On this Day in History ... 16 December

16 Dec is in December.

1332 Battle of Annan Moor

1431 French Coronation of Henry VI

1460 Battle of Worksop

1485 Birth of Catherine of Aragon

1535 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1559 Consecration of Matthew Parker as Archbishop of Canterbury

1571 Triple Wedding

1653 Cromwell becomes Lord Protector

1773 Boston Tea Party

1775 Birth of Jane Austen

1914 Raid on Scarborough Hartlepool and Whitby

1962 New York Premiere of Lawrence of Arabia

On 16 Dec 956 or 26 Dec 956 Archbishop Wulfstan died at Oundle [Map].

On 16 Dec 1263 King Haakon IV of Norway (age 59) died. King Magnus VI of Norway (age 25) succeeded King Norway.

On 16 Dec 1325 Charles Valois I Count Valois (age 55) died.

Battle of Annan Moor

On 16 Dec 1332 the Battle of Annan Moor was fought between the supporters of the seven year old King David II of Scotland (age 8), son of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland, and the supporters of Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 49), supported by the English. The Bruce army, led by, Archibald Douglas (age 34), supported by John Randolph 3rd Earl Moray (age 26) and King Robert II of Scotland (age 16) surprised Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 49) and his supporters at Annan and threw them out of Scotland.

On 16 Dec 1379 John Fitzalan 1st Baron Arundel Baron Maltravers (age 31) drowned. He was buried at Lewes Priory [Map]. The Chronica Majora reports "... that during the panic of the storm, Sir John murdered those of his men who refused to make for shore for fear of being shipwrecked upon the rocks. Subsequently, after safely arriving on an island off the Irish coast, Sir John and his boat captain were swept back into the sea and drowned". His son John Fitzalan Baron Maltravers 2nd Baron Arundel (age 15) succeeded 2nd Baron Arundel 1C 1377.

French Coronation of Henry VI

On 16 Dec 1431 Henry VI (age 10) was crowned II King France: Lancaster at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map] by Cardinal Henry Beaufort (age 56). A somewhat futile exercise; the last gasps of the Hundred Years War. The ceremony had been arranged by John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 42). His wife Anne Valois Duchess of Bedford (age 27) attended.

Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford (age 53) was appointed Carver.

Thomas Harrington (age 31), Richard Archer (age 44), Hugh Courtenay 12th Earl Devon and his son Thomas (age 17) attended.

Battle of Worksop

On 16 Dec 1460 a Lancastrian force ambushed the forces of the Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) near Worksop. Andrew Trollope fought for the Lancastrians. The only source for the battle is William of Worcester's book Annales rerum Anglicarum: "In December Parliament adjourned. And the Duke of York, with the Earl of Salisbury and many thousand armed men, were going from London to York, in December 1460, when a portion of his men, the van, as is supposed, or perhaps the scouts were cut off by the people of the Duke of Somerset (age 24) at Worsop".

Birth of Catherine of Aragon

On 16 Dec 1485 Catherine of Aragon was born to Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 33) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 34). She was possibly named after her Great Grandmother Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster and Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.15%.

1535 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1535. 16 Dec 1535. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 87. B. M. 983. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

Wrote last on Nov. 22. Is glad to hear the good news that the Turk has been defeated by the Sophi, with a loss of 40,000 horse (de acaballo) and 40 great pieces of artillery, his army having been 70,000.

In the cause of the Queen of England (age 50), the Consistory has ordered of itself a monitory to be issued, fixing a space of two months for the King to turn from his heresy and schism and public adultery, and then he will not be declared deprived of his kingdom.

The Imperial ambassador writes that he has not leave to visit or send any person to see the Queen and Princess. Those with the Queen are guards and spies, not servants, for they have sworn in favor of Anne (age 34), not to call her highness Queen, nor serve her with royal state. So, not to give them cause to sin, the Queen has not left her chamber for two years; and perhaps if she wished to, it would not be allowed, "y que no manda un ducado," nor has she any of her old servants except her confessor, physician, and apothecary. The King always asks those who wish to join him (se quisieren juntar con el) to renounce obedience to the Apostolic See, and he who formerly appealed to a Council now wishes it not to be held.

