1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War

1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War is in 15th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Battle of Blore Heath

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 23 Sep 1459. Ande this year was done a grete jornaye at the Blowre Hethe by the Erle of Saulysbury (age 59) ande the Quenys galentys. And that day the King made vij knyghtys, first, Syr Robert Molyners, Syr John Daune, Syr Thomas Uttyng, Syr John Brembly, Syr Jon Stanley, Syr John Grysly, and Syr Rychard Hardon; and v of thes knyghtys were slayne full manly in the fylde, and many men of yemonry soore hurte, and a full nobylle knyght, the Lord Audeley (age 61), and Syr Thomas Hamdon, knyght, was the getynge of the fylde, and Thomas Squyer and Counteroller of the Pryncys house full sore hurte. And [the] batayle or jornay lastyd alle the aftyr none, fro one of the clocke tylle v aftyr non, and the chasse lastyd unto vij at the belle in the mornynge. And men were maymyd many one in the Quenys party. There were in the Quenys party vM [Note. 5000], and in that othyr party vC [Note. 500], a grete wondyr that evyr they might stonde the grete multytude not ferynge, the King beyng with yn x myle and the quene (age 29) with yn v myle at the castelle of Egyllyssale [Map]. But the Erle of Saulysbury (age 59) hadde ben i-take, save only a Fryer Austyn schot gonnys [Note. shot guns] alle that nyght in a parke that was at the backe syde of the fylde, and by this mene the erle come to Duke of Yorke (age 48). And in the morowe they founde nothyr man ne ehylde in that parke but the fryer, and he said that for fere he a-bode in that parke alle that nyght. But in the mornyng, by-twyne the fylde and Chester, Syr John Dawne is son that was at home in his fadyrs place hadde worde that his fadyr was slayne; a-non he raysyd his tenantys and toke by-syde a lytyl towne i-namyd Torperlay [Map] Syr Thomas Nevyle (age 29), Syr John Nevyle (age 28), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (age 59), and brought them unto the castelle of Chester, ande there they a-boode tylle the batayle of Northehampton was done, &c.

Chronicle of Robert Fabyan 1459. 23 Sep 1459. And in processe of time after, as he was riding towarde Salysbury, or, after some, from his lodging toward London, the lord Audley, with a strong company, was assigned to meet with him, and as a prisoner to bring him unto London. Whereof the said Earl being warned, gathered unto him the more men, and keeping his journey, met with the said Lord Audley at a place callyd Blore Heth, where both companies ran together and had there a strong bickering; whereof in theendthe Earl was victour, and slew there the Lord Audley and many of his retinue. At this skirmish were the. ii. sons of the said Earl sore wounded, named Sir Thomas and Sir John ; the which shortly after, as they were going homewarde, were by some of the queen's party taken, and as prisoners sent unto Chester. When this was known unto the Duke of York and to the other lordys of this party, they knew and understood, that if they provided not shortly for remedy for themself, they should all be destroyed. And for that, they by one assent gathered to them a strong host of men, as of Marchemen and other, and in the month of October, that was in the beginning of the XXXVIII. year of the reign of King Henry, and the later end of this mayor's year, they drew them toward the King, to the entent to remove from him such persons as they thought were enemies unto the common weale of England. But the Queen and her cousel hearing of the intent and strength of these lords, caused the King in all haste to send for the comissions to gather the people, so that in short while the King was strongly accompanied, and so sped him upon his journey toward the Duke of York and his company.

On 23 Sep 1459 John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 58) attempted to ambush John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 28) whilst he was travelling to Ludlow [Map] to join up with the main Yorkist army; the Battle of Blore Heath. Forewarned by scouts he arranged his troops into battle order. The Yorkist army included John Conyers (age 48), Thomas Harrington (age 59), James Harrington (age 29), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 59), William Stanley (age 24), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 26), John Savile, Walter Strickland (age 48) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 59).

The Lancastrian army included brothers John Dutton, Thomas Dutton (age 38) and Peter Dutton who were killed.

James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley, 2nd Baron Tuchet (age 61) was killed by Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 26). His son John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 33) succeeded 6th Baron Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire, 3rd Baron Tuchet. Anne Echingham Baroness Audley Heighley (age 39) by marriage Baroness Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire, Baroness Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire.

John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 58) and Edmund Dudley (age 34) were captured. Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles (age 53) fought.

Richard Molyneux of Sefton was killed.

John Egerton (age 55) was killed.

After the battle Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 29) took refuge at Eccleshall Castle, Staffordshire [Map].

After the battle Thomas Harrington (age 59), John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 28) and Thomas Neville (age 29) were captured at Acton Bridge Tarporley [Map] and imprisoned at Chester Castle [Map] having been detached from the main Yorkist force.

William Troutbeck (age 23) was killed.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Battle of Ludford Bridge

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. Ande this same year there was a grete afray at Lodlowe by twyne the King (age 37) and the Duke of Yorke (age 48), the Erle of Salusbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwyke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17). The Duke of Yorke lete make a grete depe dyche and fortefyde it with gonnys, cartys, and stakys, but his party was ovyr weke, for the kyng was mo then xxxM [Note. 3000] of harneysyd men, by-syde nakyd men that were compellyd for to come with the King. And thenne the duke (age 48) fledde fro place to place in Walys, and breke downe the bryggys aftyr him that the kyngys mayny schulde not come aftyr hym. And he wente unto Monde. And there he taryd tylle the jornay was endyd at Northehampton. And he made newe grotys of a newe kune in Irlonde; in on syde of the grote was a crowne and in that othyr syde a crosse. And there he made many newe statutys, and his yong sonys [King Edward V of England and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York] were sende by yende the see unto the Duke of Burgayne (age 25) [Note. Husband of Edward's sister Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 13)], and they were full welle ande worschypfully ressayvyd.

Chronicle of Robert Fabyan 1459. 12 Oct 1459. Where of hearing the said Duke, then being with his people near unto the town of Ludlow, picked there a sure and strong field, that none of his foes might upon any part enter. Where he so lying, came to him from Calais, the Earl of Warwick with a strong band of men, among the which was Andrew Trollope, and many other of the best soldiers of Calais. The Duke thus keeping his field upon that one party, and the king with his people upon that other, upon the night preceeding the day that both houses should have met, the forenamed Andrewe Trollope, with all the cheif soldiers of Calais, secretly departed from the Duke's host and went unto the kings, where they were joyously received. When this thing to the Duke and the other lords was ascertained, they were therewith sore dismayed, and especially, for the said lordes had to the said Andrew showed the whole of their entities, which then they knew well should be clearely discovered unto their enemies: wherefore, after counsel for a remedie taken, they concluded to flee, and to leave the field standing as they had been present and still abidyng. And so incontently the saide Duke with his two sons, and a few other persons, fled towarde Wales, and from thence passed safely into Irelande. And the earls of Salesbury, of Marche, and of Warwick, and other, with a secret company also departed and took the way into Devonshire, where a squire named John Dynham (age 26), which after was a lorde and High Treasurer of England, and so lastly in Henry the VII's days and sixteenth year of his reign died, [which John Dynham foresaid]1 bought a ship for aa hundredn and ten markys, or eleven score nobles; and in the same ship the said lords went, and so sailed into Gernesey. And when they had a season there sojourned and refreshed themselves, they departed thence, as in the beginning of the next mayor's year shall be clearly shown. Upon the morrow, when all this couyne was known to the kyng and the lords upon his party, there was sending and running with all speed toward every coast to take these lords, but none might be found. And forthwith the King rode unto Ludlow and despoiled the town and castle, and sent the Duchess of York, with her children, unto the Duchesse of Buckingham her sister, where she rested long after.

