1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion

1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion is in 15th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, Battle of Sauchieburn

On 11 Jun 1488 King James III of Scotland (age 36) was killed in action or attempting to escape, at the Battle of Sauchieburn. His son King James IV of Scotland (age 15) succeeded IV King Scotland.

On 11 Jun 1488 Alexander Stewart 3rd of Garlies (age 45) fought at the Battle of Sauchieburn. Alexander Cunningham 1st Earl Glencairn (age 62) was killed at the Battle of Sauchieburn. His son Robert Cunningham de jure 2nd Earl Glencairn (age 37) succeeded 2nd Earl Glencairn.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, Mad War

Siege of Loja

Before 28 Jul 1488 Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 32) fought at Loja during the Siege of Loja.

Battle of Saint Aubin du Cormier

On 28 Jul 1488 Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 32) was killed during the Battle of Saint Aubin du Cormier.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, Yorkshire Rebellion

In 1489 Parliament granted King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 31) £10,000 taxes to pay for his support of Anne of Brittany Queen Consort France 1477-1514's claim to the throne of Brittany [Map]. The North rebelled claiming to have already paid through local taxes.

On 28 Apr 1489 Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 40) was hanged at York [Map] by the rebels when attempting to collect the tax.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 11) succeeded 5th Earl of Northumberland, 8th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 16th Baron Percy of Topcliffe, 7th Baron Poynings.

The King then sent an army of 8000 north led by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 46). The rebels dispersed; their leader John à Chambre was hanged for treason. The rebels then chose John Percy (age 30) as their leader. His leadership proved less than reliable; he eventually fled to the court of Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 42) (sister of Edward IV and Richard III) who remained sympathetic to the Yorkist cause.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, Arthur Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 27 Feb 1490 Prince Arthur Tudor (age 3) was created Prince of Wales at Westminster Palace [Map].

Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West (age 33) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Letters and Papers 1529. After 28 Jun 1529. Vit. B. XII. 70. B. M. 5774. Catharine of Arragon.

A set of depositions as to Catharine's marriage with Prince Arthur.

1. of George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), seneschal of the King's household, at the Coldherbar, on Monday, 28 June 1529. Is 59 years of age. Was present at the marriage of Henry VII. at Westminster, and at the creation of Arthur prince of Wales and Henry Duke of York (age 38). They were always considered as brothers, and he never heard it contradicted. Was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur with Catharine, now Queen, at St. Paul's, in Nov. 17 Henry VII. 1521 (sic). Believes that Arthur was then 14 or more. Saw the Queen Elizabeth and him a month after his birth, at Winchester [Map], in 2 Henry VII. Believes that Catharine was more than 14. Thinks that Arthur must have been nearer 15 than 14. At night, with the Lord of Oxford (age 58) and others, conducted Prince Arthur to the lady Catharine's (age 43) bedchamber, and left him there. Supposes that the Prince consummated the marriage,as he did so, being only 15 years when he was married. They were always considered lawfully married during the life of Prince Arthur. Saw the funeral of Prince Arthur at Worcester, and the marriage of the King and Queen at Greenwich. Cannot answer the 6th and 7th articles, but leaves them to the laws. Never heard what is contained in the 8th article. As to the 9th, knows that the King and Queen cohabited and treated each other as husband and wife, but cannot say whether lawfully or not. Can say nothing from his own knowledge as to the 10th, 11th, and 12th articles. Has made this deposition without being instructed or corrupted in any way, only for the sake of truth.

Vit. B. XII. 80. B. M.

