1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown

1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown is in 15th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, Coronation of Edward IV

Around Jun 1461, the time of his coronation, King Edward IV of England (age 19) created his two brothers as Dukes ...

George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 11) was created 1st Duke Clarence.

King Richard III of England (age 8) was created 1st Duke Gloucester.

Warkworth's Chronicle 1461. 27 Jun 1461.... at the coronacyone1 of the forseyde Edwarde, he create and made dukes his two brythir, the eldere George (age 11) Duke of Clarence, and his yongere brothir Richard (age 8) Duke of Gloucetre; and the Lord Montagu (age 30)2, the Earl of Warwick (age 32)'s brothere, the Earl of Northumberlonde; and one William Stafford squiere, Lord Stafforde of Southwyke; and Sere Herbard (age 38), Lorde Herbard, and after Lorde Earl of Penbroke3; and so the seide Lorde Stafforde (age 22) was made Earl of Devynschire4; the Lorde Gray Ryffyne (age 44), Earl of Kent6; the Lorde Bourchyer (age 57), Earl of Essex; the Lorde Jhon of Bokyngham (age 33), the Earl of Wyltschyre5; Sere Thomas [Walter] Blount (age 45), knyghte, Lord Mont[joy]; Sere Jhon Hawarde, Lorde Hawarde (age 36)8; William Hastynges (age 30) he made Lorde Hastynges and grete Chamberlayne; and the Lorde Ryvers; Denham squyere, Lorde Dynham; and worthy as is afore schewed; and othere of gentylmen and yomenne he made knyghtes and squyres, as they hade desserved.

Note 1. At the coronacyone. King Edward was crowned in Westminster Abbey, on the 29th of June 1461. Warkworth's first passage is both imperfect and incorrect, and would form a very bad specimen of the value of the subsequent portions of his narrative; yet we find it transferred to the Chronicle of Stowe. It must, however, be regarded rather as a memorandum of the various creations to the peerage made during Edward's reign, than as a part of the chronicle. Not even the third peerage mentioned, the Earldom of Northumberland, was conferred at the Coronation, but by patent dated 27 May 1464: and the only two Earldoms bestowed in Edward's first year (and probably at the Coronation) were, the Earldom of Essex, conferred on Henry Viscount Bourchier, Earl of Eu in Normandy, who had married the King's aunt, the Princess Isabel of York; and the Earldom of Kent, conferred on William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, one of King Edward's generals at Towton. The former creation is mentioned by Warkworth lower down in his list; the latter is omitted altogether. - J.G.N.

Note 2. The Lord Montagu. And then Kyng Edward, concidering the greate feate doon by the said Lord Montagu, made hym Earl of Northumberlond; and in July next folowyng th'Earl of Warwyk, with th'ayde of the said Earl of Northumberland, gate agayn the castell of Bamborugh, wheryn was taken Sir Raaf Gray (age 29), which said Ser Raaf (age 29) was after behedid and quartred at York. Also, in this yere, the first day of May, the Kyng wedded Dame Elizabeth Gray (age 24), late wif unto the lord Gray of Groby, and doughter to the Lord Ryvers." - The London Chronicle, MS. Cotton. Vitell. A. xvi. fol. 126, ro. The MS. of the London Chronicle, from which Sir Harris Nicolas printed his edition, does not contain this passage. It is almost unnecessary to remark the chronological incorrectness of the above, but it serves to show how carelessly these slight Chronicles were compiled. Cf. MS. Add. Mus. Brit. 6113, fol. 192, rº. and MS. Cotton. Otho, B. XIV. fol. 221, ro.

Note 3. Lord Earl of Pembroke. William Lord Herbert of Chepstow (age 38), the first of the long line of Herbert Earls of Pembroke, was so created the 27th May 1468. His decapitation by the Duke of Clarence at Northampton in 1469, is noticed by Warkworth in p. 7.-J.G.N.

Note 4. Earl of Devynschire. Humphery Stafford (age 22), created Baron Stafford of Southwick by patent 24th April 1464, was advanced to the Earldom of Devon 7th May 1469; but beheaded by the commons at Bridgwater before the close of the same year, as related by Warkworth, ubi supra. - J.G.N.