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow [Map]. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope refused to fight against King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 37) who was present.

The Yorkist Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 48), the future King Edward IV of England (age 17), Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 59) left overnight before the battle.

John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 26) and Thomas Parr (age 52) were present.

The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl of Arundel (age 41).

Richard Grey 3rd Earl Tankerville (age 22) was present on the Yorkist side for which he was subsequently attainted. Earl Tankerville forfeit.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Parliament of the Devils

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. Oct 1459. Ande thes fore said lordys sende letters unto many placys of Inglonde howe they were a vysyde to reforme the hurtys and myschevys ande grevys that raynyd in this londe; and that causyd them moche the more to be lovyde of the comyns of Kente and of London; and by this mene the comyns of Kent sende them worde to ressayve them and to go with them in that a-tente that they wolde kepe trewe promys, and as for the more parte of this londe hadde pytte that they were attaynte and proclaymyd trayters by the Parlement at was holde at Covyntre.

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham (age 39) was elected Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry [Map]. The primary purpose of the Parliament was to attaint the Yorkist leaders:

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 48), his sons Edward Earl of March (age 17), Edmund Earl of Rutland (age 16) were attainted, as were Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 59) and his sons Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30) and John Neville 1431-1471 (age 28).

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, 1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Calendars. 30 Oct 1459. Farnham Royal, Buckinghamshire [Map]. Commission of array to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (age 54), knight, and the sheriff of Kent in Kent, to resist Richard, duke of York (age 48), Edward Earl of March (age 17), Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 30), and Richard, Earl of Salisbury (age 59), and their accomplices, leagued in rebellion against the king and crown and allowed by certain persons having the keeping of the town and castle of Calais [Map] to enter the same contrary to the king's mandates, and now preparing to arouse congregations and insur rections in the said county; and appointment of the same to arrest all ships and other vessels late of the said Earl of Warwick and all the tackling thereof and to keep the same for the king's use. By K.

Calendars. Membrane 27d. 08 Nov 1459. Commission to John de Clyfford (age 24) to arrest all lands, possessions and goods of any rebels in Westmoreland, except of those whom the king has taken into his protection. By K.

Calendars. 10 Dec 1459. Coventry [Map]. Commission to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (age 54), knight, Thomas Broun, knight, and the mayor of Sandwich to take near Sandwich, Kent [Map] the muster of the men at arms and archers ordered to go on the safe keeping of the sea in the company of Gervase Clyfton (age 54), knight, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery. By K.

Commission to Thomas Kyryell (age 63), knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Broun, knight, John Seyncler, esquire, and Richard Dalafeld, esquire, to take near Sandwich, Kent [Map] the muster of the men at arms and archers ordered to go on the safe-keeping of the sea in the company of Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (age 54), knight, as above. By K.

Chronicle of England by William of Worcester. [Jan 1460]. And shortly after the said feast, John Dynham (age 27), with others from Calais, secretly entered Sandwich [Map], and there captured Lord Rivers (age 55) and Anthony Woodville (age 20) his son, with many large ships, and brought them to Calais, where the Earls of March (age 17), Warwick (age 31), and Salisbury (age 60) were present.

Et cito post dictum festum Johannes Denham cum aliis de Calesiæ secrete intravit Sandwycum, ac ibidem cepit dominum de Reverys et Antonium Widwele filium ejus, cum multis magnis navibus, et adduxit Calisiæ, comitibus Marchiæ et Warrewici et Sarum, Calisiæ existentibus.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 15 Jan 1460. But the Erle of Warwycke (age 31) come unto Sondewyche [Map], and there he toke the Lord Rivers (age 55) with his ladye (age 45), the lady and Duchyes of Bedfordeb and brought them to Calys, for he was commaundyd to have londyd at C[a]lys by the King, but he was brought there sonner then him lekyd.

Note b. Jaquetta (age 45), widow of the Regent Bedford. She was the daughter of Peter of Luxemburg, Count of St. Pol, and soon after her first husband's death married Sir Richard Woodville (age 55), who was created Baron Rivers by Henry VI. in 1448, and Earl Rivers by Edward IV. (who was his son-in law) in 1466.

On 15 Jan 1460 Yorkist forces commanded by John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 31) raided Sandwich, Kent [Map] capturing a number of Lancastrian ships. In addition, the Woodville family: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 55), his wife Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 45) and their son Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 20) were captured.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, 1460 June Raid on Sandwich

Around 05 Jun 1460 when the relief expedition led by Osbert Mountfort was ready to to leave Sandwich, Kent [Map] for Guines, waiting only for a fair wind, the Yorkists John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 27), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 60), William Neville Baron Fauconberg (age 55) crossed from Calais and attacked Sandwich, Kent [Map] killing many of Osbert's men. Osbert Mountfort was captured. William Neville Baron Fauconberg (age 55) remained at Sandwich is preparation for the subsequent landing by Yorkist forces at the end of the month.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, 1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

Calendars. Membrane 17d. 08 May 1460. Commission to Thomas Kiriell (age 64), knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Westminster. Broun, knight, John Fogge, Robert Home and William Hexstall, to take near Sandwich, Kent [Map] the muster of all men at arms and archers ordered to go with Henry, duke of Exeter (age 29), on the safe-keeping of the sea to resist the king's rebels and enemies, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery.

Calendars. Membrane 13d. 23 May 1460. Commission to Osbert Mountford and John Baker, esquires, ordered, Coventry, by advice of the council, to bring 200 men at arms and archers to Henry, duke of Somerset (age 24), for the safe keeping and defence of the castle and town of Guysnes and to resist the king's rebels and enemies, appointing them to arrest ships and vessels necessary herein and masters and mariners therefor.

Commission to Thomas Thorp, Thomas Kiriell (age 64), knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Broun, knight, Henry Lowes, esquire, John Scot and Robert Home, to take the muster of the said Osbert Mountfort and John Baker and the said men at arms, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery.

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 21 Jun 1460. Alle soo thes for said lordys come agayne unto Sondewyche [Map] the xxj [21] day of June nexte folowyng. And the comyns of Kente and there welle-wyllers brought them to Lundon, and so forthe to Northehampton.

