1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship

1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship is in 12th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, Death of William Rufus Accession of Henry I

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 02 Aug 1100. And thereafter on the morning after Lammas day was the King William (age 44) shot in hunting, by an arrow from his own men, and afterwards brought to Winchester, Hampshire [Map], and buried in the cathedral.130 This was in the thirteenth year after that he assumed the government. He was very harsh and severe over his land and his men, and with all his neighbours; and very formidable; and through the counsels of evil men, that to him were always agreeable, and through his own avarice, he was ever tiring this nation with an army, and with unjust contributions. For in his days all right fell to the ground, and every wrong rose up before God and before the world. God's church he humbled; and all the bishoprics and abbacies, whose elders fell in his days, he either sold in fee, or held in his own hands, and let for a certain sum; because he would be the heir of every man, both of the clergy and laity; so that on the day that he fell he had in his own hand the archbishopric of Canterbury, with the bishopric of Winchester, and that of Salisbury, and eleven abbacies, all let for a sum; and (though I may be tedious) all that was loathsome to God and righteous men, all that was customary in this land in his time. And for this he was loathed by nearly all his people, and odious to God, as his end testified:-for he departed in the midst of his unrighteousness, without any power of repentance or recompense for his deeds. On the Thursday he was slain; and in the morning afterwards buried; and after he was buried, the statesmen that were then nigh at hand, chose his brother Henry (age 32) to king. And he immediately131 gave the bishopric of Winchester to William Giffard; and afterwards went to London; and on the Sunday following, before the altar at Westminster, he promised God and all the people, to annul all the unrighteous acts that took place in his brother's time, and to maintain the best laws that were valid in any king's day before him.

Note 130. His monument is still to be seen there, a plain gravestone of black marble, of the common shape called "dos d'ane"; such as are now frequently seen, though of inferior materials, in the churchyards of villages; and are only one remove from the grassy sod.

Note 131. i.e. before he left Winchester for London; literally "there-right"-an expression still used in many parts of England. Neither does the word "directly", which in its turn has almost become too vulgar to be used, nor its substitute, "immediately", which has nearly superseded it, appear to answer the purpose so well as the Saxon, which is equally expressive with the French "sur le champ".

The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy by Orderic Vitalis 1100. 02 Aug 1100. The morning1 of the day following, King William, having dined with his minions, prepared, after the meal was ended, to go forth and hunt in the New Forest. Being in great spirits he was joking with his attendants while his boots were being laced, when an armourer came and presented to him six arrows. The king immediately took them with great satisfaction, praising the work, and unconscious of what was to happen, kept four of them himself and held out the other two to Walter Tirel.2 " It is but right, " he said, " that the sharpest arrows should be given to him who knows best how to inflict mortal wounds with them. " This Tirel was a French knight of good extraction, the wealthy lord of the castles of Poix and Pontoise, filling a high place among the nobles, and a gallant soldier; he was therefore admitted to familiar intimacy with the king, and became his constant companion. Meanwhile, while they were idly talking on various subjects, and the king's household attendants were assembled about him, a monk of Gloucester presented himself and delivered to the king a letter from his abbot. Having read it, the king burst out laughing, and said merrily to the knight just mentioned, " Walter, do what I told you. " The knight replied, " I will, my lord. " Slighting then the warnings of the elders, and forgetting that the heart is lifted up before a fall, he said respecting the letter he had received, " I wonder what has induced my lord Serlo to write to me in this strain, for I really believe he is a worthy abbot and respectable old man. In the simplicity of his heart, he transmits to me, who have enough besides to attend to, the dreams of his snoring monks, and even takes the trouble to commit them to writing, and send them a long distance. Does he think that I follow the example of the English, who will defer their journey or their business on account of the dreams of a parcel of wheezing old women? "

Note 1. Wednesday, August 1, 1100. Malmesbury, whom we have just quoted, tells us that the king did not go out to hunt till after dinner, but that was an early meal in those days.

Note 2. Walter Tirel, lord of Poix ( Somme ), and keeper of the castle of Pontoise.