Note 5. Earl of Wyltschyre. John Stafford (age 33), created Earl of Wiltshire, 5th Jan. 1470; he died in 1473.—J.G.N.

Note 6. "The Lorde Gray Ryffyne, Earl of Kent". The Earl of Kent, of the family of Neville, died without male issue, a few months after his elevation to that dignity; and it was conferred on the 30th May 1465, on Edmund Lord Grey de Ruthyn (age 44), on occasion of the Queen's coronation. He was cousin-german to Sir John Grey, of Groby, the Queen's first husband. On the same occasion the Queen's son Sir Thomas Grey (age 6) was created Marquess of Dorset; her father Richard Wydevile (age 56) lord Ryvers was advanced to the dignity of Earl Ryvers; and her brother Anthony (age 21) married to the heiress of Scales, in whose right he was summoned to Parliament as a Baron. - J.G.N.

Note 7. Sere Thomas Blount (age 45). This should be Walter, created Lord Montjoy 20th June 1465; he died in 1474.-J.G.N.

Note 8. Sere Jhon Hawarde, Lord Hawarde. John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 36). This peerage dates its origin, by writ of summons to Parliament, during the short restoration of Henry VI. in 1470, a circumstance more remarkable as "evidence exists that he did not attach himself to the interest of that Prince, being constitued by Edward, in the same year, commander of his fleet." See Sir Harris Nicolas's memoir of this distinguished person (afterwards the first Duke of Norfolk) in Cartwright's History of the Rape of Bramber, p. 189.-J.G.N.

On 27 Jun 1461 Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl of Arundel (age 11) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 28 Jun 1461. Ande the King (age 19) taryd in the Northe a grette whyle, a made grete inquerens of the rebellyens a-gayne his fadyr. And toke downe his fadyrs hedde fro the walle of Yorke [Map]. And made alle the contray to ben sworne unt him and to his lawys. And then he returnyd unto Lundon agayne. And there he made xviij [18] knyghtys and many lordys. And then he rode to Westemyster. And there he was crounyd the xxviij day of June, and the year of our lord M1CCCC lxj [1461], blessyd be God of his grete grace, etc.

On 28 Jun 1461 King Edward IV of England (age 19) was crowned IV King England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 43) who was assisted by Archbishop William Booth (age 73) at Westminster Abbey [Map] during the Coronation of Edward IV. Duke York, Earl March, Earl Ulster, Earl Cambridge merged with the Crown.

Brothers Robert Markham and Chief Justice John Markham were appointed Knight of the Bath.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, 1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Edward IV

In Apr 1461 King Edward IV of England (age 18) appointed new Garter Knights:

185th George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 11).

186th William Chamberlaine.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, Edward IV Rewards his Followers

On 26 Jul 1461 William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 30) was created 1st Baron Hastings for supporting King Edward IV of England (age 19) in his claim to the throne.

Robert Ogle 1st Baron Ogle (age 55) was created 1st Baron Ogle by King Edward IV of England (age 19) for having been the principal Northumbrian gentleman to support the Yorkist cause.

On 28 Jul 1461 Bishop Robert Stillington (age 41) was appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

Before 20 Feb 1462 John de Vere 12th Earl of Oxford (age 53), his son Aubrey de Vere (age 21) and Thomas Tuddenham (age 60) were arrested for treason against King Edward IV (age 19). They were subsequently tried by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 34).

On 20 Feb 1462 Aubrey de Vere (age 21) was executed at Tower Hill [Map].

On 23 Feb 1462 William Tyrrell (age 54), John Montgomery and Thomas Tuddenham (age 60) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. 26 Feb 1462. And this same year the Erle of Oxforde (age 53), the Lord Abbry, the lord of Oxforde (deceased) is sone, Syr Thomas Todenham (deceased) knyght, John Mongomery, and William Terelle (deceased) squyer, were takyn in Esex, and brought unto Lundon to the Towre [Map]. Ande thenne they were ledde to Westemyster to the Kings palys, and there they were attaynte of hyghe and mighthy treson that they ymagenyd agayne þe King. And then they were drawe to the Towre from Westemyster. And at the Towre hylle was made a schaffolde for them, and there her heddys were smetyn on, and her bodys beryd, as it plesyd them to be qwethe her bodys. See Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV.