On 25 Jun 1460 Osbert Mountfort and two of his associates were beheaded on the sands at the foot of the Rysbank Tower [Map] by Yorkist sailors.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, 1460 Battle of Northampton

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 10 Jul 1460 And there they mete with the King and foughte manly with the kyngys lordys and mayny, but there was moche favyr in that fylde unto the Erle of Warwycke (age 31). And there they toke the King (age 38), and made newe offycers of the londe, as the chaunceler and tresyrar and othyr, but they occupy de not fo[r]thewith, but abode a seson of the comyng of Duke of York (age 48) out of Irlonde. And in that fylde was slayne the Duke of Bokyngham (age 57), stondyng stylle at his tente, the Erle of Schrovysbury (age 42), the Lord Bemond (age 50), and the Lord Egremond (age 37), with many othyr men. Ande many men were drownyd by syde the fylde in the revyr at a mylle. And that goode knyght Syr Wylliam Lucy (age 56) that dwellyd besyde Northehampton hyrde the gonne schotte, and come unto the fylde to have holpyn the King, but the fylde was done or that he come; an one of the Staffordys was ware of his comynge, and lovyd that knyght is wyffe (age 21) and hatyd hym, and a-non causyd his dethe.

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future King Edward IV of England (age 18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 31), Archbishop George Neville (age 28), William Neville 1st Earl Kent (age 55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham (age 45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the 1460 Battle of Northampton.

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 43) had started the day as part of the Lancastrian army but did nothing to prevent the Yorkist army attacking.

King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) was captured.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 57) was killed. His grandson Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 5) succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 7th Earl Stafford, 8th Baron Stafford.

John Talbot 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 42) was killed. His son John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 11) succeeded 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall, 12th Baron Strange Blackmere, 9th Baron Talbot.

Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 37) was killed.

John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont (age 50) was killed. His son William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 22) succeeded 2nd Viscount Beaumont, 7th Baron Beaumont.

William Lucy (age 56) was killed apparently by servants of a member of the Stafford family who wanted his wife Margaret Fitzlewis (age 21).

Thomas Tresham (age 40) fought.

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 22) and William Norreys (age 19) were knighted.

Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland was executed following the battle.

The battle was fought south of the River Nene [Map] in the grounds of Delapré Abbey.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Murder of Lord Scales

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 20 Jul 1460. As for the sege of the Towre, it is com1 and opyn i-knowe, I passe ovyr. But son aftyr the ende of the sege the Lord Schalys (age 63), that notabylle warryoure, was slayne at Synt Mary Overeyes [Map] with water men, and laye there dyspoyly nakyd as a worme. But the lordys were full sory of his dethe.

Note 1. Apparently the writer intended to say "commonly."

On 20 Jul 1460 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales (age 63) was murdered by boatmen whilst travelling from the Tower of London [Map] to Sanctuary, Westminster Abbey [Map]. His daughter Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers succeeded 8th Baroness Scales. She was, or had been married to, Henry Bourchier (the year of his death may been 1458). She was in 1466 married to Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 20), brother of King Edward IV's (age 18) wife Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 23); an example of the Woodville family marrying rich heiresses.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Siege of Roxburgh

On 03 Aug 1460 King James II of Scotland (age 29) was killed accidentally when a cannon exploded and he was hit by debris. He was buried at Holyrood Abbey, Holyrood. His son King James III of Scotland (age 9) succeeded III King Scotland.

William Douglas 3rd Lord Drumlanrig (age 20) was present.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 09 Sep 1460. Ande this same year the Duke of Yorke (age 48) come out of Yrlonde, and londyd at the Redde Clyffe in Loncaschyre, and his lyvery was whyte and brewe in her clothyng, and i-brawderyd a-bove with fetyrlockys. And this he come forthe towarde London; ande then his lady the duchyes (age 45) met with him in a chare i-coveryd with blewe felewette, and iiij pore coursserys theryn. And so he come to Habyngdon, and there he sende for trompeters and claryners to bryng him to London, and there he gave them baners with the hole armys of Inglonde without any dyversyte, and commaundyd his swerde to ben borne uppe ryghte be-fore hym; and soo he rode forthe unto Lundon tylle he come to Westemyster to Kyng Harrys palys ande there he claymyde the crowne of Inglonde.

On 10 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) claimed the Kingdom of England in Westminster Hall [Map] witnessed by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 42).

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. Oct 1460. Ande he kept King Harry there by fors and strengythe, tylle at the laste the King for fere of dethe grauntyd him the crowne, for a man that hathe by ly tylle wytte wylle son be a feryd of dethe, and yet I truste and bee-leve there was no man that wolde doo him bodely harme. But the lordys entretyd that Kyng Harry shuld rejoyse the crowne durynge his lyffe, and aftyr his lyffe that the crowne sholde returne unto the dukys is a hayrys as it requyrythe by that tytylle, and here uppon they were swore to ben faythefulle and trewe unto Kyng Harry. And alle so that it shulde [be] b graunte treson to them that spake any evyr c by the Duke of Yorke or his wife, or any of his chyldryn. And alle the lordys grauntyd there to, and soo it was proclaymyd in London and in many placys of Inglond. And that the for-said duke shulde have out of the crow[n]e yearly to his expence, for him and his hayrys durynge Kyng Harrys lyffe, xM [Note. 10000] marke in mony. Thys acordement was made the laste day of October.

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) was declared heir to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (age 7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) was created Prince of Wales, 1st Duke Cornwall. He was also appointed Lord Protector.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Battle of Worksop

On 16 Dec 1460 a Lancastrian force ambushed the forces of the Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) near Worksop, Nottinghamshire. Andrew Trollope fought for the Lancastrians. The only source for the battle is William of Worcester's book Annales rerum Anglicarum: "In December Parliament adjourned. And the Duke of York, with the Earl of Salisbury and many thousand armed men, were going from London to York, in December 1460, when a portion of his men, the van, as is supposed, or perhaps the scouts were cut off by the people of the Duke of Somerset (age 24) at Worsop".

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Battle of Wakefield

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 30 Dec 1460. Ande the same year, the xxx [30] day of December, the Duke of Exceter (age 30), the Duke of Somersett (age 24), the Erle of Northehomberlond (age 39), the Lord Roos (age 33), the Lord Nevyle (age 50), the Lord ClyfForde (age 25), with many mo lordys, knyghtys, squyers, and gentyllys, and the commyns of the Quenys party, met with the Duke of Yorke (age 49) at Wakefylde [Map], and there they made a grete jorney a-pon the lord and Duke of Yorke, and toke him and the Erle of Saulysbury (age 60), the Erle of Rutlond (age 17), and the Lord Haryngdon (age 18), and Syr Thomas Nevyle (age 30), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (age 60), and many mo knyghtys were take a slayne by syde alle the comyns. But this good Duke of Yorke with his lordys a-fore said loste her heddys; God have marcy on there soulys, for they loste in that jorneys the nombyr of xxvc [2500] men. And in the Quenys party were slay but ii c [200] men, &c.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Then come tydyngys of the comynge of þea Erle of Marche (age 18) unto London; then alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and said that

He that had Londyn for sake

Wolde no more to them take,

and said, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with this fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche (age 18)." And the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle out of hit, at a towne of his owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde [Map]; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was full sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for his fadyr the Duke of Yorke (age 49), and for his good brother the Erle of Rutlond (age 17), and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.

