1535 Sweating Sickness Outbreak is in 1532-1535 Marriage and Coronation of Anne Boleyn, Birth of Princess Elizabeth.
Around 1535 David Owen (age 76) died. Possibly of the sweating sickness since letters of the time refer to sickness and plague. He was buried at St Mary's Church Easebourne Midhurst [Map]. Esses and Roses Collar.
David Owen: Around 1459 he was born illegitimately to Owen Tudor (age 59) at Pembroke Castle. Before 1493 David Owen (age 34) and Mary Bohun (age 24) were married by which Owen came into possession of Cowdray House when Mary inherited it from her father John Bohun. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. Around 1520 David Owen (age 61) began construction of Cowdray House on the site of the former manor house that he had inherited from his wife Mary Bohun.
Letters and Papers 1535. 27 Feb 1535. R. O. 275. Sir Edward Wotton to Cromwell.
Remonstrates against Cromwell's urging him by his letters to resign his patent of the stewardship of the abbey of Malling, the King having written to the abbess in favor of master Thomas Wyatt. Cromwell may be as much assured of his heart as Mr. Wyatt, and since the death of his brother-in-law, Sir Henry Guildford, he has always depended on Cromwell's friendship. The grant he obtained under the convent seal was in fulfilment of a promise of the abbess many years past. Would have waited on the King before, but has been lately with his sister Guldeford and others, who have been with his cousin, Edward Brown, son of Sir Matthew Brown, who has died of the common plague. Asks Cromwell to relate the matter to the King. Supposes that when the abbess made the grant to Cromwell she had forgotten her promise to him, for, though he knew from the first of the death of Mr. Fisher, he waited for five or six days before writing to the abbess, thinking that few then would apply for so small an office. On first reading his letter she had forgotten the promise which he claimed as having been made within two years and less after her being made abbess. She was not dissembling in her answers either to the King or Cromwell. No effect can grow in law or conscience of her promise to Cromwell, so long after her promise to him. Begs Cromwell to be good master to her and her poor house. Bocton Malherbe, Saturday, 27 Feb.
Hol., pp. 3. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
I received your letter today by Robert Johnson with the quails, which I have delivered, and for which all parties thank you. Mr. Basset is well, and is a great lawyer. Bremelcome has the water imperial, which shall be used according to your writing. As to the plague, Mr. Sulyer and Mr. Danestre will see to him as though he were their own kin. He breaks his fast daily before leaving his chamber. I have delivered him £3 as Bury has not yet come, and he is going to Mr. Danaster these holidays. The "febre" of his taffeta gown has made him a doublet. Of all this I will make plain reckoning at my coming. Today I have sent by John Awgur, master of the Julian of Erith, such vessel and liveries as my Lord wrote for. I hope the spices and wax have arrived, with Mr. James's cloak cloth, which I sent by Drywry. Mr. Wyndham cometh not up before the time, so I ride to him early tomorrow, and will be shortly after at Calais. London, 12 May.
Mr. Marshal1 is at Calais, and sped not to his mind.
Hol., p. 1. Add.
Note 1. Sir Edward Ryngeley.
Thomas Rotheray has the measles. As the plague is in "Merisseis" (the Marches), I hintend to remove, and not go to Court till I know the King's pleasure. Write to the dean of the Chapel with my excuse. Wednesday.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Mr. Secretary.
Letters and Papers 1535. 30 Jul 1535. R. O. 1142. Thomas Thacker to Cromwell.
Your household at the Rolls, the Friars Austins, and at Stepneth, are all in good health. Your works at Hackney and at the Friars Austings go well forward. Mr. Williamson, Ric. Lee, Sir John, and I, paid on Saturday 24 July £36 19s. 6½d. at Hackney. Four "parelles" for chimneys at Hackney, containing in all 17 feet, are not yet paid. At Friars Austins we paid £22 15s. 9½d. For Ewhurst, Sir Thomas Grene has fashioned everything till Friday 6 Aug. next. Henry Polsted has delivered me £280 8s. As Gostwick is not in London, Jynken Lloyde, your servant, has left with me £75 16s. 4½d., due by Hugh Vaghan for parcel of the King's rents of the lands late of Rice Griffith. Master Norton, of Kent, has sent you this day 12 "heron shoes," which Mr. Steward has received at the Rolls, as the city of London is sorely infected with the plague. Thomas Pykeryng says he has "inned" you 100 load of good hay, and you shall yet have 60 load or more at Nasyngbury. The Rolls, 30 July.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary.
Letters and Papers 1535. 24 Aug 1535. R. O. 172. Thomas Broke to Cromwell.
