1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign

1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign is in 15th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Edward V created Prince of Wales

On 26 Jun 1471 Edward, the future Edward V, was created Prince of Wales. Thomas Vaughan (age 61) was knighted.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, 1472 Great Comet

Warkworth's Chronicle 1472. Jan 1472. And in [the] same xj. yere of the Kynge, in the begynnynge of of Januarij, there apperyd the moste mervelous blasynge sterre1 that hade bene seyne. It aroose in the southe este, at ij. of the cloke at mydnyghte, and so contynuede a xij. nyghtes; and it arose ester and ester, tille it aroose fulle este; and rather, and rather2; and so whenne it roose playne est, it rose at x. of cloke in the nyght, and kept his cours flamynge westwarde overe England; and it hade a white flaume of fyre fervently brennynge, and it flammede endlonges fro the est to the weste, and noʒt upryght, and a grete hole therin, whereof the flawme came oute of, And aftyre a vj. or vij. dayes, it aroose north-est, and so bakkere and bakkere; and so enduryd a xiiij. nyghtes, fulle lytelle chaungynge, goynge from the north-este to the weste, and some tyme it wulde seme aquenchede oute, and sodanly it brent fervently ageyne. And thenne it was at one tyme playne northe, and thenne it compassede rounde aboute the lodesterre, for in the evynynge the blase went ageyns the southe, and in the mornynge playne northe, and thenne afterwarde west, and so more west, flaumyng up ryghte; and so the sterre contynuede iiij. wekys, tylle the xx. day of Feveryere; and whenne it appered yest in the fyrmament, thenne it lasted alle the nyghte, somewhat discendyng withe a grettere smoke one the heyre. And some menne seyde that the blassynges of the seide sterre was of a myle length. And a xij. dayes afore the vanyschynge therof, it appereryd in the evynynge, and was downe anone within two oures, and evyr of a colour pale stedfast; and it kept his course rysynge west in the northe, and so every nyght, it apperide lasse and lasse tylle it was as lytelle as a hesylle styke; and so at the laste it waneschede away the xx. day of Februarij. And some menne saide that this sterre was seene ij. or iij. oures afore the sunne rysynge in Decembre, iiij. days before Crystynmasse, in the south-west; so by that reasoune it compassed rounde abowte alle the erthe, alle way chaungynge his cours, as is afore reherside.

Note 1. The most mervelous blasynge sterre. See an account of this comet in the Nuremburgh Chronicle, Edit. 1493, fol. 254, rº. " Longum radium in modum flamme ingentis ignis emittens." - MS. Arundel, Mus. Brit. 220, fol. 279, v °. This comet is a return of the one described in a manuscript of the fourteenth century in Sion College Library )xix. 2, fol. 155, vº, b.), and of which there is a drawing on fol. 155, vº, a. Cf. MS. Trin. Cantab. R. xv. 18; Bib. Publ. Cantab. KK. IV. 7.; MS. Cotton. Jul. F. xi.

I give the following fragment relative to this comet from a MS. in the library of Pembroke College, Cambridge:

"Quidam presumpcionis filius in consulto sermone procacique oracione, volgari verbo tenus ornata, preter phisicas et astrologicas tradiciones, quas tamen similabat, terrenda populo prenunciavit; sed quoniam sermones sui a tradicionibus antiquorum sapientium similiter et a via veritatis omnino semoti, indignos memoria eos putavi. Dicebat quidem, caudam comete moveri motu simili motui martis in epiciclo, ex quo plura nitebatur concludere. Sed quoniam, ut posterius dicitur, ipsa minus mobilis erat capite comete, imo etiam semper versus occidentem verum [quid] em ex circumvolucione ejus promotum diurno cauda ipsius quandoque respiciebat orientem, sed nunquam movebatur versus orientem. Etiam uno die omnes differencias posicionis mundi respiciebat; mars autem in suo epiciclo nequaquam ita faciebat. Et forsan nullus planetarum epiciclum habet quod magis putandum opinor. Dicebant et alii, cometam a suo astro sicut ferrum a magnete trahi; cui dissonant dicta partis prime de motu cometarum. Et etiam quoniam motus tractus per lineam fit brevissimam. Alio non existenti impedimento continuo mobili ad trahens approximante. Ipso quoque mobili existenti cum trahente, fixum, ad modum ligati, detineretur; quoniam ibi finis est motus tractus. Hæc patent septimo phisicorum libro ad concavum orbis lune delatus fuisset; horum contrarium experiencia lucidissime edocuit, quoniam nulli planetarum conabatur ab omnibus. Discedendo ab eclipticâ diversitas, etiam aspectus ejus, ad stellas sibi vicinas, certificavit ipsum magis distare a concavo orbis lune quam a terra, in triplo ferè. Aliqui eciam ni"... ατελ

