack of tonsilitis. Just before Christmns be caught a chill while recoveing from this attack, and had to enter a nursing home. Early in January his illness began to take a serious turn and since then, though he rallied wonderfully from time to time, he steadily lost strength. Royal Sympathy. The King and Queen Alexandra (age 66) have sent telegms expressing deep sympathy with the family.

On 08 Feb 1911 Rupert Baring 4th Baron Revelstoke was born to Cecil Baring 3rd Baron Revelstoke (age 47) and Maude Baring nee Lorillard (age 34).

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On 08 Feb 1915 Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest-Stewart 6th Marquess Londonderry (age 62) died. His son Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart 7th Marquess of Londonderry (age 36) succeeded 7th Marquess Londonderry.

09 Feb 1915. Times Newspaper Obituaries. The news of the death of the Marquess of Londonderry (age 62), which occurred at Wynyard, Stockton-on-Tees, yesterday morning, will be received with profound regret far beyond the circle of his personal friends or of the members of the Unionist Party. Lord Londonderry (age 62) had not been entirely well for some little time past. For a fortnight, it seems, he had been suffering from sciatica. Last week he caught a chill, from which pneumonia developed. On Sunday his condition was seen to be critical. During the night he collapsed, and the end came at 9.30 yesterday morning. Lady Londonderry (age 58), who had been in constant attendance on him during his illness, was present at the last, as also were Helen Vane-Tempest-Stewart Countess Ilchester (age 38) and Herbert Lionel Henry Vane-Tempest (age 52).

On 08 Feb 1969 Francis Stapleton-Cotton 4th Viscount Combermere (age 81) died.