1454-1461 York Claims the Throne

 Neville Percy Feud 1454 Battle of Stamford Bridge Birth of King Henry VII John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe Margaret Beaufort marries Henry Stafford Loveday

1454-1461 York Claims the Throne is in 15th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1454-1461 York Claims the Throne, Neville Percy Feud

by 27 Jul 1453, says Griffiths, the situation in the north had deteriorated so badly that the crown effectively abrogated its authority in the region, by writing directly to the two earls [Note Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 60) and Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 53)], laying responsibility for ending the dispute on them, and instructing them to keep their sons in order. It was at this point too, that the commission of oyer and terminer of 12 July was re-issued.

Around 10 Aug 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 22) summoned with Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 30) to appear before a Royal Council; he ignored it.

In Sep 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 22) ransacked the manor of Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 30) breaking windows and tiles.

On 08 Oct 1453, the council wrote to the earl of Westmorland (age 47) and congratulated him on not assisting the Middleham branch. It also wrote again to Salisbury (age 53) and Northumberland (age 60)

In retaliation, Sir John Neville raided the absent Earl of Northumberland's (age 60) house at Catton, in Yorkshire, and all but ruined it. The next day, Richard Percy attacked a house on Neville property. ESCALATION.

On 20 Oct 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 22), and his brothers Thomas Neville (age 23) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 24), met with Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 60) and to negotiate peace.

On 20 Oct 1454 both the Neville and Percy families summoned their retainers to their respective castles: Percy to Topcliffe Castle [Map], Neville to Sheriff Hutton Castle [Map] separated by a distance of around four miles.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1454-1461 York Claims the Throne, 1454 Battle of Stamford Bridge

On 31 Oct 1454 or 01 Nov 1454 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 23) and Thomas Neville (age 24) captured Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 31) and Richard Percy (age 28) in a skirmish known as the Battle of Stamford Bridge. [Note. The second battle at Stamford Bridge [Map] with the first being in 1066]. The brothers were taken to Middleham Castle [Map]. Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 31) was subsequently fined £11,200 in damages which, with an income of £100, he was unlikely to ever pay. He was, therefore, taken to Newgate Prison, London [Map] in which he stayed until he escaped in 1456.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1454-1461 York Claims the Throne, Battle of Arkinholm

On 01 May 1455 the Douglas rebellion was brought to an end at the Battle of Arkinholm near Langholm. Archibald Douglas Earl Moray (age 29) was killed. Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde was executed. John Douglas (age 22) escaped.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1454-1461 York Claims the Throne, First Battle of St Albans

Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 22 May 1455. Ande that yere there was a batayle at Synt Albonys by-twyne Kyng Harry the VI (age 33). and the Duke of Yorke (age 43), and thys batayle was the weke be-fore Whytte Sonday. And Kyng Harry (age 33) was in harnys hys owne propyr person, and was hurte with the shotte of an arowe in the necke. And the Duke of Yorke (age 43) brought hym unto London as kynge and not as a presener. The Erle of Wyltschyre (age 34) bare the kyngys baner that day in the batayle, for he was at that tyme namyd but Syr Jamys Urmon;b and thys sayde Jamys (age 34) sette the kyngys baner agayne an howse ende and fought manly with the helys, for he was a feryd of lesynge of beute, for he was namyd the fayryd knyght of thys londe. And with yn a lytyl whyle aftyr was made the Erle of Wyltschyre.

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 26), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham (age 40) and Walter Strickland (age 44).

The Lancastrians ...

Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke Somerset (age 49) was killed. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke Somerset (age 19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset, 5th Earl Somerset. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.

Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland, 6th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 14th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland (age 33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford (age 41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 20) succeeded 9th Baron de Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford (age 21) by marriage Baroness de Clifford.

William Cotton (age 45) and Richard Fortescue (age 41) were killed.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 52) was wounded and captured.

King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 54) and Edmund Dudley (age 30) were captured.

Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke Somerset (age 19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 55) fought.

Richard Cotton of Hampstall Ridware (age 51) and his son William Cotton of Connington in Huntingdonshire (age 27) were killed.

Archaeologia Volume 20 Section VIII. An Account of the First Battle of St. Albans from a contemporary Manuscript. Communicated by Joun Baytey, Esq. F.S. A. of His Majesty's Record Office in the Tower; in a Letter to Henry Extis, Esq. F. R. S. Secretary.

Read 19th December 1822.

His Majesty's Record Office, December 12, 1822.

DEAR SIR,

I inclose a curious Account of the first Battle of St. Albans, which may prove interesting to the Society of Antiquaries: it is copied from a manuscript, in a co-eval hand, found in the Tower, among a large quantity of private letters and accompts of Sir William Stonor, Knt [William Stonor (age 5)?] who, from his correspondence, appears at that time to have been much about the Court, and was also a Steward of the Abbot of St. Albans. The original is written in a book consisting of a few leaves of a small quarto size, and, on comparing the writing with some of the other papers, it seems to be in the hand of Sir William himself.

I remain, dear Sir, your's very faithfully,

JOHN BAYLEY.

To Henry Ex is, Esq &c. &c. &c.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1454-1461 York Claims the Throne, Battle of Clyst Heath

On 15 Dec 1455 the Courtenay family, Earls of Devon since 1355, and Bonville family resolved their differences at the Battle of Clyst Heath. Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon (age 41) defeated William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 63). Battle something of an over-statement; the number of dead reported by one chronicler as being twelve. Following the battle the victorious Courtenay's attacked Bonville's Shute Manor.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1454-1461 York Claims the Throne, Birth of King Henry VII

On 28 Jan 1457 King Henry VII of England and Ireland was born to the late Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 13) at Pembroke Castle [Map]. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1454-1461 York Claims the Throne, John Neville married Isabel Ingaldsthorpe

On 25 Apr 1457 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 26) and Isabel Ingaldsthorpe (age 16) were married by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 39) at Canterbury Cathedral [Map]. She the heir of her father Edmund Ingaldsthorpe who had died the previous year. Eight manors were settled on them in jointure. He the son of Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 57) and Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury (age 50). They were second cousin once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

In 1460 a petition noted "The Nevilles state that Isabel was found to be Ingoldisthorpe's daughter and heir. When they requested livery of the estates from the chancellor in Chancery, he refused on the grounds that the king had granted the marriage and wardship to the queen (age 27). The Nevilles disputed this as Isabel was 14, and not a minor at common law. John Neville (age 26) made recognizances in £1,000 to the queen on the understanding that if it was found that such a grant to the queen was not available, then she would not take any money from Neville. The Nevilles are unable to have a day in their law, and the queen has still levied part of the £1,000, and they are forced to sue a special livery at great expense. They request that the recognizances by annulled, and that women of the age of 14 when their ancestors die should have no problem of obtaining livery of their lands and tenements." See National Archives UK John Nevyll (Neville), knight; Isabel Neville, wife of John Neville, knight. SC 8/28/1398 1460.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1454-1461 York Claims the Throne, Margaret Beaufort marries Henry Stafford

On 03 Jan 1458 Henry Stafford (age 33) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 14) were married probably at Maxstoke Castle [Map]. Her third marriage (second if you don't include the one annulled) aged fourteen and already the mother of the future King Henry VII. She had no further issue. She the daughter of John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 48). He the son of Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 55) and Anne Neville Duchess Buckingham (age 50). They were second cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1454-1461 York Claims the Throne, Loveday

Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 24 Mar 1458. Ande thys same yere at Covyntre there was made a pesse [Note. peace] by-twyne the Duke of Somersett Harry (age 22), and the Earl of Saulysbury (age 58), and the Erle of Warwycke (age 29), for the dethe of hys fadyr Duke of Somersette, that the Duke of Yorke (age 46) put to dethe at Synt Albonys. And thys tretys was made at Covyntre, in the holy tyme of Lentyn, by the mene of Kyng Harry the VI. And alle that holy tyme of Lentyn there myght noo mane man that shulde preche by-fore the kynge, but that he shulde shewe hys sarmon in wrytyng, were he docter or other, in so moche the lordys woldys A B C wolde assygne what he schulde say, as for any thynge that longyd unto the comyn wele, and yf he passyd hyr commaundement he schulde lese hys costys, and goo as he come, withowte mete and drynge. But a becheler of holy devynyte come to that cytte, and whenn he come to preche byfore the kyng, as Maystyr Wylliam Saye, Dene of Poulys and Dene of the kyngys chapylle, hadde desyryd and asygnyd, A B C axyd hys name, and hys name was Mayster Wylliam Ive, at that tyme beyng at Wynchester in Wycham ys college. And A B C sayde that they moste nedys se hys sarmon and hys purposse, that he was a vysyd to say by-fore the kynge the Sonday nexte comynge. And he fulle goodly toke them hys papyr; and they seyng and redynge hys papyr, commaundyd to leve owte and put a way many troughtys. But that same Mayster Wylliam Ive sayde but lytylle, but whenn he come to pulpyt he sparyd not to sayd the troughthe, and reportyd by-fore the kyng that A B C made the sarmonys that were sayde fore, and not thoo that prechyd, and that causyd that þe men that prechyd hadde but sympylle sarmons, for hyr purposse was alle turnyde upsodowne 3 and that they hadde made love days as Judas made whythe a cosseb with Cryste for they cyste ovyr the mane. The grete rewarde that he hadde for hys labyr was the rydyng of viij xx myle yn and owte for hys travayle, and alle hys frendys fulle sory for hym. But qui veritatem dicit caput fractum habebit, &c. And that same yere alle thes lordys departyd from the Parlyment, but they come nevyr alle togedyr after that tyme to noo Parlyment nor conselle, but yf hyt were in fylde with spere and schylde.

Note b. kiss.

On 24 Mar 1458 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 40) presided at Westminster Abbey [Map] at a ceremony known as the "Loveday". John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 22), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 29), Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke Somerset (age 22), Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 36), Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 35) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 28) attended in an attempt to reconcile the Lancastrian and Yorkist factions.