On this Day in History ... 31 July

31 Jul is in July.

1415 Southampton Plot

1423 Battle of Cravant

1643 Battle of Gainsborough

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 St James' Day Battle

1667 Treaty of Breda

1760 Battle of Warburg

1917 Battle of Passchendaele

On 31 Jul 1392 Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham (age 79) died at York [Map]. His son Stephen Scrope 2nd Baron Scrope Masham (age 47) succeeded 2nd Baron Scrope Masham.

On 31 Jul 1396 Archbishop William de Courtenay (age 54) died at Maidstone [Map]. He was buried in the quire of Canterbury Cathedral [Map].

Before 31 Jul 1415 King Henry V of England (age 28) stayed at Titchfield Abbey [Map] when travelling to Southampton to commence his Agincourt campaign.

Southampton Plot

On 31 Jul 1415, when King Henry V of England (age 28) was in Portchester Castle [Map] preparing to invade France, Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 23) revealed the Southampton Plot to him. Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham (age 42), Thomas Grey of Werke and Heaton (age 30), and Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 30) were intending to replace King Henry V of England (age 28) with Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 23) as King of England based on Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 23) having a better claim to the throne being descended from Edward III's second son Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence whereas King Henry V of England (age 28) was descended from the third son John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster.

Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 30), Richard de Vere 11th Earl of Oxford (age 29), Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 27) and Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys (age 64) sat in judgement.

Battle of Cravant

On 31 Jul 1423 the English and Burgundian army defeated the French and Scottish armies at the Battle of Cravant at Cravant, Yonne. On the English side Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 35) commanded. Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 38) was second in command.

The French and Scottish army were commanded by John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux (age 43). Louis Bourbon 1st Count Vendôme 1st Count Castres (age 47) was second in command. Both were captured; Darnley lost an eye.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 31 Jul 1553. The xxxj day of July was delevered owt of the Towre [Map] the duke of Suffoke (age 36); and the sam day rod thrugh London my lade Elssabeth (age 19) to Algatt, and so to the qwens (age 37) grace her sester, with a M1. hors with a C. velvett cotes.

Note. Rode through London my lady Elizabeth. Stowe relates that the lady Elizabeth went to meet the queen on the 30th, the day after her arrival in London: he states that she was accompanied with a thousand horse, as says our diarist, but "Camden 500, and so I have heard my mother from her grandmother, who was one of them, relate, and that queen Mary then kissed every gentlewoeman [that] came with her sister." MS. note by the Rev. John Lynge, vicar of Yalding in Kent, in a copy of Stowe's Annals; Retrospective Review, 2d Series, i. 341.

Note. P. 37. The royal livery. The passage relating to the princess Elizabeth's entry should conclude thus,—"all in green guarded with white, velvet, satin, taffety, and cloth, according to their qualities." Green and white formed the livery of the Tudors. At the marriage of Arthur prince of Wales the yeomen of the guard were in large jackets of damask, white and green, embroidered before and behind with garlands of vine leaves, and in the middle a red rose. In the great picture at Windsor castle of the embarkation at Dover in 1520, the Harry Grace à Dieu is surrounded with targets, bearing the various royal badges, each placed on a field party per pale white and green. The painting called king Arthur's round table at Winchester castle, supposed to have been repainted in the reign of Henry VII. is divided into compartments of white and green. The "queenes colours" are also alluded to in the following story of a rude jest passed on the new Rood in Saint Paul's:

"Not long after this (in 1554) a merry fellow came into Pauls, and spied the Rood with Mary and John new set up; whereto, among a great sort of people, he made low curtesie, and said: Sir, your Mastership is welcome to towne. I had thought to have talked further with your Mastership, but that ye be here clothed in the Queenes colours. I hope ye be but a summer's bird, in that ye be dressed in white and greene." (Foxe, Actes and Monuments, iii. 114.)

Among the attendants on queen Mary in p. 38, three liveries are mentioned, green and white, red and white, and blue and green. The men in red and white were the servants of the lord treasurer (see p. 12, where several other liveries are described), and the blue and green would be those of the earl of Arundel or some other principal nobleman. Blue and white was perhaps king Philip's livery (p. 79).

In p. 59 we find that in 1554 even the naval uniform of England was white and green, both for officers and mariners. In noted in that page for "wearing" read "were in," which, without altering the sense, completes the grammar.

The city trained bands were, in 1557, ordered to have white coats welted with green, with red crosses (see p. 164).

