On this Day in History ... 12 July

12 Jul is in July.

1346 Commencement of the Crécy Campaign

1397 Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

1472 Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1543 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1553 Lady Jane Grey Proclaimed as Queen

1627 Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré

1660 July Creation of Peerages

1665 Great Plague of London

1690 Battle of the Boyne

1691 Battle of Aughrim

1897 Devonshire House Ball

1916 First World War

On 12 Jul 1140 Henry Normandy I Count Eu (age 65) died. His son John Normandy 6th Count Eu succeeded 6th Count Eu.

Commencement of the Crécy Campaign

On 12 Jul 1346 King Edward III of England (age 33) landed at La Hogue [Map] with army of around 10,000 men including John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle (age 28).

Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

On 12 Jul 1397 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel (age 51) was arrested for his opposition to King Richard II of England (age 30).


1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

On 12 Jul 1450 Jack Cade was captured at which time he was wounded and died of his wounds.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 12 Jul 1450. And uppon the xij day of Juylle, the yere a-fore sayde, the sayde camptayne was cryde and proclaymyd traytoure, by the name of John Cade, in dyvers placys of London, and also in Sowtheworke, whythe many moo, that what man myght or wolde bryng the sayde John Cade to the kyng, qwyke or dede, shulde have of the kynge a thousande marke. Also who som evyr myght brynge or wolde brynge any of hys chyffe counsellourys, or of afynyte, that kepte any state or rewle or governansse undyr the sayd fals captayne John Cade, he schulde have to hys rewarde of the kynge v. c. [500] marke. And that day was that fals traytoure the Captayne of Kentte i-take and slayne in the Welde in the countre of Sowsex, and uppon the morowe he was brought in a .earre alle nakyd, and at the Herte in Sowetheworke there the carre was made stonde sty lie, the wyffe of the howse myght se hym yf hyt were the same man or no that was namyd the Captayne of Kente, for he was loggyd whythe yn hyr howse in hys pevys tyme of hys mys rewylie and rysynge. And thenne he was hadde in to the Kyngys Bynche [Map], and there he lay from Monday at evyn unto the Thursseday nexte folowynge at evyn; and whythe yn the Kynges Benehe [Map] the sayde captayne was be-heddyde and quarteryde; and the same day i-d[r]awe a-pon a hyrdylle in pecys whythe the hedde by-twyne hys breste from the Kyngys Benehe thoroughe owte Sowthewerke, and thenne ovyr Londyn Brygge, and thenne thoroughe London unto Newegate, and thenne hys hedde was takyn and sette uppon London Brygge.

Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

On 12 Jul 1472 Richard Duke of Gloucester (age 19) and Anne Neville (age 16) were married at St Stephen's Chapel [Map]. She by marriage Duchess Gloucester. She the daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 45). He the son of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 57). They were first cousin once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 12 Jul 1537 Robert Aske (age 37) was hanged in chains at Clifford's Tower. The date may have been Friday 06 Jul as implied by the letters of the Duke of Norfolk?

George aka William Lumley and Nicholas Tempest (age 57) were hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

On 12 Jul 1543 Henry VIII (age 52) and Catherine Parr (age 30) were married at Hampton Court Palace [Map]. She was crowned Queen Consort England. His sixth and last marriage, her third marriage; her previous husband had died four months before. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were third cousin once removed. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Henry's two daughters Mary (age 27) and Elizabeth (age 9) attended, as did his niece Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 27).

Catherine's sister Anne (age 28) attended with her husband William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 42).

