1000-1049 Cnut

1000-1049 Cnut is in 11th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, First Battle of Alton

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1001. This year there was great commotion in England in consequence of an invasion by the Danes, who spread terror and devastation wheresoever they went, plundering and burning and desolating the country with such rapidity, that they advanced in one march as far as the town of Alton [Note. Not clear whether this is Alton, Hampshire]; where the people of Hampshire came against them, and fought with them. There was slain Ethelwerd, high-steward of the king (age 35), and Leofric of Whitchurch, and Leofwin, high-steward of the king, and Wulfhere, a bishop's thane, and Godwin of Worthy, son of Bishop Elfsy; and of all the men who were engaged with them eighty-one. Of the Danes there was slain a much greater number, though they remained in possession of the field of battle. Thence they proceeded westward, until they came into Devonshire; where Paley came to meet them with the ships which he was able to collect; for he had shaken off his allegiance to King Ethelred (age 35), against all the vows of truth and fidelity which he had given him, as well as the presents which the king had bestowed on him in houses and gold and silver. And they burned Teignton, and also many other goodly towns that we cannot name; and then peace was there concluded with them. And they proceeded thence towards Exmouth, Devon, so that they marched at once till they came to Pin-hoo; where Cole, high-steward of the king, and Edsy, reve of the king, came against them with the army that they could collect. But they were there put to flight, and there were many slain, and the Danes had possession of the field of battle. And the next morning they burned the village of Pin-hoo, and of Clist, and also many goodly towns that we cannot name. Then they returned eastward again, till they came to the Isle of Wight [Map]. The next morning they burned the town of Waltham, and many other small towns; soon after which the people treated with them, and they made peace.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Otto III King Italy and Germany and Holy Roman Emperor Died

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, St. Brice's Day Massacre

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1002. This year the king (age 36) and his council agreed that tribute should be given to the fleet, and peace made with them, with the provision that they should desist from their mischief. Then sent the king to the fleet Alderman Leofsy, who at the king's word and his council made peace with them, on condition that they received food and tribute; which they accepted, and a tribute was paid of 24,000 pounds. In the meantime Alderman Leofsy slew Eafy, high-steward of the king; and the king banished him from the land. Then, in the same Lent, came the Lady Elfgive Emma, Richard's daughter, to this land. And in the same summer died Archbishop Eadulf; and also, in the same year the king gave an order to slay all the Danes that were in England. This was accordingly done on the mass-day of St. Brice; because it was told the king, that they would beshrew him of his life, and afterwards all his council, and then have his kingdom without any resistance.