On 26 Feb 1462 John de Vere 12th Earl of Oxford (age 53) was hanged at Tower Hill [Map]. His son John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 19) succeeded 13th Earl of Oxford.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, 1462 Creation of Garter Knights

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, Siege of Alnwick

In Jul 1462 William Douglas 3rd Lord Drumlanrig (age 22) fought at Alnwick Castle [Map] during the Siege of Alnwick.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, Battle of Piltown

Around Jul 1462 the Yorkist army of Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond defeated the Lancastrian army of John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde (age 40) at Piltown, Kilkenny, County Kilkenny. The Lancastrian army suffered around 1000 killed.

1462 Siege of Norham Castle

Around Jun 1462 a Scottish and Lancastrian force, including King James III of Scotland (age 10), his mother Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland (age 28), King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 40) and his wife Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 32), laid siege to Norham Castle [Map]. They held Norham for eighteen days until a force led by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 33) and his brother John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 31) advanced to Norham Castle [Map] at which time the Scottish and Lancastrian force fled in panic pursued by the Yorkist army. Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 32) and her son Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales (age 8) escaped to Berwick on Tweed [Map] and then to the continent. King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 40) remained in Scotland - he and his wife never saw each other again.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, Warwick becomes Kingmaker

Before 09 Dec 1462 Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury (age 55) died. Her son Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 34) succeeded 6th Earl Salisbury, 5th Baron Montagu, 8th Baron Montagu, 7th Baron Monthermer adding to the earldom of Warwick he had already acquired through his wife some fourteen years previously. The combined earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury made Warwick the second most powerful man in the Kingdom making him Kingmaker.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, 1463 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1463 King Edward IV of England (age 20) appointed new Garter Knights:

192nd Ferdinand I King Naples (age 39).

193rd Galeard Durefort (age 33).

194th John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 25).

195th Francesco Sforza I Duke Milan (age 61).

196th James Douglas 9th Earl Douglas 3rd Earl Avondale (age 37).

197th Robert Harcourt (age 52).

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. 01 May 1464. That same year, the first day of May before said or written, our sovereign lord the King, Edward the iiij (age 22), was wedded to the Lord Rivers (age 59) daughter; her name is Dame Elizabeth (age 27), that was wife unto Syr John Grey, son and heir unto the Lady Ferrers of Groby (age 45). And this marriage was kept full secretly long and many a day, that no man knew it; but men marvelled that our sovereign lord was so long without any wife, and were ever feared that he had be not chaste of his living.

Chronicle of Jean Molinet Chapter 94. [01 May 1464]. He was Duke of York before his coronation, a very elegant figure, tall and upright; he married a widow named Elizabeth, a somewhat noble woman of a coutier, and took her out of desire; they had two sons and two daughters. The first son was Prince of Wales, named Edward, the other was called George [Richard]; one was fourteen years old, the other twelve years old; and they were very well instructed in the liberal arts. One of the daughters was named Catherine, the other Elizabeth, who later married the Earl of Ricmond, King Henry of England the seventh of that name.

Il estoit duc d'Yorck avant sa coronation, très élégant personnage, hault et droit; il espousa une veufve nommée Elisabeth, à demi noble femme d'un pensionnaire, et la prinst par concupiscence; il en eut deux fils et deux filles. Le premier fils fut prince de Galles, nommé Edouard, l'aultre se nommoit George; l'un avoit quatorze ans, l'aultre douze ans; et furent fort bien instruits ès arts libéraux. L'une des filles fut nommée Catherine, l'autre Elisabeth, qui depuis fut mariée au comte de Ricemont, roy Henri d'Angleterre septième de ce nom.