Note a. the repeated in MS.

Chronicle of England by William of Worcester. On the 29th of December1, at Wakefield, while the soldiers of the Duke of York (age 49) were wandering through the country seeking provisions, a dreadful battle occurred between the said Duke of Somerset (age 24), the Earl of Northumberland (age 39), and Lord Neville (age 50) with a large army, and the opposing party, where the Duke of York (age 49), Thomas Neville (age 30), son of the Earl of Salisbury (age 60), Thomas Harington (age 60), Thomas Parr, Edward Bourchier, James Pickering, and Henry Radford, as well as many other knights and esquires, and about two thousand commoners, were killed on the field. In the retreat after the battle, Lord CliffordLord Edmund, Earl of Rutland (age 17), son of the Duke of York (age 49), on the bridge at Wakefield [Map]. And on the same night, the Earl of Salisbury (age 60) was captured by the servant of Andrew Trollope. On the next day, at Pontefract, the Bastard of Exeter killed the said Earl of Salisbury (age 60), where, by the counsel of the lords, the lifeless bodies of the Duke of York, the Earl of Salisbury, and Rutland, Thomas Neville, Edward Bowcher, Thomas Harington, Thomas Parre, James Pykeryng, and John Harrowe of London, mercer, were beheaded, and their heads were placed on various parts of York. They crowned the head of the Duke of York with a paper crown in mockery.

xxix. die mensis Decembris apud Wakfelde, gentibus ducis Eborum vagantibus per patriam pro victualibus quærendis, factum est execrabile bellum inter dictum ducem Somercetiæ, comitem Northumbriæ ac dominum Nevylle cum magno exercitu et partem aliam; ubi occubuerunt in campo dux Eboracensis, Thomas Nevil, filius comitis Sarum, Thomas Haryngtone, Thomas Parre, Edwardus Bowcher, Jacobus Pykeryng, et Henricus Rathforde, ac etiam multi alii milites et armigeri, et plebs ad duo millia. Et in fugiendo post campum super pontem apud Wakefelde dominus de Clyfforde occidit dominum Edmundum, comitem de Rutlande, filium ducis Eboraci. Et eadem nocte comes Sarum captus est per servientem Andreæ Trolloppe. Et in crastino apud Pountfrett bastardus Exoniæ occidit dictum comitem Sarum, ubi per consilium dominorum decollaverunt corpora mortua ducis Eboracensis, et comitis Sarum et Ruttland, Thomas Nevyle, Edwardi Boucher, Thomas Haryngton, Thomæ Parre, Jacobi Pykeryng, et Johannis Harrowe de London, mercer, posueruntque capita eorum super diversas partes Eboraci. Caput quoque ducis Eboraci in despectu coronaverunt carta.

Note. The Battle of Wakefield took place on the 30th of December 1460.

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle [Map]. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30), Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon (age 25) and William Gascoigne XIII (age 30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), Henry Roos and Thomas St Leger (age 20).

The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) was killed. His son King Edward IV of England (age 18) succeeded 4th Duke York, 7th Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49), 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge.

Thomas Neville (age 30), and Edward Bourchier were killed.

Father and son Thomas Harrington (age 60) and John Harrington (age 36) were killed, the former dying of his wounds the day after.

William Bonville 6th Baron Harington (age 18) was killed. His daughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 7th Baroness Harington.

Thomas Parr (age 53) fought in the Yorkist army.

Following the battle Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland. William Bonville (age 40) was executed.

Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 17) was killed on Wakefield Bridge [Map] by John "Butcher" Clifford (age 25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher". Earl of Rutland extinct.

Chronicle of England by Jean de Waurin. Chapter 3.40. How the Duke of York and the Earl of Salisbury were defeated and killed through the treachery of Andrew Trollope and several other noble men.

The Duke of York, therefore, being retreated to Wakefield, upon hearing news that Queen Margaret was coming with a great force of armed men to fight him, accompanied by the Duke of Somerset, was greatly astonished, as he did not have sufficient troops at the moment to resist such great power. He and the Earl of Salisbury, along with others in their company, spoke together to conclude their affairs. They sent for men from all sides, fortifying themselves to the best of their ability within the town. However, all this was in vain because at the moment they were attacked, most of their men had gone out for foraging. Additionally, Andrew Trollope, who was a very cunning military man, told the Duke of Somerset that he knew well that they could not force the Duke of York out of the town without a great loss of men. He found a way throughout the night to dress his men in coats bearing the badge of the Ragged Staff, which belonged to the Earl of Warwick (age 33) and were recognized as such, thus they appeared to be four hundred of the bravest men, well-instructed in what they had to do secretly. Their plan was to go straight to the town and tell the Duke of York that they came from the county of Lancashire to aid him.

When the Duke of York, who never suspected treachery, saw these companions approaching, he was very joyful and allowed them inside the town. That same night, the Duke of York ordered a strong guard because he knew well that the Duke of Somerset was in the fields, intending to confront him with all his might.

But when day broke, Andrew Trollope, accompanied by other soldiers all wearing the badge of the Ragged Staff, sent word to the Duke of York, without revealing his identity, that they were a large force come to his aid. The Duke was overjoyed and marched out of the town with the intention of engaging his enemies. At that moment, Andrew Trollope, the traitor, knowing that the Duke of Somerset was nearby, initiated the skirmish, and the Duke of Somerset, ready for action, charged fiercely upon the Duke of York and his men. Quickly, Andrew Trollope and his group, as well as those who had been sent by him into the town that night, turned against the Duke of York and his followers. In this battle, the Duke of York, the Earl of Rutland his son, the Earl of Salisbury, Sir Thomas Neville his son, and many other noble men of their company were killed. This battle took place outside the town of Wakefield on the penultimate day of December in the year fourteen sixty. Queen Margaret was very joyful upon hearing this news, as were all those supporting her cause. On the other hand, the Earls of March and Warwick, who had lost their fathers in this battle, were deeply saddened and angered, but for the time being, they could not rectify the situation.

Croyland Chronicle. 30 Dec 1461. After the conclusion of these matters, towards the close of the same year, it being the week of our Lord's Nativity, the said Richard, duke of York, incautiously engaged the northern army at Wakefield which was fighting for the king, without waiting to bring up the whole of his own forces ; upon which, a charge was made by the enemy on his men, and he was without any mercy or respect relentlessly slain. There fell with him at the same place many noble and illustrious men ; and countless numbers of the common people, who had followed him, met their deaths there, and all to no purpose.

1897. Monument to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York on Manygates Lane [Map] at the location where he is traditionally thought to have been killed at the Battle of Wakefield.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Battle of Mortimer's Cross

On 02 Feb 1461 following the battle Owen Tudor (age 61) was beheaded in the Market Place, Hereford [Map]. He was buried thereafter in Greyfriars Church, Hereford in a tomb paid for by his son David Owen (age 2). Somewhat curious that his other son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 29) didn't contribute although the political situation may have made it difficult to do so.

