1480-Apr 1483 Edward IV's Last Years

1480-Apr 1483 Edward IV's Last Years is in 15th Century Events.

Capture of Berwick

On 30 Mar 1296 Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford (age 21) captured Berwick on Tweed [Map] from William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas (age 56). Richard Cornwall (age 44) was killed during the course of the siege.'When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred. So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.' - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower's Scotichronicon.

On 24 Aug 1482 Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle (age 20) was knighted by King Richard III of England (age 29) at Berwick on Tweed [Map] during the Capture of Berwick.

Mowbray Succession Changed

In Jan 1483 King Edward IV of England (age 40) had Parliament re-enact earlier legislation regarding the Mowbray succession so that his son, Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York (age 9), who had married Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk (who had died in 1481), would continue to benefit from them effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 57) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death.

Death of Edward IV

Journal of Jean de Roye. 25 Mar 1483. In the said month of April, King Edward of England died in the said realm from an apoplexy that struck him. Others say that he was poisoned by drinking the good wine from the Château de Challuau that the king had given him, of which he drank in such great abundance that he died from it, although it has been said afterwards that he lived until he had crowned his eldest son as king in his place.

Oudit mois d'avril , le roy Edouart d'Angleterre mourut oudit royaulme d'une apoplexie qui le print . Autres disent qu'il fut empoisonné en buvant du bon vin du creu de Challuau que le roy luy avoit donné , duquel il but en si grande habondance qu'il en morut , combien que on a dit depuis qu'il vesquit jusques à ce qu'il eust fait roy en son lieu son filz ainsné.

Chronicle of Jean Molinet Chapter 94. [25 Mar 1483]. On the following Thursday, King Edward of England set off on a pilgrimage, as was his custom to hold court sessions; he became overheated and attempted to cool himself with a salad; he cooled off so much that he passed away on the fourth day after Easter.

Le jeudi absolu ensuivant, le roy Edouard d'Angleterre s'en alla faire un pélerinage, comme il avoit de coustume pour tenir les aveaux; il fut altéré de chaleur, et se cuida rafreschir d'une salade; et se refroidi tellement qu'il termina le quatrième jour après Pasques.

On 25 Mar 1483 King Edward IV of England (age 40) returned to Westminster [Map] from Windsor, Berkshire [Map]. A few days later he became sufficiently unwell to add codicils to his will, and to have urged reconciliation between William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 28); it isn't clear what the cause of the friction between the two men was although it appears well known that Hastings resented the Woodville family.

Croyland Chronicle. 09 Apr 1483. For, shortly after the events already stated, and when the Parliament had been dissolved, the king, neither worn out with old age nor yet seized with any known kind of malady, the cure of which would not have appeared easy in the case of a person of more humble rank, took to his bed. This happened about the feast of Easter; and, on the ninth day of April, he rendered up his spirit to his Creator, at his palace at Westminster, it being the year of our Lord, 1483, and the twentythird of his reign.

Mémoires de Philippe de Commynes Chapter 6 Section 8.

From the hour that King Edward IV (age 40) died, the King our master was informed, and took no joy in it. And few days after he received letters from the Duke of Gloucester (age 30), who had become the King of England, and signed Richard, who had caused the death of the two sons [Note. The Princes in the Tower King Edward V of England (age 12) and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York (age 9)] of King Edward (age 40) his brother. King Richard (age 30) wanted the friendship of the King, and belived he would continue to receive the pension; but the King didn't want to respond to the letters, nor hear the messanger, and considered him very cruel and bad. The Duke of Gloucester had pledged allegiance to his nephew, considering him as his king and sovereign lord. However, shortly afterward, he committed this act. And, in the parliament of England, had degraded the two daughters of the said King of England (age 40) and declared them bastards, on the pretext of the evidence of a Bishop of Bath (age 63) in England (who formerley had great credit with the King Edward then disappointed him, and held him in prison, and then ransomed himself with a sum of money) which Bishop (age 63) said that King Edward (age 40) had promised [Note. foy? ] marriage to an English lady [who he named] who he was in love with, to have his pleasure; and had made this promise in the presence of the Bishop (age 63), and, on this promise, slept with her: and did this to deceive her.

Nevertheless such games are very dangerous, [Note. tesmoing?] these signs. I saw alot of courtiers who, having the opportunity of such an adventure, would not have lost it for the sake of a promise. And this bad Bishop (age 63) guarded revenge in his heart, for twenty years; but he is in [Note. meshut?]: because he had a son, who he loved very much, whom King Richard (age 30) wished to do great things and to marry one of the two daughters, beneath their dignity, one of whom is now the present Queen of England (age 17) and has two beautiful children.

See Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly.

See The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate.

Dès l'heure que le roy Edouard fut mort, le Roy nostre maistre en fut adverty, et n'en feit nulle joye quant il le sceut. Et peu de jours après receut lettres du duc de Clocestre, qui s'estoit faict roy d'Angleterre1, et se signoit Richard, lequel avoit faict mourir les deux filz du roy Edouard son frère. Lequel roy Richard requeroit l'amytié du Roy, et croy qu'il eust bien voulu ravoir reste pension; mais le Roy ne voulut respondre à ses lettres, ne ouyr le messagier, et l'estima très cruel et mauvais: car, après le trespas dudict roy Edouard, ledict duc de Clocestre avoit faict hommaige à son nepveu, comme à son roy et souverain seigneur, et incontinent après commit ce cas. Et, en plain parlement d'Angleterre, feit desgrader deux filles dudict roy Edouard et desclarer bastardes, soubz couleur3 qu'il prouva par ung evesque de Bas4 en Angleterre (qui aultresfois avoit eu grant credit avec ledict roy Edouard, et puis le desappoincta, et le tint en prison, et puis le ranconna d'une somme d'argent) lequel evesque disoit que ledict roy Edouard avoit promis foy de mariaige à une dame d'Angleterre (qu'il nommoit)5 pour ce qu'il en estoit amoureux, pour en avoir son plaisir; et en avoit faict la promesse en la main dudict evesque (age 63), et, sur ceste promesse, coucha avec elle: et ne le faisoit que pour la tromper. Toutesfois telz jeux sont bien dangereux, tesmoing ces enseignes. J'ay veu beaucoup de gens de court qui, une bonne adventure qui leur eust pleu en tel cas, ilz ne l'eussent point perdue par faulte de promettre. Et ce mauvais evesque garda ceste vengeance en son cueur, par adventure vingt ans; mais il luy en meschut: car il avoit ung filz, qu'il aymoit fort, à qui ledict roy Richard (age 30) vouloit faire de grans biens et luy faire espouser l'une de ces deux filles, desgradees de leur dignité, laquelle de présent est royne d'Angleterre et a deux beaux enfans.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. As soon as the King (age 40) was departed, that noble Prince (age 12) his son drew toward London, who at the time of his father's death kept household at Ludlow, Shropshire [Map] in Wales. Such country, being far off from the law and recourse to justice, was begun to be far out of good will and had grown up wild with robbers and thieves walking at liberty uncorrected. And for this reason the Prince (age 12) was, in the life of his father, sent thither, to the end that the authority of his presence should restrain evilly disposed persons from the boldness of their former outrages. To the governance and ordering of this young Prince (age 12), at his sending thither, was there appointed Sir Anthony Woodville, Lord Rivers (age 43) and brother unto the Queen (age 46), a right honorable man, as valiant of hand as politic in counsel. Adjoined were there unto him others of the same party, and, in effect, every one as he was nearest of kin unto the Queen (age 46) was so planted next about the Prince (age 12).

On 09 Apr 1483 King Edward IV of England (age 40) died at Westminster [Map]. His son King Edward V of England (age 12) succeeded V King England. Those present included Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 46), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 28).

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. This noble prince died at his palace of Westminster [Map] and, with great funeral honor and heaviness of his people from thence conveyed, was interred at Windsor [Map]. He was a king of such governance and behavior in time of peace (for in war each part must needs be another's enemy) that there was never any prince of this land attaining the crown by battle so heartily beloved by the substance of the people, nor he himself so specially in any part of his life as at the time of his death.

Funeral of Edward IV

On 10 Apr 1483, in the morning, the coffin of King Edward IV of England (deceased) was moved to St Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Palace [Map]. Bishop Edward Story sang the masses. Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 68), Chamberlain to Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 46), offered on the Queen's behalf.

On 17 Apr 1483 the coffin of Edward IV (deceased) was carried to Westminster Abbey [Map] by Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle (age 21), John Savage (age 39), Thomas Wortley (age 50), Thomas Molyneux (age 38), probably John Welles 1st Viscount Welles (age 33) who had married Edward's daughter Cecily), John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 41), Walter Hungerford (age 19), Guy Wolston (age 50), John Sapcote (age 35), Thomas Tyrrell (age 30), John Risley, Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 15), John Norreys, Louis de Bretelles and John Comyn 4th Lord Baddenoch.

Those in the procession included:

Thomas St Leger (age 43), widow of Edward's sister Anne.

William Parr (age 49).

John Astley.

William Stonor (age 33).

Henry Ferrers (age 40).

James Radclyffe (age 43).

George Browne (age 43).

Gilbert Debenham (age 51).

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) walked in front of the coffin with Edward's personal arms.

John Marlow Abbot Bermondsey followed by:

Bishop Thomas Kempe (age 93).

Bishop John Hales (age 83) (Bishop of Chester?).

Bishop Robert Stillington (age 63).

Bishop Edward Story.

Bishop Richard Bell.

Bishop James Goldwell.

Bishop William Dudley (age 58).

Bishop John Russell.

Cardinal John Morton (age 63) (as Bishop of Ely).

Bishop Edmund Tuchet (age 40) (as Bishop of Rochester).

Bishop Peter Courtenay, and.

Bishop Lionel Woodville (age 36).

Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) brought up the rear.

Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 65), then Archbishop of Canterbury, took no part due to infirmity.

John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 21); the King's nephew,.

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52).

Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 28).

William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 32) (some sources say Earl of Huntingindon?).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 57).

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 48).

Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 68).

John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 82).

George Neville 4th and 2nd Baron Bergavenny (age 43).

John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 57).

Walter Devereux Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 51).

Edward Grey 1st Viscount Lisle (age 51).

Henry Lovell 9th Baron Marshal 8th Baron Morley (age 7).

Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers (age 30).

John Brooke 7th Baron Cobham (age 35).

Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby (age 50).

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers of Groby (age 45).

Thomas Bourchier.

Thomas Bourchier.

Croyland Chronicle. 20 Apr 1483The body of the deceased king being accordingly interred with all honor in due ecclesiastical form, in the new collegiate chapel of Windsor [Map], which he had erected of the most elaborate workmanship, from the foundations;

On 20 Apr 1483 King Edward IV of England (deceased) was buried at the Altar, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) celebrated the mass. John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) attended. John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 21) was chief mourner. John Savage (age 39) and Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle (age 21) were pall-bearers.