William of Malmesbury Book 8 Chapter 6. 02 Aug 1100. The day before the king (age 44) died, he dreamed that he was let blood by a surgeon; and that the stream, reaching to heaven, clouded the light, and intercepted the day. Calling on St. Mary for protection, he suddenly awoke, commanded a light to be brought, and forbade his attendants to leave him. They then watched with him several hours until daylight. Shortly after, just as the day began to dawn, a certain foreign monk told Robert Fitz Hamon, one of the principal nobility, that he had that night dreamed a strange and fearful dream about the king: "That he had come into a certain church, with menacing and insolent gesture, as was his custom, looking contemptuously on the standers by; then violently seizing the crucifix, he gnawed the arms, and almost tore away the legs: that the image endured this for a long time, but at length struck the king with its foot in such a manner that he fell backwards: from his mouth, as he lay prostrate, issued so copious a flame that the volumes of smoke touched the very stars." Robert, thinking that this dream ought not to be neglected, as he was intimate with him, immediately related it to the king. William, repeatedly laughing, exclaimed, "He is a monk, and dreams for money like a monk: give him a hundred shillings." Nevertheless, being greatly moved, he hesitated a long while whether he should go out to hunt, as he had designed: his friends persuading him not to suffer the truth of the dreams to be tried at his personal risk. In consequence, he abstained from the chase before dinner, dispelling the uneasiness of his unregulated mind by serious business. They relate, that, having plentifully regaled that day, he soothed his cares with a more than usual quantity of wine. After dinner he went into the forest, attended by few persons; of whom the most intimate with him was Walter, surnamed Tirel, who had been induced to come from France by the liberality of the king. This man alone had remained with him, while the others, employed in the chase, were dispersed as chance directed. The sun was now declining, when the king, drawing his bow and letting fly an arrow, slightly wounded a stag which passed before him; and, keenly gazing, followed it, still running, a long time with his eyes, holding up his hand to keep off the power of the sun's rays. At this instant Walter, conceiving a noble exploit, which was while the king's attention was otherwise occupied to transfix another stag which by chance came near him, unknowingly, and without power to prevent it. Oh, gracious God! pierced his breast with a fatal arrow.1 On receiving the wound, the king uttered not a word; but breaking off the shaft of the weapon where it projected from his body, fell upon the wound, by which he accelerated his death. Walter immediately ran up, but as he found him senseless and speechless, he leaped swiftly upon liis horse, and escaped by spurring him to his utmost speed. Indeed there was none to pursue him: some connived at his flight; others pitied him; and all were intent on other matters. Some began to fortify their dwellings; others to plunder; and the rest to look out for a new king. A few countrymen conveyed the body, placed on a cart, to the cathedral at Winchester; the blood dripping from it all the way. Here it was committed to the ground within the tower, attended by many of the nobility, though lamented by few.

Note 1. "The tradition of William having met his death by the hand of Sir Walter Tirel, whilst hunting in the New Forest, is generally received; but Suger, a contemporary historian, and, as it seems, a friend of Tirel, in his Life of Louis le Gros, king of France, alluding to the death of Rufus, observes, 'Imponebatur a quibusdam cuidam nobili Gualtero Tirello quod eum sagitta perfoderat: quem, cum nec timeret nec speraret, jurejurando sæpius audivimus quasi sacrosanctum asserere, quod ea die nec in eam partem silvæ, in qua rex venebatur, venerit, nec eum in silva omnino viderit. See also Edmer, Hist, Nov. p. 54, and Ord. Vit. Hist. Eccles. lib. x. p. 783."— Hardy.

Translation: It was imposed by some on a certain nobleman, Walter Tirellus, that he had pierced him with an arrow, whom he neither feared nor hoped for, we have often heard him swearing, as if it were sacrosanct, that he did not go to that part of the forest on that day, in which the king was being hunted, he came, and did not see him at all in the forest.