Memorial to Owen Tudor (age 61) in the Market Place, Hereford [Map]. Somewhat incongruously between a toddlers merry-go-round and a baked potato stall on the day of our visit.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 02 Feb 1461. Alle so Edwarde Erle of Marche (age 18), the Duke of Yorke is son and heyre, hadde a gre jornaye at Mortymer is Crosse in Walys the secunde day of Februar nexte soo folowynge, and there he put to flyght the Erle of Penbroke (age 29), the Erle of Wylteschyre (age 40). And there he toke and slowe of knyghtys and squyers, and of the,a to the nomber of iij M1 [3000] ., &c.

Ande in that jornay was Owyn Tetyr (age 61) take and brought unto Herforde este, an he was be heddyde at the market place [Map], and his hedde sette a-pone the hygheyste gryce of the market crosse, and a madde woman kembyd his here and wysche a way the blode of his face, and she gate candellys and sette a-boute him brennynge, moo then a C [Note. One hundred]. Thys Owyne Tytyr (age 61) was fadyr unto the Erle of Penbroke (age 29), and hadde weddyd Quene Kateryn, Kyng Harry the VI (age 39). is modyr, wenyng and trustyng all eway that he shulde not be hedyd tylle he sawe the axe and the blocke, and whenn that he was in his dobelet he trustyd on pardon and grace tylle the coler of his redde vellvet dobbelet was ryppyd of. Then he said, "That hede shalle ly on the stocke that was wonte to ly on Quene Kateryns lappe," and put his herte and mynde holy unto God, and full mekely toke his dethe.

Alle soo the same day that the Erle of Marche (age 18) shulde take his jornaye towarde Mortymer is Crosse fro Herforde este [Map]b, he mousterd his many without the towne wallys in a mersche that is callyd Wyg mersche. And ovyr him men sayc iij [3] sonnys schynyng.[And over him men say three suns shining. This a reference to the Parhelion which occurred on the morning of the Battle of Mortimer's Cross.]

Note a. So in MS.

Note b. Haverfordwest. [Note. While the note suggests Haverfordwest we believe this is a reference to Hereford?]

Note c. saw.

On 02 Feb 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross, Herefordshire [Map] the future King Edward IV of England (age 18) commanded the Yorkist forces including William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 30), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 35), John Savage (age 17) and Roger Vaughan (age 51).

In the Lancastrian army Owen Tudor (age 61) (captured by Roger Vaughan (age 51)) and his son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 29) fought as well as James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40) and Henry Roos. Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth (age 68) were killed. Watkin Vaughan (age 66) and Henry Wogan (age 59) were killed.

Monument to the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross, Herefordshire [Map]. Note the mistake - Edward IV described as Edward Mortimer. The monument was erected by subscription in 1799.

Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth: In 1393 he was born to Nicolas ap Philip Deheubarth and Jonet Unknown at Sheffield.

Watkin Vaughan: Around 1395 he was born to Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam "Star of Abergavenny" Brecon. Around 1435 Watkin Vaughan and Elinor Wogan were married. The date based on his age being around twenty. The difference in their ages was 29 years.

Henry Wogan: In 1402 he was born to John Wogan at Wiston.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, 1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Henry VI

On 08 Feb 1461 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39) created four Garter Knights two of whom would be killed nine days later at the Second Battle of St Albans:

181st Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32).

182nd William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68).

183rd Thomas Kyriell (age 65).

184th John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61).

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Second Battle of St Albans

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Then come tydyngys of the comynge of þea Erle of Marche (age 18) unto London; then alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and said that

He that had Londyn for sake

Wolde no more to them take,

and said, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with this fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche (age 18)." And the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle out of hit, at a towne of his owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde [Map]; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was full sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for his fadyr the Duke of Yorke (age 49), and for his good brother the Erle of Rutlond (age 17), and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.

Note a. the repeated in MS.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xvij day nexte folowynge Kyng Harry (age 39) roode to Synt Albonys [Map], and the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) with hym, the Erle of Warwycke (age 32), the Erle of Arundelle (age 43), the Lord Bouser (age 30), the Lord Bonvyle (age 68), with many grete lordys, knyghtys, and squyers, and commyns of an C [Hundred] Ml men. And there they hadde a grete batayle whythe the Quene (age 30), for she come ever on fro the jornaye of Wackefylde tylle sche come to Synt Albonys, with alle the lordys a fore said; and her mayny and every lord is men bare her lordys leverey, that every man mighte knowe his owne feleschippe by his lyverey. And be-syde alle that, every man and lord bare the Pryncys (age 7) levery, that was a bende of crymesyn and blacke with esteryge is fetherys. The substance that gate that fylde were howseholde men and feyd men. I wene there were not v Mlmen that fought in the Quenys party, for [t]emoste parte of Northeryn men fledde a-way, and some were take and spoylyd out of her harnysse by the way as they fledde. And some of them robbyd evyr as they yede, a petyffulle thynge hit is to hyre hit. But the day before that batayle there was a jornay at Dunstapyl [Map]; but the kyngys mayny lackyd good gydyng, for some were but newe men of warre, for the chevyste captayne was a boucher of the same towne; and there were the kyngys mayny ovyr throughe only by the Northeryn men. And son aftyr the bocher, for schame of his sympylle gydynge and loste of the men, the nombyr of viij C, for very sorowe as it is said, hynge him selfe; and some men said that it was for loste of his goode, but dede he ys-God knowythe the trought.

