2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy

1130-1154 Anarchy is in 12th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Death of King Henry I

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1135. In this year went the King Henry (age 67) over sea at the Lammas; and the next day, as he lay asleep on ship, the day darkened over all lands, and the sun was all as it were a three night old moon, and the stars about him at midday. Men were very much astonished and terrified, and said that a great event should come hereafter. So it did; for that same year was the king (age 67) dead, the next day after St. Andrew's mass-day, in Normandy. Then was there soon tribulation in the land; for every man that might, soon robbed another. Then his sons and his friends took his body, and brought it to England, and buried it at Reading. A good man he was; and there was great dread of him. No man durst do wrong with another in his time. Peace he made for man and beast. Whoso bare his burthen of gold and silver, durst no man say ought to him but good. Meanwhile was his nephew come to England, Stephen de Blois (age 41). He came to London, and the people of London received him, and sent after the Archbishop William Curboil, and hallowed him to king (age 41) on midwinter day. In this king's (age 41) time was all dissention, and evil, and rapine; for against him rose soon the rich men who were traitors; and first of all Baldwin de Redvers, who held Exeter, Devon [Map] against him. But the king (age 41) beset it; and afterwards Baldwin accorded. Then took the others, and held their castles against him; and David, King of Scotland (age 51), took to Wessington against him. Nevertheless their messengers passed between them; and they came together, and were settled, but it availed little.

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 01 Dec 1135. Henry, king of England (age 67), died on the fourth of the nones [the 20th] of December [Note. Other sources say 01 Dec 1135? The nones of December is the 5th so the fourth of the nones is the 1st?], in the sixty-ninth year of his age, after a reign of thirty-five years and four months;

On 01 Dec 1135 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 67) died. The succession fell between Henrys daughter Empress Matilda (age 33) and Henry's nephew King Stephen I England (age 41), son of Adela Normandy Countess Blois (age 68) daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England. The period from 1135 to 1153 during which the succession was fought over is known as The Anarchy.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Coronation of King Stephen

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 20 Dec 1135. ... and Stephen (age 41), his sister's son, being elected to the kingdom of England, was consecrated king, by William (age 65), archbishop of Canterbury, on the thirteenth of the calends of January [20th December], at London, where he held his court, at Christmas, surrounded by the nobles of England, with great courtesy and royal pomp.

Note 1. Wikipedia states 22 Dec 1135 although doesn't provide a source?

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Marriage of Prince Louis and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 25 Jul 1137 Louis VII King Franks (age 17) and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 15) were married. Her father William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine had died some three months previously leaving Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 15) as a ward of Louis's father Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 55) who quickly married her to his son Louis with a view to the Duchy of Aquitaine becoming joined with the Kingdom of France. A week later Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 55) died and his son Louis and Eleanor became King and Queen of France. She the daughter of William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine and Aenor Chatellerault Duchess Aquitaine. He the son of Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 55) and Adelaide Savoy Queen Consort France. They were third cousin once removed.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Coronation of Eleanor of Aquitaine as Queen Consort Franks

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Battle of the Standard aka Northallerton

The Chronicle of Henry of Huntingdon Book 8. 22 Aug 1138. While the king was thus engaged in the south, David of Scotland (age 54) led an immense army into the north of England, against which the northern nobles, at the exhortation and under the command of Thurstan, archbishop of York (age 68), made a resolute stand. The royal standard was planted at Alverton1, and as the archbishop was prevented by illness from being present at the battle, he commissioned Balph, bishop of Durham2, to fill his place, who, standing on an eminence in the centre of the army, roused their courage with words to this effect:

Brave nobles of England, Normans by birth ; for it is well that on the eve of battle you should call to mind who you are, and from whom you are sprung: no one ever withstood you with success. Gallant France fell beneath your arms; fertile England you subdued; rich Apulia flourished again under your auspices; Jerusalem, renowned in story, and the noble Antioch, both submitted to you. Now, however, Scotland which was your own rightly, has tataken you at disadvantage, her rashness more fitting a skirmish than a battle. Her people have neither military skill, nor order in fighting, nor self command. There is, therefore, no reason for fear, whatever there may be for indignation, at finding those whom we have hitherto sought and conquered in their own country, madly reversing the order, making an irruption into ours. But that which I, a bishop, and by divine permission, standing here as the representative of our archbishop, tell you, is this: that those who in this land have violated the temples of the Lord, polluted his altars, slain his priests, and spared neither children nor women with child, shall on this same soil receive condign punishment for their crimes. This most just fulfilment of his will God shall this day accomphsh by our hands. Rouse yourselves, then, gallant soldiers, and bear down on an accrursed enemy with the courage of your race, and in the presence of God. Let not their impetuosity shake you, since the many tokens of our valour do not deter them. They do not cover themselves with armour3 in war; you are in the constant practice of arms in times of peace, that you may be at no loss in the chances of the day of battle. Your head is covered with the helmet, your breast with a coat of mail, your legs with greaves, and your whole body with the shield. Where can file enemy strike you when he finds you sheathed in steel? "What have we to fear in attacking the naked, bodies of men who know not the use of armour? Is it their numbers? It is not so much the multitude of a host, as the valour of a few, which is decisive. Numbers, without discipline, are an hindrance to success in the attack, and to retreat in defeat. Your4 ancestors were often victorious when they were but a few against many. What, then, does the renown of your fathers, your practice of arms, your military discipline avail, unless they make you, few though you are in numbers, invincible against the enemy's hosts? But I close my discourse, as I perceive them rushing on, and I am delighted to see that they are advancing in disorder. Now, then, if any of you who this day are called to avenge the atrocities committed in the houses of God, against the priests of the Lord, and his little flock, should fall in the battle, I, in the name of your archbishop, absolve them from all spot of sin, in the name of the Father, whose creatures the foe hath foully and horribly slain, and of the Son, whose altars they have defiled, and of the Holy Ghost, from whose grace they have desperately fallen."

Note 1. Allerton. This famous Battle of the Standard is also fully described by Roger of Wendover. See also William of Newbury and Trivet; but the MS. of the "Gesta Stepfani" after relating the irruption into Northumberland, becomes imperfect just in this place.

Note 2. Both the MSS. which I have consulted concur with Savile's printed text in the reading of "Orcadum;" but as Roger of Wendorer calls Ralph Bishop of Durham, and he was evidently a suffragan of the Archbishop of York, I have adopted that reading. Perhaps the bishop of Durham had jurisdiction in the Orkneys? [Note. Possibly Bishop Radulf Novell, Bishop of Orkney?]

Note 3. "Nesciunt annare se ;" and just afterwards the historian calls them "nudos et inermes!" Not that they went to battle unarmed, as the passage has been rendered, but the rank and file of the Scots used no defensive armour, and perhaps, like their posterity, they only wore the kilt.

Note 4. Arundel MS., "our."

On 22 Aug 1138 Walter Gaunt (age 58) died. Possibly at the Battle of the Standard aka Northallerton?

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 22 Aug 1138. In this year came David, King of Scotland (age 54), with an immense army to this land. He was ambitious to win this land; but against him came William, Earl of Albemarle (age 37), to whom the king (age 44) had committed York, and other borderers, with few men, and fought against them, and routed the king (age 54) at the Standard, and slew very many of his gang.

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 22 Aug 1138. Irruption of the Scots, and Battle of the Standard.