1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Annales of England by John Stow. The 15 of April, the infections sweating sicknesse began at Shrewsbury [Map], -- which ended not in the North part of England untill the ende of September. "In this space what number died, it cannot be well accompted, but certaine it is that in London in fewe daies 960. gave up the ghost: if began in London the 9. of July, and the 12. of July it was most vehement, which was so terrible, that people being in best health, were sodainly taken, and dead in foure and twenty houres, and twelve, or lesse, for lacke of skill in guiding them in their sweat. And it is to be noted, that this mortalitie fell chiefely or rather on men, and those also of the best age, as betweene thirty and forty yeares, fewe women, nor children, nor olde men died thereof. Sleeping in the beginning was present death, for if they were suffered to sleepe but half a quarter of an houre, they never spake after, nor had any knowledge, but when they wakened fell into panges of death. This was a terrible time in London, for many one lost sodainly his friends, by the sweat, and their money by the proclamation. Seven honest householders did sup together, and before eight of the clocke in the next morning, four them were dead: they that were taken with full stomacks escaped hardly . This sickenesse followed English men as well within the realme, as in strange countries: wherefore this nation was much afeard of it, and for the time began to repent and remember God but as the disease relented, the devotion deceased. The first weeke died in London 800 persons.

On 12 Jul 1551 Thomas Speke (age 43) died, probably of sweating sickness.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Jul 1551. The xij day of July ded sir Thomas Speke (age 43) knyght in Chanseler lane, in saynt Donstonys parryche in the whest [Map], at ys owne howsse; he fell [sick] in the court; and was bered with standard, penon, cote armur, elmet, sword, and target; and vj dosen of shokchyons of armes, and the compeny of the Clarkes; and the sam day ded on of the Gard, and bered ther by.

Note. Funeral of sir Thomas Speke. Sir Thomas Speke (age 43) was an eminent lawyer: he was steward of the royal manors of Greenwich, &c. and keeper of Eltham palace. His funeral achievements were remaining in St. Dunstan's church [Map] in the time of Nicholas Charles, as described in the Collectanea Topogr. et Genealog. iv. 98; and from them it appears that he married a Berkeley.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 12 Jul 1553. The 12. of July word was brought to the Councell, being then at the Tower [Map] with the lady Jane (age 17), that the lady Mary was at Keninghall castle [Map] in Norfolk, and with her the earle of Bath (age 54), sir Thomas Wharton (age 33) sonne to the lord Wharton (age 58), sir John Mordaunt (age 45) sonne to the lord Mordaunt (age 73), sir William Drury (age 3),a sir John Shelton (age 50), sir Henry Bedingfield (age 44), master Henry Jerningham (age 41), master John Sulierde, master Richard Freston, master sergeant Morgan, master Clement Higham of Lincolnes inne, and divers others; and also that the earle of Sussex and master Henry Ratcliffe his sonne were comming towards her: whereupon by speedy councell it was there concluded, that the duke of Suffolk, with certaine other noblemen, should goe towards the lady Mary, to fetch her up to London. This was first determined; but by night of the same day the said voyage of the duke of Suffolke was cleane dissolved by the speciall meanes of the lady Jane his daughter, who, taking the matter heavily, with weeping teares made request to the whole councell that her father might tarry at home in her company: whereupon the councell perswaded with the duke of Northumberland to take that voyage upon him, saying that no man was so fit therefor, because that he had atchieved the victory in Norfolke once already,b and was therefore so feared, that none durst once lift up their weapon against him: besides that, he was the best man of warre in the realme; as well for the ordering of his campes and souldiers both in battell and in their tents, as also by experience, knowledge, and wisedome, he could animate his army with witty perswasions, and also pacific and alay his enemies pride with his stout courage, or else to disswade them if nede were from their enterprise. "Well (quoth the duke then) since ye thinke it good, I and mine will goe, not doubting of your fidelity to the quenes majestie, which I leave in your custodie." So that night hee sent for both lords, knights, and other that should goe with him, and caused all things to be prepared accordingly. Then went the councell in to the lady Jane and told her of their conclusion, who humbly thanked the duke for reserving her father at home, and beseeched him to use his diligence, whereto he answered that hee would doe what in him lay.