Warkworth's Chronicle 1464. 01 May 1464. And while the said Earl of Warwick (age 35) was in France, the King was wedded to Elisabeth Gray (age 27)1, widow, the which Sir John Gray that was her husband was slaine at York field1 in King Harry's party, and the same Elisabeth was daughter to the Lord Rivers, and the wedding was privately in a secret place, the first day of May the year above said. And when the Earl of Warwick (age 35) came hame and heard thereof, then was he greatly displeased with the King, and after that rose great dissension ever more and more between the King and him, for that and other, &c, And then the King put out of the Chancellorership the Bishop of Exeter (age 32)2, brother to the Earl of Warwik (age 35), and made the Bishop of Bath (age 44)3 Chancellor of England. After that the Earl of Warwick (age 35) took to him in fee as many knights, squires, and gentlemen as he might, to be strong, and King Edward did that he might to feeble the Earl's power4. And yet they were accorded diverse times, but they never loved togedere after.

Note 1. The Kynge was wedded to Elizabethe Gray. See a most quaint narrative of this marriage in William Habington's Historie of Edward the Fourth, fol. 1640, pp. 33-35. I find it stated in one place (MS. Harl. 2408.) that Edward's mother attempted to hinder the marriage, by causing "another contract to be alleadged made by him with the Lady Elizabeth Lucy, on whom he had begot a child befor." She seems, indeed, to have been most hostile to this imprudent and unpopular connexion:

Married a woman? married indeed!

Here is a marriage that befits a king!

It is no marvaile it was done in hast:

Here is a bridall, and with hell to boote,

You have made worke."

Heywood's First Part of Edward IV. Sig. A. ij.

The author of Hearne's fragment, however, speaks in praise of the marriage, "Howbeit that lewde felow that drew this last brent cronicles, abusid himsel gretely in his disordrid wrizting for lakke of knowlege." (P. 293.)

Note 1. Slayne at Yorke felde. Sir John Grey2 was slain at the second battle of St. Alban's, fought on the 17th Feb. 1460-1. - J.G.N.

Note 2. The Bysshope of Excetre. George Neville (age 32), made Chancellor the 25th July 1460. He was translated to the archbishopric of York, 17th June 1465. - J.G.N.

Note 3. The Bysshope of Bath. Robert Stillington (age 44). He did not receive the seal until the 8th June 1468, previously to which Robert Kirkham had been Keeper. - J.G.N.

Note 4. Kyng Edwarde dide that he might to feble the Earls powere. We have, however, in an act passed subsequently to this period, an especial clause that the same act "be not prejudiciall or hurtyng unto Richard Neville, Earl of Warrewyk.” — Rot. Parl. 4 Edw. IV.

On 01 May 1464 King Edward IV of England (age 22) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 27) were married at Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire [Map]. Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 49), Elizabeth's mother, being the only witness. The date not certain. She the daughter of Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 59) and Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 49). He the son of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 48). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, Suppressing the Northumbrian Resistance

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. Around Jul 1464. Alle so the same somer my Lord of Warwycke (age 35) and his brether the Lord Mountegewe (age 33), that was made Erle of Northehumberlond by the King, they ij layde a sege unto the castelle of Anwyke [Map] a gate it by a-poyntement. And in the same wyse and forme they gate the castelle of Dunsterborowe [Map] by the same mene. And thenne they layd sege to the castelle of Bamborowe [Map], and layde grete ordynans and gonnys [Note. guns] there too. And manly they gate it by fors, and toke there yn that fals traytur Syr Raffe Gray (age 32), and brought him unto the King to the castelle of Pomfrete [Map]. And fro thens he was ladde to Dankester [Map], and there his hedde was smete of and sent to London, and it was sette a-pon Londyn Bryge [Map].

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1461-1464 Edward IV takes the Crown, Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

In Sep 1464 King Edward IV of England (age 22) announced his recent marriage at Privy Council to the astonishment of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 35) who had until recently been actively seeking a French Princess as Edward's future wife.

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. 01 Nov 1464. But on Alle Halowe day at Redyng there it was knowe, for there the King (age 22) kept his common counselle, and the lordys mevyd him and exorted him in Goddys name to ben weddyd and to lyffe undyr the lawe of God and Chyrche, and they wold sente in too some strong land to inquire a quene good of birth, according unto his dignity. And then our sovereign might not no longer hide his marriage, and told them howe he hadde done, and made that the marriage shuld be oppynde unto his lordys.