Some son of presumption, in a deliberate and bold discourse, adorned with common words, beyond the physical and astrological traditions, which, however, he feigned, foretold terrifying things to the people; but because his speeches were altogether devoid of the traditions of the ancient sages and of the way of truth, I considered them unworthy of memory. Indeed, he said that the tail of the comet moved in a motion similar to the motion of Mars in its epicycle, from which he attempted to conclude many things. But because, as it is said later, the tail of the comet was less mobile than its head, and indeed sometimes turned towards the west due to its circumvolution, while during the day the tail itself sometimes faced the east, but never moved towards the east. Also, on one day, it observed all the differences in the position of the world; but Mars did not do so in its epicycle, as I think no other planet does. Others said that the comet was attracted to its star like iron to a magnet, which contradicted the statements of the first part regarding the motion of comets. And also because the motion along the line occurs very quickly, with no continuous obstacle to the moving object approaching the puller. Also, with the mobile object present with the puller, it remained fixed, as if bound, because there the motion along the line ends. These things would have been explained in the seventh book of physics concerning the concavity of the moon's orbit; experience has most clearly taught the opposite of these, as no planet attempted to escape from all. By departing from the ecliptic, the difference in its appearance also assured it was more distant from the concavity of the moon's orbit than from the earth, by almost threefold. Some even ni....

Much more matter relative to this comet might have been given, but, as these notes have already been extended disproportionately to the length of the text, I reserve them for another occasion.

Cf. MS. Tann. Bodl. 2. fol. 56, rº.

Note 2. Rather = earlier.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Arrest of Archbishop George Neville

Warkworth's Chronicle 1473. 25 Apr 1472. Also this yere, or a lytelle before, George the ArcheBishop of Yorke (age 40), and brother to the Earl of Warwick, was withe Kynge Edwarde at Wynsoure, and huntede, and hade there ryghte good chere, and supposid he hade stonde in grete favour with the Kynge: for the Kynge seid to the sayde Archebyschope that he wuld come for to hunte and disporte withe him in his manere at Moore; whereof he was ryghte glade, and toke his leve and went home to make purvyaunce therfore; and fett oute of Londone, and dyverse other places, alle his plate and othere stuffe that he hade hyde after Barnet felde and Teukysbury feld; and also borowede more stuff of other menne, and purveyde for the Kynge for two or iij. dayes for mete and drynke and logynge, and arayed as rychely and as plesauntly as he coude. And the day afore the Kynge schulde have comyne to the ArcheBishop, to the seid manere of Moore, whiche the saide Archebisshoppe hade purchasshed and byllede1 it ryghte comodiusly and plesauntly, the Kynge send a gentylman to the seide Archebisshoppe, and commaundyd him to come to Wyndsoure to him; and asone as he came he was arested and apeched of hye treysone, that he schuld helpe the Earl of Oxenforde; and anone ryght he was put to warde. And forthewithe Sere William of Parre, knyghte, and Thomas Vaghan, squyre, withe othere many dyverse gentilmenne and yomen, were sent to the seide manere of Moore; and ther by the Kynges comawndement seysede the seid manere into the Kynges handes, and alle the good that was therin, whiche was worthe xx. Ml. or more, and alle other lordschippes and landes that the seid Bishop hade withein England, and alle his stuff and rychesse withein alle his lordschippes; and sent the same bisschoppe overe the see to Caleis, and from thens to the castelle of Hammys, and ther he was kepte presonere many a day; and the Kynge alle that seasone toke the prophete of the ArcheBishopryche, &c. And anone after the Kynge brake the seyd Archebysschoppes mytere, in the whiche were fulle many ryche stones and preciouse, and made therof a croune for him self. And alle his other juels, plate, and stuff, the Kynge gaff it to his eldest sonne and heyre Prynce Edward: for the sayd Archebisshoppe hade be Chaunselere of Englond many dayes, and he and his brotheres hade the reule of the lande, and hade gaderyde grete rychesse many yeres, whiche in one day was lost; and alle be the hye jugement of ryghtwisnes (as many manne seide be hym) for his grete covetousenes, and had no pyte of Kynge Harry menne, and was cause of many mannys undoynge for Kynge Edwardys sake, if he mighte gete any good by hym. Wherefore suche goodes as were gaderide with synne, were loste with sorwe. And also menne supposid for cause he was duble to Kynge Herry, and kepte hym in Londone, where he wulde a be at Westmynstere, he hade a lettere send frome Kynge Edward to kepe hym oute of sanctuary, and he hade his charture send hym; where he had be a trewe manne to Kynge Herry, as the comons of Londone were, Kynge Edward hade not comene into Londone afore Barnet felde, &c.