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Consecration of Matthew Parker as Archbishop of Canterbury

Henry Machyn's Diary. 16 Dec 1559. The xvj day of Desember was the sam man bered in sant Don stones in the est, master Cottell, that was slayne with (the) falle, and he had a sarmon, and all ys compene in ther clothyng, and a grett dener, for ther was mad mon [moan] for hym, and a dolle.... Parker (age 55) electyd byshope of Canturbere.

1571 Triple Wedding

On 16 Dec 1571 a triple wedding was celebrated at Whitehall Palace [Map] ... with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 38) present ...

Edward Dudley 4th Baron Dudley (age 46) and Mary Howard Baroness Dudley (age 23) were married. She by marriage Baroness Sutton of Dudley. The difference in their ages was 23 years. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. NOTEXT

Edward de Vere 17th Earl of Oxford (age 21) and Anne Cecil Countess of Oxford (age 15) were married. She by marriage Countess of Oxford. He the son of John de Vere 16th Earl of Oxford and Margery Golding Countess of Oxford.

Edward Somerset 4th Earl of Worcester (age 21) and Elizabeth Hastings Countess of Worcester (age 25) were married. She by marriage Countess Worcester. She the daughter of Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon and Catherine Pole Countess Huntingdon (age 60). He the son of William Somerset 3rd Earl of Worcester (age 45) and Christina North Countess of Worcester. They were third cousin once removed.

09 Jun 1597. On 09 Jun 1597 John Wrey of North Russell was buried at St Peter's Church, Tawstock [Map].

On 16 Dec 1595 Blanch Killigrew (age 60) was buried at St Peter's Church, Tawstock [Map].

Gothic altar tomb monument with three-tiered altarpiece or reredos behind, the lowest tier of which resembles a triptych. It was moved from St Ive Church in Cornwall in 1924 by Philip Bourchier Sherard Wrey 12th Baronet.

The large slate slab on top of the chest tomb is inscribed within a ledger line: Ye body of John Wrey Esquier who was buried ye 9th of June Ano Domini 1597 Heere lieth the body of Blannch Wrey who was buried ye 16 of December 1595

On the left panel of the triptych is inscribed the following verse:

Loe here he lieth though dead yet living still,

His famous name resounding echo saye,

Whereby report of hym the ayre doth fyll

The lastinge fame & name of rightful Wreye,

Good to ye poore bribes never woulde he take,

Voyde of oppression all kind of waye,

He faithful frynds of enemyes did make,

Of quarels greate ceast lawe ech daye by daye.

Death doe they worst this Wreye yet lives & shall,

Thy darte his deeds cannot extyrpe or quayle.

Thousands are they which thou hast causde to fall,

And yet on hym no waye thou canst prevayle.

What resteth then but cease to mourne & moane

For hym whose vertues shine like to the sonne.

Though here he lieth his Sowle to Heave is gone,

Where Angells see hym though his threads be spoone [spun].

John Wrey of North Russell: He was born to Walter Wrey of North Russell and Bridget Shilstone. In 1585 he was appointed High Sheriff of Cornwall. In or before 1595 John Wrey of North Russell and Blanch Killigrew (age 59) were married. She was heiress to the lordship of the manor of Trebeigh, Cornwall. They had six sons and two daughters. In 1597 he died.

Blanch Killigrew: In 1535 she was born to Henry Killigrew of Woolstone St Ive Cornwall (age 26). On 14 Dec 1596 Blanch Killigrew (age 61) died.

Atropos: Atropos is one of the Three Fates. She cuts the thread of human life.

On 16 Dec 1634 George Hay 1st Earl Kinnoull (age 64) died. His son George Hay 2nd Earl Kinnoull (age 38) succeeded 2nd Earl Kinnoull. Anne Douglas Countess Kinnoul by marriage Countess Kinnoull.