During these events, David (age 54), king of Scotland, made a third irruption from the borders of his kingdom, with large bands both of horse and foot, and began to set on fire farms, towns, and castles, on the confines of Northumbria, and lay waste nearly all the country. But as he threatened at last to pursue his inroad as far as York and the Humber, Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, archbishop of York, had a conference with the Yorkshiremen, and prevailed on them all, with one consent, to take the oath of fealty to king Stephen, and resist the king of Scots. David, however, was still more incensed at this, and rejecting all advice to the contrary, and reaching the river Tees on the octave of the Assumption of St. Mary [22nd August], which happened on a Monday, he determined to surprise our troops, there being a thick fog in the morning of that day. Hoping, in consequence, to come upon us unawares, he left many vills untouched, and would not suffer his men to set fire to any place, as they usually did. Meanwhile, our troops being warned by a squire, though somewhat late so that they were nearly taken by surprise, armed themselves, and drew up in order of battle with the utmost despatch, sending out archers in front, by whom the Scots were severely galled. Then the king's barons marched with the knights, having all dismounted and stationed themselves in the first rank, and thus fought hand-in-hand with the enemy. The conflict was ended, and victory secured at the very first onset, for the Scots gave way, and either fell or fled in the greatest alarm. Our men, however, being on foot, and having caused all their horses to be led to some distance, were unable to continue the pursuit long, otherwise they would have taken or put to the sword the king (age 54) himself, with his son (age 24), and all his immediate attendants. Of his army, nearly ten thousand men fell in different places, and as many as fifty persons of rank were made prisoners. The vanquished king (age 54) himself escaped by flight, overwhelmed with terror and shame. His chancellor, William Comyn, was taken by the bishop of Durham; but being set at liberty, he gave thanks to God, heartily hoping he should never again fall into such a scrape. The king's son (age 24) reached Carlisle on foot, attended by a single knight; and his father (age 54) escaped with some difficulty through the woods and thickets to Roxburgh. He had led an innumerable army consisting of French, as well as English, Scots, Galwegians, and the people of all the isles which owed him allegiance, but nineteen only out of two hundred of his mailed knights carried back their armour; for every one left nearly all that he had to become the spoil of the enemy, so that an immense booty, both of horses, arms, and clothing, and many other things, was taken from his army. Eustace Fitz-John (age 50), who had joined his expedition, met with a similar fate, having been wounded, and barely escaping with life to his castle. Among the valiant men who, in Christ's name, fought on behalf of king Stephen, were the earl of Albemarle (age 37), Bernard de Baliol, and many others, but the earl was distinguished for his bravery in the battle.1

Note 1. A more detailed account of this famous "Battle of the Standard" will be found in Henry of Huntingdon's History, pp. 267, &c. [.Antiq. Lib.], and in Roger of Wendover, ibid, p. 489. Cf. also William of Newbury, Trivet, and Rieval "de Bello Standardi," in Twysden

Flowers of History 1138. 22 Aug 1138. Of the pitched battle between the Scots and English.

The Scots hearing the shout, like women, raised their usual war-cry of Alban! Alban! which was, however, soon drowned in the dreadful rush of the engaging armies. A body of the men of Lothian, who had obtained from the king (age 54) the honour of striking the first blow, with numbers of missiles and with their long lances, bore down impetuously upon the mailed English knights, but fell upon them like as upon a wall, for they remained immovable. The English archers, then mingling with the cavalry, poured their arrows like a cloud upon the Scots, pierced all who were not protected by their armour, whilst the whole English line and the glory of the Normans, crowding around the standard, remained firm and unshaken. The commander of the men of Lothian fell slain by an arrow, and his men all took to flight. For the most high God was offended with them: therefore their valour was broken like a spider's web in the battle. The main body of the Scots, which was fighting in another part of the field, seeing their comrades routed, lost courage and retreated also. But the king's troops, who were of different clans, began first to flinch individually, and afterwards to recoil in a body, though the king (age 54) still stood firm: but his friends compelled him to mount his horse and fly, whilst his brave son (age 24), heeding not the flight of the rest, but solely bent on acquirincr glory, charged the lines of the enemy with headlong valour, though his men could do no execution on knights that were sheathed in mail; but at last they were forced to take flight, not, without much bloodshed, and were ignominiously driven off the field in all directions. It was reported that eleven thousand of the Scots were slain, besides those who were found mortally wounded in the corn-fields and woods: our army happily triumphed with very little loss of life, and all the knights, the brother of Gilbert de Lacy was the only one slain. This battle was fought in the month of August, by the people who lived in the country beyond the Humber. The same year, in the month of October, the count of Anjou compelled the inhabitants of Orismes to surrender, and laid siege to Bayeux and Falaise.

On 22 Aug 1138 an English army commanded by William "Fat" Blois 1st Earl Albemarle aka Aumale 1st Earl York (age 37), William "The Younger" Peverell (age 58) and Robert III Stuteville defeated a Scottish army led by King David I of Scotland (age 54) and his son Henry Dunkeld 3rd Earl Huntingdon 1st Earl of Northumbria (age 24). The battle was fought at Cowton Moor, Northallerton. The name "Battle of the Standard is derived from the Standards (banners) of the Bishops of Durham, York, Beverly and Ripon which were flown from a mast mounted on a cart.

Robert III Stuteville: He was born to Robert Stuteville at Estouteville. Before 1186 Robert III Stuteville and Helewise de Murdac were married. In 1186 Robert III Stuteville died. Before 1186 Robert III Stuteville and Sibilla Valognes were married.

After 22 Aug 1138 William "Fat" Blois 1st Earl Albemarle aka Aumale 1st Earl York (age 37) was created 1st Earl York for his success at the Battle of the Standard aka Northallerton.

An Account of the Standard. An Account of the Standard was written around 1154 by Aelred of Reivaulx Chronicler (age 44). It describes the Battle of the Standard aka Northallerton. In Latin it is known as "Relatio de Standardo" or "De bello standardii".

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, First Battle of Lincoln

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1140. Thereafter died William, Archbishop of Canterbury; and the king (age 46) made Theobald (age 50) archbishop, who was Abbot of Bec. After this waxed a very great war betwixt the king (age 46) and Randolph, Earl of Chester (age 41); not because he did not give him all that he could ask him, as he did to all others; but ever the more he gave them, the worse they were to him. The Earl held Lincoln against the king (age 46), and took away from him all that he ought to have. And the king (age 46) went thither, and beset him and his brother William de Romare in the castle.

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 02 Feb 1141. Stephen made prisoner at the battle of Lincoln. Stephen, king of England, after long toils and sieges of castles, in which he had struggled during five years and six weeks for the peace of the kingdom, at last, on the day of the Purification of St. Mary [2nd February], which fell on Sexagesima Sunday, was, by the just judgment of God, outmaneuvred and taken prisoner at the siege of Lincoln castle by Robert, earl of Gloucester, his uncle's son, and Ranulph, earl of Cheser1, and, being first brought to Gloucester on Quinquagesima Sunday [9th February], was then conducted to the city of Bristol and placed in custody. Many of his adherents were taken with him and thrown into prison.

Note 1. The best account of the battle of Lincoln is given by Henry of Huntingdon, who was a canon of that church, and most probably resident there at the time of the battle. See his History, pp. 273–280, Antiq. Lib. The account in "Gesta Stephani" is singularly deficient in details, ibid, p. 378. Roger of Wendover's is rather more circumstantial, ibid, vol. i., p. 492.

On 02 Feb 1141 the army of Empress Matilda (age 38) commanded by Robert Normandy 1st Earl Gloucester (age 42) defeated the army of King Stephen I England (age 47). Matilda's army included Ranulf Gernon 4th Earl Chester (age 42) and Madog ap Maredudd Mathrafal Prince Powys. King Stephen I England (age 47), Gilbert Gaunt 1st Earl Lincoln (age 15), William "The Younger" Peverell (age 61) and Ilbert Lacy 3rd Baron Pontefract were captured. William "Fat" Blois 1st Earl Albemarle aka Aumale 1st Earl York (age 40) fought for Stephen, his cousin.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Massacre at Vitry le François

In 1142 the forces of Louis VII King Franks (age 22) seized Vitry le François. Over 1000 residents were killed when the church in which they had sought protection was set on fire.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Second Crusade

Between 1147 and 1150 the Second Crusade took place following the fall of Edessa.

In 1148 Renaud Count of Torrene (age 40) was killed during the Second Crusade.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Louis and Eleanor's Divorce

On 11 Mar 1152 the marriage of Louis VII King Franks (age 32) and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 30) was dissolved by Hugh Toucy Archbishop Sens in Château de Beaugency, Beaugency, Loiret on the grounds of consanguinity. Both Louis and Eleanor were present as were the Archbishops of Rouen and Bordeaux. Samson Mauvoison Archbishop Reims acted on behalf of Eleanor. In dissolving the marriage Louis lost control of the Duchy of Aquitaine which was to have far reaching consequences for the next three centuries.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Eleanor of Aquitaine Abduction Attempts

On 21 Mar 1152 Theobald "Good" Blois V Count Blois (age 22) attempted to abduct Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 30) from Blois. She fled in the middle of the night taking a barge to Tours.