William of Malmesbury Book 2 Chapter 9. 13 Nov 1002. For, besides the English, whom he King Æthelred (age 36) despoiled of their hereditary possessions without any cause, or defrauded of their property for supposititious crimes: besides the Danes, whom, from light suspicion only, he ordered to be all butchered [St. Brice's Day Massacre] on the same day throughout England; which was a dreadful spectacle to behold; each one compelled to betray his dearest guests, now become dearer from the tenderest connexions of affinity, and to cut short their embraces with the sword: yet besides all this, I say, he was so inconstant towards his wife [Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 17)], that he scarcely deigned her his bed, and degraded the royal dignity by his intercourse with harlots. She too, a woman, conscious of her high descent, became indignant at her husband, as she found herself endeared to him neither by her blameless modesty nor her fruitfulness; for she had borne him two children, Elfred and Edward. She was the daughter of Richard, earl of Normandy, the son of William, who, after his father, presided over that earldom for fifty-two years, and died in the twenty-eighth year of this king. He lies at the monastery of Fescamp, which he augmented with certain revenues, and which he adorned with a monastic order, by means of William, formerly abbat of Dijon. Richard was a distinguished character, and had also often harassed Ethelred: which, when it became known at Rome, the holy see, not enduring that two Christians should be at enmity, sent Leo, bishop of Treves, into England, to restore peace: the epistle describing this legation was as follows:- "John the fifteenth, pope of the holy Roman church, to all faithful people, health. Be it known to all the faithful of the holy mother church, and our children spiritual and secular, dispersed through the several climates of the world, that inasmuch as we had been informed by many of the enmity between Ethelred, king of the West-Saxons, and Richard the marquis, and were grieved sorely at this, on account of our spiritual children; taking, therefore, wholesome counsel, we summoned one of our legates, Leo, bishop of the holy church of Treves, and sent him with our letters, admonishing them, that they should return from their ungodliness. He, passing vast spaces, at length crossed the sea, and, on the day of the Lord's nativity, came into the presence of the said king; whom, having saluted on our part, he delivered to him the letters we had sent. And all the faithful people of his kingdom, and senators of either order, being summoned, he granted, for love and fear of God Almighty, and of St. Peter, the chief of the apostles, and on account of our paternal admonition, the firmest peace for all his sons and daughters, present and future, and all his faithful people, without deceit. On which account he sent Edelsin, prelate of the holy church of Sherborne, and Leofstan, son of Alfwold, and Edelnoth, son of Wulstan, who passed the maritime boundaries, and came to Richard, the said marquis. He, peaceably receiving our admonitions, and hearing the determination of the said king, readily confirmed the peace for his sons and daughters, present and future, and for all his faithful people, with this reasonable condition, that if any of their subjects, or they themselves, should commit any injustice against each other, it should be duly redressed; and that peace should remain for ever unshaken and confirmed by the oath of both parties: on the part of king Ethelred, to wit, Edelsin, prelate of the holy church of Sherborne; Leofstan, the son of Alfwold; Edelnoth, the son of Wulstan. On the part of Richard, Roger, the bishop; Rodolph, son of Hugh; Truteno, the son of Thurgis. "Done at Rouen, on the kalends of March, in the year of our Lord 991, the fourth of the indiction. Moreover, of the king's subjects, or of his enemies, let Richard receive none, nor the king of his, without their respective seals".

On 13 Nov 1002 King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 36) ordered the St Brice's Day Massacre. Its isn't clear how many died.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Battle of Ringmere

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1010. This year came the aforesaid army, after Easter, into East Anglia; and went up at Ipswich, Suffolk [Map], marching continually till they came where they understood Ulfcytel was with his army. This was on the day called the first of the Ascension of our Lord. The East-Angles soon fled. Cambridgeshire stood firm against them. There was slain Athelstan, the king's relative, and Oswy, and his son, and Wulfric, son of Leofwin, and Edwy, brother of Efy, and many other good thanes, and a multitude of the people. Thurkytel Myrehead first began the flight; and the Danes remained masters of the field of slaughter. There were they horsed; and afterwards took possession of East-Anglia, where they plundered and burned three months; and then proceeded further into the wild fens, slaying both men and cattle, and burning throughout the fens. Thetford, Norfolk [Map] also they burned, and Cambridge [Map]; and afterwards went back southward into the Thames; and the horsemen rode towards the ships. Then went they west-ward into Oxfordshire, and thence to Buckinghamshire, and so along the Ouse till they came to Bedford [Map], and so forth to Temsford, always burning as they went. Then returned they to their ships with their spoil, which they apportioned to the ships. When the king's army should have gone out to meet them as they went up, then went they home; and when they were in the east, then was the army detained in the west; and when they were in the south, then was the army in the north. Then all the privy council were summoned before the king (age 44), to consult how they might defend this country. But, whatever was advised, it stood not a month; and at length there was not a chief that would collect an army, but each fled as he could: no shire, moreover, would stand by another. Before the feast-day of St. Andrew came the enemy to Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map], and soon burned the town, and took as much spoil thereabout as they would; and then returned over the Thames into Wessex, and so by Cannings-marsh, burning all the way. When they had gone as far as they would, then came they by midwinter to their ships.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, 1012-Siege of Canterbury