Note a. Sir William Drury, for his services "at Framlingham," received, by patent dated the 1st Nov. following, an annuity of 100 marks: see it printed in Rymer's Foedera, xv. 352. A like annuity of 200 marks was granted on the 14th Nov. to Thomas West lord la Warre for his services against the duke (ibid. p. 352); one of 100. on the 4th Dec. to sir Richard Southwell (ibid. p. 355); and one of 501. on the 10th Feb. to Francis Purefay for his services at Framlingham (ibid. p. 365). Probably many others, unnoticed by Rymer, are recorded on the Patent Rolls.

Note b. In the suppression of Kett's rebellion.

Lady Jane Grey Proclaimed as Queen

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 12 Jul 1553. The xij th dale the lady Mary (age 37) sent to Norwich [Map] to be proclaymed, but they wolde not, because they were not certeyn of the kinges death; but within a daye after they dyd not only proclayme hir, but also sent men and weapons to ayde hir.

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On 25 Mar 1605 Elizabeth Russell Countess Bath was buried at St Peter's Church, Tawstock [Map]. After 12 Jul 1623 William Bourchier 3rd Earl Bath (age 65) was buried with his wife.

Monument, possibly by Nicholas Johnson, with Latin inscriptions: Æ.S. Lege viator quæ Magnatum saxa rarissime, loquuntur vir probus et mobilis utero hic situs est Guiliemus Bourgchier Comes Bathone nsis æternitatem apud motales meritus Suauissimo connubio connnxit nobii tatem et virtutem utranq dignitatum in omnibus constanter retinvit et ornavit vixit in hac ipsa Devonia cvi datus est praefectus et puincian triginta pius minus annis integerppime administravit Deum tam privatis quam publicis officus religiosissime colvit magnificum exemplum beneficentiæ, et hosptalitatis pavprervmq et oppressorum acerrimus patronus diniq cum inoffensae foelicitatis cursum ad sinium vsq propuxisset decessit e vivis incens et aeternum Devoniae suæ desiderium 12 July anno salvitus 1623 ætatis vero suæ 65. Uxorem duxit lectissimam toeminan sociam ... sepulchri dnam Elizabetham Francisci Comitis Bedfordensis Filiam ex qua genuit Johem Robertum et Edwardum Filios et Franciscam Filiam E quibus Edwardum modo Comitem Bathoniensem solum reliquit supersitem ipsoum clarissimæ familiæ suis quoq virtutibus et foelicissimo conivgio futurum ornamentum. Hoc fac et vivis.

BATHONÆ COMTIÆ DEVON PRAEFECTO MEMORIÆ ERGO Ana: Crono: Epi: Mors mihi Ivcrvm ... In grama tum ... Bon Temps viendra Morior ... Orior ... Ad sepul crum ... Finis ... Coronat Ana: Gulielmus Bourchier Luge (si ob Iucrum Heri) Quid sibi vult Tumulus. Quaeve hoec Insignia Iuctus Eft COMES in Svperos ecce LOCUMQ TENES Quare fles, Devonia vel, Bathonia, qvare eXIIt: en bon teMps nVnCo VIenDra patet (Crono) IVLIVS, hoc, mensis fuit AUGUSTISSIMUS, anno Atq SECUNDA (decem junge) SECUNDA dies Non amor, invidia est, DOLOR, euge, lege, (ALME VIATOR) Et difce exemplo VIVERE, disce mori. Sic cecinit, non elevit.

The Plantagenet Arms indicate his being a 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England through his paternal grandfather John Bourchier 2nd Earl Bath and his paternal grandmother Eleanor Manners Countess Bath.