2. of Thomas marquis of Dorset (age 52). Is 52 years of age. The 1st and 2nd articles contain the truth. Was present at the baptism of Arthur and Henry, the former at Winchester, and the latter at Greenwich. Was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur with Catharine, now Queen, at St Paul's, on a Sunday in Nov. 1501, 17 Henry VII. Believes Arthur was about 15, for he has seen in the book in which are written the births of the King's children that he was born 20 Sept. 1486. Was present when Prince Arthur went to bed after his marriage, where the lady Catharine (age 43) lay under the coverlet, "as the manner is of Queens in that behalf." Thinks that he used the princess as his wife, for he was of a good and sanguine complexion, and they were commonly reputed as man and wife during Prince Arthur's life. As to the 5th article, he can depose nothing to the first part, as he was then prisoner at Calais; but the remainder, touching cohabitation and reputation, is true. Can say nothing to the 6th, 7th, and 8th. The 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th contain the truth, as he believes.

Vit. B. XII. 85. B. M.

3. of Sir Antony Willoughby. Has lived 15 years in Hampshire, for 12 years previously in Wiltshire. Was five years in the service of Prince Arthur, for five years before that in the service of the Bishop of Durham, and before that time in his father's household. Believes the 1st and 2nd articles to be true. To the 3rd and 4th, was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur and lady Catharine. By favor of his father, Lord Broke, steward of the King's household, was present when Prince Arthur went to bed on his marriage night in the palace of the Bishop of London. In the morning the prince, in the presence of Mores St. John, Mr. Cromer, Mr. William Woddall, Mr. Griffith Rice, and others, said to him, "Willoughby, bring me a cup of ale, for I have been this night in the midst of Spain;" and afterward said openly, "Masters, it is good pastime to have a wife." He, therefore, supposes that the marriage was consummated; and he heard that they lay together the Shrovetide following at Ludlow.

Knows that they lived together as man and wife during the remainder of the Prince's life.

Believes the 5th article to be true. Can depose nothing to the 6th, 7th and 8th. Believes the 9th, 10th and 11th to be true. The 12th contains law; to which he is not bound to reply. To the second additional interrogatory he replies, that it contains the truth, for he has been present twenty times at the solemnization of marriage, and the said form of words is always used.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, Este and Visconti Double Wedding

On 12 Jan 1491 a double wedding ceremony was held between the Este and Visconti families of Milan. Leonardo da Vinci orchestrated the celebrations.

Alfonso Este I Duke Modena (age 14) and Anne Sforza (age 14) were married fourteen years after their bethrothal.

Ludovico Sforza Duke Milan (age 38) and Beatrice Este (age 15) were married. The difference in their ages was 22 years.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1485-1509. 28 Jun 1491. This yeare, in June,f Kinge Henrie the Eightg was borne at Greenewich [Map], which was second sonne to King Henry the VIIth (age 34), named Duke of Yorke.

Note f. June 28th, 1491.

Note g. This expression shows that this portion of the Chronicle was written after the accession of Henry VIII.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. This yere was borne at Grenewiche [Map] lord Henry, second son to the King (age 34), which was created duke of Yorke, and after Prince of Wales, and in conclusion succeeded his father in crown and dignity. Nowe let us return to the new found son of King Edward, conjured by men’s policies from death to life.

And first to declare his lineage and beginning, you must understad that the Duchess of Burgoyne (age 45) so nourished and brought up in the seditious and scelerate factions of false contryers and founders of discord could never cease nor be unquiet (like a viper that is ready to burst with superfluity of poison) except he should infest and unquiet the King of England, for no desert or displeasure by him to her committed, but only because he was propagate and descended of the house of Lancaster, ever being adverse and enemy to her line and lineage. For which only cause she compassed, imagined and invented how to cast a scorpion in his bosom, and to infect his whole realm with, a pestiferous discord. To the intent that he being vanquished and brought to confusion, both the boiling heat of her malicious heart might be fully satiated with his innocent blood, and also advance and prefer some darling of her faction to his Empire rule and dignity. And principally remembering that the Earl of Lincoln, which was by her set forth and al his company had small fortune and worse success in their progression and enterprise, contrary to her hope and expectation, she like a dog reverting to her olde vomit, began to devise and spin a new web, like a spider that daily weaves when his caul is torn. And as the devil provides venomous sauce to corrupt banckettes, so for her purpose she espied a certain young man of visage beautiful, of countenance demure, of with subtle crafty and pregnant, called Peter Warbreck. And for his dastard cowardness of the Englishmen, in derision called Perkin Warbreck (age 17), according to the Dutch phrase, which change the name of Peter to Pekin, to younglings of no strength nor courage for their timorous hearts and pusillanimity. Which young man travelling many countries, could speak English and many other languages, and for his basenes of stock and birth was known of none almost, and only for the gain of his living from his childhood was of necessity, compelled to seek and frequent diverse realms and regions. Therefore the duches (age 45) thinking to have gotten God by the foot, when she had the devil by the taile, and adjudging this young man to be a mete organ to convey her purpose, and one not unlike to be duke of Yorke, son to her brother King Edward, which was called Richard, kept him a certain space with her privately, and him with such diligence instructed, both of the secretes and common affaires of the realm of England, and of the lineage, descent and order of the House of Yorke, that he like a good scholar not forgetting his lesson could tell all that was taught him promptly without any difficulty or sign of any subornation and besides, he kept such a princely countenance, and so counterfeit a Majesty Royal, that all men in manner did firmly believe that he was extracted of the noble house and family of the Dukes of Yorke. For surely it was a gift given to that noble progeny as of nature in the root planted that all the sequel of that line and stock did study and devise how to be equivalent in honour and fame with their forefathers and noble predecessors.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, 1492 Siege of Boulogne

John Savage was killed.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. Shortely after that King Henry had tarried a convenient space, he transfreted [crossed the sea] and arrived at Douer [Map], and so came to his manor of Greenwich [Map]. And this was the yere of our Lord a. M.CCCC.xciii. and the 7th yere of his troublesome reign. Also in this sojourning and be beseiging of Boulogne (which I’ve spoken of before) there was few or none killed, saving only John Savage knight, which going privately out of his pavilion with Sir John Riseley, rode about the walls to view and see their strength, was suddenly intercepted and taken of his enemies. And he being inflamed with ire, although he were captive, of his high courage disdained to be taken of such villains, defended his life to the utmost and was manfully (I will not say wilfully) slain and oppressed, albeit Sir John Riseley fled from them and escaped their danger.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, Ferdinand I King Naples Dies Alfonso II King Naples Succeeds

On 25 Jan 1494 Ferdinand I King Naples (age 70) died. His son Alfonso II King Naples (age 45) succeeded II King Naples.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, Edward IV's Daughter's Marriages

In 1495 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 37) arranged marriages for two of the daughters of King Edward IV of England his wife's (age 28) sisters).

On 04 Feb 1495 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 22) and Anne York (age 19) were married. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England. He the son of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 52) and Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey (age 51).

In Oct 1495 William Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 20) and Catherine York Countess Devon (age 16) were married. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England. He the son of Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 36) and Elizabeth Courtenay. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, 5th Parliament of Henry VII

On 15 Oct 1495 Robert Drury (age 41) was appointed Speaker of the House of Commons during the 5th Parliament of Henry VII.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, Perkin Warbreck Plot

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1485-1509. 1495. This yeare was beheaded Sir William Stanley (age 60), Lord Chamberlayne, Sir Symon Monforde and his sonne, and manye other that landed in the Downes,b to the number of viiixx, that came from Perkin Werbeck (age 21),c callinge himselfe King Edwardes sonne.d

Note b. Near Deal [Map].

Note c. Other authorities say Warbeck's followers, to the number of 169, were on this occasion made captives and gibbeted; but our author has copied Arnold, who has "viii skore."

Note d. Warbeck (age 21) pretended to be Richard Duke of York, son of Edward lV.

On 16 Feb 1495 William Stanley (age 60) and Simon Montfort were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for their part in the Perkin Warbeck Plot.