Cromwell becomes Lord Protector

On 16 Dec 1653 Oliver Cromwell (age 54) was appointed Lord Protector.


On 16 Dec 1667 John Middleton 1st Earl Middleton (age 59) and Martha Carey Countess Middleton (age 32) were married at St Andrew's Church, Holborn [Map]. She by marriage Countess Middleton. The difference in their ages was 27 years. She the daughter of Henry Carey 2nd Earl Monmouth and Martha Cranfield Countess Monmouth (age 66).


On 16 Dec 1699 George Villiers 4th Viscount Grandison (age 82) died. On 16 Dec 1699 His grandson John Fitzgerald Villiers 1st Earl Grandison (age 15) succeeded 5th Viscount Grandison 1C 1620.

On 16 Dec 1712 Peregrine Osborne 3rd Duke Leeds (age 21) and Elizabeth Harley (age 23) were married. She the daughter of Robert Harley 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer (age 51) and Elizabeth Foley Countess of Oxford and Mortimer. He the son of Peregrine Osborne 2nd Duke Leeds (age 53) and Bridget Hyde Duchess Leeds (age 50).


On 16 Dec 1724 William Douglas 4th Duke Queensberry was born to William Douglas 2nd Earl March (age 28) and Anne Hamilton 2nd Countess Ruglen (age 28). Coefficient of inbreeding 1.66%.

On 16 Dec 1727 Thomas Woods Knollys 7th Earl Banbury was born to Charles Knollys 5th Earl Banbury (age 24) and Martha Hughes (age 23).

On 16 Dec 1731 Robert Rochfort 1st Earl of Belvedere (age 23) and Elizabeth Tenison were married. She died a year later from smallpox.


On 16 Dec 1754 Charles Cockayne 5th Viscount Cullen (age 44) and Sophia Baxter Viscountess Cullen were married.

Boston Tea Party

On 16 Dec 1773 the Boston Tea Party was the act by American Patriots defending their rights by destroying a shipment of tea owned by the East India Company by throwing it into Boston Harbour. It forms one of the foundation events of the American Revolution which commenced two years later.

On 16 Dec 1774 Francis Willoughby 3rd Baron Middleton (age 48) died. His brother Thomas Willoughby 4th Baron Middleton (age 45) succeeded 4th Baron Middleton, 5th Baronet Willoughby of Wollaton. Georgina Chadwick Baroness Middleton by marriage Baroness Middleton.

Birth of Jane Austen

On 16 Dec 1775 Jane Austen Author was born to George Austen (age 44) and Cassandra Leigh in Steventon. She was baptised on 05 Apr 1775 at St Nicholas' Church, Steventon at which her father was rector; the delay being caused by adverse weather.

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On 16 Dec 1839 Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha (age 20) was appointed 685th Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (age 20).

On 16 Dec 1852 Henry Peyto Verney 24th Baron Latimer 16th Baron Willoughby (age 79) died. He was buried at Compton Verney Chapel [Map]. His nephew Robert John Verney 25th Baron Latimer 17th Baron Willoughby de Broke (age 43) succeeded 25th Baron Latimer of Corby 1C 1299, 17th Baron Willoughby Broke. He changed his surname from Barnard to Verney at this time as part of the settlement.

Raid on Scarborough Hartlepool and Whitby

On 16 Dec 1914 the German Navy bombarded Scarborough [Map], Hartlepool and Whitby. Around 137 were killed, around 600 injured.

On 16 Dec 1923 Richard Verney 27th Baron Latimer 19th Baron Willoughby de Broke (age 54) died. He was buried at Compton Verney Chapel [Map]. His son John Verney 28th Baron Latimer 20th Baron Willoughby de Broke (age 27) succeeded 28th Baron Latimer of Corby 1C 1299, 20th Baron Willoughby Broke.

New York Premiere of Lawrence of Arabia

On 16 Dec 1962 Lawrence of Arabia received its premiere in New York at the Criterion Cinema New York. Alec Guiness, Peter O'Toole, Omar Sharif, David Lean (Director) and Sam Spiegel (Producer) attended.