1415-1424 Henry V and Agincourt

1415-1424 Henry V and Agincourt is in 15th Century Events.

Suppression of the Lollards

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1415. And that year was Tebayne Breste9, a preste, slayne in London by a squyer that was callyd Yownser and his men; wherefore the same Yownser with iij of his men for-swore the lond. And that year was the Parlyment at Layceter.Suppression of the Lollards

Note 9. His name is given as Maister "John Tybbay, clerk," in Harl. 565. It is "Tykey, preest," in Vit. A. xvi.

Southampton Plot

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. Jul 1415. And he roode forthe his way tylle he cam to Hampton, and there he mosteryd his mayne. And there were certayne personys that had caste to slayne our King, but God that knew alle trougthe, he sende warnynge to our kyng; and his enmys, the whiche namys folowythe aftyr, Syr Richarde Camborowe (age 29)13, Erle of Cambryge, Syr Harry, lord Scrope (age 42), ande Syr Thomas Gray (age 30), knyght, with moo of her assent, [th]e whiche personys were a-restyde and put in the preson, ande do to dethe.

Note 13. Camborowe. Conysborughe in Vit.

On 31 Jul 1415, when King Henry V of England (age 28) was in Portchester Castle, Hampshire [Map] preparing to invade France, Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 23) revealed the Southampton Plot to him. Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham (age 42), Thomas Grey of Werke and Heaton (age 30), and Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 30) were intending to replace King Henry V of England (age 28) with Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 23) as King of England based on Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 23) having a better claim to the throne being descended from Edward III's second son Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence whereas King Henry V of England (age 28) was descended from the third son John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster.

Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 30), Richard de Vere 11th Earl of Oxford (age 29), Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 27) and Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys (age 64) sat in judgement.

On 02 Aug 1415 Thomas Grey of Werke and Heaton (age 30) was beheaded at North Gate Southampton, Hampshire [Map] for his role in the Southampton Plot.

On 05 Aug 1415 two executions of those involved in the Southampton Plot took place at the North Gate aka Bargate [Map]:

Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 30) was beheaded. His son Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 3) succeeded 2nd Earl Cambridge.

Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham (age 42) was beheaded. His brother John Scrope 4th Baron Scrope Masham (age 27) succeeded 4th Baron Scrope Masham.

Siege of Harfleur

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 16 Aug 1415. and the xvj day of the same monythe he londyd at Kytkawys, and the Satyrday he leyde sege unto the towne of Arflewe, and that was the Satyrday nexte aftyr of the Assompsyon of our Lady; and the sege contynuyd unto the Sonday nexte be fore the feste of Synt Mychelle, on the whiche Sonday the towne of Arflewe was delyveryd uppe to the kyng, that was xxij day of Septembre. But hit is to wyte that the Tewysday before, that is to saye the xvj day of the same monythe, at xij of the clocke whytheynne nyght, the lordys that were the capytaynys and governowrys of the towne, that is to wete the lord Gawcorte14, the lord Tutvyle, and moo othyr lordys, sende out herodys of armys unto the Duke of Clarens (age 26), prayng him at the reverens of God that he wolde of his hyghe lordeschippe that he wolde graunte them lyve and leve for to trete whythe what personys that the kyng wolde a-sygne unto hem; and the kyng at the reverens of God and at hyre requeste he assygnyde the Duke of Exceter [Note. Unclear as to who this is? Possibly Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter (age 38) who was created Duke the following year?], the lord Fehewe, and Syr Thomas Erpyngham (age 60), to hyre whatt they wolde say and desyre. And they desyryd that the kyng wolde nought warre on them fro that our of mydnyght unto the Sonday nexte aftyr the feste of Synt Mychell, and but it were rescwyd by batayle by that day by the Frenysche kyng or by the Dolfynne, ellys at that daye to delyver the towne unto the King, and they to have her lyvys and her goodys. Ande the kyng sende them worde yf that they wolde delivery the towne on the morne aftyr, be the our of mydnyght a bove said, without any condyscyon, he wolde accepte it, and in non othyr wyse he bade them for to trete. Ande yette the Fraynysche lordys prayde our lordys that they wolde fochesave to be-seche the King at the reverens of God and of our Lady that he wolde graunte them respyte fro the same Twysday at nyght unto the Sonday nexte aftyr tylle one owre aftyr none; and in the mayne tyme the lordys that were captaynys of the towne to come to the King whithe xxiiij knyghtys and squyers with hem, of the moste suffycyent men whithe in the towne, and they to be sworne on Goddys body opynly before alle the pepylle. But yf15 hit soo were that the Fraynysche King or the Dolfynne rescwyde them by that Sonday by the owre of none, othyr ellys a-non aftyr none, they for to delyvery the towne to the kyng and alle her bodys and goodys to don whythe them what so them evyr lyste, whythe16 any condiscyon. Whythe that the King sufferde them to sende unto Frauns viij personys out of the towne lettyng him wytte in what plytte that they stode yn, and the kyng grauntyd hem; and uppe the Wanysday by [th]e mone the lordys come owte, and xxij knyghtys and squyers whythe hem; and thenne come the prosessyon solempny and stately, whithe xxiiij copys of clothe of golde by-fore Goddys body, whythe many worschipfulle lordys, knyhtis, and squyers, and othyr multytude of pepylle from [th]e kyngys tente, solempny and stately as evyr was done suche a thyng be-for tyme. But the kyng was nott here present. And the Franysche lordys made thare her othys a-pon the sacrament; and, the othys done, the Fraynysche lordys were brought unto the kyngys tente, and there they dynyd in the kyngys halle, but in alle this tyme they sawe nought the King. And whanne that they hadde etyn they departyd and delyveryd to sartayne for to kepe yn ostage tylle the Sonday on none, as it was a cordyment i-made before tyme whenne that they toke her othys. And the Sonday at the same owre a-signyd the kyng hadde a tente phyght a-pone a hylle be-fore the towne, and there he sate in his estate, ryally, and alle his lordys aboute hym. And thenne come the Fraynysche lordys, with lxiiij whythe them of the moste suffycyentt men that were whythe yn the towne, to the kyngys owne propyr person, and delyveryd uppe the keyes of the towne and her boodys and her goodys to the Kings grace, whithe out any condyscyon. And this was the xxij day of Septembre, the year of our lord Ml cccc xv.

