On this Day in History ... 28 September

28 Sep is in September.

1014 Death of King Sweyn "Forkbeard"

1106 Battle of Tinchebray

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1599 Robert Devereux Earl Essex loses the Plot

1623 Charles I's Trip to Spain

1781 Battle of Yorktown

1835 Marriage Act

1915 Battle of Loos

Death of King Sweyn "Forkbeard"

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1014. This year King Sweyne (age 54) ended his days at Candlemas, the third day before the nones of February; and the same year Elfwy, Bishop of York, was consecrated in London, on the festival of St. Juliana. The fleet all chose Knute (age 19) for king; whereupon advised all the counsellors of England, clergy and laity, that they should send after King Ethelred (age 48); saying, that no sovereign was dearer to them than their natural lord, if he would govern them better than he did before. Then sent the king hither his son Edward, with his messengers; who had orders to greet all his people, saying that he would be their faithful lord-would better each of those things that they disliked-and that each of the things should be forgiven which had been either done or said against him; provided they all unanimously, without treachery, turned to him. Then was full friendship established, in word and in deed and in compact, on either side. And every Danish king they proclaimed an outlaw for ever from England. Then came King Ethelred (age 48) home, in Lent, to his own people; and he was gladly received by them all. Meanwhile, after the death of Sweyne (age 54), sat Knute (age 19) with his army in Gainsborough [Map] until Easter; and it was agreed between him and the people of Lindsey, that they should supply him with horses, and afterwards go out all together and plunder. But King Ethelred (age 48) with his full force came to Lindsey before they were ready; and they plundered and burned, and slew all the men that they could reach. Knute (age 19), the son of Sweyne (age 54), went out with his fleet (so were the wretched people deluded by him), and proceeded southward until he came to Sandwich [Map]. There he landed the hostages that were given to his father, and cut off their hands and ears and their noses. Besides all these evils, the king ordered a tribute to the army that lay at Greenwich [Map], of 21,000 pounds. This year, on the eve of St. Michael's day, came the great sea-flood, which spread wide over this land, and ran so far up as it never did before, overwhelming many towns, and an innumerable multitude of people.

Battle of Tinchebray

On 28 Sep 1106 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 38) defeated his older brother Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 55) at the Battle of Tinchebray at Tinchebray, Orne.

William Warenne 2nd Earl Surrey and Robert Beaumont 1st Earl of Leicester Count Meulan (age 66). Elias La Flèche De Baugency I Count Maine commanded the reserve. The following fought for Henry:

William "Brito aka Breton" D'Aubigny (age 20).

Alan Canhiart IV Duke Brittany (age 43).

Raoul Tosny (age 26).

William "Pincerna aka Butler" D'Aubigny (age 42).

Robert Grandesmil (age 28), and.

William Normandy I Count Évreux.

Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 55) was captured and spent the next twenty-eight years in prison; never released.

William Mortain Count Mortain 2nd Earl Cornwall (age 22) was also captured. He spent the next thirty or more years in prison before becoming a monk. Earl Cornwall 2C 1072 forfeit.

Edgar Ætheling II King England (age 55) was captured and subsequently released; Henry had married to Edgar's niece Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England (age 26) in 1100.

Robert II Belleme 2nd Count Ponthieu 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 50) escaped.

Robert Stuteville was captured.

On 28 Sep 1162 Floris Gerulfing III Count Holland (age 21) and Ada Dunkeld Countess Holland (age 23) were married. Ada Dunkeld Countess Holland by marriage Countess Holland. She the daughter of Henry Dunkeld 3rd Earl Huntingdon 1st Earl of Northumbria and Ada Warenne Countess Huntingdon and Northumbria (age 42). He the son of Dirk Gerulfing VI Count Holland and Sophie Salm Countess Holland (age 42).

On 28 Sep 1197 Henry Hohenstaufen VI Holy Roman Emperor (age 31) died.

On 28 Sep 1361 Robert Stewart 1st Duke Albany (age 21) and Margaret Graham Countess Menteith and Fife (age 27) were married. He by marriage Earl Menteith. She the daughter of John Graham Earl Menteith and Margaret Graham 2nd Countess Menteith and Mar. He the son of King Robert II of Scotland (age 45) and Elizabeth Mure Queen Consort Scotland. He a great x 4 grandson of King John "Lackland" of England.

On 28 Sep 1364 Jean Bourbon I Count La Marche (age 20) and Catherine Vendome were married. She by marriage Countess La Marche. He the son of James Bourbon Count La Marche and Ponthieu and Jeanne Chatillon Countess La Marche (age 44). He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1528. 28 Sep 1528. Cal. B. I. 84. B. M. 4790. Henry Earl Of Cumberland (age 35) to Wolsey.