Elizabeth Russell Countess Bath: She was born to Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford and Margaret St John Countess Bedford. On 28 Apr 1581 the marriage of William Bourchier 3rd Earl Bath (age 23) and Mary Cornwallis Countess Bath was annulled. A letter of Sir Thomas Cornwallis, dat. Brome, 10 June 1601, states "By deposition of 10 witnesses, it was most manifestly proved in the Arches, that the marriage was lawfully, clearly, and honestly compassed," that the Earl's mother "did by great means attempt to corrupt the then Judge of that Court ... but not prevailing that way, all course of law was then broken, for they appealed to the Delegates, slne gravamlne ... who thereupon proceeded in so violent a course as the like hath not been heard of .... Her adversaries effected the end of their desire ; and yet the Commissioners' Sentence was with this corrective, viz. leaving the Earl to his own conscience." (Hist. MSS. Com., Hatfield MSS., Part xi, p. 223). This Mary was a legatee, 25 June 1601, in the will of Sir Thomas Kitson (age 40), her sister's (age 40) husband, who mentions her said marriage, and that it afterwards proved most unfortunate and to her great hindrance. W. Lewyn, also, speaks of this Earl as having "made an untimely marriage by night with the da. of Sir Thomas Cornwallys, which was undone and the Earl since married to another, the da. (as I think) of the late Earl of Bedford (age 54)." (Letter to Lord Cobham, 29 May 1596). V.G. On 07 Aug 1583 William Bourchier 3rd Earl Bath (age 25) and she were married at St Mary Major Church, Exeter. She by marriage Countess Bath, Countess Eu. She the daughter of Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford (age 56) and Margaret St John Countess Bedford. In Aug 1603 during a plague in London the royal court moved to Basing House. Francis Palmes of Lindley (age 49) entertained courtiers at his house nearby at Lancelevy, Sherfield on Loddon. The party included Lady Anne Clifford (age 13), her mother Margaret Clifford (age 43), Countess of Cumberland and Elizabeth Bourchier, Countess of Bath, who used Lancelevy as a base to visit Anne of Denmark (age 28) and Arbella Stuart (age 28). On 24 Mar 1605 she died.

On 12 Jul 1623 William Bourchier 3rd Earl Bath (age 65) died. His son Edward Bourchier 4th Earl Bath (age 33) succeeded 4th Earl Bath 2C 1536, 14th Baron Fitzwarin.

1627 Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré

On 12 Jul 1627 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 34) led an English force of 100 ships and 6,000 soldiers to capture the city of Saint-Martin-de-Ré on the Île de Ré.

In Aug 1627 more troops, including the newly promoted Lieutenant John Felton (age 32), arrived.

On 03 Sep 1627 two thousand Irish troops arrived under Ralph Bingley (age 57)

On 27 Oct 1627 a final assault was attempted; it failed because the attackers' siege ladders were shorter than the walls of the fortress.

In Nov 1627 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 35) retreasted and returned to England having lost thousands of his men.

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1660 July Creation of Peerages


On 12 Jul 1664 Francis Seymour 1st Baron Seymour Trowbridge (age 74) died. He was buried in the Chanel of St Mary's Church, Great Bedwyn [Map]. His son Charles Seymour 2nd Baron Seymour Trowbridge (age 43) succeeded 2nd Baron Seymour Trowbridge.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1665. After doing what business I could in the morning, it being a solemn fast-day1 for the plague growing upon us, I took boat and down to Deptford [Map], where I stood with great pleasure an houre or two by my Lady Sandwich's (age 40) bedside, talking to her (she lying prettily in bed) of my Lady Jemimah's being from my Lady Pickering's (age 39) when our letters come to that place; she being at my Lord Montagu's, at Boughton. The truth is, I had received letters of it two days ago, but had dropped them, and was in a very extraordinary straite what to do for them, or what account to give my Lady, but sent to every place; I sent to Moreclacke, where I had been the night before, and there they were found, which with mighty joy come safe to me; but all ending with satisfaction to my Lady and me, though I find my Baroness Carteret (age 63) not much pleased with this delay, and principally because of the plague, which renders it unsafe to stay long at Deptford [Map].