Note 14. Sawcortein our MS. by a misreading; Gawcourte in Vit.

Note 15. But if, i. e. unless.

Note 16. whythe. withoute, Vit.

In Sep 1415 King Henry V of England (age 29) commenced his invasion of France by undertaking the Siege of Harfleur to provide himself with a port from which to supply future operations. John Mowbray 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 23), John Fastolf (age 35) and Thomas Chaucer (age 48) fought. William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 18) was wounded. Bishop Benedict Nichols was present.

On 17 Sep 1415 Nicholas IV Longford (age 42) died.

On 26 Sep 1415 William Boteler of Bewsey (age 39) died at the Siege of Harfleur.

Battle of Agincourt

On 25 Oct 1415 King Henry V of England (age 29) defeated the French army at the Battle of Agincourt. King Henry V of England (age 29) commanded the Main Battle. Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys (age 64) commanded the Rearguard.

Richard de Vere 11th Earl of Oxford (age 30) commanded. Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 25) was wounded, and was protected by his brother King Henry V of England (age 29).

Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 42), commander of the Vanguard, was killed; the most senior English casualty. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, Earl of Rutland and Earl Cork extinct. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 4) inherited his estates including Conisbrough Castle [Map].

John Fortescue (age 35), Dafydd Gam Brecon (age 35) and Edward Burnell (age 44) and Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine (age 38) were killed.

Michael de la Pole 3rd Earl Suffolk (age 21) was killed. His brother William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 19) succeeded 4th Earl Suffolk.

The English included: Louis Robbessart (age 25), Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 33), William Botreaux 3rd Baron Botreaux (age 26), William Bourchier 1st Count Eu (age 41), John Cornwall 1st Baron Fanhope 1st Baron Milbroke (age 51), Edward Courtenay (age 30), Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 12), Thomas Dutton (age 19), Edmund Ferrers 6th Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 29), Roger Fiennes (age 31), Henry Fitzhugh 3rd Baron Fitzhugh (age 57), John Grey (age 28), John Grey 1st Earl Tankerville (age 31), William Harrington (age 42) as the King's Standard Bearer, Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford (age 37), Piers Legh (age 26) (wounded), Alfred Longford, Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 27), Thomas Morley 6th Baron Marshal 5th Baron Morley (age 22), John Rodney, Richard Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 22), Robert Strelley (age 18), James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley, 2nd Baron Tuchet (age 17), Robert Umfraville (age 52), Thomas West 2nd Baron West (age 35), Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 30). Thomas Erpingham (age 60) commanded the archers. Thomas Rempston (age 26) was present. Thomas Strickland (age 48) carried the Banner of St George.

Thomas Tunstall (age 57) was killed.

The Welsh included: William ap Thomas "Blue Knight of Gwent" Herbert (age 35), Walter Sais (age 95), Roger Vaughan (age 70) and his son Roger Vaughan (age 5). Owen Tudor (age 15) is believed to have been present as a squire.

The French army suffered significant casualties. Charles Albret (age 46), Philip Valois II Count Nevers (age 26), John of Bar (age 35), Jacques Chatillon (age 48), David Rambures (age 51) and his three sons: Jean Rambures, Hugues Rambures, Philippe Rambures, Waleran Luxemburg (age 60) and Hector de Chartres were killed.

Charles Valois Duke Orléans (age 20) was captured by Richard Waller (age 20) for which he was knighted on the battlefield by King Henry V of England (age 29).

John Bourbon I Duke Bourbon (age 34) and Charles Artois Count Eu (age 21) were captured.

Robert of Bar Count Soissons Count Marle (age 25) was killed. His daughter Jeanne of Bar Countess Soissons succeeded Countess Soissons 1367.

Edward of Bar III Duke of Bar (age 38) was killed. His brother Cardinal Louis of Bar (age 38) succeeded I Duke Bar.

John Valois I Duke Alençon was killed. His son John Valois II Duke Alençon (age 6) succeeded II Duke Alençon.