Reminds him that he was appointed by the King last term to settle the differences that arose between himself and lord Dacres (age 35) touching his office of warden of the West Marches. The term being adjourned in consequence of the sweating sickness, he received a summons for this next term; but, fearing that Dacres would ill treat the King's tenants in these parts, he procured a letter from the King to Dacres, commanding him not to interfere1; nevertheless, Dacres sends bailiffs, with from 10 to 400 persons, to cut down their corn, has imprisoned some of the tenants in the castle of Naward, and would show no authority for so doing. Would have been glad to defend the tenants, but it seemed to touch the honesty of himself and his brother Sir Thomas Clifford. Obtained letters from the duke of Richmond (age 9) to Dacres (age 35), commanding him in the King's name to desist, but to no purpose. A sessions of peace was appointed by warrant addressed to Sir Edw. Musgrave, the sheriff, in the names of Sir Thos. Clifford, Sir Christ. Dacre, Sir John Lowther, and Geoffrey Lancaster, justices; but Dacres wrote to the sheriff, commanding him to repair to Naward castle for the King's affairs, so that he should be absent on the day appointed, and also kept the said Geoffrey, justice of the quorum and custos rotulorum of the county, at the said castle, as appears by Lancaster's letters to Sir Thos. Clifford, the bearer of this. Begs Wolsey not to give credit to evil reports against him. Will be with him at the beginning of next term. Carleton, 28 Sept. Signed.

Pp. 5. Add.: "To my lord Legat." Endd.

Note 1. See 26 Jun 1528.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Sep 1553. The xxviij day of September the Qwen('s) (age 37) grace removed from Sant James, and so to Whyt Hall, and ther her grace took her barge unto the Towre, and ther all the craftes and the mare and the aldermen in bargurs with stremars and mynstrells, as trum pets, wettes, shames, and regalls, and with a gret [shooting] of gunes tyll her grace cam in-to the Towr, and ...

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Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Sep 1554. The xxviij day of September the Kyng (age 27) and the Quen (age 38) removyd from Hamtun court [Map] unto Westmynster tho her grace('s) plasse.


Robert Devereux Earl Essex loses the Plot

On 28 Sep 1599 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 33) presented himself to Elizabeth (age 66) in her bedchamber at Nonsuch Palace [Map] where he found the queen newly up, the hair about her face. Elizabeth had just a simple robe over her nightdress, her wrinkled skin was free of cosmetics and, without her wig. Essex saw her bald head with just wisps of thinning grey hair 'hanging about her ears'. The Queen confined the Earl to his rooms with the comment that "an unruly beast must be stopped of his provender.".

Charles I's Trip to Spain

Autobiograph Simon D'Ewes. 17 Feb 1623. There happened on Monday, the 17th day of the month, so strange an accident as after ages will scarce believe it. For Charles Prince of Wales (age 22) began his journey from London into Spain on Monday, the 17th day of February, with the beloved Marquis of Buckingham (age 30), Sir Francis Cottington (age 44), and Mr. Endimion Porter (age 36), only in his campaign; who only, besides the King himself, were the alone men aquainted with the Prince's resolution. Their going was so secretly carried as none, I believe, knew of it in England till they were landed in France, through which kingdom they passed by posthorse into Spain.1 The journey was thought so dangerous, being above 1100 English miles by land, besides the crossing of the seas between Dover and Calais, as all men were generally ensaddened at the ad- venture, often wishing it had been better advised upon; although they knew the Spaniards durst do the Prince no harm, so long as his royal sister and her illustrious oflspring survived. Soon after followed the Lord Hays (age 43), Earl of Carlisle, and passed into France to excuse to that King the Prince's sudden and secret passing through his kingdom without giving him a visit. All men now took it for granted, that the Prince's marriage with the Infanta Maria, the King of Spain's sister, was concluded on, and that he went over only to consummate it; no man imagining that he would take up such a resolution upon uncertainties, especially occasioning so vast and unnecessary expense at a time when the King's wants pressed him much. But God, whose decree binds princes as well as peasants, had otherwise disposed, so as our royal suitor, arriving at Madrid in Spain on Friday the 7th (or 17th) of March, about three weeks later his departure from London, and taking ship for his return to England on the 18th (or 28th) of September, then next ensuing, stayed in Spain about seven months; in all which time he seldom saw or spoke with the Spanish Princess, nor could ever receive a fair or sincere denial from her brother, although her marriage had been absolutely disposed of by her father's last will and testament; he bequeathing her to Ferdinand, son and heir of Ferdinand the Second, Emperor of Germany, who afterwards did accordingly espouse her.

Note 1. "And now behold a, strange adventure and enterprise! The Prince and the Marquis of Buckingham, accompanied with Cottington and Endimion Porter, post in disgiuse to Spain to accelerate the marriage. The 17th of February they went privately from Court, and the next day came to Dover, where they embarked for Boulogne, and from thence rode post to Paris, where they made some atop. The Prince, shadowed under a bushy peruque, beheld the splendour of that court, and had a full view of the Princess Henrietta Maria (age 13), who was afterwards his royal consort. For, besides the great privacy of the journey, they had so laid the English ports, that none should follow or give the least advertisement, until they had got the start of intelligencers, and passed the bounds of France. Howbeit they escaped narrowly, and a swift intelligence sent to the King of Spain from Don Carlos Coloma was even at their heels before they arrived at Madrid. The Prince and Buckingham being in the territories of Spain, to make but little noise, rode post before their company. The 7th of March they arrived at Madrid, the royal residence, and were conveyed with much secrecy into the Earl of Bristol's (age 43) house-Rushworth, i. p. 76. A fuller account of this extraordinary adventure will be found elsewhere.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Sep 1651. I was shown a collection of books and prints made for the Duke of York (age 17).


On 28 Sep 1652 Ralph Hopton 1st Baron Hopton (age 56) died.

On 28 Sep 1691 Anna Walpole (age 35) died. She was buried at All Saints Church Narborough [Map].

Anna Walpole: On 18 Apr 1656 she was born to Edward Walpole of Houghton (age 31) and Susan Crane (age 25). Before 28 Sep 1691 Mundeford Spelman (age 51) and Anna Walpole (age 35) were married.

On 28 Sep 1705 Henry Fox 1st Baron Holland was born to Stephen Fox (age 78).


On 23 or 28 Sep 1728 Garret Wesley (age 63) died. His estates were inherited by Richard Colley aka Wesley 1st Baron Mornington (age 38) who adopted the surname Wesley as a condition of the will.

On 28 Sep 1733 Charles Howard 9th Earl Suffolk (age 58) died. He was buried at Waldon Priory and Abbey [Map]. His son Henry Howard 10th Earl Suffolk (age 26) succeeded 10th Earl Suffolk 4C 1603.NOTEXT

Before 28 Sep 1744 Robert Marsham 2nd Baron Romney (age 32) and Priscilla Pym Baroness Romney were married. She by marriage Baroness Romney.

On 28 Sep 1744 Charles Marsham 1st Earl Romney was born to Robert Marsham 2nd Baron Romney (age 32) and Priscilla Pym Baroness Romney.

On 28 Sep 1747 John Drummond 4th Duke Perth (age 33) died unmarried. His uncle John Drummond 5th Duke Perth (age 67) succeeded 5th Duke Perth.

On 28 Sep 1765 Frederick Christian Oldenburg II Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Augustenburg was born to Frederick Christian Oldenburg I Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Augustenburg (age 44) and Charlotte Amalie Wilhelmine Unknown Duchess Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Augustenburg at Augustenborg, Als Island.

1781 Battle of Yorktown

Between 28 Sep 1781 and 19 Oct 1781 the 1781 Battle of Yorktown was fought was a decisive victory by a combined force of the American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington (age 49) and Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, and French Army troops led by Comte de Rochambeau over British Army troops commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis (age 42).

Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis (age 42) and Charles Gould aka Morgan 2nd Baronet (age 21) were captured.

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On 28 Sep 1799 Robert Shirley 7th Earl Ferrers (age 43) and Elizabeth Mundy Countess Ferrers were married. She by marriage Countess Ferrers. He the son of Robert Shirley 6th Earl Ferrers and Catherine Cotton Countess Ferrers.

Before 28 Sep 1804 George Fitzroy 2nd Baron Southampton (age 43) and Frances Isabella Seymour Baroness Southampton were married. She by marriage Baroness Southampton. They were second cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.


On 28 Sep 1822 Thomas Lyon Bowes 12th Earl Strathmore and Kinghorne was born to Thomas George Lyon Bowes (age 21) and Charlotte Grimstead (age 25).


1835 Marriage Act

On 28 Sep 1840 George Edward Waldegrave 7th Earl Waldegrave (age 24) and Frances Braham Countess Waldegrave (age 19) were married at Gretna Green, Dumfrieshire thereby avoiding the constraint of the 1835 Marriage Act. He being the legitimate younger brother of her first husband John James Waldegrave; an example of Married to Two Siblings. He the son of John James Waldegrave 6th Earl Waldegrave. He a great x 4 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 28 Sep 1848 John Manners-Sutton 2nd Baron Manners (age 30) and Lydia Sophia Dashwood (age 23) were married. They were half fourth cousins.

On 28 Sep 1848 Richard Noel-Hill 4th Baron Berwick (age 73) died. He was buried at St Eata's Church.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. On September 28, 1858, my marriage took place at the Military Chapel Gibraltar, and I was the first Countess of Cardigan to be married on foreign soil, I wore a white silk gown draped with a blue scarf, and a large hat adorned with many feathers; Lord Cardigan's (age 60) friends, Stuart Paget, Mrs, Paget and the Misses Paget, were present, and we gave a ball on the yacht in the evening. We spent a very gay week at Gibraltar, and then left for Cádiz, touching at Malacca and Alicante; then we took rail to Madrid, where we arrived on October 16 in time to witness a review of 30,000 troops on Queen Isabella's (age 27) birthday. After a short stay at Madrid we rejoined the Airedale at Barcelona, and went 500 miles by sea to Leghorn. We experienced bad weather and many storms, and every one on board was ill except myself. The cook was a great sufferer, and his absence was naturally felt by those who were able to look at food without aversion.

From Leghorn we went to Elba, when I saw the place Napoleon embarked from after the "hundred days". We left the Airedale at Civiti Vecchia and started for Rome in our travelling-carriage with six horses, escorted by some of the Papal Guard sent by the Pope to protect us. I met many of my friends in the Eternal City; I saw everything worth seeing during my delightful sojourn there, and before we left Lord Cardigan and I were blessed by the Pope at an audience we had with his Holiness. As I wished to go to Genoa by sea, we returned to Civita Vecchia and set out in the yacht for Genoa, where we landed; we went from there to Turin, and on by rail by the Mont Cenis route to Paris [Map].

Paris was then a city of delight, revelling in the palmy days of the Second Empire, and I greatly enjoyed my visit there. One night I went to the Opera with Cardigan and we saw Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Trelawney in a box. Mrs. Trelawney was the famous Miss Howard, once the English mistress of Louis Napoleon (age 50), who paid her £250,000 when he renounced her to marry Eugenie de Montijo (age 32). Mrs. Trelawney annoyed the Emperor (age 50) and Empress (age 32) as much as she dared by sitting opposite the Royal box at the Opera, and driving almost immediately behind the Empress's (age 32) carriage in the Bois de Boulogne. She was a very fat woman, and her embonpoint increased to such an extent that the doors of her carriage had to be enlarged to allow her to get in and out with comfort.

Clarence Trelawney was a friend of mine, and the poor fellow came to a sad end. After his wife's death he married an American lady, but unfortunately he got into debt. He appealed to his relations, who were very wealthy but apparently equally mean, for they refused to lend him the £400 he asked for, and driven desperate by worry he blew out his brains.

From Paris we came to London and stayed at Lord Cardigan's town-house in Portman Square Marylebone; then we went to Deene [Map] on December 14, where we met with a royal reception, six hundred tenants on horseback escorting our carriage from the station to the house.

On 28 Sep 1864 Henry Pelham-Clinton 7th Duke Newcastle-under-Lyme was born to Henry Pelham Alexander Pelham-Clinton 6th Duke Newcastle-under-Lyme (age 30) and Henrietta Adela Hope Duchess Newcastle under Lyne (age 21).

After 28 Sep 1878. St Mary's Church, Chirk [Map]. Memorial to Thomas Myddelton-Biddulph (deceased).

Thomas Myddelton-Biddulph: On 29 Jul 1809 he was born to Robert Myddelton-Biddulph (age 48) and Charlotte Myddelton (age 39). On 16 Feb 1857 Thomas Myddelton-Biddulph (age 47) and Mary Frederica Seymour (age 33) were married. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland. On 10 Mar 1863 Thomas Myddelton-Biddulph (age 53) was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire being knighted on 27 Mar 1863. On 28 Sep 1878 Thomas Myddelton-Biddulph (age 69) died.

On 28 Sep 1905 Algernon George de Vere Capell 8th Earl of Essex (age 21) and Mary Eveline Stewart Freeman were married. He the son of George Capell 7th Earl of Essex (age 47) and Ellenor Harriet Maria Harford.

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On 28 Sep 1907 Frederick Grand Duke of Baden (age 81) died.

Battle of Loos

On 28 Sep 1915 Thomas Agar-Robartes (age 35) was wounded in the Battle of Loos.


On 28 Sep 1941 Admiral Edward Fitzherbert 13th Baron Stafford (age 77) died unmarried. His nephew Basil Fitzherbert 14th Baron Stafford (age 15) succeeded 14th Baron Stafford 5C 1640.

On 28 Sep 1974 Arthur Gore 9th Earl of Arran (age 36) and Eleanor van Cutsem (age 25) were married. He the son of Arthur Gore 8th Earl of Arran (age 64) and Fiona Colquhoun Countess of Arran (age 56).