I was at the Rolls, as you desired, on Bartholomew Even, at the payment of Geo. Robynson concerning the matter of Mr. Dudley. After paying the money to him, and delivering his acquittance to Henry Polsted, I reminded him how small in value of his goods he assessed himself to the King; "which to him was nothing pleasant." As to your building at Austin Friars, the frame which was set up last year will be fully finished within these 14 days. The main frame on the street side is fully set up. They are now laying the gutters, and in three weeks they trust it shall be covered with tile. I have viewed your house at Hackney. The kitchen is finished, except the paving. The wet and dry larders, and the filling of the pool in the garden, are well forward. I have seen Master Richard's house at Stepney. He and his folks are well and anxious for your return, "and, according to Mr. Richard's commandment, I sweetly kissed Mastres Beatrice his maid four or five times for failing." Your household at the Rolls are in good health, and will be glad of your return if the plague and sickness cease. By report there was much more death in London before my coming home than since. I thank the King for his goodness when I was last with him. I desire remembrances to my friends of the Privy Chamber, especially to Norris, Henneage, Russell, Long, my fellow Mewtas, Mr. Controller, Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, Baynton, Coffyn, and Uvedale. London, St. Bartholomew's Day. "By your true and faithful friend and fellow, Thomas Broke."
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
Letters and Papers 1535. 03 Sep 1535. R. O. 259. John Wylliamson to Cromwell.
On the 2nd inst. I received your letter of the 31st Aug. by Mr. Vaghan, and according to your commandment have paid him £42 15s. 8d. My mother with all your household are well. I fear your house at Hackney will not be ready in 18 days as I wrote, because of the alterations. You will have as pleasant a place as shall be a great way about London. For your place by Friars Austins, towards the street, the kitchen and scullery are raised, the gutters leaded, the roof is lathing and tiling. From the kitchen towards the Friars, the offices are rising as fast as may be. The brick work, with the windows of freestone in your hall, are ready to lay on the floor of the hall. On Saturday, the 4th inst., there will be a great pay at Hackney, Frere Austins, and at Ewhurst. Thomas Thacker says he has no money, and I dare not deliver any without knowing your pleasure, though I consider the scarcity of victuals, the poverty of the workmen, and that without your payment every 14 days they would have no food. I have delivered to Thacker, for buildings and emptions, and the charges of your household, £140, taking his bill for the same. Richard Lee, Maxwell, and I, rest not from setting forth your works at Hackney and elsewhere. The plague rages in the city, but not so much as is spoken of. Friars' Austins, 3 Sept. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
Letters and Papers 1535. 09 Sep 1535. R. O. 312. The Fellows of Magdalene College, Oxford, to Cromwell.
We have received the good and wholesome device directed to us by the King for the reformation of study, and cannot thank you sufficiently for setting it forward. Whereas our youth were heretofore brought up very corruptly for lack of the Greek tongue, and were so blindly instructed in the principles of logic that they could not tell whereabout they went when they learned, or what profit they got by it; after a great loss of time now they have that way and order prescribed to them, that in a few years this town, that hath hitherto been rejected as a place that maintained no learning nor profited the public weal shall be able to bring forth those that shall serve the Prince and the community. Although, in consequence of the labor of certain others that have always been led in this ignorance, and will see no better way, your commissioners have suspended some of these articles until the statutes be examined, we, who are the greater part, desire you not to give ear to sinistral information, for there is nothing in our statutes prohibiting these ordinances, but what allows "a lecture of Greek to be read to the company as the abolishment of their sophistry, Duns, and such like stuff, you so appointing who knoweth what you do in this thing better than they the contrary that would stop it." Although our college is well provided with lectures, it can provide a competent stipend for a Greek lecture. If among so great a number as we be in this college, other corrupt glosses of Duns should continue, and the study of Greek be neglected, a great part of the youth of this university would be deprived of the ordinance you have provided for them. If children and other young company be let to run to seek better learning abroad out of their own house, in other colleges, besides the danger in the time of plague, they will not return again without loss of time. We hope, therefore, you will continue beneficial to us in seeing these ordinances put in force. Oxford, Magdalene College, 9 Sept. Signed by 20 fellows.
Pp. 3. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
Letters and Papers 1535. 10 Sep 1535. R. O. St. P. ii. 278. 331. William Brabazon to Cromwell.