And in the myddys of the batayle King Harry (age 39) wente unto his Quene (age 30) and for-soke alle his lordys, ande truste better to her party thenne unto his owne lordys. And then thoroughe grete labur the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) and the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) a schapyd a-waye; the Byschoppe of Exceter (age 29), that tyme Chaunceler of Ingelond, and brother unto the Erle of Warwycke, the Lord Bouser (age 30), whythe many othyr knyghtys, squyers, and comyns fledde, and many men slayne in bothe partys. And the Lord Bonevyle (age 68) was be-heddyd, the common sayynge that his longage causyd him to dye. The Prynce (age 7) was jugge is owne sylfe. Ande ther was slayne that manly knyght Syr Thomas Keryel (age 65). The nomber of ded men was xxxv C an moo [t]at were slayne. The lordys in Kyng Harrys (age 39) party pycchyd a fylde and fortefyd it full stronge, and lyke unwyse men brake her raye and fyld and toke a-nothyr, and or that they were alle sette a buskyd to batayle, the Quenys parte was at hond whythe them in towne of Synt Albonys [Map], and then alle [t]yng was to seke and out of ordyr, for her pryckyers come not home to bryng no tydyng howe ny that the Quene (age 30) was, save one come and sayd that she was ix myle of. And ar the goners and borgeners couthe levylle her gonnys they were besely fyghtyng, and many a gynne of wer was ordaynyd that stode in lytylle a-vayle or nought; for the burgeners hadde suche instrumentys that wolde schute bothe pellettys of ledde and arowys of an elle of lenghthe with vj fetherys, iij in myddys and iij at the othyr ende, with a grete mighty hedde of yryn at the othyr ende, and wylde fyre with alle. Alle thes iij thyngys they might schute welle and esely at onys, but in tyme of nede they couthe not schut not one of thes, but the fyre turnyd backe a-pon them that wold schute this iij thyngys. Also they hadde nettys made of grete cordys of iiij fethem of lengthe and of iiij fote brode, lyke unto an haye, and at every ij knott there was an nayl stondyng uppe ryght, that there couthe no man passe ovyr it by lyckely hode but he shulde be hurte. Alle so they hadde pavysse bore as a dore i-made with a staffe foldynge uppe and downe to sette the pavys where the lykyd, and loupys with schyttyng wyndowys to schute out at, they stondyng by hynde [t]e pavys, and the pavys as full of iijdnayle aftyr ordyr as they might stonde. And whenn her schotte was spende and done they caste the pavysse by-fore hem, then there might noo man come unto them ovyr the pavysse for the naylys that stode up-ryghte, but yf he wolde myschyffe him sylfe. Alle so they hadde a thynge made lyke unto a latysse full of naylys as the net was, but hit wolde be mevyd as a man wolde; a man might bryse it to-gedyr that the lengythe wolde be more then ij yerdys long, and yf he wolde he might hale it a brode, then hit wolde be iiij square. And that servyd to lye at gappys there at horsemen wolde entyr yn, and many a caltrappe. And as the substaunce of men of worschyppe that wylle not glose nor cory favyl for no parcyallyte, they cowthe not undyrstond that alle this ordenaunce dyd any goode or harme but yf it were a mong us in owre parte with Kyng Harry (age 39). There fore it is moche lefte, and men take them to mallys of ledde, bowys, swyrdys, gleyvys, and axys. As for speremen they ben good to ryde be-fore the foote men and ete and drynke uppe her vetayle, and many moo suche prety thyngys they doo, holde me excusyd thoughe I say the beste, for in the fote men is alle the tryste.

The Chronicle of St Albans by Abbot John Whethamstede. 17 Feb 1461. The Northerners indeed, upon approaching the town of the aforementioned First Martyr, and hearing that the King was nearby with a great army, along with some of his Lords, immediately entered the said town, desiring to take a route through its center and direct their army against the King's army. However, they were compelled to retreat by a few archers near the Great Cross, who stood in their way, and they fled with disgrace to the western end of the town; where, by way of the lane leading from the very end towards the North, up to the village of St. Peter, they obtained entrance and there engaged in a great conflict with a certain band of the King's army. Then, after quite a few were killed on both sides, they escaped to a heath called "Bernards Heath," near the northern end of the town, where they encountered with some larger forces, such as four or five thousand of the advance guard of the King's army, a much greater, indeed, a very fierce conflict for the time being. For if the Southerners had known how to press, persist, and endure as fiercely as they knew how to engage in battle and fight at the outset, they would undoubtedly have put all those boasting and blustering Northerners to flight again with disgrace to their homes, and forced them to curse, condemn, and even abhor the day and hour they presumed to leave their hiding places. But because, according to Vegetius, 'De Re Militari,' in every region those people who are Southern or Eastern, born nearer to the sun, have less blood than others because they are more dried out by the sun, therefore they are softer and more tender within themselves, and consequently less able to fight hand-to-hand against enemies: as also agrees with a certain Metrical writer, thus writing,—

"Whatever regions are exposed to the warmth of the sun,

the excessive mildness of the climate makes them too soft ,"

therefore the Southerners, who were fiercer at the beginning and superior in the field, were soon broken too quickly, and even faster, as they looked back and saw no one from the great army of the King rushing to their aid or preparing to help them, they soon turned their backs to the Northerners, fled through bushes and thickets, through hedges and woods, through various other impassable and watery places, to avoid the hands of the enemy and to save their lives."

Venientes utique Boreales ad villam dicti Proto-martyris, et Dominum Regem, cum exercitu magno, cum nonnullisque Dominis suis, deprope jacentem audientes, mox intraverunt villam dictam, cupientes per medium ejus iter arripere, et exercitum suum dirigere contra exercitum Regis. Attamen per paucos arcitenentes, deprope Magnam Crucem sibi obvios, compulsi erant retrorsum recedere, fugereque cum dedecore ad finem Occidentalem ville; ubi per venellam, quæ ducit ab ipso fine versus Boream, usque ad vicum Sancti Petri, impetrantes sibi ingressum, habuerunt ibidem cum quodam manipulo plebis de exercitu Domini Regis conflictum magnum. Deinde, non paucis tamen ex utraque parte prius interfectis, evadentes usque ad brueram, vocatam “Barnet Heath,” prope finem ville Borealem jacentem, habuerunt cum quibusdam copiis amplioribus, ut, puta, cum quatuor vel quinque millibus de præcursoribus exercitus Domini Regis, conflictum majorem, immo, permaximum, et pro tempore satis ancipitem. Nam si scivissent Australes adeo acriter instare, perstare, et perseverare, sicut sciverunt inire prœlium, in principioque pugnare, fugassent infallibiliter istos boantes balatrantesque Boreales omnes iterum cum dedecore ad suas sedes, coegissentque eos damnasse, condemnasse, ac etiam execrasse, diem et horam in quibus egredi præsumpserunt de latibulis suis. Sed quia, secundum Vegetium, “De Re Militari,” in omni regione populi illi qui Australes sunt, vel Orientales, propinquius soli nati, minus aliis habent sanguinis, quia magis per solem desiccati, ideo molliores tenerioresque in se sunt, et ex consequenti ad pugnandum contra hostes cominus inhabiliores: prout etiam concordat secum Metricus quidam, ita scribens,—

“Quicquid ad Eoos tractus, cœlique teporem,

Vergitur, emollit nimium clementia cœli,”

ideo Australes, qui acriores fuerunt in principio, superioresque in campo, frangebantur posterius cito nimis, in tantoque citius, in quanto respicientes retro, et neminem videntes de prægrandi exercitu Domini Regis accurrentes, sive se disponentes ad præstandum succursum ipsis, mox dorsum dederunt Borealibus, fugeruntque per rubos et dumos, per sepes et sylvas, per locaque alia varia, invia et inaquosa, ad declinandum manus hostium, et ad salvandum vitas suas.

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 45), Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 26), Henry Roos and Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 33).

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme (age 46), John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 12) and Thomas Tresham (age 41) were knighted.

The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl of Arundel (age 43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 30) was captured. Robert Poynings (age 42) and James Luttrell (age 34) were killed.

John Grey (age 29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 24) subsequently married King Edward IV of England (age 18).

During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) and Thomas Kyriell (age 65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (age 39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.

William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) was beheaded. His great granddaughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 2nd Baroness Bonville.

Thomas Kyriell (age 65) was beheaded.