Note 1. Hade purchased and byllede. Moor Park in Hertfordshire, now the seat of the Marquess of Westminster. Clutterbuck (History of Hertfordshire, i. 191) states that the Archbishop had license to inclose 600 acres of pasture and land in Rickmersworth and Watford for a park, and to embattle the site of the manor of Moor in Rickmersworth; and quotes for authority Pat. 9. H. VI. m. 10; but George Neville was then unborn, and on further inquiry we find that the grant was made five years earlier, to Henry (Beaufort) Bishop of Winchester: "Quod Henr' Ep'us Winton' et alii possint kernell' manerium suam de More in Rickmansworth, ac imparcare sexcent, acras terræ, & c. ac liber' warrenn [That Bishop Henry of Winchester and others may enclose their manor of More in Rickmansworth, and impark six hundred acres of land, etc., and have free warren there].' ib'm " 2 Pat. 4 Hen. VI. m. 10.-J.G.N.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

On 12 Jul 1472 Richard Duke of Gloucester (age 19) and Anne Neville (age 16) were married at St Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Palace [Map]. She by marriage Duchess Gloucester. She the daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 45). He the son of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 57). They were first cousin once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, 1472 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1472 King Edward IV of England (age 29) appointed new Garter Knights given the large number of vacant positions as a result of the recent Warwick rebellion:

203rd John Mowbray 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 27).

204th John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 44).

205th Walter Devereux Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 40).

206th Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy (age 56).

207th John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 47).

208th John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 29).

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Death of Jacquetta of Luxembourg

On 30 May 1472 Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 57) died. Not known where she was buried.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Siege of St Michael's Mount

Warkworth's Chronicle 1473. Sep 1473. Also in the xiij. yere of [the] regne of Kynge Edwarde, Sere Jhon Veere, Earl of Oxenforde, that withdrewe hym frome Barnet felde, and rode into Scottlonde, and frome thens into Fraunce asailed1, and ther he was worschipfully received. And in the same yere he was in the see withe certeyne schippes, and gate grete good and rychesse, and afterwarde came into westecountre, and, with à sotule poynte of werre, gate and enteryd Seynt Michaels Mount in Cornwayle, a strong place and a mygty, and can not be geett yf it be wele vytaled withe a fewe menne to kepe hit; for xxti. menne may kepe it ageyne alle the world. So the seyde Earl, withe xxti, score menne save iij2, the last day of Septembre the yere afore seyd, enteryd fyrst into [the] seyd mount, and he and his menne came doune into cuntre of Cornwale, and hade riyhte good chere of the comons, &c. The Kynge and his counselle sawe that therof myche harme might growe, &c.; comawndyd Bodrygan, scheff reulere of Cornwayle, to besege the seid mount. And so he dyd; and every day the Earl of Oxenfordes menne came doune undere trewis, spake with Bodrynghan and his menne; and at the laste the seid Earl lacked vytayle, and the seyde Bodrygan suffryd him to be vytailed; and anone the Kynge was put in knowlache therof; wherefor the seide Bodrygan was discharged, and Richard Fortescu, squyere for the body, by auctoryte of the Kynge, toke uppone honde to lay sege to the forseide mount, &c.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, 1474 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1474 King Edward IV of England (age 31) appointed new Garter Knights:

209th Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl of Arundel (age 24).

210th William Parr (age 40).

211th Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 19).

212th Federico Montefeltro (age 51).

213th Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 25).

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that Edward IV's (age 31) two younger brothers George (age 24) and the Richard (age 21), who had married Anne Beauchamp's (age 47) daughters, Isabel (age 22) and Anne (age 17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.

Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker, had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of King Edward IV of England (age 31) and before King Richard III of England (age 21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described King Richard III of England (age 21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape (age 6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 56).

Calendars. 06 Jun 1474. Westminster Palace [Map]. Exemplification at the request of Richard Duke of Gloucester (age 21), of the tenour of an act (English) in the Parliament summoned at Westminster [Map], 6 October, 12 Edward IV, and continued to 9 May, 14 Edward IV, ordaining that George Duke Clarence (age 24), and Isabel (age 22) his wife and Richard Duke of Gloucester, and Anne (age 17) his wife, daughters and heirs to Richard Nevyle, late Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent to Anne Beauchamp (age 47), his wife should possess and enjoy as in the right of the said wives all possessions belonging to the said Countess as though she were naturally dead and that she should be barred and excluded therefrom, that they should make partition of the premises and the same partition should be good in law, that the said Dukes should enjoy for life all the possessions of their wives if they should outlive the latter, that the said George (age 24) and Isabel (age 22) should not make any alienation, grant, fine or recovery of any of the premises to the hurt of the said Richard (age 21) and Anne (age 17) or the latter to the hurt of the former, that if the said Richard and Anne be divorced and afterwards married this Act should hold good, that if they be divorced and he do his effectual diligence to be married to her and during her life be not wedded to any other woman he should enjoy as much of the premises as should appertain to her during his life, and that notwithstanding the restraint of alienation or recovery above specified the lordship, manor and wappentake of Chesterfield [Map] and Scarvesdale with the appurtenances and all the lands and tenements in Chesterfield [Map] and Scarvesdale sometime of Ales, late Countess of Salisbury, might be given to the King and his heirs in exchange for other lands and tenements, which shall however be subject of this Act.Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Death of King Henry IV of Castile

On 11 Dec 1474 Henry IV King Castile (age 49) died. His half sister Isabella Queen Castile (age 23) succeeded Queen Castile.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, 1475 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1475 King Edward IV of England (age 32) created his two sons as Garter Knights:

214th King Edward V of England (age 4).