Note 1. "A form of Common Prayer; together with an order for fasting for the averting of God's heavy visitation upon many places of this realm. The fast to be observed within the cities of London and Westminster and places adjacent, on Wednesday the twelfth of this instant July, and both there and in all parts of this realm on the first Wednesday in every month during the visitation" ("Calendar of State Papers", Domestic, 1664-65, p. 466).


After 12 Jul 1679 William Tracy 4th Viscount Tracy (age 22) and Frances Devereux (age 20) were married.

On 12 Jul 1683 John Perceval 1st Earl Egmont was born to John Perceval 3rd Baronet (age 23) and Catherine Dering at Burton, County Cork.

Battle of the Boyne

On 12 Jul 1690 General Charles Chalmot de Saint Ruhe (age 40) was killed at the Battle of the Boyne.

Battle of Aughrim

On 12 Jul 1691 John Hamilton was killed in action fighting for the Jacobites at Aughrim, County Galway during the Battle of Aughrim.

Theobald Dillon 7th Viscount Dillon was killed at Aughrim, County Galway during the Battle of Aughrim.

Walter Bellew 2nd Baron Bellew fought and where he was severely wounded and taken prisoner.

On 12 Jul 1712 Richard Cromwell Lord Protector (age 85) died.


On 12 Jul 1730 Katherine Knollys (age 33) died. She was buried at Lincoln Cathedral [Map].

Katherine Knollys: Around 1697 she was born to Charles Knollys 4th Earl Banbury (age 34) and Elizabeth Lister Countess of Banbury (age 33).

On 12 Jul 1731 George Fox Lane 1st Baron Bingley (age 34) and Harriet Benson Baroness Bingley (age 26) were married.

On 12 Jul 1755 Henry Bridgeman 1st Baron Bradford (age 29) and Elizabeth Simpson were married.

On 12 Jul 1777 Bishop Henry Dudley Ryder Bishop was born to Nathaniel Ryder 1st Baron Harrowby (age 42) and Elizabeth Terrick Baroness Harrowby.

On 12 Jul 1781 William Lowther 1st Earl Lonsdale (age 23) and Augusta Fane Countess Lonsdale (age 19) were married. She the daughter of John Fane 9th Earl of Westmoreland and Augusta Bertie.

On 12 Jul 1791 Charles Monck 3rd Viscount Monck was born to Charles Stanley Monck 1st Viscount Monck (age 37) and Anne Quin.

On 12 Jul 1804 Francis Rawdon-Hastings 1st Marquess Hastings (age 49) and Flora Mure-Campbell Marchioness of Hastings (age 24) were married. The difference in their ages was 25 years. She the daughter of James Mure-Campbell 5th Earl Loudon. He the son of John Rawdon 1st Earl Moira and Elizabeth Hastings Countess Moira (age 73).

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On 12 Jul 1814 William Howe 5th Viscount Howe (age 84) died.

On 12 Jul 1820 Bishop Brownlow North (age 78) died.


On 12 Jul 1841 George Child-Villiers 6th Earl Jersey (age 33) and Julia Peel Countess Jersey were married. He the son of George Child-Villiers 5th Earl Jersey (age 67) and Sarah Sophia Fane Countess Jersey (age 56).

On 12 Jul 1859 Henry Bentinck Boyle 5th Earl Shannon (age 25) and Blanche Emma Lascelles Countess Shannon (age 22) were married. She the daughter of Henry Lascelles 3rd Earl Harewood and Louisa Thynne Countess Harewood (age 58). He the son of Richard Boyle 4th Earl Shannon (age 50) and Emily Henrietta Seymour-Conway Countess Shannon. He a great x 4 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 12 Jul 1864 Brien Ibrican Cokayne 1st Baron Cullen was born to George Edward Cockayne (age 39) and Mary Dorothea Gibbs.

On 12 Jul 1869 Major-General Hugh Richard Dawnay 8th Viscount Downe (age 24) and Cecilia Maria Charlotte Molyneux were married. She the daughter of Charles William Molyneux 3rd Earl Sefton. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 12 Jul 1872 Frederick Smith 1st Earl of Birkenhead was born. Winston Churchill was his godfather.