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1011. This year sent the king (age 45) and his council to the army, and desired peace; promising them both tribute and provisions, on condition that they ceased from plunder. They had now overrun East-Anglia, and Essex, and Middlesex, and Oxfordshire, and Cambridgeshire, and Hertfordshire, and Buckinghamshire, and Bedfordshire, and half of Huntingdonshire, and much of Northamptonshire; and, to the south of the Thames, all Kent, and Sussex, and Hastings, and Surrey, and Berkshire, and Hampshire, and much of Wiltshire. All these disasters befel us through bad counsels; that they would not offer tribute in time, or fight with them; but, when they had done most mischief, then entered they into peace and amity with them. And not the less for all this peace, and amity, and tribute, they went everywhere in troops; plundering, and spoiling, and slaying our miserable people. In this year, between the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas, they beset Canterbury, Kent [Map], and entered therein through treachery; for Elfmar delivered the city to them, whose life Archbishop Elfeah (age 58) formerly saved. And there they seized Archbishop Elfeah (age 58), and Elfward the king's steward, and Abbess Leofruna56, and Bishop Godwin; and Abbot Elfmar they suffered to go away. And they took therein all the men, and husbands, and wives; and it was impossible for any man to say how many they were; and in the city they continued afterwards as long as they would. And, when they had surveyed all the city, they then returned to their ships, and led the archbishop with them. Then was a captive he who before was of England head and Christendom;- there might be seen great wretchedness, where oft before great bliss was seen, in the fated city, whence first to us came Christendom, and bliss 'fore God and 'fore the world. And the archbishop (age 58) they kept with them until the time when they martyred him.

Note 56. "Leofruna abbatissa".-Flor. The insertion of this quotation from Florence of Worcester is important, as it confirms the reading adopted in the text. The abbreviation "abbt", instead of "abb", seems to mark the abbess. She was the last abbess of St. Mildred's in the Isle of Thanet; not Canterbury, as Harpsfield and Lambard say.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, 1012-Martyrdom of Archibishop Ælfheah

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1012. This year came Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, and all the oldest counsellors of England, clerk and laity, to London before Easter, which was then on the ides of April; and there they abode, over Easter, until all the tribute was paid, which was 48,000 pounds. Then on the Saturday was the army much stirred against the bishop; because he would not promise them any fee, and forbade that any man should give anything for him. They were also much drunken; for there was wine brought them from the south. Then took they the bishop (age 59), and led him to their hustings, on the eve of the Sunday after Easter, which was the thirteenth before the calends of May; and there they then shamefully killed him. They overwhelmed him with bones and horns of oxen; and one of them smote him with an axe-iron on the head; so that he sunk downwards with the blow; and his holy blood fell on the earth, whilst his sacred soul was sent to the realm of God. The corpse in the morning was carried to London; and the bishops, Ednoth and Elfhun, and the citizens, received him with all honour, and buried him in St. Paul's minster [Map]; where God now showeth this holy martyr's miracles. When the tribute was paid, and the peace-oaths were sworn, then dispersed the army as widely as it was before collected. Then submitted to the king five and forty of the ships of the enemy; and promised him, that they would defend this land, and he should feed and clothe them.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Death of King Sweyn "Forkbeard"