Since Thomas Fitzgerald's departure, his followers and all his uncles are returned home. If the traitor ever comes back, the King's cost is wasted. His advice is "to discharge this land of all the sect of them." The Deputy is going to Dungarvan Castle, and before him have gone the Lord Treasurer, lord Leonard's company, and Sir John Seyntlaw with his retinue. They will be at the castle on Monday next, and make a running assault. Hears that Seyntlaw has been sent for to England. The King can evil spare him here, though it is more to his profit to be in England. Lord Leonard should come speedily, for the good ordering of the army.
Rides with the Chief Justice about the King's lands, which are most wasted. Advises the banishment of the Tooles, the Burnes, the Cavenaghs, and McMargho and his sect.
The present Lord Deputy is a good man of war, but not quick enough for this country, and somewhat covetous. Advises his recall. Does not think the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, who is now with Cromwell, fit for the office. The lord of Kilmenen would be the best man. Divers abbots and priors in England have great revenues of spiritualties here, which should be put to houses of religion, and the King to have temporal lands for them. Reminds Cromwell that the King should have the temporalities of the bishop of Dublin, who can have spiritual lands for them. By this means and attainders, the King will have 4,000 marks a year more. Thinks the commonalty here to be very true people and conformable to all good order. The Deputy intends to hinder the Chief Justice and Master of the Rolls of Ireland by writing to his friends in England; which were pity, seeing the pains they take in the King's affairs here. Does not now think 500 kerne necessary, but retained them for a time, that they might not be enemies. The captains are all in good health, notwithstanding the plague. Hears my lady of Kildare (age 38) has a book of the late earl of Kildare's lands. Cromwell should get it and send it hither. 10 Sept. Signed.
Add.: Mr. Secretary. Endd.
Letters and Papers 1535. 11 Sep 1535. R. O. 341. John Gostwyk to Cromwell.
This day I received your letter on horseback going home, and have delivered the three merchants the 20s. as the King's reward, as I am not to break the sum that came from York. As to your marvel that I have not received from the archbishop of Canterbury and the abbot of Westminster the money due to the King, I cannot see how I shall get it till next term. The Abbot's money is not yet due. On my return I shall quicken the Archbishop and other debtors with sharp letters, as you command, to pay up instantly. Concerning the killing and bestowing of your stag in the duke of Suffolk's park, I have already advertised you. By the Lord Mayor's certificate which I send you will see that the plague increases. London, Saturday, 11 Sept. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
Letters and Papers 1535. 13 Sep 1535. 358. Hears that the sickness in London rather increases .... Will, therefore, stay at Old Ford, beside Stratford. Two only of the commissions for the spiritualty have come to his hands. Asks him to find out whether the King will prorogue the Parliament and adjourn the term till Hallowmas, or prorogue Parliament, as it was last, till Feb. 4.
Letters and Papers 1535. 15 Sep 1535. R. O. St. P. I. 448. 370. Sir Thomas Audeley, Chancellor, to Cromwell.
Has received the King's letters, dated the 13th inst., for writs to be made to all sheriffs to notify the prorogation of Parliament to 4 Feb. Will use diligence. Audeley, the Speaker, and some others, must assemble in the Houses 3 Nov. next, to prorogue the same. Is glad of the adjournment of the term, considering the increase of sickness in the city. His advice, since the King desires it, is that Parliament be prorogued till 4 Feb., and the term till Crastino Animarum, by which time, by coldness of the weather, the plague should cease; if not, it may then be prorogued till Hilary Term. To adjourn the whole term suddenly would be prejudicial. One justice must sit in every Court on the first day of the term to receive the King's writ for the adjournment. Asks whether the Exchequer shall be adjourned with the rest, and advises that all should be adjourned together.
The new sheriffs of London have granted Audeley the nomination of under-sheriff of Middlesex. Hears Cromwell has since written to the sheriffs for the same; and reminds him that last year he (Audeley) had such a grant, but abstained from using it, when Cromwell promised not to interrupt him again. Has few advancements for his servants, Cromwell has many; begs he may enjoy the grant. Humble commendations to the King and Queen. Old Forde, 15 Sept. Signed.
Letters and Papers 1535. 23 Sep 1535. R. O. 413. John Wylliamson to Cromwell.
I have received your letter by John Gresham, with seven pieces of diaper. I have been with Mr. Malete divers times concerning your livery coat, and he says the pattern of the coat for the privy chamber is not yet come, and therefore I have had a coat of "new color sad" to be made for you after my own device. I have sent your letter to Mr. Williams at Hampton Court, and he says that we shall have all that he can do in that behalf. Your works draw to an end. I have delivered to Thomas Thacker, for your buildings, &c. £100. They have been viewed by Mr. Vaghan, and, I trust, will be found as I have written. Sir Ric. a Lee, Sir John, and I are diligent in forwarding your works. One of your masons, dwelling against your great gate in Friar Austins, is sick of the plague. Three corses were buried at Hackney last St. Matthew's Day. Sir Thomas Greene is diligent. My mother and all are well. At the Rolls, 23 Sept. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
Letters and Papers 1535. 24 Sep 1535. 431. Randall Tytley to Cromwell.