Around 26 Mar 1152 Geoffrey Plantagenet Count Nantes (age 17) attempted to abduct Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 30) from Port de Piles, Vienne where she intended to cross the River Creuse. Once again Eleanor escaped.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 18 May 1152 Whit Sunday King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 19) and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 30) were married at Poitiers Cathedral [Map]. They were more closely related than Eleanor and her previous husband Louis VII King Franks (age 32). The marriage would bring the Kingdom of England, and the Duchies of Normandy and Aquitaine under the control of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 19). She the daughter of William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine and Aenor Chatellerault Duchess Aquitaine. He the son of Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy and Empress Matilda (age 50). They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Henry II visits his mother in Rouen

Before Jan 1153 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 19) visited his mother Empress Matilda (age 50) in Rouen, France [Map] to seek funds for his impending invasion of England.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Henry II sails to England

In Jan 1153 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 19) sailed from Barfleur, Basse Normandie to England, arriving the next day, with a fleet of twenty-six ships, and an army, to bring King Stephen I England (age 59) submit to Henry's authority.

Henry II Relieves Wallingford Castle

In Jul 1153 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 20) arrived at Wallingford Castle [Map] to relieve the siege that King Stephen I England (age 59) had commenced in 1152.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Eustace of Blois Dies

On 17 Aug 1153 King Stephen's eldest son Eustace Blois IV Count Boulogne (age 23) died at Bury St Edmunds [Map]. Probably from food poisoning, possibly murdered for having sacked the Abbey. His brother William Blois I Count Boulogne (age 16) succeeded I Count Boulogne.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Treaty of Wallingford aka Winchester aka Westminster

Around Aug 1153 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 20) and King Stephen I England (age 59) agreed the Treaty of Wallingford aka Winchester aka Westminster by which King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 20) would inherit the throne on the death of King Stephen I England (age 59). The Treaty was ratified by Archbishop Theobald of Bec (age 63) at Westminster [Map] in Christmas 1153.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Henry II Holds Easter at Rouen

Around Mar 1154 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 20) returned to Rouen, France [Map] and met with his mother Empress Matilda (age 52), and his brothers. Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 32) joined them to celebrate Easter with their first son William Plantagenet IX Count Poitiers who met his father for the first time aged around eight months.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Louis VII marries Constance of Castile

In 1154 Louis VII King Franks (age 34) and Constance of Castile (age 14) were married in Orléans. Somewhat curiously they were more closely related than Louis VII King Franks (age 34) and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 32) whose married had been annulled for that reason. The difference in their ages was 20 years. She the daughter of Alfonso VII King Castile VII King Leon (age 48) and Berenguela Barcelona Queen Consort Castile and Leon. He the son of Louis "Fat" VI King France and Adelaide Savoy Queen Consort France. They were second cousins.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Death of King Stephen

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1154. In this year died the King Stephen (age 60); and he was buried where his wife and his son were buried, at Faversham [Map]; which monastery they founded.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Henry II Leaves Barfleur

On 07 Dec 1154 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 21), the seven months pregnant Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 32) and their son William Plantagenet IX Count Poitiers (age 1) left Barfleur, Basse Normandie for England. On 08 Dec 1154 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 21) and his party landed near Southampton, Hampshire [Map].

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Coronation of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Henry II travels to Normandy

On 10 Jan 1156 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 22) crossed from Dover, Kent [Map] to Wissant [Map]. Richard "The Loyal" Lucy (age 67) was appointed Regent in Henry's absence. Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 34) was placed in the care of Archbishop Theobald of Bec (age 66) and Bishop John of Salisbury (age 38). Her party included her sister Petronilla Poitiers (age 31).

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Henry II pays homage to Louis VII

On 05 Feb 1156 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 22) paid homage to Louis VII King Franks (age 36) for his lands in Normandy [Map], Anjou and Aquitaine.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine Reunited

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Louis VII marries Adela of Blois

On 13 Nov 1160 Louis VII King Franks (age 40) and Adèle Blois were married a month or so after his second wife had died in childbirth; Louis needed an heir. She the daughter of Theobald Blois II Count Champagne IV Count Blois and Matilda Carinthia Countess Champagne and Blois. He the son of Louis "Fat" VI King France and Adelaide Savoy Queen Consort France. They were third cousin once removed. She a great granddaughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England.

2nd Millennium, 12th Century Events, 1130-1154 Anarchy, Henry II and Louis II make Peace

In Oct 1161 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 28) and Louis VII King Franks (age 41) met at Fréteval [Map] and made peace.