The lady Elizabeth, however, did not give green and white to her own men. From two other passages (pp. 57, 120) we find her livery was scarlet or fine red, guarded with black velvet; and from the description of her coronation procession in p. 186, it seems that red or "crimson" was retained for her livery when queen.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 31 Jul 1553. The sam tyme cam to the Flett [Map] the yerle of Ruttland (age 26) and my lord Russell (age 68), in hold. The qwen('s) (age 37) grace mad [sir Thomas] Jarnyngham [Note. Thomas a mistake for Henry] vyce-chamburlayn and captayne of the garde, and ser Edward Hastyngs (age 32) her grace mad ym the maister of the horsse the sam tym.

On 31 Jul 1617 Francis Leigh 1st Earl Chichester (age 19) and Audrey Boteler Countess Chichester were married.

On 31 Jul 1624 Henry Lorraine II Duke Lorraine (age 61) died without male issue. His brother Francis Lorraine II Duke Lorraine (age 52) succeeded II Duke Lorraine.

Battle of Gainsborough

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1665. Up, and very betimes by six o'clock at Deptford [Map], and there find Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and my Lady (age 63) ready to go: I being in my new coloured silk suit, and coat trimmed with gold buttons and gold broad lace round my hands, very rich and fine. By water to the Ferry, where, when we come, no coach there; and tide of ebb so far spent as the horse-boat could not get off on the other side the river to bring away the coach. So we were fain to stay there in the unlucky Isle of Doggs, in a chill place, the morning cool, and wind fresh, above two if not three hours to our great discontent. Yet being upon a pleasant errand, and seeing that it could not be helped, we did bear it very patiently; and it was worth my observing, I thought, as ever any thing, to see how upon these two scores, Sir G. Carteret (age 55), the most passionate man in the world, and that was in greatest haste to be gone, did bear with it, and very pleasant all the while, at least not troubled much so as to fret and storm at it. Anon the coach comes: in the mean time there coming a News thither with his horse to go over, that told us he did come from Islington [Map] this morning; and that Proctor the vintner of the Miter in Wood-street, and his son, are dead this morning there, of the plague; he having laid out abundance of money there, and was the greatest vintner for some time in London for great entertainments. We, fearing the canonicall hour would be past before we got thither, did with a great deal of unwillingness send away the license and wedding ring. So that when we come, though we drove hard with six horses, yet we found them gone from home; and going towards the church, met them coming from church, which troubled us. But, however, that trouble was soon over; hearing it was well done: they being both in their old cloaths; my Lord Crew (age 67) giving her, there being three coach fulls of them. The young lady mighty sad, which troubled me; but yet I think it was only her gravity in a little greater degree than usual. All saluted her, but I did not till my Lady Sandwich (age 40) did ask me whether I had saluted her or no.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1665. Thus we end this month, as I said, after the greatest glut of content that ever I had; only under some difficulty because of the plague, which grows mightily upon us, the last week being about 1700 or 1800 of the plague. My Lord Sandwich (age 40) at sea with a fleet of about 100 sail, to the Northward, expecting De Ruyter (age 58), or the Dutch East India fleet. My Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) coming over from France, and will meet his sister at Scott's-hall. Myself having obliged both these families in this business very much; as both my Lady, and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and his Lady (age 63) do confess exceedingly, and the latter do also now call me cozen, which I am glad of. So God preserve us all friends long, and continue health among us.

St James' Day Battle

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1666. Thence parted and to Mrs. Martin's lodgings, and sat with her a while, and then by water home, all the way reading the Narrative of the late fight in order, it may be, to the making some marginal notes upon it. At the Old Swan [Map] found my Betty Michell at the doore, where I staid talking with her a pretty while, it being dusky, and kissed her and so away home and writ my letters, and then home to supper, where the brother and Mary Batelier are still and Mercer's two sisters. They have spent the time dancing this afternoon, and we were very merry, and then after supper into the garden and there walked, and then home with them and then back again, my wife and I and the girle, and sang in the garden and then to bed. Colville was with me this morning, and to my great joy I could now have all my money in, that I have in the world. But the times being open again, I thinke it is best to keepe some of it abroad.


1667 Treaty of Breda

On 31 Jul 1667 the 1667 Treaty of Breda was signed bringing to an end hostilties between England and its opponents in the Second Anglo-Dutch War: Dutch Republic, France and Denmark-Norway.