On 02 Aug 1100 William "Rufus" II King England (age 44) was killed whilst hunting, not known whether accidentally or otherwise, in the New Forest, Hampshire. His brother King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 32) succeeded I King England. The brothers Robert Beaumont 1st Earl of Leicester Count Meulan (age 60) and Henry Beaumont 1st Earl Warwick (age 50), and Roger de Clare (age 34) and Gilbert de Clare (age 34) were present.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, Coronation of Henry I

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1100. And after this the Bishop of London, Maurice, consecrated him king (age 32); and all in this land submitted to him, and swore oaths, and became his men. And the king (age 32), soon after this, by the advice of those that were about him, allowed men to take the Bishop Ranulf of Durham (age 40), and bring him into the Tower of London [Map], and hold him there.

On 05 Aug 1100 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 32) was crowned I King England by Bishop Maurice at Westminster Abbey [Map].

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, Marriage of Henry I and Matilda

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1100. Then, before Michaelmas, came the Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury (age 67) hither to this land; as the King Henry (age 32), by the advice of his ministers had sent after him, because he had gone out of this land for the great wrongs that the King William (age 44) did unto him. And soon hereafter the king (age 32) took him to wife Maud (age 20), daughter of Malcolm, King of Scotland, and of Margaret the good queen, the relative of King Edward, and of the right royal132 race of England. And on Martinmas day she was publicly given to him with much pomp at Westminster, and the Archbishop Anselm (age 67) wedded her to him, and afterwards consecrated her queen. And the Archbishop Thomas of York soon hereafter died.

Note 132. This expression shows the adherence of the writer to the Saxon line of kings, and his consequent satisfaction in recording this alliance of Henry with the daughter of Margaret of Scotland.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, Christmas Court

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1101. In this year at Christmas held the King Henry (age 33) his court in Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester, Hampshire [Map]. And soon thereafter were the chief men in this land in a conspiracy against the king (age 33); partly from their own great infidelity, and also through the Earl Robert (age 50) of Normandy, who with hostility aspired to the invasion of this land.

In Dec 1101 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 33) hosted his at Christmas Court at Westminster Palace [Map]. Gilbert de Clare (age 35) attended.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, Treaty of Alton

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Jun 1101. Then at midsummer went the king (age 33) out to Pevensey [Map] with all his force against his brother (age 50), and there awaited him. But in the meantime came the Earl Robert (age 50) up at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] twelve nights before Lammas; and the king (age 33) with all his force came against him. But the chief men interceded between them, and settled the brothers on the condition, "that the king (age 33) should forego all that he held by main strength in Normandy against the earl (age 50); and that all then in England should have their lands again, who had lost it before through the earl (age 50), and Earl Eustace also all his patrimony in this land; and that the Earl Robert (age 50) every year should receive from England three thousand marks of silver; and particularly, that whichever of the brothers should survive the other, he should be heir of all England and also of Normandy, except the deceased left an heir by lawful wedlock." And this twelve men of the highest rank on either side then confirmed with an oath. And the earl (age 50) afterwards remained in this land till after Michaelmas; and his men did much harm wherever they went, the while that the earl continued in this land.

After 25 Jul 1101 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 33) and Robert Curthose III Duke Normandy (age 50), brothers, both sons of King William "Conqueror" I of England, signed the Treaty of Alton at Alton, Hampshire by which Robert Curthose III Duke Normandy (age 50) agreed to renounce his claim to the English throne in exchange for a yearly stipend and other concessions.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, Battle of Tinchebray

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1106. After this, and before August, went the king (age 38) over sea into Normandy; and almost all that were in that land submitted to his will, except Robert de Belesme (age 50) and the Earl of Moretaine (age 22), and a few others of the principal persons who yet held with the Earl of Normandy (age 55). For this reason the king (age 38) afterwards advanced with an army, and beset a castle of the Earl of Moretaine (age 22), called Tenerchebrai.136 Whilst the king (age 38) beset the castle, came the Earl Robert (age 55) of Normandy on Michaelmas eve against the king (age 38) with his army, and with him Robert of Belesme (age 50), and William, Earl of Moretaine (age 22), and all that would be with them; but the strength and the victory were the king's (age 38). There was the Earl of Normandy (age 55) taken, and the Earl of Moretaine (age 22), and Robert of Stutteville, and afterwards sent to England, and put into custody. Robert of Belesme (age 50) was there put to flight, and William Crispin was taken, and many others forthwith. Edgar Etheling (age 55), who a little before had gone over from the king (age 38) to the earl, was also there taken, whom the king (age 38) afterwards let go unpunished. Then went the king (age 38) over all that was in Normandy, and settled it according to his will and discretion.

Note 136. Now Tinchebrai.

On 28 Sep 1106 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 38) defeated his older brother Robert Curthose III Duke Normandy (age 55) at the Battle of Tinchebray at Tinchebray, Orne.

William Warenne 2nd Earl of Surrey and Robert Beaumont 1st Earl of Leicester Count Meulan (age 66). Elias La Flèche De Baugency I Count Maine commanded the reserve. The following fought for Henry:

William "Brito aka Breton" D'Aubigny (age 20).

Alan Canhiart IV Duke Brittany (age 43).

Raoul Tosny (age 26).

William "Pincerna aka Butler" D'Aubigny (age 42).

Robert Grandesmil (age 28), and.

William Normandy I Count Évreux.

Robert Curthose III Duke Normandy (age 55) was captured and spent the next twenty-eight years in prison; never released.

William Mortain Count Mortain 2nd Earl Cornwall (age 22) was also captured. He spent the next thirty or more years in prison before becoming a monk. Earl Cornwall forfeit.

Edgar Ætheling II King England (age 55) was captured and subsequently released; Henry had married to Edgar's niece Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England (age 26) in 1100.

Robert II Belleme 2nd Count Ponthieu 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 50) escaped.

Robert Stuteville was captured.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, King Edgar of Scotland Dies King Alexander I Succeeds

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1107. This year died Maurice, Bishop of London, and Robert, Abbot of St. Edmund's bury, and Richard, Abbot of Ely. This year also died the King Edgar in Scotland (age 33), on the ides of January, and Alexander (age 29) his brother succeeded to the kingdom, as the King Henry (age 39) granted him.

On 08 Jan 1107 Edgar "The Valiant" I King Scotland (age 33) died. His brother Alexander "Fierce" I King Scotland (age 29) succeeded I King Scotland.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, King Philip of France Dies Accession of Louis VI

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1108. In this year was the King Henry (age 40) on the Nativity at Westminster, and at Easter at Winchester, and by Pentecost at Westminster again. After this, before August, he went into Normandy. And Philip, the King of France (age 55), died on the nones of August, and his son Louis (age 26) succeeded to the kingdom. And there were afterwards many struggles between the King of France (age 26) and the King of England (age 40), while the latter remained in Normandy.

On 30 Jul 1108 Philip "Amorous" I King France (age 56) died. His son Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 26) succeeded VI King France: Capet.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, Battle of Bures-en-Bray

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1119. In this same year died the Pope Gelasius, on this side of the Alps, and was buried at Clugny. And after him the Archbishop of Vienna was chosen pope, whose name was Calixtus. He afterwards, on the festival of St. Luke the Evangelist, came into France to Rheims, and there held a council. And the Archbishop Turstin of York went thither; and, because that he against right, and against the archiepiscopal stall in Canterbury, and against the king's (age 51) will, received his hood at the hands of the pope, the king (age 51) interdicted him from all return to England. And thus he lost his archbishopric, and with the pope went towards Rome. In this year also died the Earl Baldwin of Flanders (age 26) of the wounds that he received in Normandy. And after him succeeded to the earldom Charles (age 35), the son of his uncle by the father's side, who was son of Cnute, the holy King of Denmark.

On or before 17 Jul 1119 at the Battle of Bures-en-Bray King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 51) fought against the army of Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 37).

Baldwin VII Count Flanders (age 26) who was killed. His first cousin Charles Estrigen I Count Flanders (age 35) succeeded I Count Flanders. Marguerite Clermont Countess Flanders (age 14) by marriage Countess Flanders.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, Battle of Bremule

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 1119. Wars between Henry and Lewis

War having broke out between Henry, king of England, and Lewis, king of France1, with the count of Anjou and the count of Flanders, king Henry seized an opportunity of making a separate peace with the count of Anjou, receiving his daughter in marriage with his son William, whom he had already declared heir of all his kingdom. The count of Anjou went to Jerusalem. After this, king Henry, with the concurrence of his nobles, made peace with the king of France, on which occasion his son William was invested with Normandy, to be held of the king of France. The king also made peace with his nobles who had unjustly and treasonably revolted against him, and also with the count of Flanders. An earthquake was felt in several parts of England on Sunday, the fourth of the calends of October (28th September), about the third hour of the day.

Note 1. Our author treats very summarily of the wars between the kings Henry and Lewis, which ended in the decisive battle of Bremull or Noyon, fought on the 20th August, 1119. Ordericus gives considerable details of these hostilities in the early chapters of his twelfth book (vol. iii., pp. 446—492, of the edition in the Antiq, Lib.). See also Henry of Huntingdon's History, ibid, pp. 247, 248.

The Chronicle of Henry of Huntingdon 1119. 1119. King Henry, in the fifty-second year after the Normans conquered England, and in the nineteenth year of his reign, fought a great battle with the King of France1. That king placed the first division of his army under the command of William, the son of Eobert, King Henry's brother, supporting him with the main body of his army* On the other side, King Henry posted his [Norman] vassals in the first line; the second, consisting of his household troops, he led himself on horseback; in the third, he placed his sons, with the main body of infantry. At the outset, the first line of the French unhorsed and quickly dispersed the Norman knights. It afterwards attacked the, division which Henry himself commanded, and was itself routed. The troops imder the command of the two kings now met, and the battle raged fiercely; the lances were shivered, and they fought with swords. At this time, William Crispin2 twice struck King Henry on the head, and though his helmet was sword-proof, the violence of the blow forced it a little into the king's fore-head, so that blood gushed forth. The king, however, returned the blow on his assailant with such force, that though his helmet was impenetrable, the horse and its rider were struck to the ground, and the knight was pre sently taken prisoner in the king's presence. Meanwhile, the infantiy, with whom the king's sons were posted, not being yet engaged, but waiting for the signal, levelled their spears, and charged the enemy. Upon which the French were suddenly daunted, and broke their ranks, and fled. King Henry, thus victorious, remained on the field until all file nobles of the defeated araiy were taken prisoners and brought before him. He then retiuned to Eouen, while the bells were ringing, and the clergy were chanting hymns of thanksgiving to the Lord God of hosts. This glorious victory has been thus celebrated in heroic verse:

Where Noyon's tow'rs rise o*er the plain.

And Oise flows onward to the Seine,

Two banner'd hosts in ranks advance:

Here, Lewis leads the powers of France;

Henry of England, there, commands His English and his Norman bands

See his arm the foremost crush.

The island spearmen onward rash;

While the bold chivalry of France

Recoils before the Norman lance;

And mattered oaths reveal their shame,

As they curse the conqueror's name.

So distant ages long shall tell

Of gallant Henry, first to quell

On his own soil the Frenchman's pride,

Where Noyon's field with blood was dyed;

And conq'ring England's mighty son

The spoils and laurell'd trophies won.

Note 1. Henry of Huntingdon omits mentioning in the text of his history where the battle was fought, but the verses which follow supply the name at the place, Noyon. We are indebted to Henry of Huntingdon for a fiill account of this very important and decisive action, of which the Saxon Gbreniele S'ves only a slight notice. Indeed, from this time, or shortly afterwards, enry of Huntingdon assumes the character of an original historian of events contemporary with the period in which he lived.

Note 2. Count of Evreux.

On 20 Aug 1119 at the Battle of Bremule at Gaillardbois Cressenville King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 51) and his son William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy (age 16) defeated the army of Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 37) who had invaded Normandy in support of William Clito Normandy Count Flanders (age 16) who claimed the Duchy of Normandy.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, Sinking of The White Ship

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 1120 and 1121. Shipwreck of king Henry's children. Henry, king of England, having successfully accomplished all his designs, returned from Normandy to England. His son William (age 16), hastening to follow him, embarked in company with a great number of nobles, knights, women, and boys. Having left the harbour and put out to sea, encouraged by the extraordinary calmness of the weather, shortly afterwards the ship in which they were sailing struck on a rock and was wrecked, and all on board were swallowed up by the waves, except one churl, who, as it is reported, was not worthy of being named, but by the wonderful mercy of God, escaped alive. Of those who perished, those of highest rank were, William, the king's son, Richard (age 26), earl of Chester, Othiel, his brother, William Bigod (age 27), Geoffrey Riddel, Walter d'Evereux, Geoffrey, archdeacon of Hereford, the king's daughter, the countess of Perche, the king's niece, the countess of Chester, and many more who are omitted for brevity's sake. This disaster horrified and distressed the mind of the king, who reached England after a safe voyage, and of all who heard of it, and struck them with awe at the mysterious decrees of a just God.

Note 1. Ordericus Vitalis, in his twelfth book, c. xxv., gives a particular account of the shipwreck of the Blanche Nef; which is also mentioned, with more or less detail, by Huntingdon, Malmesbury, and other chroniclers.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 25 Nov 1120. And in this expedition were drowned the king's (age 52) two sons, William (age 17) and Richard (age 19), and Richard, Earl of Chester (age 26), and Ottuel his brother, and very many of the king's (age 52) household, stewards, and chamberlains, and butlers, and men of various abodes; and with them a countless multidude of very incomparable folk besides. Sore was their death to their friends in a twofold respect: one, that they so suddenly lost this life; the other, that few of their bodies were found anywhere afterwards.

On 25 Nov 1120 the White Ship left Barfleur, Basse Normandie, with a party of young Normans. King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 52) had left earlier on another ship. A mile out the White Ship foundered on a submerged rock. William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy (age 17), his half-siblings Richard Fitzroy (age 19) and Matilda Fitzroy Countess Perche, William Bigod (age 27), Lucia Mahaut Blois Countess Chester, brothers Geoffrey Aigle and Engenulf Aigle, half-brothers Richard Avranches 2nd Earl Chester (age 26) and Ottiwel Avranches, brothers Ivo Grandesmil and William Grandesmil and Geoffrey Ridel were all drowned.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, Marriage of King Henry I and Adeliza of Louvain

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 29 Jan 1121. On the fourth of the calends of February the maiden (age 18) already mentioned as selected for queen was married to the king (age 53) by William, bishop of Winchester, at the command of Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury; and on the following day, the third of the calends of February (30th January), she was consecrated and crowned as queen by the archbishop in person.

Note. Some sources say 24 Jan 1121.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, 1122 Burning of Gloucester

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 08 Mar 1122. And in the Lent-tide before that, the town of Glocester [Map] was on fire: the while that the monks were singing their mass, and the deacon had begun the gospel, "Praeteriens Jesus", at that very moment came the fire from the upper part of the steeple, and burned all the minster, and all the treasures that were there within; except a few books, and three mass-hackles. That was on the eighth day before the ides of Marcia.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, 1123 Burning of Lincoln

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 19 May 1123. This same year, ere the Bishop of Lincoln came to his bishopric, almost all the borough of Lincoln was burned, and numberless folks, men and women, were consumed: and so much harm was there done as no man could describe to another. That was on the fourteenth day before the calends of June.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, 1124 Battle of Bourgtheroulde

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 26 Mar 1124. All this year was the King Henry (age 56) in Normandy. That was for the great hostility that he had with the King Louis of France (age 42), and with the Earl of Anjou (age 35), and most of all with his own men. Then it happened, on the day of the Annunciation of St. Mary, that the Earl Waleram of Mellent (age 20) went from one of his castles called Belmont to another called Watteville. With him went the steward of the King of France, Amalric, and Hugh (age 26) the son of Gervase (age 54), and Hugh of Montfort (age 49), and many other good knights. Then came against them the king's (age 56) knights from all the castles that were thereabout, and fought with them, and put them to flight, and took the Earl Waleram (age 20), and Hugh, the son of Gervase (age 26), and Hugh of Montfort (age 49), and five and twenty other knights, and brought them to the king (age 56). And the king (age 56) committed the Earl Waleram (age 20), and Hugh, the son of Gervase (age 26), to close custody in the castle at Rouen; but Hugh of Montfort (age 49) he sent to England, and ordered him to be secured with strong bonds in the castle at Glocester [Map]. And of the others as many as he chose he sent north and south to his castles in captivity.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, 1127 Oath of Allegiance to Empress Matilda

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 1127. Fealty sworn to the empress Matilda. As soon as the feast days [of Christmas] were over, the king (age 59) went to London, attended by all the men of rank in the realm who had flocked to his court, and there, by the king's command, William (age 57), the archbishop and legate of the see of Rome, and all the other bishops of England, and the nobles of the land, swore fealty to the king's daughter (age 24); engaging to defend her right to the crown of England, if she should survive her father, against all opposers, unless he should yet before his death beget a son in lawful wedlock, to become his successor. On the death of the emperor Henry, who had lived in marriage with her many years, without leaving children, she had returned to her father's court, where she was surrounded with all the honours becoming her station. The king, therefore, having lost his son William in the manner already described, and there being as yet no other direct heir to the kingdom, for that reason made over the right to the crown to his daughter, under the provisoe just mentioned.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1127. This year held the King Henry (age 59) his court at Christmas in Windsor. There was David the king of the Scots (age 43), and all the head men that were in England, learned and lewd. And there he engaged the archbishops, and bishops, and abbots, and earls, and all the thanes that were there, to swear England and Normandy [Map] after his day into the hands of his daughter Athelicia (age 24), who was formerly the wife of the Emperor of Saxony. Afterwards he sent her to Normandy; and with her went her brother Robert, Earl of Glocester (age 28), and Brian, son of the Earl Alan Fergan (age 27);154 and he let her wed the son (age 13) of the Earl of Anjou (age 38), whose name was Geoffry Martel (age 13). All the French and English, however, disapproved of this; but the king (age 59) did it for to have the alliance of the Earl of Anjou (age 38), and for to have help against his nephew William (age 24).

Note 154. See an account of him in "Ord. Vit." 544. Conan, another son of this Alan, Earl of Brittany, married a daughter of Henry I.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, 1127 Murder of Charles Count of Flanders

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 02 Mar 1127. In the Lent-tide of this same year was the Earl Charles of Flanders (age 43) slain in a church, as he lay there and prayed to God, before the altar, in the midst of the mass, by his own men.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, 1128 Death of William Clito

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 27 Jul 1128. William (age 25), count of Flanders, surnamed The Sad, falling into an ambush, was wounded by his enemies, and, his sufferings increasing, died, amidst universal lamentations, on the sixth of the calends of August [27th July], and was buried at St. Bertin.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 27 Jul 1128. All this year was the King Henry (age 60) in Normandy, on account of the hostility that was between him and his nephew (age 25), the Earl of Flanders. But the earl was wounded in a fight by a swain; and so wounded he went to the monastery of St. Bertin; where he soon became a monk, lived five days afterwards, then died, and was there buried. God honour his soul. That was on the sixth day before the calends of August.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1100-1129 Henry I and the White Ship, 1129 Papal Schism

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1129. This same year died Pope Honorius. Ere he was well dead, there were chosen two popes. The one was named Peter, who was monk of Clugny, and was born of the richest men of Rome; and with him held those of Rome, and the Duke of Sicily. The other was Gregory: he was a clerk, and was driven out of Rome by the other pope, and by his kinsmen. With him held the Emperor of Saxony, and the King of France (age 47), and the King Henry (age 61) of England, and all those on this side of the Alps. Now was there such division in Christendom as never was before. May Christ consult for his wretched folk.