215th Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York (age 1).

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Treaty of Picquigny

On 29 Aug 1475 Edward IV (age 33) signed the Treaty of Picquigny; in effect a non-aggression pact or, possibly, a protection racket. France would pay Edward a pension of 50,000 crowns per year as long as he didn't invade France. Cardinal Bourchier (age 57) arbitrated on behalf of Edward. William Hastings (age 44) received a pension of 2000 crowns per year, John Howard and Thomas Montgomery 1200 each, Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York (age 52) 1000, Cardinal John Morton (age 55) 600.

Edward's youngest brother Richard (age 22) opposed the Treaty considering it dishonourable. Roger Cheney (age 33) was present at the signing, and remained as a hostage until King Edward IV of England (age 33) returned to England.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Death of the Duke of Norfolk

On 14 Jan 1476 John Mowbray 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 31) died at Framlingham Castle, Suffolk [Map]. Suspicious since he was only 32? Duke Norfolk, Earl Surrey and Earl Nottingham extinct. His daughter Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk (age 3) succeeded 8th Countess Norfolk, 11th Baroness Mowbray, 12th Baroness Segrave and inherited the vast Mowbray estates. She was subsequently married to Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York (age 2) two years later.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Battle of Morat

On 22 Jun 1476 John Luxemburg Count Soissons was killed at the Battle of Morat. His brother Peter Luxemburg II Count Saint Pol and Soissons (age 36) succeeded Count Soissons 1367.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

Croyland Chronicle 1476. Jul 1476. In the meantime, and while the king was, for some years, as we have already stated, intent upon accumulating these vast quantities of wealth, he expended a considerable part of them in a solemn repetition of the Funeral rites of his father, Richard, the late duke of York. For this most wise monarch, recalling to mind the very humble place of his father's burial (the house of the Mendicant Friars at Pomfret, where the body of that great prince had been interred, amid the disturbances of the time at which he perished), translated the bones of his father, as well as those of his brother Edmund, earl of Rutland, to the fine college of Fodringham [Map]1, which he had founded, in the diocese of Lincoln, attended by two processions, which consisted both of persons distinguished by birth and high rank: the one being of ecclesiastics, and consisting of the prelates, the other of various peers and lords temporal. This solemnity was performed on certain days in the month of July, in the sixteenth year of the said king, being the year of our Lord, 1476.

Note 1. Fotheringay [Map].

Before 29 Jul 1476 the remains of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York and his son Edmund were removed from Pontefract Castle [Map] to be reburied at St Mary and All Saints Church, Fotheringhay [Map]. On their journey south they spent two nights at Blackfriars Friary, Stamford [Map].

On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father Edward of York, Richard of York and his younger brother Edmund were reburied at St Mary and All Saints in Fotheringhay [Map] in a ceremony attended by King Edward IV of England (age 34), George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 26), Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 21), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 45), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 36).

Thomas Whiting, Chester Harald wrote:

n 24 July [1476] the bodies were exhumed, that of the Duke, "garbed in an ermine furred mantle and cap of maintenance, covered with a cloth of gold" lay in state under a hearse blazing with candles, guarded by an angel of silver, bearing a crown of gold as a reminder that by right the Duke had been a king. On its journey, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, with other lords and officers of arms, all dressed in mourning, followed the funeral chariot, drawn by six horses, with trappings of black, charged with the arms of France and England and preceded by a knight bearing the banner of the ducal arms. Fotheringhay was reached on 29 July, where members of the college and other ecclesiastics went forth to meet the cortege. At the entrance to the churchyard, King Edward waited, together with the Duke of Clarence, the Marquis of Dorset, Earl Rivers, Lord Hastings and other noblemen. Upon its arrival the King 'made obeisance to the body right humbly and put his hand on the body and kissed it, crying all the time.' The procession moved into the church where two hearses were waiting, one in the choir for the body of the Duke and one in the Lady Chapel for that of the Earl of Rutland, and after the King had retired to his 'closet' and the princes and officers of arms had stationed themselves around the hearses, masses were sung and the King's chamberlain offered for him seven pieces of cloth of gold 'which were laid in a cross on the body.' The next day three masses were sung, the Bishop of Lincoln preached a 'very noble sermon' and offerings were made by the Duke of Gloucester and other lords, of 'The Duke of York's coat of arms, of his shield, his sword, his helmet and his coursers on which rode Lord Ferrers in full armour, holding in his hand an axe reversed.' When the funeral was over, the people were admitted into the church and it is said that before the coffins were placed in the vault which had been built under the chancel, five thousand persons came to receive the alms, while four times that number partook of the dinner, served partly in the castle and partly in the King's tents and pavilions. The menu included capons, cygnets, herons, rabbits and so many good things that the bills for it amounted to more than three hundred pounds.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

On 22 Dec 1476 Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 25) died from childbirth. The cause of death unknown but likely a consequence of the birth of her fourth child Richard in early October. She was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey [Map]. George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 27) believed she had been murdered by Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho. See Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho.

Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho: Around 1435 William Twynyho and she were married.

On 12 Apr 1477 Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho was arrested at Keyford, Somerset and taken to Bath, Somerset [Map]. George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 27) believed she had murdered his wife Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence who had died four months before.

On 13 Apr 1477 Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho taken to Cirencester, Gloucestershire [Map].

On 15 Apr 1477 Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho and John Thursby were hanged at Myton Gallows, Warwick [Map].

Calendars. 20 Feb 1478. Exemplification, at the request of Roger Twynyho (age 18), kinsman and heir of Ankarette late the wife of William Twynyho of Cayforde, co. Somerset, esquire, viz. son of John their son, of the following:-

1. A petition (English) of the said Roger in the present Parlimnent that whereas the said Ankarette on Saturday, 12 April, 17 Edward IV, was in her manor at Cayford and Richard Hyde late of Warwick, gentlelman, and Roger Strange late of Bekehampton, co. Somerset, towker, with divers riotous persons to the number of fourscore by the connnand of George, duke of Clarence. cane to Cayforde about two of the clock after noon and entered her house and carried her off the same day to Bath and from thence on the Sunday following to Circeter, co. Gloucester, and from thence to Warwick, whither they brought her on the Monday following about eight of the clock in the afternoon, which town of Warwick is distant from Cayforde seventy Iniles, and then and there took from her all her jewels, money and goods and also in the said duke's behalf, as though he had used king's power, commanded Thomas Delalynde, esquire, and Edith (age 30) his wife, daughter of the said Ankarette, and their servants to avoid from the town of Warwick and lodge them at Strattforde upon Aven that night, six miles thence, and the said duke kept Ankarette in prison unto the hour of nine before noon on the morrow, to wit, Tuesday after the closing of Pasche, and then caused her to be brought to the Guildhall at Warwick before divers of the justices of the peace in the county then sitting in sessions and caused her to be indicted by the name of Ankarette Twynneowe, late of Warwick, widow, late servant of the duke and Isabel his wife, of having at Warwick on 10 October, 16 Edward IV. , given to the said Isabel a venomous drink of ale mixed with poison, of which the latter sickened until the Sunday before Christmas, on which day she died, and the justices arraigned the said Ankarette and a jury appeared and found her guilty and it was considered that she should be led from the bar there to the gaol of Warwick and thence should bc drawn through the town to the gallows of Myton and hanged till she were dead, and the sheriff was commanded to do execution and so he did which indictment, trial and judgment were done and given within three hours of the said Tuesday, and the jurors for fear gave the verdict contrary to their conscience, in proof whereof divers of them came to the said Ankarette in remorse and asked her forgiveness in consideration of the imaginations of the said duke and his great might the unlawful taking of the said Ankarette through three several shires, tho inordinate hasty process and judgcqnent, her lamentable death and her good disposition, the king should ordain that the record, process, verdict and judgement void and of no effect, but that as the prenlises were done by the command of the said Duke the said justices and sheriff and the under-sheriff and their ministers should not be vexed.

2. The answer of the king: Soit fait come il est desire. [Let it be done]

3. A schedule annexed to the petition, being the inquisition taken as above before John Hugford, esquire, Henry Boteler and John West, justices, by oath of Richard Fulwod, esquire, Baldwin Porter, esquire, Willimn Bary of Berton. Thomas Waynwright of Stretford, Richard Hasilholt of Alcestre, John Grove of Aspeley, John Shawe of Alcestre, Robert Plummer of Warwick, John Goodman of the sarne, John Page of Wyllyngton, Robert Toly of Bormyngton and William Gibbons of Honyngton.

4. A writ attested by H. Boteler directing the sheriff to impanel a jury of twenty-four.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Battle of Nancy

On 05 Jan 1477 Charles "Bold" Valois Duke Burgundy (age 43) was killed at the Battle of Nancy. His daughter Mary Valois Duchess Burgundy (age 19) succeeded Duchess Burgundy.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Execution of George Duke of Clarence's Servants

Before 13 Jun 1477 two servants of George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 27) were hanged at Tyburn [Map] for being sorcerers and planning the murder of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 42).

John Stacy and Thomas Burdett of Arrow in Warwickshire (age 52) were hanged.

Calendars. 13 Jun 1477. Grant to Mary late the wife of John Stacy late of Oxford, alias John Westminster. Stace late of London, "gentilman," alias Marion Stacy of London, widow, of all the goods and debts late of the said John, lately attainted of high treason and hung. By p.s.

Croyland Chronicle 1478. Before 18 Feb 1478. The indignation of the duke (age 28) was probably still further increased by this; and now each began to look upon the other with no very fraternal eyes. You might then have seen, (as such men are generally to be found in the courts of all princes), flatterers running to and fro, from the one side to the other, and carrying backwards and forwards the words which had fallen from the two brothers, even if they had happened to be spoken in the most secret closet. The arrest of the duke for the purpose of compelling him to answer the charges brought against him, happened under the following circumstances. One Master John Stacy, a person who was called an astronomer, when in reality he was rather a great sorcerer, formed a plot in conjunction with one Burdet, an esquire, and one of the said duke's (age 28) household; upon which, he was accused, among numerous other charges, of having made leaden images and other things to procure thereby the death of Richard, lord Beauchamp (age 43), at the request of his adulterous wife1. Upon being questioned in a very severe examination as to his practice of damnable arts of this nature, he made confession of many matters, which told both against himself and the said Thomas Burdet. The consequence was, that Thomas was arrested as well; and at last judgment of death was pronounced upon them both, at Westminster, from the Bench of our lord the king, the judges being there seated, together with nearly all the lords temporal of the kingdom. Being drawn to the gallows at Tyburn [Map], they were permitted briefly to say what they thought fit before being put to death; upon which, they protested their innocence, Stacy indeed but faintly; while, on the other hand, Burdet spoke at great length, and with much spirit, and, as his last words, exclaimed with Susanna28, 'Behold! I must die; whereas I never did such things as these."

Note 28. History of Susanna, verse. 43.

Note 1. This is somewhat confusing since Elizabeth Stafford (age 43), wife of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 43) is reported by some sources as dying on 27 Jan 1466?

Calendars. 17 Jun 1478. Grant to Simon Mountfort, knight, of the custody of all lordships, manors, lands, rents, services and other posessions, with knights' fees and advowsons late of Thomas Burdet, esquire, tenant in chief, during the minority of Nicholas his son and heir, and the custody and marriage of the latter without disparagement. By p.s.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

On 15 Jan 1478 Edward IV's youngest son Richard of Shrewsbury (age 4) and Anne Mowbray (age 5) were married at St Stephen's Chapel in Westminster [Map]. She by marriage Duchess Norfolk. She the daughter of John Mowbray 4th Duke of Norfolk and Elizabeth Talbot Duchess Norfolk (age 35). He the son of King Edward IV of England (age 35) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 41). They were second cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

The ceremony was attended by Edward's daughters Elizabeth (age 11), Mary (age 10) and Cecily (age 8).

The day before Thomas Howard (age 35) was knighted.

In 1483 Parliament changed the succession so Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York (age 4) would continue to enjoy her inheritance (she died in 1481) effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 52) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess), and who accepted a payment of £34,000, and John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 53), who was subsequently created Duke of Norfolk, possibly in compensation.

Thomas Frowyk (age 55) was created Knight of the Bath.

See Woodville Marriages.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1471-1483 Edward IV Second Reign, Attainder of George Duke of Clarence

After 16 Jan 1478 and before 07 Feb 1478. The original act doesn't contain a date. Parliament opened on 16 Jan 1478. On 07 Feb 1478 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 23) was appointed Steward of England for the purpose of effecting the exection. George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28) was attainted by Parliament. The wording of the attainder as follows:

The Kyng (age 35), oure Sovereigne Lorde, hath called to his Remembraunce the manyfold grete Conspiracies, malicious and heynous Ttresons, that hertofore hath be compassed by dyverse persones his unnaturall Subgetts, Rebelles and Traytoures, wherby Commocions and Insurrections have been made within this his Royaulme, for entent and purpose to have destroyed his moost Roiall persone, and with that to have subverted the state, wele publique and politic of all his said Royaulme; ne had so been, that by th'elp of Almyghty God, with the grete laboures and diligences and uttermost explette of his persone by Chevalrye and Werr, he had mightly and graciously repressed the same. Wherthrogh grete nowmbre of the said his Rebelles and Traytours he hath at dyverse tymes punysshed, as well by swerd as other punysshments, in exemple to others to have been ware of suche attempting hereafter. And yet as a benigne and a gracious Prince moeved unto pitie, after his grete Victories sent hym by God, not oonly he hath spared the multitudes in theire feldes and assembles overcomen, but thaym and certeyn other, the grete movers, sturters and executours of suche haynous Tresons, at the reverence of God, he hath taken to his mercy and clerly pardoned, as may not be unknowen to all the Worlde.

This notwithstondyng, it is comen nowe of late to his knowlage, howe that agaynst his mooste Royall persone, and agaynst the persones of the blessed Princesse oure alther soveraigne and Liege Lady the Quene, of my Lorde the Prince theire son and Heire, and of all the other of thaire moost noble issue, and also against the grete parte of the Noble of this Lande, the good rule, politike and wele publique of the same, hath been conspired, compassed and purposed a moch higher, moch more malicious, more unnaturall and lothely Treason than atte eny tyme hertoforn hath been compassed, purposed and conspired, from the Kyng's first Reigne hiderto; which Treason is, and must be called, so moche and more henyous, unnaturell and lothely, for that not oonly it hath proceded of the moost extreme purpensed malice, incomparably excedyng eny other that hath been aforn, but also for that it hath been contryved, imagined and conspired, by the persone that of all erthely creatures, beside the dutie of ligeaunce, by nature, by benefette, by gratitude, and by yeftes and grauntes of Goodes and Possessions, hath been moost bounden and behalden to have dradde, loved, honoured, and evere thanked the kyng more largely, than evere was eny other bounden or beholden, whom to name it gretely aggruggeth the hert of oure said Sovereigne Lorde, sauf oonly that he is of necessite compelled, for the suertie, wele and tranquillite of hym and all this Royaulme, which were full neer the poynt of perdicion, ne were the help and grace of Almyghty God:

He sheweth you therefore, that all this hath been entended by his Brother, George, the Duke of Clarence (age 28). Wherein it is to be remembered that the Kynges Highnesse, of tendre youthe unto now of late, hath evere loved and cherysshed hym, as tenderly and as kynderly, as eny creature myght his naturell Brother, as well it may be declared, by that that he beyng right yonge, not borne to have eny lifelode, butt oonly of the Kynges grace he yave hym soo large porcion of Possessions that noo memorie is of, or seldom hath been seen, that eny Kyng of Englande hertoforn within his Royaulme yave soo largely to eny his Brothers. And not oonly that, butt above that, he furnyssed hym plenteously of all manere stuff, that to a right grete Prynce myght well suffice; so that aftre the Kynges, his lifelode and richesse notably exceded any other within his Lande at thatt tyme.

And yet the kyng, not herewith content, butt beyng ryght desirous to make hym of myght and puissance excedyng others, caused the greate parte of all the Nobles of this Lande to be assured unto hym next his Highnesse; trustyng that not oonly by the bond of nature, butt also by the bondes of soo grete benefitt, he shulde be more than others loving, helping, assisting and obeissaunt to all the Kyngs good pleasures and commaundments, and to all that myght be to the politik wele of his Lande.

All this notwithstondyng, it is to remember, the large grace and foryevnesse that he yave hym uppon, and for that at dyverse tyme sith he gretely offended the Kyng, as in jupartyng the Kyngs Royall estate, persone and life, in straite warde, puttyng hym thereby from all his libertie, aftre procuryng grete Commocions, and sith the voydaunce oute of his Royaulme, assistyng yevyng to his enemies mortall, the usurpers, laboryng also by Parlement to exclude hym and all his from the Regalie, and enabling hymself to the same, and by dyverse weyes otherwyse attemptyng; which all the Kyng, by nature and love moeved, utterly foryave, entendyng to have putte all in perpetuell oblivion.

The said Duke, nathelesse for all this, noo love encreasyng, but growyng daily in more and more malice, hath not left to consedre and conspire newe Treasons, more haynous and lothely than ever aforn, how that the said Duke falsly and traitrously entended, and puposed fermely, th'extreme distruction and disherityng of the Kyng and his Issue, and to subverte all the polityk rule of this Royaulme, by myght to be goten as well outewarde as inward, which false purpose the rather to brynge aboute, he cast and compassed the moyans to enduce the Kynges naturell Subgetts to withdrawe theire herts, loves and affections from the Kyng, theire naturell Sovereigne Lorde, by many subtill, contryved weyes, as in causyng dyverse his Servauntes, suche as he coude imagyne moste apte to sowe sedicion and aggrugge amonge the People, to goo into diverse parties of this Royaulme, and to laboure to enforme the People largely in every place where they shulde come, that Thomas Burdett, his Servaunte, which was lawefully and truly atteynted of Treason, was wrongefully putte to Deth; to some his Servauntes of suche like disposicion, he yave large Money, Veneson, therewith to assemble the Kynges Subgects to Feste theym and chere theym, and by theire policies and resonyng, enduce hem to beleve that the said Burdett was wrongfully executed, and so to putte it in noyse and herts of the People;

he saide and laboured also to be noysed by such his Servauntez apte for that werk, that the Kyng, oure Sovereigne Lorde, wroght by Nygromancye, and used Crafte to poyson his Subgettes, suche as hym pleased; to th'entent to desclaundre the Kyng in the moost haynous wyse he couth in the sight and conceipt of his Subgetts, and thefore to encorage theym to hate, despice and aggrugge theire herts agaynst hym, thynkyng that he ne lived ne dealid with his Subgettes as a Christien Prynce.

And overe this, the said duke beyng in full purpose to exalte hymself and his Heires to the Regallye and Corone of Englande, and clerely in opinion to putte aside from the same for ever the said Corone from the Kyng and his Heirez, uppon oon the falsest and moost unnaturall coloured pretense that man myght imagine, falsely and untruely noysed, published and saide, that the Kyng oure Sovereigne Lorde was a Bastard, and not begottone to reigne uppon us; and to contynue and procede ferther in this his moost malicious and traytorous purpose, after this lothely, false and sedicious langage shewed and declared amonge the People, he enduced dyverse of the Kynges naturall Subgetts to be sworne uppon the blessed Sacrament to be true to hym and his heires, noon exception reserved of theire liegeaunce; and after the same Othe soo made, he shewed to many other, and to certayn persones, that suche Othe had made, that the Kyng had taken his lifelode from hym and his men, and disheryed theym, and he wolde utterly endevoire hym to gete hem theire enheritaunce as he wolde doo for his owen.