William Cotton (age 21) was killed.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Proclamation of Edward IV as King

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Alle soo the xxvj [26] day of Februer nexte folowyng Edwarde Erle of Marche (age 18) com to London owt of Walys and the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) with hym, and xl M1 [40,000] men with them bothe, and they enteryd unto the cytte of London, and there he toke uppon him the crowne of Inglond by the avysse of the lordys spyrytual and temporalle, and by the elexyon of the comyns. And so he began his rayne the iiij day of Marche, in the year of our lord God M1CCCC lxj [1461], the Sondy letter D as for that year.

On 04 Mar 1461 King Edward IV of England (age 18) declared himself King of England. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 30) was present.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Battles of Ferrybridge

On 27 Mar 1461 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32) fought at Ferrybridge with John Radclyffe Baron Fitzwalter (age 35) capturing the bridge.

On 28 Mar 1461 a further skirmish occurred near Ferrybridge. Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32) fought. John Radclyffe Baron Fitzwalter (age 35) was killed. For Lancaster John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 25) and John Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 51).

On 28 Mar 1461 John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 25) was killed at Dintingdale during a skirmish. William Neville 1st Earl Kent (age 56) fought for York. His son Henry "Shepherd Lord" Clifford 10th Baron Clifford (age 7) succeeded 10th Baron de Clifford, 10th Lord Skipton.

Hall's Chronicle 1461. 28 Mar 1461. The lusty king Edward, perceiving the courage of his trusty friend the earl of Warwick, made proclamation that all men, which were already to fight, should incontinent [ie quickly] depart, and to all me that tarried the battle, he promised great rewards with this addition, that if any soldier, which voluntarily would abide, and in, or before the conflict fly, or turn his back, that then he that could kill him should have a great remuneration and double wages. After this proclamation ended the lord Fauconberg, sir Water Blount, Robert Home with the forward, passed the river at Castleford three miles from Ferrybridge, intending to have environed and enclosed the lord Clifford and his company, but they being thereof advertised, departed in great haste toward king Henry's army, but they meet with some that they looked not for, and were trapped or they were ware [?]. For the lord Clifford, either bridge for heat or pain, putting of his gorget, suddenly with an arrow (as some say) without an head, was struck into the throat, and incontinent rendered his spirit, and the earl of Westmorland's brother and all his company almost were there slain, at a place called Dintingdale, not far from Towton. This end had he, which slew the young earl of Rutland, kneeling on his knees: whose young son Thomas Clifford was brought up with a shepherd, in poor habit, and dissimuled behaviour ever in fear, to publish his lineage or degree, till king Henry the vii obtained the crown, and got the diadem: by whom he was restored to his name and possessions.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. And the xxviij day of Marche, that was Palme Sunday evyn, the Lord Fewater (age 35) was slayne at Ferybryge, and many with him was slayne and drownyd. And the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) was hurte yn his legge with an arowe at the same jornaye.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Battle of Towton

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xxix [29] day of the same monythe of Marche, that was þe Palme Sunday, the kyng (age 18) mette with the lordys of the Northe at Schyrborne. And there was on Harrys party that was King-

Prynce Edwarde (age 7), Kyng Harrys son.

The Duke of Exceter (age 30).

The Duke of Somersett (age 25).

The Erle of Northehumberlond (age 39).

The Erle of Devynschyre (age 29).

The lord Roos.

The lord Bemound (age 33).

The lord Clyfforde (deceased).

The lord Nevyle.

The lord Wellys (age 51).

The lord Wylby (age 40).

The lord Harry of Bokyngham.

The lord Rivers (age 56).

The lord Schalys.

The lord Maule (age 50).

The lord Ferys of Groby (age 23).

The lord Foschewe. [Possibly John Fortescue (age 67)]

The lord Lovelle (age 28).

Syr Thomas Hammys, captayne of alle the fote men.

Syr Androwe Thorlloppe.

Syr Thomas Tressam (age 41).

Syr Robert Whytyngham (age 32).

Syr John Dawne.

And the yonge Lord of Schrouysbury (age 12), and many moo othyr, bothe lordys, knyghtys, and squyers.

Here ben the namys of the lordys that were slayne in the felde in King Harrys (age 39) party.

The Erle of Northehumberlond (age 39),

The lord Clyfforde (deceased),

The lord Nevyle (age 51),

The lord Wellys (age 51),

The lord Maules (age 50),

And many moo then I can reherse; but whythe [t]es and othyr that were slayne in the fylde is a grete nombyr, by syde xlij [42] knyghtys that were slayne aftyr; the hoole nombyr is xxxv M1 [35000] of comeners. Jhesu be þou marcyfulle unto her soulys. Amen.

And the lordys before wretyn fledde, the substance in to Schotlond with the King Harry (age 39) and Quene Margarete (age 31), and son the Prynce (age 7) with hym, full of sorowe and hevynys, no wondyr. God knowythe, but every man deme the beste tylle the trought be tryde owte. For many a lady lost her beste be lovyd in that batayle.

Hall's Chronicle 1461. 29 Mar 1461. When this conflict was ended at Ferrybridge, the lord Fauconberg, having the forward, because the duke of Norfolk was fallen sick, valiantly upon Palm Sunday in the twilight, set forth his army, and came to Saxton, where he might apparently perceive the host of his adversaries, which were accompted 40,000 men, and thereof advertised king Edward, whose whole army, they that knew it, and paid the wages, affirm to 48,640 persons, which incontinent [ie. quickly] with the earl of Warwick set forward leaving the rereward under the governance of sir John Wenlock, and sir John Dinham and other. And first of all he made proclamation, that no prisoner should be taken, nor one enemy saved. So the same day about nine of the clock, which was the 29th day of March, being Palm Sunday, both the hosts approached in a plain field, between Towton and Saxton. When each part perceived other, they made a great shout, and at the same instant time, their fell a small snyt or snow, which by violence of the wind was driven into the faces of them, which were of king Henry's parte, so that their sight was somewhat blemished and diminished. The lord Fauconberg, which led the forward of king Edward's battle (as before is rehearsed) being a man of great policy, and of much experience in martial feats, caused every archer under his standard, to shot one flight (which before he caused them to provide) and then made them to stand still. The northern men, feeling the shoot, but by reason of the snow, not well viewing the distance between them and their enemies, like hardy men shot their sheaf arrows as fast as they might, but all their shot was lost, and their labour vain for they came not near the Southerners, by forty tailor's yards. When their shot was almost spent, the lord Fauconberg marched forward with his archers, which not only shot their own whole sheaves, but also gathered the arrows of their enemies, and let a great part of them fly against their own masters, and another part they let stand on the ground which sore annoyed the legs of the owners, when the battle joined. The earl of Northumberland, and Andrew Trollope, which were chieftains of king Henries vanguard, seeing their shot not to prevail, hastened forward to join with their enemies: you may be sure the other part northing retarded, but valiantly fought with their enemies. This battle was sore fought, for hope of life was set on side on every part and taking of prisoners was proclaimed as a great offence, by reason whereof every man determined, either to conquer or to die in the field. This deadly battle and bloody conflict, continued, ten hours in doubtful victory. The one parte. some time flowing, and sometime ebbing, but inconclusive, king Edward so courageously comforted his men, refreshing the weary, and helping the wounded, that the other part was discomfited and overcome, and like men amassed, fled toward Tadcaster bridge to save themselves: but in the mean way there is a little brook called Cock, not very broad, but of a great deepness, in the which, what for haste of escaping, and what for fear of followers, a great number were drenched and drowned, in so much that the common people there affirm, that men alive passed the river upon dead carcasses, and that the great river of Wharfe, which is the great sewer of the brook, and of all the water coming from Towton, was coloured with blood. The chase continued all night, and the most part of the next day, and every Northern men, when they saw or perceived any advantage, returned again and fought with their enemies, to the great loss of both partes. For in this three days were slain (as they knew it wrote) on both partes 36,740 persons, all Englishmen and of one nation whereof the chief were the earls of Northumberland, and Westmorland and the lord Dacres the lord Welles, sir John Neville, Andrew Trollope, Robert Home, and many other Knights and Esquires, and the earl of Devonshire taken prisoner, but the dukes of Somerset and Exeter fled from the field and saved themselves. This conflict was in manner unnatural, for in it the son fought against the father, the brother against the brother, the nephew against the uncle, and the tenant against his lord, which slaughter did not only sore debilitate and much weaken the puissance of this realm, considering that these dead men, when they were living had force enough to resist the greatest princes power of all Europe: But also gave a courage to outward enemies and foreign potentates, to invade and make war in this realm, which thing was not unlikely to have ensued, if either Louis the French king had been at this time quiet in his realm, or James king of Scots had been of age and master of him self, yet thanked he God, for although the gate of a conquest were opened, yet it was shut again, or it was espied.