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1014. This year King Sweyne (age 54) ended his days at Candlemas, the third day before the nones of February; and the same year Elfwy, Bishop of York, was consecrated in London, on the festival of St. Juliana. The fleet all chose Knute (age 19) for king; whereupon advised all the counsellors of England, clergy and laity, that they should send after King Ethelred (age 48); saying, that no sovereign was dearer to them than their natural lord, if he would govern them better than he did before. Then sent the king hither his son Edward, with his messengers; who had orders to greet all his people, saying that he would be their faithful lord-would better each of those things that they disliked-and that each of the things should be forgiven which had been either done or said against him; provided they all unanimously, without treachery, turned to him. Then was full friendship established, in word and in deed and in compact, on either side. And every Danish king they proclaimed an outlaw for ever from England. Then came King Ethelred (age 48) home, in Lent, to his own people; and he was gladly received by them all. Meanwhile, after the death of Sweyne (age 54), sat Knute (age 19) with his army in Gainsborough [Map] until Easter; and it was agreed between him and the people of Lindsey, that they should supply him with horses, and afterwards go out all together and plunder. But King Ethelred (age 48) with his full force came to Lindsey before they were ready; and they plundered and burned, and slew all the men that they could reach. Knute (age 19), the son of Sweyne (age 54), went out with his fleet (so were the wretched people deluded by him), and proceeded southward until he came to Sandwich, Kent [Map]. There he landed the hostages that were given to his father, and cut off their hands and ears and their noses. Besides all these evils, the king ordered a tribute to the army that lay at Greenwich, Kent [Map], of 21,000 pounds. This year, on the eve of St. Michael's day, came the great sea-flood, which spread wide over this land, and ran so far up as it never did before, overwhelming many towns, and an innumerable multitude of people.

On 03 Feb 1014 Sweyn "Forkbeard" King Denmark King Norway King England (age 54) died. His son Harald King Denmark succeeded King Denmark. There was a dispute as to who succeeded to the Kingdom of England with some supporting King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 48) and some King Canute of England (age 19).

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Death of King Æthelred "Unready"

On 23 Apr 1016 King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 50) died. His son King Edmund "Ironside" I of England (age 26) succeeded I King England although tthe Witan meeting at Southampton chose King Canute of England (age 21).

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Coronation of Edmund Ironside

After 23 Apr 1016 King Edmund "Ironside" I of England (age 26) was crowned I King England by Archibishop Ælfstan aka Lyfing. His reign lasted seven months.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Battle of Penselwood

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1016. After his decease, all the peers that were in London, and the citizens, chose Edmund king (age 26); who bravely defended his kingdom while his time was. Then came the ships to Greenwich, Kent [Map], about the gang-days, and within a short interval went to London; where they sunk a deep ditch on the south side, and dragged their ships to the west side of the bridge. Afterwards they trenched the city without, so that no man could go in or out, and often fought against it: but the citizens bravely withstood them. King Edmund (age 26) had ere this gone out, and invaded the West-Saxons, who all submitted to him; and soon afterward he fought with the enemy at Pen near Gillingham.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Battle of Sherston

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. After 21 Jun 1016. A second battle he fought, after midsummer, at Sherston; where much slaughter was made on either side, and the leaders themselves came together in the fight. Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia and Aylmer the darling were assisting the army against King Edmund. Then collected he his force the third time, and went to London, all by north of the Thames, and so out through Clayhanger, and relieved the citizens, driving the enemy to their ships.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, 1016-Battle of Brentford

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. After 23 Jun 1016. It was within two nights after that the king (age 26) went over at Brentford [Map]; where he fought with the enemy, and put them to flight: but there many of the English were drowned, from their own carelessness; who went before the main army with a design to plunder. After this the king (age 26) went into Wessex, and collected his army; but the enemy soon returned to London, and beset the city without, and fought strongly against it both by water and land. But the almighty God delivered them.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Battle of Assandun

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 18 Oct 1016. When the king (age 26) understood that the army was up, then collected he the fifth time all the English nation, and went behind them, and overtook them in Essex, on the down called Assingdon; where they fiercely came together. Then did Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia as he often did before-he first began the flight with the Maisevethians, and so betrayed his natural lord and all the people of England. There had Knute (age 21) the victory, though all England fought against him! There was then slain Bishop Ednoth, and Abbot Wulsy, and Alderman Elfric, and Alderman Godwin of Lindsey, and Ulfkytel of East-Anglia, and Ethelward, the son of Alderman Ethelsy59. And all the nobility of the English nation was there undone! After this fight went King Knute (age 21) up with his army into Glocestershire, where he heard say that King Edmund (age 26) was. Then advised Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, and the counsellors that were there assembled, that the kings should make peace with each other, and produce hostages. Then both the kings met together at Olney, Buckinghamshire [Map], south of Deerhurst, and became allies and sworn brothers. There they confirmed their friendship both with pledges and with oaths, and settled the pay of the army. With this covenant they parted: King Edmund (age 26) took to Wessex, and Knute (age 21) to Mercia and the northern district. The army then went to their ships with the things they had taken; and the people of London made peace with them, and purchased their security, whereupon they brought their ships to London, and provided themselves winter-quarters therein.

