1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc is in 15th Century Events.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, 1425 Purge of the Albany Stewarts
Following the Battle of Verneuil at which John Stewart 2nd Earl Buchan, brother of Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke Albany (age 63) and key ally of the Albany Stewarts, was killed, King James I of Scotland (age 30) felt able to take action against the Albany Stewarts for their protracted regency whilst James was hostage in England.
Before 18 May 1425 Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke Albany (age 63) and his younger son Alexander Stewart were arrested and confined in St Andrew's Castle then moved to Caerlaverock Castle. His (age 63) wife was arrested at the family's home of Doune Castle and imprisoned at Tantallon Castle.
On 18 May 1425 Murdoch Stewart 2nd Duke Albany (age 63), his two sons Walter Stewart (age 25) and Alexander Stewart, and Duncan Lennox 8th Earl Lennox (age 80) were tried at Stirling Castle [Map] in the presence of King James I of Scotland (age 30).
The jury which condemned them was composed of 21 knights and peers, including Albany's (age 63) half-uncle Walter Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 3rd Earl Caithness (age 65), first cousin Alexander Stewart 1st Earl Mar (age 50), first cousins once-removed Archibald Douglas 2nd Duke Touraine (age 35), and Alexander, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, 1426 Henry VI Knighting ceremony
On 19 May 1426, Whitsunday, King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 4) was knighted by his uncles John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 36) and Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 35) at Leicester, Leicestershire [Map]. Henry then went on to knight Ralph Longford (age 25), Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon (age 12) and Robert Wingfield (age 23).
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Parliament Passes a Bill to Prevent Catherine of Valois Marrying
In 1428 Parliament Passes a Bill to Prevent Catherine of Valois Marrying without the consent of the King. The Bill appears to be in response to rumours that Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England (age 26) and Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke Somerset (age 22) were having an affair, and were planning to marry.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Siege of Orléans
On 12 Oct 1428 the Siege of Orléans commenced at Orléans. During the course of the siege Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 40) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles (age 38) were wounded. William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 31) commanded the English forces during some of the siege.
On 03 Nov 1428 Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 40) died from wounds received at the Siege of Orléans. His daughter Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury (age 21) succeeded 5th Countess Salisbury, 4th Baroness Montagu, 7th Baroness Montagu, 6th Baroness Monthermer. Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 28) by marriage Earl Salisbury 2C 1337.
On 08 May 1429 William Moleyns (age 23) died at the Siege of Orléans.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, 1429 Battle of the Herrings
On 12 Feb 1429 John Fastolf (age 49) was at Rouvray leading a supply train of some 300 carts of crossbows, cannons, etc and also barrels of herrings to Orléans. A force of 400 strong Scottish cavalry led by Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon (age 28) and John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux (age 49) attacked the supply train and were destroyed by English archers protected by supply wagons. John Stewart of Darnley 1st Count Évreux (age 49) was killed. He was buried at Orléans Cathedral.
Chronicle of Jean de Wavrin 1429 Chapter VII. And there came thither some French captains to fight him, who for a good while before were well aware of his coming, such as Charles duke of Bourbon, the two marshals of France, the constable of Scotland and his Alan Stewart of Darnley, the lord of La Tour, the lord of Chauvigny, the lord of Graville, sir William d'Albret, the viscount of Thouars, the bastard of Orléans, sir James de Chabannes, the lord of La Fayette, Pothon de Saintrailles, La Hire, sir Théaulde de Valpergue and many other noble men, who all together were from three to four thousand combatants of good stuff. Of their coming the said English were informed beforehand by some of their men who were in garrison thereabouts in the fortresses holding their party, on account of which news these English, like men full of confidence, put themselves in good order with great diligence, and with their waggons formed a large enclosure in the open fields in which they left two entrances open, and there all together they placed themselves in the manner following, that is to say, the archers guarding those entrances and the men-at-arms very near in the necessary places; and on one of the sides in the strongest place were the merchants, waggoners, pages, and other people with little power of defence, with the horses and mares.
In the way you have heard the English waited for their enemies for the space of full two hours, who came with great tumult and formed themselves in battle array before the said enclosure out of reach of the arrows; and it seemed to them, considering their noble quality and their great number, and that they had only to do with men gathered from many levies, of whom but from five to six hundred were English, natives of the country of England, that they could not escape from their hands, but would be very soon vanquished; nevertheless there were some wise persons who had great doubt lest the contrary should happen to them, especially because the intentions of the said French captains were not well accordant one with the other, for some, especially the Scots, wished to fight on foot, and others wished to remain on horseback.
There were made new knights, by the hand of the lord of La Fayette. Charles de Bourbon and some others; but meanwhile the said constable of Scotland, his son and his men dismounted and then very shortly they went to attack their enemies, some on foot and others on horseback, and were received by them very courageously; and their archers who were very well shielded by their waggons began to shoot very sharply, in such manner that at the onset they made their enemies fall back before them, fully two to three hundred horsemen who had come to fight at one of the entrances of the said enclosure. And there the said constable of Scotland, thinking he was well followed up by the French, was discomfited and slain on the spot1, with him died his son and sir William d'Albret, the lord of Orval, the lord of Chasteau-Brun, the lord of Monpipel, sir John de Larget, the lord of Verduisant, the lord of Yvri, the lord of La Greve, sir Anthony de Prully, and full six score gentlemen, and others to the number of five hundred combatants or more, much the greater part of whom were Scots: the other captains seeing this departed thence and went away, flying in great confusion, so that one did not wait for another, and they returned to the places whence they had come. And the English, filled with very great gladness on account of the fair victory that they had gained with so little loss, praised their Creator aloud, and then, after the dead were despoiled, they refreshed themselves and rested that night in the said village of Rouvray, and on the next day departing thence sir John Fastolf and all his men, of whom he was supreme captain, took the road towards Orléans, and they and their waggons made such good progress that a few days after, exhibiting great joy, they arrived at the siege, where they were received with great gladness by their people, who, when they knew of their good fortune, heartily praised God for it, making a great noise with trumpets and clarions, and they were also very well refreshed by the victuals which they brought to them: and the said conflict from that day forward was commonly named the battle of the Herrings, and the reason of this name was because a great part of the waggons of the said English were loaded with herrings and other victuals for Lent. For this ill fortune of the French which had thus befallen, king Charles was very sad at heart, seeing that on all sides his affairs turned out contrary to his desire, and continued going on from bad to worse. This battle of the Herrings happened on the eve of Behourdis ^ about three o'clock in the afternoon; and on the side of the English there died, of people of name, but one single man called Besautrau, a very handsome esquire and valiant man in arms, a nephew of sir Simon Morhier, provost of Paris; and there were made knights among the English, Le Gallois Damay lord of Orville, Gerard Kollin, and Louis de Lurieu, a Savoyard. And the said English might be about sixteen hundred combatants of good stuff besides the common people, and the French were six thousand men, all trained and expert in arms; many noble men also were made knights there with the duke of Bourbon, all of whose names I have not been able to learn, except those which follow, that is to say, the lord of Chasteau-Brun and Yvonet de Clichon; and there were no prisoners but one Scot. Thus then as you have heard sir John Fastolf master of the household of the regent arrived gloriously at the siege before Orléans with a great quantity of provisions and other things necessary for those who were at the said siege, the account of which we will leave until it be the time to return to it.
Note 1. M.S. H. adds that the constable's name was sir John Stuart,
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, 1429 Joan of Arc meets Charles VII at Chinon
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, 1429 Relief of Orléans
On 08 May 1429 Joan of Arc (age 17) led the French army to successfully relieve the Siege of Orléans.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Joan of Arc and Charles VII meet at Loches
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Battle of Jargeau
On 11 Jun 1429 Joan of Arc (age 17) and Jean Poton Xaintrailles (age 39) fought at Jargeau, Loiret during the Battle of Jargeau. Alexander Pole was killed. William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 32) surrendered.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Battle of Meung sur Loire
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Battle of Beaugency
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Battle of Patay
In 1429 Bernard Armagnac fought at Battle of Patay.
On 18 Jun 1429 the Battle of Patay was the final engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years War. The French forces commanded by Joan of Arc (age 17), Étienne Vignolles "La Hire" and Jean Poton Xaintrailles (age 39) defeated an English force of 5000. The English lost around 2000 men with Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales (age 32), Thomas Rempston (age 40), and John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl of Shrewsbury (age 46) being captured. John Fastolf (age 49) fought.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Coronation of Charles VII of France
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, English Coronation of Henry VI
On 06 Nov 1429 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 7) was crowned VI King England by Cardinal Henry Beaufort (age 54) at Westminster Abbey [Map]. Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick (age 4) carried the child King. John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 14) attended. John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont (age 20) was knighted.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Capture of Joan of Arc at the Siege of Compiègne
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Birth of Edmund Tudor
On 11 Jun 1430 Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond was born to Owen Tudor (age 30) and Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England (age 28) at Much Hadham Palace Much Hadham (which belonged to the Bishops of London). There is speculation that the biological father was Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke Somerset (age 24) with whom Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England (age 28) was rumoured to have had an affair. Interesting, perhaps, that he was named Edmund rather than Owen. Interesting that he took the Royal Arms of England differenced. Also interesting that his younger brother was named Jasper; a Persian name meaning 'Keeper of the Treasure'.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Trial of Joan of Arc
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Execution of Joan of Arc
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Siege of Louviers
On 03 Oct 1431 Thomas Beaufort Count Perche (age 26) was killed at Louviers, Eure, Haute Normandie during the Siege of Louviers.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, French Coronation of Henry VI
Chronicle of Gregory 1431. 13 Dec 1431. And the xiij day of the same monythe he was crownyde at Parysse; for there he was worthely and ryally ressayvyd as they cowthe devyse whythe alle the statys of the towne. And there he hylde hys feste raylly to alle maner of nacyons that were in that contre, that yf hyt plesyde hem thedyr for to come. And in Syn Johnys day in the Crystysmasse weke the kynge remevyd towarde Roone [Map], and on the xij evyn he come unto Calys. Ande the xxix day of Janyver he londyd at Dovyr [Map].
On 16 Dec 1431 Henry VI (age 10) was crowned II King France: Lancaster at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map] by Cardinal Henry Beaufort (age 56). A somewhat futile exercise; the last gasps of the Hundred Years War. The ceremony had been arranged by John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 42). His wife Anne Valois Duchess of Bedford (age 27) attended.
Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford (age 53) was appointed Carver.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, John Duke of Bedford marries Jacquetta Luxemburg
On 22 Apr 1433 John Duke Bedford (age 43) and Jacquetta Luxemburg (age 18) were married at Thérouanne [Map]. She by marriage Duchess Bedford. The difference in their ages was 25 years. She the daughter of Peter Luxemburg I Count Saint Pol (age 43) and Margherita Baux (age 39). He the son of Henry IV King England and Mary Bohun. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.
The marriage caused a rift with Philip "Good" Duke Burgundy (age 36), John's late Anne Valois Duchess of Bedford brother, who regarded the marriage, some five months after his sister's death, an insult to her memory. There was no issue from the marriage with John dying a year and a half later.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Battle of Gerberoy
On 09 May 1435 a French force commanded by Étienne Vignolles "La Hire" heavily defeated an English force commanded by John Fitzalan 14th Earl Arundel (age 27) at the Battle of Gerberoy.
On 12 Jun 1435 John Fitzalan 14th Earl Arundel (age 27) was captured and died from wounds received at the battle. His son Humphrey Fitzalan 15th Earl Arundel (age 6) succeeded 15th Earl Arundel Sussex, 5th Baron Maltravers 1C 1330, 5th Baron Arundel 1C 1377.
Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 30) fought.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Death of John of Bedford
Chronicle of Gregory 1435. 14 Sep 1435. Ande that same yere, the xiiij day of Septembyr, deyde the Duke of Bedforde (age 46), Regaunte of alle Fraunce, in the castelle of Rone [Map], bytwyne ij and iij in the mornynge; and hys body ys buryde in Nostre Dame Chyrche of Roone [Map]. And of hys soule ande alle Crystyn soulys God have marcy, Amen.
2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1425-1435 Loire Campaign of Joan of Arc, Congress and Treaty of Arras
In Sep 1435 the Congress and Treaty of Arras was one of the last treaties of the Hundred Years War effectively bringing English rule in France to an end following the successful campaign of Joan of Arc five years earlier, the death of John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 46) and the changing of sides of John "Fearless" Valois Duke Burgundy from England to France.