Gilbert Debenham (age 63) was attainted and condemned to death for treason for having supported Stanley. He remained in prison until 1499 when his sister Elizabeth Brewes, in return for paying a large fine, obtained a pardon for her brother and a promise that the attainder would be reversed.

Around Oct 1495 John Radclyffe 9th Baron Fitzwalter (age 43) was imprisoned at Guines as a result of his joining the Perkin Warbeck Plot.

On 24 Nov 1496 John Radclyffe 9th Baron Fitzwalter (age 44) was beheaded at Calais [Map] for trying to bribe his jailers. His son Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 13) succeeded 10th Baron Fitzwalter.

Polydore Vergil. 07 Sep 1497. But, whichever it was, while he lingered in Ireland in a fever of uncertainty, reliable messengers informed him that the Cornishmen, undeterred by their recent disaster, were still badly affected towards Henry (age 40) and ready to take up arms once more to avenge the wrong. And so, thinking it would be useful not to ignore this proffered opportunity, went flying to them without delay. He solicited them, he incited them, he promised them such great things that a stroke he was hailed as their leader, with all men shouting they would obey his commands. Restored to good hope by these things, Peter (age 23) decided that nothing should be done rashly. First he should go in all directions, gaining power over fortified places that could serve for his protection. Then, having increased his forces, he should attack all who offered resistance. Adopting this strategy, he attacked and besieged Exeter, Devon [Map]. Since he lacked artillery to batter down its walls, he only sought to smash its gates opens, and with great vigor he began to pound them with stones, pry at them with steel, heap them with wood, and set them afire. At first, the townsmen, seeing the walls surrounded by the enemy at one point, and a fire to be started at another, were afraid. But they immediately let down messengers from the walls during the night, who were to inform the king. Then they courageously decided to fight fire with fire and, since the bars of the gates were already shattered, they added their own wood to the fire, so that the flames raging on either side would both prevent the enemy from coming within and their own citizens from leaving. And meanwhile they themselves dug ditches inside in front of the entry days and made earthworks. Thus all of the besiegers' efforts around the gates came to naught, and fire rescued the citizenry from fire. Then Peter (age 23), of necessity breaking off the fight at the gates, attacked the city at various points where it seemed weaker, and, bringing up ladders, frequently tried to take the walls, suffering great losses. Meanwhile he hoped that the burghers would be overwhelmed either by fear or want of provisions, could be impelled to surrender.

Polydore Vergil. Around 10 Sep 1497. Hearing the news, the king (age 40) was no slower in leading an army to Exeter, Devon [Map] than the situation required. He sent ahead a goodly number of light horse to let everyone know of his approach. For meanwhile, under the leadership of Edward Courteney Earl of Devonshire (age 38) and his son William (age 22), an excellent and very brave young man, every noble hastened to come to the aid of Exeter, Devon [Map] with a great company of soldiers. Among these were Thomas Trenchard, Edmund Carew, Thomas Fulford, William Courteney, John Halliwell, John Croker, Walter Courteney, Peter Edgercombe (age 28), and William St. Maurice. When these things came to Peter's (age 23) ears, he abandoned the siege and removed to Taunton, Somerset [Map], the nearest town. There he reviewed his army and drew it up for the coming battle, although it later came to light that he had no great trust in that army. A goodly part were armed only with swords, otherwise unarmed, and ignorant of how to fight.

Polydore Vergil. Around 20 Sep 1497. Learning of his enemies' departure, Henry (age 40) headed straight for Taunton, Somerset [Map]. Duke Edward of Buckingham (age 19) arrived there, a young man endowed with great spirit and virtue of character, and he was followed by a host of right noble knights with armor and all the other things requisite for warfare. In that number were Giles Briggs, Alexander Baynham, Maurice Berkeley, Robert Tames, John Guise, Robert Point, Henry Vernon, John Mortimer, Thomas Tremayle, Edward Sutton, Amyas Powlet (age 40), John Bicknell, John Sapcot, Hugh Luterell, John Wadham and his son Nicholas, John Speck, Richard Beauchamp of St. Amand, Francis Cheney, Rogerd Tokett, Thomas Long, Nicholas Lattimer, John d'Urbeville, William Storton, Roger Newberg, William Martin, Thomas Lind, Henry Rogers, Walter Hungerford, John Semery, Edward Carell, Maurice Borroughs, William Norris, John Langford, Richard Corbett, Thomas Blount, Richard Lacon, Thomas Cornwallis, and many other excellent soldiers. Meanwhile, when the king (age 40) had come up, either to avoid delaying the fight or fearing the fortune of war, he sent ahead Robert Lord Broke, Richard Thomas, and Giles Daubney (age 46) to begin the battle, while he followed after, so that, when he saw the battle begin, he could either come to the aid of his men or launch a simultaneous attack on the enemy rear. But the king's plan was unnecessary. For Peter (age 23) was so far from standing his ground, that after he learned the enemy were in arms, he furtively slipped away in the night and quickly fled to the asylum at Beaulieu Abbey [Map]. Whether he did this out of cowardice (with which he was well supplied), or because he suspected trickery, is not known, but it is well enough agreed that it was a good thing for the king that he was not compelled to come to blows with the Cornishmen, whose strength was so enhanced by despair that they had all determined on conquering or dying to the last man in that battle.

Polydore Vergil. 04 Oct 1497. Learning that Peter (age 23) had decamped, Henry sent out horsemen in every direction to follow him and seek his capture, but he, having covered most of the distance, was not seen before he reached the asylum. But not so his captains, who were taken in mid-flight and brought to the king. And the mob, when they could not see Peter (age 23) nor his captains' standards, having no idea where he was, whether he had been killed by some trick or had fled, were unsure of what counsel to take or what was best to do. In the end, learning of his shameful flight, everybody, immediately unhinged by their common evil, their common fear, their common danger, cast aside their weapons and began to hold up their hands, and out of his kindness the king (age 40) readily forgave them. Being a victor without having had a fight, he went to Exeter, Devon [Map], where he praised the citizenry for having done its duty and extended his thanks, and while there he presided over the execution of some of the Cornishmen responsible for the recent rising. Meanwhile the king's horsemen rode as far as St. Michael's Mount, and there they found Peter's (age 23) wife Catherine and brought her captive to the king. Henry (age 40), marveling at the woman's beauty, thought she was not plunder for soldiers, but worthy of an emperor, and forthwith sent her to the queen (age 31) at London with an escort of honorable matrons, as a sure harbinger of the victory he had won.

Polydore Vergil. King James of Scotland did not break his word. Now being dead sure that he had been the victim of a fraud, he summoned Peter Warbeck and, gently reminding him of all the benefits he had conferred, urged him to migrate to some other country where he could live in peace until a better opportunity for conducting his business offered itself. For he himself had been obliged to make peace with the King of England, and because of the affinity he enjoyed with the king and valued so highly, it was scarcely possible that in the future he could take up arms in Peter's name, as he had gladly done at the beginning when he hoped that Peter would be furnished with timely help by his English friends. But since this expectation had proved to be in vain, he told him he should not take this delay amiss, for it might turn out to be helpful for him in his affliction. Saying these and similar things, he told Peter to go elsewhere. And he, learning the king's will, was devastated by this desertion, now seeing that there was nothing left for him among the Scots. Although he was not able to requite the many benefits he had received from them, nevertheless, so as not to appear to be an ingrate, he accepted the king's command calmly, and a few days later took his wife and left for Ireland, with the idea of returning to Margaret in Flanders, or of attaching himself to the Cornishmen.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1488-1496 Battle of Sauchieburn and Yorkshire Rebellion, Death of Jasper Tudor Duke Bedford

On 21 Dec 1495 Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 64) died at Thornbury Manor without legitimate issue. Duke Bedford, Earl Pembroke extinct.