Frederick Metz I Count Vaudémont (age 47) was killed. His son Antoine Count of Vaudémont (age 15) succeeded Count Vaudémont.

Anthony Valois Duke Brabant (age 31) was killed. His son John Valois IV Duke Brabant (age 12) succeeded IV Duke Brabant. Jacqueline Wittelsbach Duchess Brabant and Gloucester (age 14) by marriage Duchess Brabant.

Jean II Le Maingre "Boucicaut" (age 49) was captured.

Georges de La Trémoille (age 33) was captured.

On 26 Oct 1415, the day after the Battle of Agincourt, the Bishop of Thérouanne consecrated part of the battle ground as a grave-site for the fallen.

Visit of Sigismund Holy Roman Emperor

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. May 1416. Ande this year com the Emperowre of Almayne (age 48)22 in to London be-fore the Feste of Synt Gorge. Ande the feste was deferryde unto his commynge, and that was done solempny at the castylle of Wyndesore. And at the prosessyon the King (age 29) went a-pone the upper-moste syde of the emperowre, and soo alle the masse tyme he stode a-bove the emperoure. Ande at the mete the kyng sate on the ryght syde of the emperoure, and the Duke of Bedforde (age 26) sate on the lefte syde, and the Chaunceler of Inglonde and the Byschoppe of Devylyn sate on the left syde, and the Duke of Bryga and a-nothyr duke of the emperours sate on the kyng is syde; and alle thosse vij satte on oo syde of [th]e table. And the first sotellete of the first cours was howe our Lady armyd Syn Gorge and a aungylle doyng on his sporys. And the secunde sotellete was Syn Gorge rydynge and fyghtyng whythe a dragon whythe his spere in his honde. And the iij sotellete was a castelle, and Syn Gorge and the Kings daughter ledyng the lambe in at the castelle gatys. And all thes sotelleteys were servyd be-fore the emperoure and the kyng and noo ferther; ande othyr lordys were servyd with sotelleteys aftyr her astate and degre.

Meeting of Henry V and the Duke of Burgundy

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. Jun 1416. And the Duke of Burgayne (age 45) and the Counte of Charlys (age 19) son come to Gravelynge; and the King (age 29) sende thedyr the Duke of Glouceter (age 25) his brother and the Erle of Marche (age 24) to abyde there in ostage, wylys that the Duke of Burgayne (age 45) come to Calys to speke with the King; and in the myddys of the ryver the lordys mette togedyr. And the dukys sone (age 19) of Burgayn ressayvyd our lordys and led them in to Fraunce, and the Erle of Warwyke (age 34) ressayvyd the Duke of Burgayne (age 45) ande brought him to Calys, and there they hadde a conselle twyne them two; and thenne he toke his leve of the kyng (age 29). And the Erle of Warwyke (age 34) brought him unto Gravelyng water and in to the same place there as they mette at the first metynge; and there every party toke her leve of othyr. And thenne the King retornyd ayenne into Inglonde and the emperoure saylyde unto Holande and so passyd forthe in to Constaunce.

Note 22. Sigismund (age 48).

Battle of the Seine

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 15 Aug 1416. Alle so that same year the Duke of Bedforde (age 27) and the Erle of Marche (age 24), on our Lady Day the Assumpsyon, they fought whythe viij grete carykys of Jene and whythe l. othyr shyppys, and they toke them whythe her patronys and drownyde a grette hulke of the contre of Flaundrys.

Battle of Cap-de-la-Hève

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 29 Jun 1417. Ande the same year, on Syn Petrys eve and Poule, the Erle of Huntyngdon (age 22) whythe o[th]yr certayne lordys faughtyn whithe carykys of Gene, and dyscomfyte hem, and toke iiij of [th]e grettyste of them and her patronys. And the amerelle [admiral] of them was the Duke of Burbone (age 36), and he was take whithe them whythe alle the tresoure that sholde have wagyd them for halfe a year.

Execution of Lollard John Oldcastle

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. Dec 1417. Alle so the same year Syr Johnne Oldecastelle was take in the Marche of Walys and brought unto Westemyster in a chare, and there he was juggyde to the dethe; and this was his juggement, that he shulde be ladde thorowe London in the same chare unto Towre Hylle, and there to be layde on a hyrdylle and drawe to Syn Gylys galowys, and there to be hanggyd and brent. And so he was hanggyd by a strong chayne. For there was the Duke of Bedforde (age 28), the Duke of Exceter (age 40), and alle the lordys of this londe that were [th]at tyme a-bowte London, tylle that they hadde sene his juggement.

On 14 Dec 1417 John Oldcastle was hanged in St Giles' Field Holborn for being a Lollard.

Siege of Rouen

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1418. The same John Bryan [Sheriff of London] scheryve unto the ix day of Octobre, and thenne he dyde; and thenne John Pernys [J Parnasse] was chose sheryve for the year. And fro that day of Saynt Edward contynuyd the sege of Rone unto the xxiiij53 day of Janyver, as it is by-fore said; at the whiche day they of the cytte desyryd to trete. And the King (age 31) commaundyd the Erle of Warwyke, and the Erle of Salysbury, the lord Fehewe, Syr Watyr Hungerforde (age 39), Gylbert Houmfryvyle, John Vasquyes de Almada, and Robert54 Knyght, to trete whythe hem. And for the party of Roone [Map] [these folowyng]:55

first, it is accordyd that Syr Gy Butler, captayne of the cytte of Roone [Map], with the consentte of the nobylle cyttezyns and of othyr dwellynge and beyng in the same cytte and castelle a-bove said, whythe owt fraude or malyngnynge, what tyme aftyr the myddys of the xix day of this present monythe of Janyver, our said lord the King wylle that the cytte and the castelle too him or to his be delyveryd undyr maner and in forme whythe ynne wrytte.

Alle so it is accordyd that the day and the howre56 of that of the nobylle cyttezyns and othyr whatt soo evyr they be dwellynge and beynge in the fore said cytte and castelle shalle submyt them in alle thyngys to the grace of our excellent lord the kyng.

Alle so it is accordyd that fro this howre57 unto the reale and effectualle [yeldyng]58 of the said cytte and castelle, none of forsaid noble cyttezyns othyr othyr59 being in the same cytte and castelle shalle nought goo out of the said cytte and castelle without specyalle lyscens of our excellente lord the King.60

Alle so it is accordyd that fro this howre57 unto the delyverans of the cytte any61 of [th]e parteys shalle abstayne them from alle goodys62 of werre to make a yenste the othyr partys of hem. Alle so it is accordyde that the noble cyttezeyns and othyr beynge in the cytte and castelle shalle paye to our fore said lord the King CCC Ml scwtys of golde, where of alle way ij of them shalle be worthe an Englysche noble, or in stede of every scwte xxx grete blankys wyte, or xv grotys; of the whyche CCC Ml scwtys that one parte shalle be payde unto our sovereign lord the King, or unto his deputys, whythe ynne the cytte of Roone be-fore said, the xxij day of this present mony[th]e of Janyver, and the othyr halfe payde to our said lord or to his deputys in the feste of Syn Mathie the Apostylle nexte to come, that shalle be the xxiij63 day of Feverer, whythe out any delay i-hadde, &c.64

Alle so it is accordyde that every subgett of our said lord the King that nowe ben or were presoners to any person in the said cytte or castelle, and her pleggys, shall be utterly fre as a-yens thes personnys, and the summys that they ar boundyn ynne, at the day of this present trete and accorde.

Alle so it is accordyde that alle and every soudyer and stranger beynge in the said citte and castelle shalle swere on the Evaungelys of God be-fore there departyng, that they shall not bere armys a-gayne our said lord the King or any of hys, unto the first day of Janyver nexte to come, for no maner maundement [th]at to them of any maner person in contrary may be done or ennyode.65

Alle so it is accordyde that alle and every jewelle, relykys, and othyr goodys longgyng to the abbaye of Synt Kateryne, whythe ynne the same cytte and castelle, beyng alle hoolly, shalle be delyveryd unto him whom that the Kyng of Inglonde deputyn or ordeyn them to ressayve aftyr the delyveraunce of the sayd cytte.

Alle so it is accordyde that the fore said noble cyttezyns and othyr whythe in the said cytte and castelle beyng, shalle make the same cytte and castelle be-fore the said xix daye of this present monythe of Janyver suffycyantly and honestely to be made clene, and alle so honestly and diligently that alle the dede bodys newe dede or to ben dede in to that daye of delyveraunce of the cytte honestely and dylygently shalle ben beryd.

Alle soo it is accordyd that the for said noble cyttezyns and alle beynge in the said citte and castelle anon shalle receyve66 and don entre in to the same cytte and castelle alle and everyche beynge in the dychys67 of the said cytte that for penurye68 went out of the same cytte whom69 they shalle be holde to fede unto the xix day of Janyver above said, as they wylle answere unto Gode and the kyng; and out takyn them they shalle not ressayve non othyr personnys in to the same cytte or castelle unto the forsaid day without specyalle lyssens of our moste dowtfulle lord the Kyng of Inglonde. But yf hit happe any massyngere or harowde of armys of the adversy party of the King to come to the partys of [th]e gatys or dychys of the said castelle and cytte . . .70

Whiche71 artyculys and appoyntmentys, as it is before said, alle and every chone in maner as it is accordyd, the forsaid captaynys and the noble cyttezyns ande othyr whythe ynne the said castelle and citte being, welle and trewly whythe out any fraude or malygny72 to holdyn ande observe and kepe they be-hote, ande thoo two be kept and fullefyllyd they bynd them soo, but yf yt be falle our said moste doughtefulle lord the King, that God for bede, to ben ovyr come in the batayle to him i-made by Charlys his adversarye of Fraunce or the Duke of Burgayne, be-fore the for-said [xix]73 day of this present monythe of Janyver; for to sen74 alle way that [if]73 it be falle the forsaid Charlys adversary, othyr the Duke of Burgayne, or any othyr, to come to the sege of our King to remoeve75 fro the forsaid cytte, that nothyr the fore said captayne nor non of the cyttezyns, sowdyers, othyr othyr76 beyng whythe ynne the for said cytte or castelle, shalle goo owte, nor noo maner helpe they shalle delyverye nor lene to hem, so azens our lord the Kings comyng in nomaner a wyse.

Alle so, that alle thes maner of poynttementysse, covenauntys, and accordys, and every poynte as it is a fore said, welle and trewly and unbrokyn to be kepte; and for the more surete of the same covenauntys and accordys, the for said captayne, the noble cyttezyns, and othyr above said shalle ben takyn in this tyme anone into the hondys of our lord the King iiij schore notable plegys, where of xxty shalle be knyghtys and squyers, ande the remenaunte cyttezyns of the same cytte, att her owne coste to be sustaynyd. For the party sothely of our moste doutefulle lord ande King a-fore said, gracyusly and benyngly consederynge the meke submyttynge and yeldynge of the said citte and castelle above said, he hathe grauntyde that alle and everye person of what a-state or degre that he be of condycyon with ynne the said castelle [and cite]77 beyng, [excepte]77 sartayne personys with ynne expressyde, that wylle be-come legys and subgetys to our lord the King, and fro hensforthe wylle dwelle undyr his obessauns, they shalle have there herytagys and goodys, mevablis and unmevablys, whythe ynne his duche of Normandy constitute; and whiche that benne afore the day and date of this present letters by our fore said lord the King to78 othyr personys have nought be yovyn and grauntyde, excepte armours artyrlys a-bove sayd; makyng and doyng [for]77 her herytagys, and for her unmevabylle goodys to our for said lord the King, the services79 ther-of dewe and consuete, or to swere to whom suche maner of servyce of the graunte of our lord the King ought too long.

Alle so it is agrauntyd of our lord the King is be-halve, that alle the cyttezyns and dwellers of the cytte of Roone that nowe be, or in tyme to come shalle be, [and]80 shall have alle ande every franches, lybertes, and prevelegys [th]e whiche of worthely mynde be progenys of our lord the King, of kyngys of Inglonde, dukys of Normandye, to them and to his said cytte were grauntyde, in possessyon where [of]81 they were the first day that our lord the King a-fore said come by fore the said cytte; and alle so of more large grace of his benyngnyte hathe grauntyde, that the same cyttezyns and dwellers of the citte shalle have alle the lyberteys, and franches, and prevelegys, where they were in pos sessyons on the fore said first day of comynge of our lord the King before the cytte, of the graunte of his progenytourys of kyngys of Fraunce that were before tyme of Phylyppe Valeys, adversarye of our lord [the kyng].81

[Also it is grauntid and accordid in our lord] the kyngys behalve, that alle the strangers, sowdyers, and othyr in the fore said citte and castelle, beynge at this tyme nought wyllynge to be come leges of our lord the kyng, the for-said citte so yoldynne as hit is before said, to departe, living to our said lord the kyng all her armowrys, hors, artylyrs, and othyr thyngys, harneysse, and goodys, excepte the Normandys that wylle nought be lyges of our lord the King, [th]at thoo alle shalle a-byde presoners of our lord the kyng.

Alle so it is grauntyd in our lord the Kings behalve, that the werre and alle so schrewde speche that duryng the sege the folke and pepylle nemnyd, of what condycyon that they ben, ayens his ryalle soveraynyte, or whythe defame lyppys have spoke, our moste sovereign lord the kyng, of strenyger the day of parte82 mekely shalle be forgevynne, out take the personys that above in specyalle ben exceptyd.83

Alle so it is accordyd in our lord the kyngys be halve, that the for said soudyers and strongers be-fore this presentt trete and accorde, wyllyng for to departynne, our lord the kyng shalle ordaynne and make a sykyr and saffe condyte in form consuete.

And so the fore said cytte was yoldyd to our sovereign lord the King uppon Synt Wolstonys day.84 And aftyr that he gatte many townys and castellys, as it shalle aftyr this be wretyn alle the processe.

Note 53. Should be the 13th.

Note 54. Robert. Robesard, J.

Note 55. [these folowyng]. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J. Nevertheless it is clear there is a further omission, even in J.

Note 56. howre. The hof this word is struck out in all these places.

Note 57. See notee, p. 122.

Note 58. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J.

Note 59. So in MS. The first "othyr" seems to mean "or."

Note 60. This clause is repeated in the MS. with the variation, "non of the fore said cyttezyns or othyr."

Note 61. any. every, J.

Note 62. goodys. Evidently a transcriber's error for dedys. J. reads dede.

Note 63. xxiij. Should be 24th. See Rymer, ix. 665.

Note 64. Here several articles are omitted which may be seen in Rymer. They are given in the English in J.

Note 65. enjoined.

Note 66. receyve. resome, MS.; receyve, V.; receyven, J.

Note 67. or about diches, J.

Note 68. penurye. femurye, MS.; penurie, J. Vit. reads "fere."

Note 69. whom. whanne, MS.

Note 70. The conclusion of the sentence is omitted not only in our MS. but also in J. and V. In the Latin it is, "ipse in ipsa non recipietur, seu providebitur eidem per dominum nostrum Regem de salvo conductu."

Note 71. Whiche. The MS. has "with the" written as if it were the continuation of the previous sentence.

Note 72. malygny. malengyne, J.

Note 73. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J.

Note 74. for to sen, i. e. foreseen, provided.

Note 75. remoeve. remayne, MS., corrected from J.

Note 76. See page 123, notec.

Note 77. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J.

Note 78. to. and, MS.; corrected from J.

Note 79. services. sermoys, MS.

Note 80. This word is clearly superfluous.

Note 81. The end of this sentence and the beginning of the next are omitted in our MS., which runs on without a break from the word "lorde" to "the kyngys behalve' as if it were one sentence.

Note 82. of strenyger the day of parte. of steryng the day of pietie, J. These are strange corruptions. The Latin has ex instinctu Divinæ pietatis.

Note 83. They are mentioned in the preceding clause in the original treaty; but their names are omitted in the MS.

Note 84. 19th Jan.

On 29 Jul 1418 the English forces commenced the Siege of Rouen. Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 33) fought. John Blount (age 30) died. William Harrington (age 45), the King's Standard Bearer, was wounded.

Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford (age 40) fought.

Henry Beaufort 2nd Earl Somerset (age 17) was killed. His brother John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset (age 15) succeeded 3rd Earl Somerset.

Surrender of Rouen

On 19 Jan 1419 Rouen, France [Map] surrendered to King Henry V of England (age 32) after a sirge of six months.

Alain Blanchard, who had hanged English prisoners from the walls, was summarily executed.

Murder of John the Fearless

On 10 Sep 1419 Charles "Victorious" VII King France (age 16) and John "Fearless" Valois Duke Burgundy (age 48) met on the bridge at Montereau to progress their peace negotiations. During the course of the discussions John "Fearless" Valois Duke Burgundy (age 48) was assassinated. His son Philip "Good" Valois III Duke Burgundy (age 23) succeeded III Duke Burgundy. Michelle Valois Duchess Burgundy (age 24) by marriage Duchess Burgundy.

Treaty of Troyes

Chronicle of Gregory 1420-1426. 20 May 1420. Ande in that year, the xx day of May, the year of our lord M1CCCC xx, the kyng (age 33) come unto Troys, in Chaunpeyne, and there he was worthely ressayvyde of alle the lordys spyrytualle and temporalle that were there whithe the King of Fraince. And on the morne the Kyng (age 51) and Quene of Fraunce (age 50), and Dame Katerynne (age 18), and the Duke of Burgayne, mette to gedyr in Synt Petrys chyrche [Map] in Troys; whiche metyng was in the body of the chyrche. Ande thenne they went upe to the hyghe auter, and there were the artyculys of the pes redde, and the othys made on aythyr partye.

On 21 May 1420 the Treaty of Troyes was signed at Troyes. Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter (age 43) and Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 17) negotiated the terms which included the marriage of Henry V (age 33) and Catherine of Valois (age 18), daughter of Charles VI (age 51), and the acknowledgement of King Henry V of England (age 33) as Charles V's (age 51) heir disinheriting the Dauphin (age 17).

Marriage of Henry V and Catherine of Valois

On 02 Jun 1420 Henry V (age 33) and Catherine of Valois (age 18) were married at Troyes Cathedral [Map]. She the daughter of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 51) and Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France (age 50). He the son of King Henry IV of England and Mary Bohun. They were half third cousin once removed. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

Chronicle of Gregory 1420-1426. 03 Jun 1420. And thenne was the kyng (age 33) and Dame Katerynne (age 18) swryde to-gedyr. And on the morne aftyr was Trenyte Sonday, that was the iij day of June, the year of our lord M CCCC xx, in the chyrche of Troys [Map], the kyng spowsyd Dame Kateryne (age 18), Kyng Charlys daughter of Fraunce (age 51); and thenne he was made Regent of Fraunce, and the convencyons of the whiche acordyd folowynge here aftyr, that is for to saye:

Harry (age 33), by the grace of God, Kyng of Inglond, hey re and Regent of Fraunce, and lord of Yrlonde, to perpetualle mynde to alle Crystyn pepylle, ande to alle that ben undyr owre obeysaunce, we notefy and declare that thoughe a here before dyvers tretes have ben be twyne the moste excellente Prynce Charlis (age 51), owre fadyr of Fraunce, and his progenytours, for the pes to ben hadde be twyne ij realmys of Fraunce and of Inglonde, the whiche here by forne have borne no1 frwte, we, consyderynge the grette harmys that have ben, not oonly by twyne ij realmys for the grette devysyon J>at hathe ben be-twyne hem, but to alle hooly Chyrche, we have take a trete whythe our said fadyr and us, that for as moche as be the bonde of matrymonye, i-made for the goode of the pes be-twyne us and our moste dyre modyr Isabelle (age 50) his wife, the same Charlis and Isabelle ben made fadyr and modyr, and there fore take them as for owre fadyr and modyr, we shalle have and worschippe as it syttythe and semythe so worthy a prynce and a pryncesse too ben i-worschippyde, pryncypally before alle othyr temporalle personys of the worlde.