Note 59. There is a marked difference respecting the name of this alderman in MSS. Some have Ethelsy, as above; others, Elfwine, and Ethelwine. The two last may be reconciled, as the name in either case would now be Elwin; but Ethelsy, and Elsy are widely different. Florence of Worcester not only supports the authority of Ethelwine, but explains it "Dei amici."

On 18 Oct 1016 Battle of Assandun was fought between the Danish army of King Canute of England (age 21) and the English army commanded by King Edmund "Ironside" I of England (age 26) who was defeated. Following the battle King Edmund "Ironside" I of England (age 26) was compelled to agree to King Canute of England (age 21) reigning over all Engliand except Wessex, and to mutual succession ie one will succeed whoever dies first.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Death of King Edmund Ironside

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. On the feast of St. Andrew died King Edmund (age 26); and he is buried with his grandfather Edgar at Glastonbury [Map]. In the same year died Wulfgar, Abbot of Abingdon; and Ethelsy took to the abbacy.

On 30 Nov 1016 King Edmund "Ironside" I of England (age 26) died. The cause of death is unknown. Some chroniclers describe murder, some describe wounds from battle. He was buried near his grandfather King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England in Glastonbury Abbey [Map].

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Marriage of Canute and Emma of Normandy

Around Aug 1017 King Canute of England (age 22) and Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 32) were married. She the daughter of Richard "Fearless" Normandy I Duke Normandy and Gunnora Countess Ponthieu. He the son of Sweyn "Forkbeard" King Denmark King Norway King England.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Coronation of Cnut

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Battle of Carham aka Coldstream

In 1018 the Battle of Carham aka Coldstream was fought between the combined forces Malcolm I King Alba and Owen "The Bald" Strathclyde against Eadwulf Cudel Northumbria Earl Bernicia who was defeated. The outcome of the battle was to fix the Scottish border at the River Tweed.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Battle of Helgeå

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1026. This year went King Knute (age 31) to Denmark with a fleet to the holm by the holy river; where against him came Ulf and Eglaf, with a very large force both by land and sea, from Sweden. There were very many men lost on the side of King Knute (age 31), both of Danish and English; and the Swedes had possession of the field of battle.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Battle of Stiklestad

In 1030 King Olaf "Stout" II of Norway (age 35) was killed at Stiklestad during the Battle of Stiklestad.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Death of Canute

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1035. This year died King Knute (age 40) at Shaftesbury, Dorset, on the second day before the ides of November; and he is buried at Winchester Old Minster in the old minster. He was king over all England very near twenty winters. Soon after his decease, there was a council of all the nobles at Oxford; wherein Earl Leofric, and almost all the thanes north of the Thames, and the naval men in London, chose Harold (age 19) to be governor of all England, for himself and his brother Hardacnute (age 17), who was in Denmark. Earl Godwin (age 34), and all the eldest men in Wessex, withstood it as long as they could; but they could do nothing against it. It was then resolved that Elfgiva (age 45), the mother of Hardacnute (age 19) [Note. Aelfgifu Northumbria (age 45) is the mother of Harold "Harefoot" King England (age 19), Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 50) is the mother of King Harthacnut of Denmark and England (age 17)], should remain at Winchester with the household of the king her son. They held all Wessex in hand, and Earl Godwin (age 34) was their chief man. Some men said of Harold (age 19), that he was the son of King Knute (age 40) and of Elfgive (age 45) the daughter of Alderman Elfelm; but it was thought very incredible by many men. He was, nevertheless, full king over all England. Harold himself said that he was the son of Knute and of Elfgive (age 45) the Hampshire lady; though it was not true; but he sent and ordered to be taken from her all the best treasure that she could not hold, which King Knute possessed; and she nevertheless abode there continually within the city as long as she could.

John of Worcester. 1035. Canute (age 40), king of England, before his death, gave the kingdom of Norway to Sweyn (age 19), who was reported to be his son by Elfgiva of Northampton (age 45) [Note. Possibly a mistake for Northumberland?], the daughter of Alfhelm the ealdorman, and the noble lady Wulfruna. Some, however, asserted that this Elfgiva desired to have a son by the king (age 40), but as she could not, she caused the new-born child of a certain priest to be brought to her, and made the king (age 40) fully believe that she had just borne him a son. He also gave the kingdom of Denmark to Hardicanute (age 17), his son by the queen Elfgiva (age 50). Afterwards, the same year, he departed this life at Shaftesbury on Wednesday, the second of the ides [the 12th] of November; but he was buried at Winchester in the Old Minster, with due honours. After his burial the queen Elfgiva (age 50) took up her abode there. Harold (age 19) also said that he was the son of king Canute (age 40) and Elfgiva of Northampton (age 50), although that is far from certain; for some say that he was the son of a cobbler, and that Elfgiva (age 50) had acted with regard to him as she had done in the case of Sweyn: for our part, as there are doubts on the subject, we cannot settle with any certainty the parentage of either. Harold (age 19), however, assuming the royal dignity, sent his guards in the utmost haste to Winchester, and tyrannically seized the largest and best part of the treasure and wealth which king Canute (age 40) had bequeathed to queen Elfgiva (age 50), and having thus robbed her, permitted her to continue her residence at Winchester. He then, with the consent of many of the higher orders of England, began to reign as though he was the lawful heir; but he had not the same power as Canute (age 40), because the arrival of Hardicanute (age 17), the more rightful heir, was looked for. Hence, shortly afterwards, the kingdom was divided by lot, Harold (age 19) getting the northern, and Hardicanute (age 17) the southern portion.

On 12 Nov 1035 King Canute of England (age 40) died at Shaftesbury, Dorset. His son Harold "Harefoot" King England (age 19) succeeded King England.

Harold "Harefoot" King England (age 19) succeeded King England.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Murder of Aelfred Ætheling Wessex by Godwinson

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1036. This year came hither Alfred the innocent etheling (age 31), son of King Ethelred, and wished to visit his mother (age 51), who abode at Winchester: but Earl Godwin (age 35), and other men who had much power in this land, did not suffer it; because such conduct was very agreeable to Harold (age 20), though it was unjust.

Him did Godwin let, and in prison set. His friends, who did not fly, they slew promiscuously. And those they did not sell, like slaughter'd cattle fell! Whilst some they spared to bind, only to wander blind! Some ham-strung, helpless stood, whilst others they pursued. A deed more dreary none in this our land was done, since Englishmen gave place to hordes of Danish race. But repose we must in God our trust, that blithe as day with Christ live they, who guiltless died- their country's pride! The prince with courage met each cruel evil yet; till 'twas decreed, they should him lead, all bound, as he was then, to Ely-bury fen. But soon their royal prize bereft they of his eyes! Then to the monks they brought their captive; where he sought a refuge from his foes till life's sad evening close. His body ordered then these good and holy men, according to his worth, low in the sacred earth, to the steeple full-nigh, in the south aile to lie of the transept west- his soul with Christ doth rest.

John of Worcester. 1036. At the same tune he dispersed some of his attendants, others he put in fetters and afterwards deprived of their sight, some he scalped and tortured, amputated their hands and feet and heavily mulcted: many he ordered to be sold, and put to death six hundred of them at Guildford, Surrey [Map] with various torments: but we trust that the souls of those, who, guilty of no crime, had their bodies so cruelly slaughtered in the fields, are now rejoicing with the saints in paradise. On hearing of this, queen Elgiva (age 51) sent back her son Edward (age 33), who had remained with her, in all haste to Normandy. Then, by order of Godwin (age 35) and others, Alfred (age 31) was conducted, heavily chained, to the Isle of Ely [Map]; but as soon as the ship touched the land, his eyes were most barbarously plucked out while he was on board, and in this state he was taken to the monastery [Map] and handed over to the custody of the monks. There he shortly afterwards died, and his body was buried, with due honours, in the south porch at the west end of the church [Map]; but his spirit is in the enjoyment of the delights of paradise.

In 1036 Ælfred Ætheling Wessex (age 31) returned to England where he and his men were met by Godwin Godwinson 1st Earl Kent and Wessex (age 35) at Guildford, Surrey [Map]; ostensibly friendly. The following day, however, Godwin Godwinson 1st Earl Kent, Earl Wessex 1001-1053's men attacked Aelfred's (age 31) men murdering most of them. Aelfred (age 31) was taken to Ely [Map] where he was blinded and died shortly thereafter.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Battle of Rhyd y Groes

John of Worcester. 1039. Brihtmar, bishop of Lichfield, died, and was succeeded by Wulfsy. The Welsh slew [Battle of Rhyd y Groes] Edwin, earl Leofric's brother, with Turkill and Ælfgeat, son of Eatsy, two noble king's thanes, and many others at the same time. Hardicanute (age 21), king of Denmark, sailed to Flanders, on a visit to his mother, Elfgiva (age 54).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 05 Mar 1039. The Welsh slew Edwin, brother of Earl Leofric, and Thurkil, and Elfget, and many good men with them.

05 Mar 1039 at the battle of Battle of Rhyd y groes Edwine Mercia was killed by the Welsh.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Battle of Seignelay

On 29 May 1040 Renauld I Count of Nevers (age 35) was killed at the Battle of Seignelay against Robert I Duke Burgundy (age 29). His son William I of Nevers (age 10) succeeded Count Nevers.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Death of King Harthacnut

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 08 Jun 1042. This year died King Hardacnute (age 24) at Lambeth, as he stood drinking: he fell suddenly to the earth with a tremendous struggle; but those who were nigh at hand took him up; and he spoke not a word afterwards, but expired on the sixth day before the ides of June. He was king over all England two years wanting ten nights; and he is buried in the old minster at Winchester with King Knute his father. And his mother for his soul gave to the new minster the head of St. Valentine the Martyr: and ere he was buried all people chose Edward (age 39) for king in London. And they received him as their king, as was natural; and he reigned as long as God granted him. All that year was the season very severe in many and various respects: both from the inclemency of the weather, and the loss of the fruits of the earth. More cattle died this year than any man ever remembered, either from various diseases, or from the severity of the weather. At this same time died Elfsinus, Abbot of Peterborough; and they chose Arnwy, a monk, for their abbot; because he was a very good and benevolent man.

John of Worcester. 1042. Hardicanute (age 24), king of England, while he was present at a joyous feast given at a place called Lambeth, Surrey [Map], by Osgod Clapa, a man of great wealth, on occasion of his giving the hand of his daughter Githa in marriage to Tovi, surnamed Prudan, a noble and powerful Dane,—and carousing, full of health and merriment, with the bride and some others, fell down, by a sad mischance, while in the act of drinking, and continued speechless until Tuesday the sixth of the ides [the 8th] of June, when he expired. He was carried to Winchester and buried near his father Canute. His brother Edward (age 39) was proclaimed king at London, chiefly by the exertions of earl Godwin (age 41), and Living, bishop of Worcester. Edward (age 39) was the son of Ethelred, who was the son of Edgar, who was the son of Edmund, who was the son of Edward the Elder, who was the son of Alfred.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Marriage of Edward "The Confessor" and Edith of Wessex

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 23 Jan 1045. In the same year also King Edward (age 42) took to wife Edgitha (age 19), the daughter of Earl Godwin (age 44), ten nights before Candlemas.