On 12 Jul 1882 George Capell 7th Earl of Essex (age 24) and Ellenor Harriet Maria Harford (age 22) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

1897 Devonshire House Ball

PAINTINGS/LAFAYETTE/Henry_Chaplin.jpg12 Jul 1897. James Lafayette (age 44). Photograph of Henry Chaplin 1st Viscount Chaplin (age 56) as "Marshal Lefevre" at the 1897 Devonshire House Ball.

On 12 Jul 1899 Terence Plunket 6th Baron Plunket was born to William Plunket 5th Baron Plunket (age 34) and Victoria Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood Baroness Plunket.

On 26 May 1911 Sybil Cholmondeley (age 39) died two weeks after falling out of a window at home at 5 Wilton Place Belgravia and suffering severe injuries. At an inquest, the coroner found that the fall was purely accidental.

The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA: 1889 - 1931). 12 Jul 1911


A terrible fate befell the only sister (age 39) of Lord Delamere (age 41), as disclosed at the inquest at Westminster, London. Mrs. Sybil Burnaby, according to the tragic story, had been kneeling at an open, window on a settle which ran upon castors and wishing to know the time, stood on the settle and reached forward to see the clock of St. Paul's Church. The leafage of the trees obstructed her view, and is she leaned further the settle ran from under her, and she fell. A nurse, who had been standing, a yard or two away, managed to seize her dress as she fell through the window, and Mrs. Burnaby turned and grasped the wooden window frame. The nurse, retaining a frenzied hold of the dress with both bands, screamed for aid. Mrs. Barnaby's maid rushed in; she also reached through the window and caught at the dress, her mistress imploring them, "Don't let me go!'' For a moment or two they held her so, when suddenly time silk material of the dress ripped and tore in their hands. Mrs. Burnaby's fingers were wrenched from the window-sill, and she fell from the bedroom window to the area beneath. Suffering from terrible fractures, she was still conscious when admitted to the hospital. Captain Edward Seymour stated that Mrs. Burnaby, who was his cousin, was 39 years of age. He was the executor of her will. She had been married to Colonel Algernon Edwyn Burnaby (age 43), formerly of the Royal Horse Guards, but she obtained a divorce from him in 1892 [Note. A mistake for 1902]. Since then she had lived chiefly in Wilton-place. She had no trouble in her affairs, and, to the best of his belief, she had got over the trouble of the divorce from her husband. She was a person of calm and quiet disposition. The nurse, Katherine Cleghorn, said the accident happened about 7 in the; morning, when Mrs. Burnaby came into the witness bedroom as usual. She was partly dressed I and looking quite bright and cheerful. The surgeon at St. George's Hospital said Mrs. Burnaby's injuries were a compound compressed comminuted fracture of the frontal bone and fracture of both thighs. She was not unconscious, but he did not ask her any questions. The Coroner said there was no doubt that Mrs. Barnaby's death was purely accidental. A verdict accordingly was returned.

First World War

In 1916 Hugo Francis Charteris (age 32) was killed at Egypt during the First World War. On 12 Jul 1937 His son David Charteris 12th Earl Wemyss (age 3) succeeded 12th Earl Wemyss.

On 12 Jul 1922 Roger Lumley 11th Earl of Scarbrough (age 25) and Katherine Isobel McEwen Countess Scarborough (age 22) were married at St Margaret's Church, Westminster [Map].

On 12 Jul 1937 Hugo Charteris 11th Earl Wemyss (age 79) died.

On 12 Jul 1974 Victor Hervey 6th Marquess Bristol (age 58) and Yvonne Marie Sutton Marchioness Bristol (age 29) were married. She by marriage Marchioness Bristol. The difference in their ages was 29 years. He the son of Herbert Hervey 5th Marquess Bristol and Jean Cochrane.