Alle so we shalle nought dystroble, nor dyssesyn, nor lette our said fadyr, but that he holde and procede2 as long as he levythe, and holdythe, ande he possedythe at this tyme, the crowne and dignity of the ryalte of Fraunce, and rentys and profytys of the same, to the sustenaunce of his estate and chargys of the realme of Fraunce, and owr modir al so holdyng as long as she levy the the estate and dignity of the quene, aftyr the maner of the same realme, whythe convenable and convenyante parte of the said rentys and profytys.

Alle so that the fore said Kateryne shalle take and have dwer in our realme of Inglond, as [quenes of England]3 here a-forne were wonte to have and take, that is for to saye, to the summa of xl M [40000] scwtys yearly, of the whyche4 ij [2] shalle be worthe a nobylle Englysche. Alle so the maners, weyis, and menys that we may, whythe out transgressyon or ofFensys ofte5 i-made by us for to kepe the lawys, customys, usagys, and ryghtys of owre said realme6 of Inglonde, [we]7 shalle done owre labur and pursewe that the said Katerynne, alsone as it may be done and be made sure, for to take and for to have in owre said realme of Inglonde fro tyme of our dethe, the said xl M [40000] scutys yerly, of the whyche twyne shalle alle way be worthe8 a nobylle of Englysche mony.

Note 1. borne no. These words are taken from J., and are a true rendering of the text of the original treaty (see Kymer, ix. 895). Our MS. reads, "have ben frwte/' following perhaps some other translation in which the word "without" has been omitted. Vit. reads, still more absurdly, "have ben frendes."

Note 2. procede. A transcriber's error for "possede," i.e. possess,,

Note 3. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J.

Note 4. of the whiche repeated, MS.

Note 5. ofte. We should certainly read, "of the oath;" but the words do not occur even in J.

Note 6. of owre said realme repeated in MS.

Note 7. Omitted in MS.

Note 8. worthe. with, MS.; corrected from J.

Funeral of Thomas Fitzgerald

After 10 Aug 1420 Thomas Fitzgerald 5th Earl Desmond (age 34) was buried in Paris [Map]. Henry V (age 34) and Charles V (age 51) were present.

Coronation of Catherine of Valois

On 23 Feb 1421 Catherine of Valois (age 19) was crowned Queen Consort England at Westminster Abbey [Map]. Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 36) was appointed Chief Butler of England. James I (age 26) attended, and was honoured by sitting immediately on the queen's left at the coronation banquet.

Battle of Baugé

On 22 Mar 1421 the Dauphin's (age 18) French army and a Scottish army heavily defeated the English army at the Battle of Baugé. On the French side Étienne Vignolles "La Hire" fought. On the Scottish side John Stewart 2nd Earl Buchan (age 40) and John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux (age 41) fought. William Douglas (age 37) was killed.

On the English side John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset (age 18), Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter (age 44), Thomas Beaufort Count Perche (age 16) and John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter (age 26) were captured. John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset (age 18) would be captive for the next seventeen years. Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter (age 44) was released in 1422. Thomas Beaufort Count Perche (age 16) was released around 1427 in a prisoner exchange.

Thomas Lancaster 1st Duke of Clarence (age 32) was killed in battle. Duke Clarence extinct.

John Lumley (age 38) was killed in battle.

John Ros 7th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 24) was killed in battle. His brother Thomas Ros 8th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 13) succeeded 8th Baron Ros Helmsley.

William Ros (age 24), and Gilbert V Umfraville were killed.

John Grey 1st Earl Tankerville (age 37) was killed in battle. His son Henry Grey 2nd Earl Tankerville (age 3) succeeded 2nd Earl Tankerville.

William Douglas 1st Lord Drumlanrig was present.

In 1438 John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset (age 35) was released after have been captive for seventeen years following his capture at the Battle of Baugé.

Siege of Meaux

In Dec 1421 King Henry V of England (age 35) commenced the Siege of Meaux. John Cornwall 1st Baron Fanhope 1st Baron Milbroke (age 57) fought. His son John Cornwall (age 18) was killed; his head being blown off by a cannon ball witnessed by his father. Meaux [Map] was eventually captured on 11 May 1422.

Death of Henry V

On 31 Aug 1422 King Henry V of England (age 36) died at Château de Vincennes, Vincennes possibly from dysentery, possibly from heatstroke. John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 21) brought the body back to England. His son King Henry VI of England and II of France succeeded VI King England.

Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter (age 45) was appointed Governor to King Henry VI of England and II of France.

Death of Charles VI

On 21 Oct 1422 Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 53) died at Hôtel Saint Pol [Map]. The succession of the French throne was disputed between:

King Henry VI  succeeded II King France: Lancaster

Charles "Victorious" VII King France (age 19) succeeded VII King France: Capet Valois. Marie Valois Anjou Queen Consort France (age 18) by marriage Queen Consort France.

Funeral of Henry V

On 07 Nov 1422 King Henry V of England was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map]. John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 21) attended as Chief Mourner and Standard Bearer

Battle of Cravant

Polydore Vergil. 31 Jul 1423. Meanwhile Charles (age 20) besieged Cravant, to which the Earl of Salisbury (age 35) and William de la Pole Earl of Suffolk (age 26) came quickly with 4,000 armed men. They joined battle and slaughtered, routed, and defeated the French, who lost 2,000 dead and 400 captured. Among them was the Earl of Buchan (age 42), the Constable of France (age 43), who ransomed himself immediately thereafter and rejoined the fighting.

On 31 Jul 1423 the English and Burgundian army defeated the French and Scottish armies at the Battle of Cravant at Cravant, Yonne. On the English side Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 35) commanded. Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 38) was second in command.

The French and Scottish army were commanded by John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux (age 43). Louis Bourbon 1st Count Vendôme 1st Count Castres (age 47) was second in command. Both were captured; Darnley lost an eye.

Marriage of James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort

On 12 Feb 1424 King James I of Scotland (age 29) and Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland (age 20) were married at Southwark Cathedral [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort Scotland. She the daughter of John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset and Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence (age 39). He the son of King Robert III of Scotland and Anabella Drummond Queen Consort Scotland. He a great x 5 grandson of King John "Lackland" of England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Release of James I of Scotland

On 28 Mar 1424 King James I of Scotland (age 29) signed his release agreement, in which he promised to pay a ransom of 60,000 marks, at Durham, County Durham [Map]. He and his wife Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland (age 20), married for seven weeks, travelled to Melrose Abbey [Map] arriving on 05 Apr 1424

Coronation of James I of Scotland

On 21 May 1424 King James I of Scotland (age 29) was crowned I King Scotland at Scone Abbey [Map]. Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland (age 20) was crowned Queen Consort Scotland.

Alexander Lindsay 2nd Earl Crawford and William Crichton 1st Lord Crichton were knighted.

Battle of Verneuil

Polydore Vergil. 17 Aug 1424. 5. At this time Charles (age 21) was staying at Tours, and aware of this business from the start, did not appear to be much concerned. Rather, relying partly on the nature of the place, and partly on the strength of his followers, he only gathered sufficient forces to fight the enemy on equal terms. Therefore, when he had assembled a larger army, he sent Duke John of Alençon (age 15) to assist his subjects, and he ordered him not to shrink from a battle, should the situation require it. The Duke departed quickly, and before approaching the place he learned of the castle’s surrender, and then, obliged by necessity to change his route, he went to Verneuil and stormed it, killing a goodly part of the English garrison. And he was soon given this town, defended by great works, because he had long insisted it should be part of his domain. When this was reported to Bedford (age 35), with no hesitation he marched to Verneuil in battle array, and in the same way approached the enemy camp. For a very little while the French were terrified by their enemies’ approach, and debated what should be done. Almost all were of the opinion that they should wait in the camp until the enemy’s intention was clearer. For they were mindful of all the times they had previously been defeated whenever they engaged the English, and so were not unwilling to delay coming to blows. But when they saw the enemy battle-line drawing closer and closer, their spirits surged and, howling and chanting as was their habit, they took up arms and stationed themselves before the camp. The battle was begun with missiles, but they immediately abandoned these and came together, drawing their swords and running at each other with a great shout. They fought strenuously and continually, and on such even terms that one could not easily tell which way the battle was inclining, with many men falling on both sides. Their outcries were similar, as also the manner of their fighting. Wherever danger threatened the most. there they more earnestly strove to resist and repel, and so the fight dragged on for more than four hours, and the outcome was still uncertain. Meanwhile the Duke of Alençon (age 15) did not desist in both beseeching and exhorting his soldiers not to flag, nor to allow the enemy, now falling back, to conquer. And Bedford (age 35) himself also went around everywhere, exhorted, renewed the fight at every point. And when in the end he appreciated that the French were exhausted by their effort and heat (for it is the nature of the French, that they cannot tolerate the effort of a long battle, because for the sake of inspiring fear they expend more of their strength at the beginning of a fight, but cannot maintain it thereafter) and were pressing less than usual, then at length he attacked the enemy with might and main, and those who followed him assaulted with such an onslaught that they first budged the enemy from his place, and then drove them headlong. In that battle 5,000 Frenchmen died, together with Buchan (age 43) the Marshal of France and the Scotsman John Stuart (age 44), whom I have shown above to have come in aid of Charles, and more than ten French captains About 200 were captured, including Duke John of Alençon (age 15). On the English side 2,000 died, partly foot and partly horse. This defeat was suffered by the French in the year of human salvation 1424, the third year of Henry’s reign.

On 17 Aug 1424 the English forces inflicted a significant defeat on the French and Scottish army at the Battle of Verneuil; a second Agincourt. For the English Edmund Hungerford (age 15), Ralph Longford (age 23), John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl of Shrewsbury (age 41) and Richard Waller (age 29) fought.

On the French and Scottish side Pierre Valois, Archibald Douglas 1st Duke Touraine (age 52), William Seton Master of Seton (age 34), Alexander Home of Home and Dunglas (age 56) were killed

John Stewart 2nd Earl Buchan (age 43) was killed. His brother Robert Stewart Earl Ross (age 39) de jure Earl Ross and Earl Buchan although he didn't claim the title since both titles had reverted to the Crown.

Jean Poton Xaintrailles (age 34) fought.