On 31 Jul 1699. Theophilus Hastings 7th Earl Huntingdon (age 48) wrote to Laurence Cromp of the Herald's Office: "I have returned this weeke by the derby Carrier, who will be Saturday at the castle in Smithfield, the box you sent down with the Epitaph, which I desire you to send to Mr. Gibbons, the carver in Bow Street; and overlooke the Cutting of the Letters and Cotes of Armes. I caused the Alterations to bee made in the places, wherr there was mistakes, which arr only Litterall, and are - this amended .... [list of corrections]. You may lett Me Gibbons see this letter is you thinke it necessary.

On 31 Jul 1713 Frederick William I Duke Mecklenburg-Schwerin (age 38) died.

Before 31 Jul 1731 Robert Jocelyn 1st Earl Roden was born. 31 Jul 1731 Robert Jocelyn 1st Earl Roden was baptised.

On 31 Jul 1750 John V King Portugal (age 60) died. His son Joseph I King Portugal (age 36) succeeded King Portugal.

On 31 Jul 1755 James Douglas 14th Earl Morton (age 53) and Bridget Heathcote Countess Morton were married. She by marriage Countess Morton. He the son of George Douglas 13th Earl Morton.


Battle of Warburg

On 31 Jul 1760 John Waldegrave 3rd Earl Waldegrave (age 42) fought at the Battle of Warburg.

On 31 Jul 1785 John James Waldegrave 6th Earl Waldegrave was born to George Waldegrave 4th Earl Waldegrave (age 33) and Elizabeth Laura Waldegrave Countess Waldegrave (age 25). He a great x 3 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland. Coefficient of inbreeding 6.27%.

PAINTINGS/REYNOLDS/Frederick_Ponsonby.jpg PAINTINGS/DOWNMAN/Lady_Duncannon.jpg

On 31 Jul 1790 Frederick VI King Denmark and Norway (age 22) and Marie Sophie Hesse-Kassel Queen Consort Denmark and Norway (age 22) were married. He the son of Christian VII King Denmark and Norway (age 41) and Caroline Matilda Hanover Queen Consort Denmark and Norway. They were first cousins. He a great grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland. She a great granddaughter of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 31 Jul 1800 Charles Burroughs-Paulet 13th Marquess Winchester (age 36) and Anne Andrews Marchioness of Winchester (age 27) were married. She by marriage Marchioness Winchester. He the son of George Paulett 12th Marquess Winchester and Martha Ingoldsby Marchioness Winchester.


On 31 Jul 1808 Francis Theophilus Henry Hastings 13th Earl Huntingdon was born to Hans Francis Hastings 12th Earl Huntingdon (age 28) and Frances Cobbe Countess Huntingdon.

After 31 Jul 1812. Monument to Reverend Geoffrey Hornby.

On 31 Jul 1830 Henry Wyndham 2nd Baron Leconfield was born to George Wyndham 1st Baron Leconfield (age 43) and Mary Fanny Blunt.


On 31 Jul 1860 William Horsley-Beresford 3rd Baron Decies (age 49) and Catherine Anne Dent Baroness Decies (age 20) were married. The difference in their ages was 28 years.

On 31 Jul 1860 George Neville John Fane (age 1) died. Memorial in the Church of St Leonard, Apethorpe [Map].

George Neville John Fane: On 03 Sep 1858 he was born to Francis William Henry Fane 12th Earl of Westmoreland (age 32) and Adelaide Ida Curzon Howe Countess of Westmoreland (age 23).

On 31 Jul 1897 William Craven 5th Earl Craven was born to William Craven 4th Earl Craven (age 28) and Cornelia Martin Countess Craven (age 25).

On 31 Jul 1903 Arthur Gore 7th Earl of Arran was born to Arthur Gore 6th Earl of Arran (age 34) and Maud Jacqueline Marie Beauclerk van Kattendyke Countess of Arran.

On 31 Jul 1913 Balthazar Walter Foster 1st Baron Ilkeston (age 73) died. His son Balthazar Stephen Sargant Foster 2nd Baron Ilkeston (age 45) succeeded 2nd Baron Ilkeston of Ilkeston in Derbyshire.

On 31 Jul 1914 Robert Curzon 15th Baron Zouche (age 63) died. His sister Darea Curzon 16th Baroness Zouche (age 54) succeeded 16th Baroness Zouche Harringworth.

Battle of Passchendaele

On 31 Jul 1917 Albert Edward George Arnold Keppel (age 19) was killed in action at Passchendaele.