He shewed also that the Kyng entended to consume hym in like wyse as a Candell consumeth in brennyng, wherof he wolde in brief tyme quyte hym. And overe this, the said Duke continuyng ín his false purpose, opteyned and gate an exemplificacion undre the Grete Seall of Herry the Sexte, late in dede and not in right Kyng of this Lande, wherin were conteyned alle suche appoyntements as late was made betwene the said Duke and Margaret, callyng herself Quene of this Lande, and other; amonges whiche it was conteyned, that if the said Herry, and Edward, his first begoton Son, died withoute Issue Male of theire Bodye, that the seid Duke and his Heires shulde be Kyng of this Lande; which exemplificacion the said Duke hath kepyd with hymself secrete, not doyng the Kyng to have eny knowlegge therof, therby to have abused the Kynges true Subgetts for the rather execucion of his said false purpose.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

The Kyng, remembryng over, that to side the neernesse of Blode, howe be nature he myght be kynde to his Brother; the tendre love also, whiche of youthe he bare unto hym, couthe have founden in his hert, uppon due submission, to have yet foryeven hym estsones, ne were, furst that his said Brother by his former dedes, and nowe by this conspiracye, sheweth hymself to be incorrigible, and in noo wyse reducible to that by bonde of nature, and of the grete benefices aforn reherced, he were moost soveraynly beholden of all Creature: Secondly, ne were the grete juparty of effusion of Christien blode, which most likkely shulde therof ensue: And thridenly and principally, the bond of his Conscience, wherby and by solempne Othe, he is bounden anenst God, uppon the peryll of everlastyng dampnacion, to provyde and defende, first the suertie of hymself and his moste Royall Issue, secondly, the tranquilite of Goddes Churche within this, his Royaulme, and after that, the wele publique, peas and tranquilite of all his Lordez, Noblemen, Comens and others of every degree and condicion, whiche all shulde necessarily stande in extreme jupartie, yf Justice and due punyshement of soo lothely offencez shulde be pardoned; in pernicious example to all mysdoers, theves, traytours, rebelles and all other suche as lightly wolde therby bee encoraged and enbolded to spare noo manner of wikkednesse.

Wherfore thof all [sic]11 the Kynges Highnesse be right sory to determyne hymself to the contrarie, yet consideryng that Justice is a vertue excellently pleasyng Almyghty God, wherby Reaulmes stande, Kynges and Pryncez reign and governe, all goode rule, polyce and publique wele is mayteigned; and that this vertue standeth not oonly in retribucion and rewarde for goode dedes, butt also in correccion and punysshement of evil doers, after the qualitees of theire mysdoyngs. For whiche premissez and causez the Kyng, by the avyse and assent of his Lordes Speretuell and Temporell, and by the Commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the auctorite of the same, ordeyneth, enacteth and establith that the said George, Duke of Clarence, be convicte and atteyntit of Heigh Treason commyttet and doon agaynst the Kynges moost Royall persone; and that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever the Honoure, Estate, Dignite and name of Duke1. And also that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever, all Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landes, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions that the same Duke nowe hath by eny of the Kynges Lettrez Patents to his owen use, or that any other persone nowe hath to the use of the same Duke by eny of the Kynges Letterez Patents, or that passed to hym fro the Kyng by the same: And that all Lettrez Patents made by the kyng to the said Duke bee from henseforthe utterly voyde and of noon effecte.

And that it be also ordeigned by the same auctorite that noo Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments or Possessions that the same duke nowe hath joyntly with other, or sole to hymself, to the use of eny other persone, be forfett, nor conteyned by or in this present Acte; but that by the said auctoritee, every other persone to whose use the said Duke is sole seised in eny Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettres Patents, have power and auctorite by this present Acte lawefully to entre into theym, and theym to have and holde after the entent and trust that the said Duke nowe hath theryn. And also where the same Duke is joyntly seased with any other persone in any Castells, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Hereditaments or Possessions to the use of eny other persone, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettrez Patents: that by the said auctorite, the said joynt feffez stonde and be feoffez to the same use and entent as they nowe arre and be; and that suche right, interest and title as the same Duke nowe hath with theym in the same premyssez, by the said auctorite, be in his cofeffez to the same entent as the same Duke nowe ys: Savyng to every of the Kynges Liege people, other than the said Duke and his Heyrez, and all other persone and persones that clayme or have eny tytell of interest in eny of the premyssez by the same Duke, suche right, tytle and interest as they owe or shulde have in eny of the premyssez, as if this Acte had never been made.

A cest Bille les Comunez sont assentuz.

Le Roy le voet.

Note 1. It is interesting that he forfeits the title of Duke rather than the usual attainted in the blood which may have debarred his children from inheriting the crown.