On 23 Jan 1045 King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 42) and Edith of Wessex Queen Consort England (age 19) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 23 years. She the daughter of Godwin Godwinson 1st Earl Kent and Wessex (age 44) and Gytha Estrigen Countess Kent and Wessex. He the son of King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 60).

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Coronation of Edward the Confessor

John of Worcester. 1043. Edward (age 40) was anointed king at Winchester on the first day of Easter, being the third of the nones [the 3rd] of April, by Eadsige, archbishop of Canterbury, Jilric, archbishop of York, and nearly all the bishops of England. In the same year, fourteen days before the feast-day of St. Andrew the apostle [16th November], the king went suddenly and unexpectedly from the city of Gloucester to Winchester, accompanied by the earls Godwin (age 42), Leofric, and Siward (age 33); and by their advice took from his mother (age 58) all the gold, silver, jewels, precious stones, and other valuables she possessed, because she had been less liberal to him than he expected, and had treated him harshly both before and after he was king. Notwithstanding, he gave orders for her being supplied with all necessaries, and ordered her to remain there quiet.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 03 Apr 1043. This year was Edward (age 40) consecrated king at Winchester [Map], early on Easter-day, with much pomp. Then was Easter on the third day before the nones of April. Archbishop Edsy consecrated him, and before all people well admonished him. And Stigand the priest was consecrated bishop over the East Angles. And this year, fourteen nights before the mass of St. Andrew, it was advised the king, that he and Earl Leofric and Earl Godwin (age 42) and Earl Siward (age 33) with their retinue, should ride from Gloucester to Winchester unawares upon the lady (age 58); and they deprived her of all the treasures that she had; which were immense; because she was formerly very hard upon the king her son, and did less for him than he wished before he was king, and also since: but they suffered her to remain there afterwards. And soon after this the king determined to invest all the land that his mother (age 58) had in her hands, and took from her all that she had in gold and in silver and in numberless things; because she formerly held it too fast against him. Soon after this Stigand was deprived of his bishopric; and they took all that he had into their hands for the king, because he was highest the counsel of his mother; and she acted as he advised, as men supposed.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1000-1049 Cnut, Battle of Val ès Dunes

In 1047 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 19), supported by King Henry I of France (age 38), defeated a rebel army led by William's (age 19) cousin Guy Ivrea (age 22) who opposed William's (age 19) succession as Duke of Normandy at the Battle of Val ès Dunes in Caen, Calvados, Basse Normandie.

Hamon Dentatus was killed.

Council of Reims

In 1049 Enguerrand Ponthieu II Count Ponthieu was excommunicated for his marriage Adelaide Normandy Countess Troyes and Meaux Champagne Aumale Ponthieu (age 19) being consanguineous during the Council of Reims.

In 1049 Reims Cathedral was consecrated. Pope Leo XI was accepted the invitation to attend and announced the Council of Reims was to be held concurrent with consecration. During the course of the Council Geoffrey "Martel aka Hammer" Ingelger II Count Anjou was excommunicated for the imprisonment of Gervais Chateau Du Loir Archbishop Reims (age 42).

In 1148 Bishop Gilbert Foliot attended the Council of Reims.

Before 1200. Choir Aisle at Hereford Cathedral [Map] left to right ...

In 1198 Bishop William de Vere died.

On 09 May 1186 Bishop Gilbert Foliot died.

On 16 Apr 1148 Bishop Robert de Bethune died in Reims just after the closure of the Council of Reims. His remains were brought to Hereford Cathedral [Map] where he was buried. See Chronicle of Wigmore.

On 27 Feb 1167 Bishop Robert Melun (age 67) died.