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for King Edward IV of England (age 18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.

The Yorkist army was commanded by King Edward IV of England (age 18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 45), William Neville 1st Earl Kent (age 56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 30) (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy (age 45), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 57), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 23) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61).

The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Richard Percy (age 35), Ralph Bigod Lord Morley (age 50), John Bigod (age 28), Robert Cromwell (age 71), Ralph Eure (age 49), John Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 51), John Beaumont (age 33), Thomas Dethick (age 61), Everard Simon Digby, William Plumpton (age 25) and William Welles (age 51) who were killed.

Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39) was killed. His son Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 12) succeeded 4th Earl of Northumberland, 7th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 15th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland (age 3) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 49) was killed. He was buried at the nearby Saxton church where his chest tomb is extant. Baron Dacre Gilsland extinct.

Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles (age 55) was killed. His son Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 33) succeeded 7th Baron Welles.

The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 25), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39) and Andrew Trollope.

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30) was attainted after the battle; Duke Exeter, Earl Huntingdon forfeit.

Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme (age 46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 60), William Norreys (age 20), Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey of Richemont (age 43), Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns (age 30), John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 33), Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde (age 39), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 22), Henry Roos and Thomas Tresham (age 41). Cardinal John Morton (age 41) were captured.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 03 Apr 1461. The Erle of Devynschyre (age 29) was seke, and might not voyde a waye, and was take and be heddyd. And the Erle of Wylte schyre (age 40) was take and brought unto Newe Castell [Map] to the King. And there his hedde was smete of, and send unto London to be sette uppon London Brygge [Map]. And Docter Morton (age 41), the Prynces chaunceler, was take with him and put in the Towre, but he schapyd a way long tyme aftyr, and is by yonde the see with the Quene, &c.

On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon (age 29) was beheaded at York [Map] and attainted. Earl Devon forfeit..

John Heron of Ford Castle Northumberland (age 45), Robert Dethick (age 86), Andrew Trollope and his son David Trollope were killed.

Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey of Richemont (age 43) was executed.

Paston Letters Volume 2 450. 04 Apr 1461. William Paston and John Playters to John Paston (age 39).

To my maister, John Paston, in hast,

Please you to knowe and wete of suche tydyngs as my Lady of York hath by a lettre of credens, under the signe manuel of oure Soverayn Lord King Edward, whiche lettre cam un to oure sayd Lady this same day, Esterne Evyn, at xj. clok, and was sene and red by me, William Paston.

Fyrst, oure Soverayn Lord (age 18) hath wonne the feld, and uppon the Munday next after Palmesunday, he was resseved in to York with gret solempnyte and processyons. And the Mair the Yorkist cause and Comons of the said cite mad ther menys to have grace be Lord Montagu (age 30) and Lord Barenars (age 45), whiche be for the Kyngs coming in to the said cite desyred hym of grace for the said cite, whiche graunted hem grace. On the Kyngs parte is slayn Lord Fitz Water (deceased), and Lord Scrop (age 23) sore hurt; John Stafford, Horne of Kent ben ded; and Umfrey Stafford, William Hastyngs (age 30) mad knyghts with other; Blont is knygth, &c.

Un the contrary part is ded Lord Clyfford (deceased), Lord Nevyle (deceased), Lord Welles (deceased), Lord Wyllouby, Antony Lord Scales, Lord Harry, and be supposyng the Erle of Northumberland, Andrew Trollop, with many other gentyll and comons to the nomber of xx.ml. (20000).

Item, Kyng Harry, the Qwen, the Prince, Duke of Somerset, Duke of Exeter, Lord Roos, be fledde in to Scotteland, and they be chased and folwed, &c. We send no er un to you be cause we had non certynges tyl now; for un to this day London was as sory cite as myght. And because Spordauns had no certeyn tydyngs, we thought ye schuld take them a worthe tyl more certayn.

Item, Thorp Waterfeld is yeldyn, as Spordauns can telle you. And Jesu spede you. We pray you that this tydyngs my moder may knowe.

Be your Broder,

W. PASTON.

T. PLAYTERS.

Comes Northumbriæ (deceased).

Comes Devon (deceased).

Dominus de Beamunde.

Dominus de Clifford (deceased).

Dominus de Nevyll (deceased).

Dominus de Dacre (deceased).

Dominus Henricus de Bokyngham.

Dominus de Well[es] (deceased).

Dominus de Scales Antony Revers.

Dominus de Wellugby.

Dominus de Malley Radulfus Bigot Miles.

Millites.

Sir Rauff Gray.

Sir Ric. Jeney.

Sir Harry Bekingham.

Sir Andrew Trollop.

With xxviij.ml. (28000) nomberd by Harralds.

On 01 May 1461 James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40) was beheaded at Newcastle upon Tyne [Map] having been captured at, or after, the Battle of Towton. His brother John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde (age 39) succeeded 6th Earl Ormonde. Earl Wiltshire forfeit.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1459-1461 Wars of the Roses: Second War, Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

Around Jun 1461, the record is very vague, King Edward IV (age 19) and Eleanor Talbot (age 25) were possibly secretly married by Bishop Robert Stillington (age 41). The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Bishop Robert Stillington (age 41) provided the information to the future King Richard III of England (age 8) in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since Edward IV's (age 19) children with Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 24) were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and George Duke of Clarence's (age 11) children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder.