1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn

1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn is in 16th Century Events.

Cleanse the Causeway

On 30 Apr 1520 a skirmish took place on the High Street Edinburgh in which around five hundred supporters of James Hamilton 1st Earl Arran (age 45) fought with a similar number of supporters of Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus (age 31), chiefs of Clan Hamilton and Douglas respectively, over who had control over King James V of Scotland (age 8).

Around eighty of the Hamilton's were killed with the Douglases victorious as a consequence of around eight hundred more supporters arriving under the leadership of Angus' (age 31) brother William Douglas Prior of Coldingham (age 27).

John Montgomerie Master of Eglinton (age 37) was killed.

Field of the Cloth of Gold

Letters and Papers 1520. 26 March. [1520] R. O. Rym. XIII. 705. 702. Francis I.

Confirmation of the arrangements made for his meeting with Henry VIII. under the Great Seal. Chatelleraut, 26 March 1519; 6 Francis I. Signed.


R. T. 137. 2. Letters indented specifying, in accordance with the treaty of 12 March 1519, the number and rank of the lords, ladies and gentlemen to attend the King and Queen at the interview with Francis I., viz.:—

i. For the King: The cardinal of York, with 300 servants, of whom 12 shall be chaplains and 50 gentlemen, with 50 horses; one archbishop with 70 servants, of whom 5 shall be chaplains and 10 gentlemen, with 30 horses; 2 dukes, each with 70 servants, 5 to be chaplains and 10 gentlemen, with 30 horses. 1 marquis with 56 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 8 gentlemen; 26 horses. 10 earls, each with 42 servants, 3 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; 20 horses. 5 bishops, of whom the Bishop of Winchester shall have 56 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 8 gentlemen; 26 horses;—each of the others, 44 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; 20 horses. 20 barons, each to have 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; 12 horses. 4 knights of the order of St. George, each to have 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; 48 horses. 70 knights, each to have 12 servants, one to be a chaplain; 8 horses. Councillors of the long robe; viz., the King's secretary, the vice-Chancellor, the dean of the Chapel, and the almoner, each to have 12 servants, one a chaplain, and 8 horses. 12 King's chaplains, each with 6 servants and 3 horses. 12 serjeants-at-arms, each with 1 servant and two horses. 200 of the King's guard with 100 horses. 70 grooms of the chamber, with 150 servants and 100 horses among them; 266 officers of the house, with 216 servants and 70 horses; 205 grooms of the stable and of the armories, with 211 horses. The Earl of Essex, being Earl marshal, shall have, beside the number above stated, 130 servants and 100 light horses. Sum total of the King's company, 3,997 persons and 2,087 horses.

ii. For the Queen: 1 duchess, with 4 women, 6 servants and 12 horses; 10 Countesses, with 3 women and 4 servants, and 8 horses each; 12 baronesses, with 2 women, 3 servants and 6 horses each. 20 knights' ladies, with 1 woman, 2 servants and 4 horses each; 14 ladies, with 1 woman, 2 servants and 3 horses each; 6 ladies of the chamber, with 1 servant and 2 horses each; 1 earl, with 42 servants, 3 to be chaplains and 9 gentlemen; horses 20. 3 bishops, to have 44 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; horses 60. 4 barons, with 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; horses 48. 30 knights, with 12 servants, 1 to be a chaplain; horses 240; 6 chaplains with 3 servants and 2 horses each. Grooms 50, officers of the King's chamber, with 20 servants and 30 horses; officers of the King's stable 60, with 70 horses. Sum total of the Queen's company, 1,175 persons and 778 horses.

R. O. Rym. XIII. 710. 3. Names of those appointed to attend the king of England at the Congress.

Commissioners appointed to oversee those who shall accompany the king of France:—The Earl of Essex, Lord Abergavenny, Sir Edward Ponynges, Sir Rob. Wingfield. To give orders to the gentlemen:—Sir Edward Belknapp, Sir Nich. Vaux, Sir John Peche, Sir Maurice Berkeley. To give orders to the foot soldiers:—Sir Weston Browne, Sir Edward Ferrers, Sir Rob. Constable, Sir Ralph Egerton, Sir Thomas Lucy, Sir John Marney. To ride with the king of England at the embracing of the two Kings:—The Legate, archbishop of Canterbury, dukes of Buckingham and Suffolk, marquis of Dorset. Bishops:—Durham, Armagh, Ely, Chester, Rochester, Exeter, Hereford. Earls:—Stafford, Northumberland, Westmoreland (age 22), Shrewsbury (age 52), Worcester, Devonshire, Kent, Wiltshire, Derby, Kildare. Barons:—Maltravers, Montagu, Herbert, the grand prior of St. John of England, Roos, Fitzwalter, Hastings, Delavare, Dacres, Ferrers, Cobham, Daubeney, Lumley, Sir Henry Marney, Sir William Sandys, Th. Boleyn (age 43), Lord Howard.

The servants of the king of England shall march next their King, preceded by the nobles and gentlemen of the Legate, who shall follow the gentlemen of the other lords. The King's guard to follow him in their accustomed places.Fr., pp. 2. Endd.

R. O. Rym. XIII. 713. 4. The names of those who will be with the French king when he meets the king of England.

The king of Navarre; dukes of Alençon, Bourbon, Vendosme and Lorraine; count of Saint Pol; prince de la Roche Suryon; count of Dreux and Rhetel, Sieur Dorval and governor of Champaigne; count of Benon, sieur de la Tremoille, first Chamberlain, admiral of Guyenne and governor of Burgundy; count of Estampes and Caravats, sieur de Boysy, grand master and governor of the Dauphin; Bonnyvet, admiral of France, Lautrec, La Palisse and Chastillon, marshals; count of Guyse, brother of the duke of Lorraine; the bastard of Savoy, count of Villars and Beaufort, governor of Provence; count de Laval; mons. de Chasteaubriant; count of Harcourt; princes of Orange and Tallemont; mons. de Nevers; mons d'Esparrox, lieutenant of Guyenne, and count of Montfort; Mess. de Lescun and Montmorency; le Grand Escuyer; counts de la Chambre, Tonnerre, Brienne, Joigny, Bremie and Mont Reuel; mons. d'Albret. The other knights of the Order.

The king's household, 200 gentlemen; St. Vallier and the grand seneschal of Normandy, captains.

400 archers of the guard, and 4 captains; 100 Swiss, De Florenges, captain; maîtres d'hôtel, pannetiers, valets, &c.; gentlemen of the council and of the finances. The other pensioners will remain in their houses.Francis will bring with him the above company, if the king of England thinks it suitable; but if not, he will diminish it.

These noblemen will only have with them about 200 horses.Fr., pp. 3. Endd.: Noblemen's names that shall accompany the French king at the meeting at Calais.

In Jun 1520 Arthur Hopton (age 31) attended Field of the Cloth of Gold.

In Jun 1520 Henry VIII (age 28) hosted Field of the Cloth of Gold at Balinghem [Map].

Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 42) carried the Sword of State.

Bishop John Stokesley (age 45) attended as Henry VIII's chaplain.

Edmund Braye 1st Baron Braye (age 36), Gruffydd ap Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 42), Anthony Poyntz (age 40), William Coffin (age 25), William "Great" Courtenay (age 43), Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 37), William Paston (age 41), William Denys (age 50), Richard Cecil (age 25), William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton (age 37), Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 22), John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 40), Henry Guildford (age 31), Marmaduke Constable (age 40), William Compton (age 38), William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 42), Thomas Cheney (age 35), Henry Willoughby (age 69), John Rodney (age 59), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney (age 36), William Sidney (age 38), John de Vere 14th Earl of Oxford (age 20), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 49), Edmund Walsingham (age 40), William Skeffington (age 55) and Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West (age 63) attended.

William Carey (age 20) jousted.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 50) organised.

Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford (age 15) attended.

Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham (age 50), Robert Willoughby 2nd Baron Willoughby 10th Baron Latimer (age 48), Anthony Wingfield (age 33), William Scott (age 61), Thomas Wriothesley (age 32), Bishop Thomas Ruthall (age 48), Margaret Dymoke aka Mistress Coffin (age 20) and Edward Chamberlayne (age 36) were present.

After Jun 1520 William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 50) was created 1st Baron Sandys of The Vyne in Hampshire for having organised the Field of the Cloth of Gold.

Effigy of Sir John Peche. SIR JOHN PECHE, the most splendid amongst the gentlemen who figured in the court of Henry VIII., appears already to have advanced his fortunes in the reign of Henry VII., during Perkin Warbeck's unsuccessful rebellion. In the twelfth of that king's reign we And him amongst the foremost engaged in opposing the Cornish men in Kent, which led to their subsequent defeat on Blackheath. At the coronation of Henry VIII, Stow says, "the king ordained to wait on his person fiftie gentlemen to be speares, every of them to have an archer, a demilance, and a cistrall, and every speare to have three great horses to be attendant on his person; of the which band the earle of Essex was lieutenant, and Sir John Pechie captaine, which ordinance continued not long, the charges were so great; for there were none of them, but they and their horses were apparelled and trapped in cloth of gold, silver, and goldsmith's worke."

In 5th Henry VIII., 1513, we still find Sir John Peche employed in military achievements, accompanying the king as vice governor of the horsemen at the siege and destruction of Therouenne. In 1514 he again passed the sea from England to Calais, and was appointed Lord Deputy of that town; and the same year, in company with other nobles and gentlemen he attended to Paris the Lady Mary, sister to Henry, who was there espoused to the French King. In 1520 Sir John joined the gallant train of Henry, who exhibited at the celebrated Champ de Drap D'Or, a splendor and magnificence never exceeded in the court of any English monarcha. 14th Henry VIII, 1522, Sir John Peche terminated an existence which, as far as it appears connected with his sovereign and public life, seems to have passed in uninterrupted prosperity. The place of his death is not specified, but it is probable he was buried beneath the magnificent tomb erected to his memory at Lullingstone in Kent. Tradition there records the visits of Henry VIII. to Sir John Peche, and the Tilt-yard, the former scene of courtly splendor, is still pointed out in front of the castle gates.

Note a. At the justs and tournays held at the Champ de Drap d'Or, Hail says, Sir John Pechie, with three other knights, attended the king on horseback in his livery, which was white on the right side, and on the left side gold and russet, both hose and garment.

Archaeologia Volume 3 Section XXIV. An historical Description of an ancient Picture in Windsor castle, representing the Interview between king Henry VIII. and the French king Francis I. between Guînes and Ardres, in the year 1520. By Sir Joseph Ayloffe (age 63), Baronet, V. P. A. S. and F. R. S.

Read at the Society of ANTIQUARIES, March 29, 1770; and a second Time, by Order of the Society, March 7, 1771.

Joseph Ayloffe 6th Baronet: In 1708 he was born to Joseph Ayloffe. Archaeologia Volume 3 Section XLIII. An Account of the Body of King Edward the First, as it appeared on opening his Tomb in the Year 1774. By Sir Joseph Ayloffe, Bart. V. P. S. A. and F. R. S. Read at the Society of Antiquaries, May 12, 1774. On 19 Apr 1781 he died.

Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

In Apr 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 43) was arrested and imprisoned at Tower of London [Map]. He was accused of listening to prophecies of the King's death and intending to kill the King. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 48) presided at his trial. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 43) and Henry Guildford (age 32) acted as judges. Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham (age 51), Anthony Poyntz (age 41) and Edmund Walsingham (age 41) as jurors.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1520-1529. 17 May 1521. This yeare, on Fridaye before Whitsonday, beinge the 17 day of Maye, Edward Duke of Buckingham (age 43)a was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Note a. Edward Stafford (age 43), Duke of Buckingham, was restored in 1486 by Henry VII. to his honours and estates. He commanded the select guard of Henry VIII (age 29) in the battle of the Spurs, 1613, but his observation, that the "Field of the Cloth of Gold" entailed ruin on the English nobles, so irritated the King that he determined on his ruin. It is also asserted that the King was jealons of his descent from Thomas of Woodstock and Edward III.

On 17 May 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 43) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for no specific reason other than his having a significant amount of Plantagenet blood and was, therefore, considered a threat by Henry VIII (age 29). He was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament on 31 July 1523, disinheriting his children. He was buried at St Peter's Church, Britford [Map]. Duke of Buckingham, Earl Stafford and Baron Stafford extinct.

His father Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham had been executed for his part in Buckingham's Rebellion, his great-grandfather Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham was killed at the 1460 Battle of Northampton, and his great-great grand-father was killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury, not forgetting his great-uncle Henry Stafford who was killed at the Battle of Barnet and his daughter Margaret Stafford (age 10) who was burned at the stake for her part in Bigod's Rebellion.

1522 Chateau Vert Pageant

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 04 Mar 1522. On Shrove Tuesday at night, the said Cardinal to the King and Ambassadors made another supper, and after supper they came into a great chamber hanged with Arras, and there was a clothe of estate, and many branches, and on every branch thirty-two torchettes of wax, and in the nether end of the same chamber was a castle, in which was a principal Tower, in which was a cresset burning: and two other less Towers stood on every side, warded and embattailed, and on every Tower was a banner, one banner was of three rent hearts, the other was a ladies hand gripping a man’s heart, the third banner was a ladies hand turning a man’s heart: this castle was kept with ladies of strange names, the first Beautie (age 32), the second Honor (age 19), the third Perseveraunce (age 21), the fourth Kyndnes (age 23), the fifth Constance (age 17), the sixte Bounty, the seventh Mercy, and the eight Pity: these eight ladies had Milan gowns of white satin, every Lady had her name embroidered with gold, on their heads cauls, and Milan bonnets of gold, with jewels. Underneath the base fortress of the castle were other eight ladies, whose names were, Danger, Disdain, Jealousy, Unkindness, Scorn, Malebouche, Strangeness, these ladies were tired [attired] like to women of India. Then entered eight lords in clothe of gold caps and all, and great mantel cloaks of blue satin, these lords were named. Amorous, Nobleness, Youth, Attendance, Loyalty, Pleasure, Gentleness, and Liberty, the King (age 30) was chief of this company, this company was led by one all in crimson satin with burning flames of gold, called Ardent Desire which so moved the Ladies to give over the Castle, but Scorne and Disdain said they would hold the place, then Desire said the ladies should be won and came and encouraged the knights, then the lords ran to the castle, (at which time without was shot a great peal of guns) and the ladies defended the castle with rose water and comfits and the lords threw in dates and oranges, and other fruits made for pleasure but at the last the place was won, but Lady Scorn and her company stubbornly defended them with bows and balls, till they were driven out of the place and fled. Then the lords took the ladies of honour as prisoners by the hands, and brought them down, and danced together very pleasantly, which much pleased the strangers, and when they had danced their fill then all these dis-visored themselves and were known: and then was there a costly banquet, and when all was done, the strangers took their leave of the King and the Cardinal and so departed into Flanders, giving to the King much commendation.

On 04 Mar 1522, Shrove Tuesday, at Cardinal Wolsey's York Place, a pageant known as Chateau Vert was performed. Believed to be the first public appearance of Anne Bolyen (age 21) since her return from the French Court, and the first time King Henry VIII (age 30) had seen her since her childhood. The pageant was part of the Shrovetide celebrations which began on 1st March 1522 and which also celebrated the negotiations between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and King Henry VIII (age 30) for a joint attack on France, which were to be sealed by the marriage of Charles V (age 22) and Princess Mary (age 6), Henry's daughter.

Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

In May 1522 Henry VIII (age 30) met with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 22) at Dover, Kent [Map]. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 44), William Compton (age 40), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney (age 38), William Scott (age 63) and John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 51) were present. Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1520-1529. 05 Jun 1522. This yeare th' Emperoure Charles (age 22)b came into England, and was receaved into the cittie of London the Thursdaye before Whit Sundayc at afternoone, the Kinge and he ridinge both together in one liverey; and there were diverse pagents made in divers places of the Cittie; and all the freers, priestes, and clerkes, standinge in copes, with crosses, sensures, and candlesticks, from the bridge foote to the crosse in Cheepe; and all the craftes, with the Majord and Aldermen, standinge in their liveries; and the King, with all the nobles of the realme, brought him to his pallace at Bridewell [Map],e where he continued three dayes, and after went to Greenewichf where was great justs, banquetts, with other goodlye pastymes. And, after, the King conveyed him to the sea side to passe into Spayneg which was his intent

Note b. This was the second visit of the Emperor Charles V (age 22) to England.

Note c. This woold be June 6, but Holinshed and Stow both say June 6, being Friday.

Note d. Sir John Milborne.

Note e. The Emperor was lodged at the Black Fryars, and all his nobles in the new builded house of Bridewell [Map].— Stow, p. 616.

Note f. This should probably be Windsor, as the Emperor's entertainment at Greenwich was previous to his reception in London.

Note g. He embarked at Southampton [Map] in his great fleet, and in ten days arrived in Spain.

Sacking of Morlaix

In 1522 Francis Bryan (age 32) was knighted for his taking part in the Sacking of Morlaix.

On 01 Jul 1522 Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 79) was present at Morlaix during the Sacking of Morlaix. Giles Hussey (age 27) was knighted by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 79).

Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

Around 18 Jun 1525 Henry Clifford 2nd Earl of Cumberland (age 8) and Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland (age 6) were married at Bridewell Palace [Map]. King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33) was present. She the daughter of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41) and Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 29). He the son of Henry Clifford 1st Earl of Cumberland (age 32) and Margaret Percy Baroness Clifford (age 25). They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

On 18 Jun 1525 Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was taken by barge to Bridewell Palace [Map] where he was enobled by his father King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33).

In the morning Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

In the afternoon Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More (age 47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 47),

Henry Courtenay (age 29) was created 1st Marquess Exeter. Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 22) by marriage Marchioness Exeter.

Henry Clifford (age 32) was created 1st Earl of Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.

Thomas Manners (age 33) was created 1st Earl of Rutland. Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 30) by marriage Countess of Rutland. He was given the Earldom of Rutland to reflect his descent from Anne York Duchess Exeter sister of the previous Earl of Rutland. At the same time his arms Manners Arms were augmented with the Manners Augmented Arms

Henry Brandon (age 2) was created 1st Earl Lincoln.

Robert Radclyffe (age 42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter.

Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 48) was created 1st Viscount Rochford. Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Viscountess Rochford.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 52), William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 49) and John de Vere 14th Earl of Oxford (age 25) attended.

Battle of Pavia

On 24 Feb 1525 Richard Pole "White Rose" 5th Earl of Suffolk (age 45) was killed during the Battle of Pavia. Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny (age 55) fought.

Louis II de la Tremoille (age 64) was killed.

Unknown Painter. Battle of Pavia with the fallen Richard Pole "White Rose" 5th Earl of Suffolk (age 45) bottom left corner indicated by "Le Duc de Susfoc dit Blance Rose".

Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny: Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny succeeded 4th Lord Aubigny. Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny and Anne Stewart Lady Aubigny were married. She by marriage Lord Aubigny. He the son of John Stewart 1st Earl Lennox and Margaret Montgomerie Countess Lennox. They were second cousins. Around 1470 he was born to John Stewart 1st Earl Lennox and Margaret Montgomerie Countess Lennox. Around Apr 1544 Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny died.

Louis II de la Tremoille: On 29 Sep 1460 he was born to Louis I de la Tremoille.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1520-1529. 09 Mar 1525. This yeare, the 9th day of Marche,c tidinges were brought to the Kinge (age 33) that Francis (age 30), the French King, was taken prisoner before the cittie Pavie, in Italie, by the Duke of Burbon (age 35), capteyn of the Emperoures (age 25) hoste,d and 14,000 French men slayne at the same feild.

And the Archbishop of Yorke (age 52), cardinall and legatt de latere, songe masse the same tyme in Paules churche [Map], in his "pontificalibus,"e and 11 bishopps and abbotts, with their miters, beinge present, the Duke of Northfolke (age 52) and the Duke of Suffolke (age 41), with all the nobles of the realme. And the saide Cardinall (age 52) grawnted the same to all manner of persons, beinge within the precinct of the churche in the tyme of the masse, plenary remission of their synnes, à pœná et culpá; and, after masse, Te Deum was sunge for the sayde victorie,a the Major,b Aldermen, with the head craftes of the cittie standinge in the bodie of the churche in theyr liveries; and that night great fiers were made in divers places of the cittie, with vessells of wyne at everie fier for the people to drincke.

Note c. Francis I was made prisoner on the 24th February.

Note d. Charles Duke of Bourbon (age 35), Constable of France, being persecuted by Francis I for refusing to marry Louisa of Savoy (age 48), the French King's (age 30) mother, sought the protection of the Emperor Charles V (age 25) by whom he was appointed his lieutenant in Italy.

Note e. After Wolsey (age 52) had been invested by Pope Leo X with the sole legatine power in England, he was wont to say mass on state occasions after the manner of the Pope himself.

Note a. The victory gained by the Imperialists over the French before Pavia so changed the aspect of affairs on the continent that Henry at first entertained a project forinvading France, and asserting his claim to that crown.

Note b. Sir John Allen.

René de Brosse was killed at the Battle of Pavia.

1525 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1525, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1525, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33) created four new Knights of the Garter:

285th. William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 49).

286th. Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 33).

287th. Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 5).

288th. Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 26).

1526 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1526, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1526, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 34) created four new Knights of the Garter:

289th. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 48).

290th. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 36).

291st. Henry Guildford (age 37).

292nd. King Francis I of France (age 31).

Battle of Linlithgow Bridge

On 04 Sep 1526 the Battle of Linlithgow Bridge was fought between supporters of Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland (age 36), the king's mother, commanded by John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox (age 36) and supporters of Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus (age 37) commanded by James Hamilton 1st Earl Arran (age 51), over who would have control over King James V of Scotland (age 14) in his minority.

John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox (age 36) was killed possibly after surrendering. His son Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox (age 9) succeeded 4th Earl Lennox.

William Cunningham 4th Earl Glencairn (age 33) was captured.

Sack of Rome

On 06 May 1527 Charles Bourbon III Duke Bourbon (age 37) was killed during the Sack of Rome.

Visit of the French Ambassadors

Diary of Edward VI. 23 May 1550. Mon. Chastil(lon) (age 31) and Mortier, and Bouchetel, accompanied with the Ringrave (age 46)1, Dandelot2, the constable's secound sone3, and Chenault the ligier4, cam to Durasme place, where in their journei thei wer met by mr. tresoror (Oheyne) and threscore gentlemen5 at Whulwhich [Map], and also saluted with great peales both at Whulwich, Dettford [Map], and the Towre [Map].1a

Note 1. The Rhinegrave John Frederick (age 46) was deprived of his electorate by the emperor after the battle of Muhlberg in 1547, and remained a prisoner at Innspruck until 1552. His nephew Otho-Henry, called the Magnanimous, whose proper title was only count of Neuburg until after his uncle's death in 1556, was at this time in the service of France, and was made a knight of St. Michael in Oct. 1550 (see Tytler, i. 325).

Note 2. The seigneur d'Andelot was François de Coligny (age 29), younger brother of the seigneur de Chastillon (age 31), already noticed in p. 250, and like him a zealous Calvinist and intrepid soldier. He became comte of Laval and Montfort in Britany; and in 1555 he was appointed colonel-general of the French infantry in place of his brother. He died in 1569. (Anselme, vii. 155; viii. 215.)

Note 3. The second son of the constable of France was Henry (age 15) afterwards duc de Montmorency, who now, during his father's (age 57) lifetime, bore the title of seigneur de Damville. (Anselme, Histoire Genealogique, vi. 229.) If the King writes with accuracy, he must have been one of the train; but if he meant one and the same person by "Dandelot, the constable's second sone," this may have arisen from d'Andelot being (by his mother's side) "the constable's nephew, and one of the (French) king's minions." (Tytler, i. 160.)

Note 4. Of Chenault no particulars have occurred. Among the illustrious visitors on this "occasion, or immediately after, appears to have been Claude de Lorraine, due d'Aumale, third son of the late due de Guise. On the 6th Oct. following sir John Mason (age 47) writes from Rouen to the council: "The due d'Aumale is much desirous to have a portrait of the King's person, which he says the King himself promised him at his departing out of England. He hath been in hand with me twice or thrice herein, praying me in my next despatch to desire your lordships to put his Majesty in remembrance hereof. If any shall be sent unto him, this is a very good time therefor, while yet he remaineth in Roan. He speaketh very much honour of the King and of the realm, and hideth not the courtesy he found the time of his being there. He is, as your lordships knoweth, of right good estimation, and therefore the remembring of him in this his request cannot be but well bestowed." (Tytler, i. 330.)

Note 5. In order that the court might make a good show of nobility when the Frenchmen arrived, the council had despatched, on the 17th of April, "Lettres severall to the earles of Rutland (age 23), Bathe (age 51), and Worcester (age 24), to the viscount Hereford (age 62), and the lord Fitzwalter, to repayre to the court out of hand, bringing with them their best apparell and furniture, for the receiving and entertaining of the ambassadors and noble men that came out of France."

On the 4th May, "For the receaving of mounsr Chastillion, and the rest of the Frenche ambassadors, the lord warden of the Cinque portes, thresorer of the King's Majesties household, was appointed to be the chief, and a nombre of lords and gentlemen apoincted to accompanie him by water with the King's barges, bicause th'ambassadors are determined to come from Bulloigne in their owne galleys up alongest the Teames [River Thames]."

"May xviij. A warrant to the master of the jewelhouse to deliver unto Benjamin Gonstone, threasorer of the King's shippes, one peir of potts, one peir of flagons, iij. nest of bolles, ij. basons and ewers, a garnish and a half of vessell, ij. dozen of plates, and ij. saltes of silver, for the furniture of the galley appointed for the lord wardeigne to mete the French ambassadors coming up by the Temes [Thames], to be restored again upon retorne of the same galley. A warrant to sir John Williams to delyver to the said John Gonstone xlli. in prest towards the furniture of the said galey." (Council Book.)

Note 1a. "On Friday was seven-night [May 23] the galley Subtle, with two other of the King's pinnaces, under the charge of sir William Woodhouse, mr. Brook, and others, were sent to the Thames mouth to meet with the French galleys, and to conduct them upwards, and at their first meeting received them with an honest banquet; so accompanied them along the Thames, where, passing by sundry of the King's ships, they were saluted by honest peals of ordnance; and, a little above Greenwich, I, the lord warden of the Cinque Ports (Cheyne), being accompanied with the earl of Worcester (age 24), the lord Grey of Wilton (age 41), the lord William Howard, with divers other young lords and gentlemen, to the number of sixty, in sundry barges, met with them upon the water, bade them welcome on the King's maties behalf, with other good words to the purpose, and so received them into those barges. They were conveyed by water through the bridge to their lodging, being appointed at Durham-place, which was furnished with hangings of the King's for the nonce: where, against their coming, was ready laid in a very large present of beer, wine, beeves, muttons, wild fowls, poultry, fish, and wax. By the way the King's ships at Deptford shot off; and at the Tower, as they passed, a great peal of ordnance was discharged to welcome them. As soon as they were landed, and in their lodgings, a gentleman was sent from the King's matie, willing me the lord warden, in the King's highness' behalf, to bid them welcome, and tell them that if they would aught, being signified, it should be provided; and so for that night left them." (Narrative of the council addressed to sir John Mason, the ambassador lieger in France, printed from Mason's letter-book in the State Paper office, by Tytler, i. 284.;

Diary of Edward VI. 24 May 1550. The embassadours came to me, presenting the ligier, and also delivering lettres of credaunce from the French king2.

Note 2. The next day being Saturday, early in the forenoon, we, the lord Paget and sir William Petre (age 45), went to visit them from the King's matie to know as well what time they would gladliest take for their access to his highness, as also whether they wanted aught; which if they did, order should be given for the supply thereof. They thanked us, and required their time of access might be appointed the self afternoon, which was done; and, by water in barges, we, the lord viscount Hereford, the lord admiral, the lord Cobham (age 53), and sir William Petre (age 45), being sent to accompany the four in commission, having with us also other lords and gentlemen to entertain mons. d'Andelot, the Rhinegrave, and others, brought them to the court, where, in the chamber of presence, the King's matie was ready to receive them, and at theire coming embraced them orderly, read their letters of credence, and in the rest used them with so good words and countenance as they rested very well satisfied." (Narrative addressed to sir John Mason (age 47), as before.)

Diary of Edward VI. 25 May 1550. The embassadours came to the court, where thei saw me take the oth for th'acceptation of the treaty1, and afterward dined with me; and after diner saw a pastime of tenne against tenne at the ring, wherof on th'on(e) sid(e) were the duke of Sowthfolk, the vice-dam, the lord Lisle (age 23), and seven other gentlemen, appareled in yelow; on the other, the lord Stra(nge), mons. Henadoy, and yeight other, in blew.

Note 1. "The next day, being Whitsunday, assigned for the taking of the oath and ratification, we, the marquesses of Dorset (age 33) and Northampton (age 38), the lord privy seal, and lord Paget, went again with barges to conduct them to the court, which then, what with our own nation and theirs, was very much replenished. The King's matie, after the communion and service in the chapel beneath, in the presence of mons. Chastillon, his colleagues, and us all of his highness' privy council, besides others standers-by, did read the oath and subscribe the same, with the circumstances thereto belonging; and that day the French commissioners, with their ambassador here resident, dined with the King, and were of his Matie most friendly entertained." (Narrative addressed to sir John Mason (age 47), as before.)

Diary of Edward VI. 26 May 1550. The embassadours saw the baiting of the bearis and bullis.2

Note 2. "Monday last, we, the duke of Somerset and divers others of us, were invited by them to dinner, where they feasted us as the market would serve, very honourably; and that afternoon they saw the pastime of our bear-baiting and bull-baiting." (Ibid.)

Diary of Edward VI. 27 May 1550. The embassadours, after thei had hunted, sat with me at souper.3

Note 3. "Upon Tuesday the King's matie had them on hunting in Hyde park, and that night they supped with his highness in the privy chamber." (Ibid.)

Diary of Edward VI. 28 May 1550. The same went to see Hampton court [Map], where thei did hunt4, and the same night retourne to Durasme place.

Note 4. "Wednesday, they were conveyed by me, the marquess of Northampton (age 38), to Hampton court, where they dined, hunted, and that night returned." (Ibid.)

Diary of Edward VI. 29 May 1550. The embassadours had a fair souper made them by the duke of Somerset (age 50), and afterward went into the tems (on the Thames) and saw both the beare hunted in the river, and also wilfier cast out of botis, and many prety conceites.

Diary of Edward VI. 30 May 1550. The embassadours toke ther leve2, and the next day departid.

Note 2. The ambassadors having spent the forenoon in riding about the town to see it, "in the afternoon were sent to them we, the lord Cobham (age 53), the lord Paget, mr. secretary Wotton, and sir Anthony St. Leger, to commune with them on certain matters, and afterwards to bring them to the King.... To the chief of them the King's highness caused rich and goodly presents and gifts to be sent ere they departed." (Narrative addressed to sir John Mason (age 47), as before.) The following passages in the council register relate to the presents: —

"May xxiij. A warrant to (blank) to deliver unto sir Anthony Awcher knt. xvC li. in part towards the provision of the rewarde appoincted for monsr Chastillion and other Frenche ambassadors nowe arryved here for the confermacion of the Peace.

"Maye xxviij. A warrant to sir Edmond Peckham to deliver unto sir Anthonye Awcher Cx oz. of gold towards the making of two cuppes provided for parte of the gifte to be made unto mounsr Rochepote and mounsr Chastillion, ambassadours for the French."

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

On 17 Oct 1529 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 56) surrendered the Great Seal to Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 56) and Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 45).

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (age 46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (age 38) at Windsor [Map], on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Henry Norris (age 47), Thomas Heneage (age 49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thomas Hall, of the Hanaper.

On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thomas More (age 51), in the presence of Henry Norres (age 47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall [Map] at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), Th. marquis of Dorset (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter (age 33), John Earl of Oxford (age 58), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 27), George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 31), John Bishop of  Lincoln (age 56), Cuthbert Bishop of  London (age 55), John Bishop of  Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, Viscount Fitzwater (age 46), Sir Tho. Boleyn, Viscount Rocheforde (age 52), Sir WilliamSandys, Lord (age 52) and others.

Close Roll, 21 Henry VIII. m. 19d.

Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

On 01 Dec 1529 ...

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 62) was created 1st Baron Windsor of Stanwell in Buckinghamshire. Elizabeth Blount Baroness Windsor (age 60) by marriage Baroness Windsor of Stanwell in Buckinghamshire.

John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (age 64) was created 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford. Anne Grey Baroness Hussey Sleaford by marriage Baroness Hussey of Sleaford.

On 02 Dec 1529 ...

Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth (age 28) was created 1st Baron Wentworth. Margaret Fortescue Baroness Wentworth (age 27) by marriage Baroness Wentworth.

Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh (age 41) was created 1st Baron Burgh. Agnes Tyrwhitt Baroness Cobham, Strabolgi and Burgh (age 48) by marriage Baroness Burgh. This is regarded as a new creation rather than a continuation of the previous creation Baron Burgh since Thomas's father was never summoned to Parliament due to his insanity. Some sources refer to Thomas as the 3rd Baron Burgh.

On 04 Dec 1529 Edmund Braye 1st Baron Braye (age 45) was created 1st Baron Braye.

In early Dec 1529 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland created five Baronies ...

Death of Cardinal Wolsey

On 04 Nov 1530 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 57) was arrested by Henry Percy 6th Earl of Northumberland (age 28) on a charge of treason.

On 29 Nov 1530 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 57) died in Leicester, Leicestershire [Map]. Just before his death he reputedly spoke these words: "I see the matter against me how it is framed. But if I had served God as diligently as I have done the King, he would not have given me over in my grey hairs".

Anne Boleyn Attacked by a Mob

Calendars. Nov. 24. [1531] Sanuto Diaries, v. lv. p. 168. 701. Advices from France, received by the French Ambassador in Venice.

On the day of All Saints the King gave most gracious greeting at Compiegne to the Vice-Chancellor (Vice gran Canzelier) of England, who was accompanied by Sir Francis Bryan (age 41). On the morrow of All Souls the King went out of mourning for his mother, as did the princes, lords, and gentlemen. The Queen and the King's children did not put themselves into mourning. The Queen of Navarre and the children of the King [of Navarre] wore it from beginning to end, spontaneously. The King chose to have an exact list of all the lords, gentlemen, officials, and servants of his mother, and has provided for all of them, from the highest to the lowest, giving them the same amount of salary as they received from the deceased; placing some in his own household, others with the Dauphin and his brothers, the rest in the household of the Princesses, his daughters. The ladies of his mother's household are placed in that of the Queen, and the maids of honour with his daughters. The act was that of a magnanimous prince, such as he is.

On the 5th instant the Bishop of Bayonne returned to the Court from England, and says that the King, on hearing of the death of the late most illustrious “Madame,” made all the English princes and great lords go into mourning; and when the Bishop told this to the Legate, there was present the Emperor's ambassador, who declared that his master had done the like, which is a demonstration of great friendship.

It is said that more than seven weeks ago a mob of from seven to eight thousand women of London went out of the town to seize Boleyn's daughter (age 30), the sweetheart of the King of England, who was supping at a villa (in una easa di piacere) on a river, the King not being with her; and having received notice of this, she escaped by crossing the river in a boat. The women had intended to kill her; and amongst the mob were many men, disguised as women; nor has any great demonstration been made about this, because it was a thing done by women.

To prevent the exportation of grain from France a proclamation has been issued forbidding all millers, bakers, and usurious wheat merchants, any longer to raise the price of corn. No corn may be sold save at market, and no baker, miller, or corn merchant can purchase it two hours after the close of the market, so that the people may be enabled to buy their supply; and the granaries of Paris are to be inspected by competent and worthy men, who are to acquaint themselves with the number of persons forming the household of each proprietor, whether noblemen, councillors, citizens, or merchants, and the annual amount of grain required for their consumption; which being set apart, they will be bound to take all the rest to market and sell it to the people, by reason of the King's just fear lest the people of Paris lack the means of subsistence.

La Fère, 24th November 1531. Registered by Sanuto 18th Dec.