Petition stating that he has been a prisoner five years in Bread Street Counter [Map]; "and now of late one Mr. Broke was at the said Counter with charity from your good mastership, demanding of the prisoners how they were ordered, and commanded them, if they were not well ordered, to write to your good mastership for remedy."
Wrote accordingly the constitutions of the same Counter, and sent it to Mr. Brooke, to present to Cromwell; for doing which the keeper sent him to Newgate, where he is likely to die of the sickness of the house. At Bread Street every man pays for his bed, "some 4d., some 2d., if they be feather beds, and a mattress 1d.; " and if the prisoner wear any irons, he pays double; so that his beds, one week with another, amount to 30s. a year; although all the beds in the prison are scarcely worth one week's lodging; whereas the custom of the city is but a penny for the best feather bed within the prison, and ½d. for a mattrass, and if they complain they are sent to Newgate. If the friends of the prisoners bring them any charity, as bread, drink, cheese, &c., the keeper will suffer none to come to them, lest it hinder his own custom. If a prisoner come in for debt for £5 or above, he is forced to agree with his keeper at an exorbitant rate beyond his power; and if any one be in arrear for one night's lodging, and though he be able to pay when his friends come to him, he is thrust into the hole, and kept till he has sold all his clothes, and then there is no remedy but to Newgate with him, which has been the murder of many a tall man and true, able to do the King service. Moreover, if a man, after remaining long in prison, be released by the pity of his creditors, he is still detained for 8d., the keeper's fee of the door. The tapster also pays 6s. 8d. on every barrel, and is compelled to find the prisoners candles, which, on an average, cost 12d. a week; but the keeper pays only 3s. a barrel.
Large paper, pp. 2. Add.: Secretary.
Letters and Papers 1535. 30 Sep 1535. Vienna Archives. 484. Cromwell to Chapuys.
Took much pleasure in Chapuys' former letters, especially in the news of the Emperor's success. These more recent are still more acceptable as giving a succinct account of the whole expedition, so vivid that Cromwell imagined himself present. The King was greatly interested. As to the message Chapuys sent by his servant, in which he suspects delays, begs him to consider, whatever delay there may be, that nothing will be omitted which the honor of the King demands for the more secure and wholesome education of the lady Mary, seeing that no one feels more anxiety about her than her father. Begs Chapuys therefore to defer his proposal to visit her to some more convenient time, especially as he may have been deceived by a false report of inattention paid to her health, of which Cromwell assures him the utmost care is taken. The plague is so severe at London and neighbouring places that a man might seem wanting in attention who should go from thence to her. Will discuss matters with him at more length shortly. Winchester, 30 Sept. 1535.
Latin, pp. 2. From a modern copy docketed (by the archivist?): "A joindre à la lettre du 13 8bre."
Letters and Papers 1535. 06 Oct 1535. R. O. 549. Ri. Gwent, of the Arches, to Cromwell.
This St. Faith's Day, Dr. Olyver, Mr. Carne, Mr. Hewys, and I came from Uxbrige, where we have tarried a good while on account of the sickness at London. If it be your pleasure we will come and report to you how far forward we are in these new laws; but we dare not till we hear from you. I beg you will dispense with me that I may keep the court of Arches this day, and I shall sue further for your licence under the great seal. Many have come from far countries for expedition of their causes, but I dare determine none without your licence, considering that your general visitation doth now depend. Let me know by bearer your pleasure for this one court. This Crastino Fidis is the first court done in the Arches and the Prerogative the morrow after. Doctors' Commons, St. Faith's Day.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary. Sealed.
Letters and Papers 1535. 06 Oct 1535. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 23. B. M. 557. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.
Has received the Empress's letter of Aug. 26. Chapuis writes that the king of England gives bishoprics to heretics who conform to his William He does not mention the liberty of the Queen, of which Thomas Petiplet, the King's chamberlain, spoke when he passed here on his way to the Emperor. Supposes it was fiction, as also was the rumor lately in Rome that a son of Thomas More had murdered (muerto) the king of England in revenge for his father's martyrdom. Sends a copy of the passion and martyrdom of Thomas More and a copy of the Pope's brief to the earl of Kildare, who has so nobly resisted the king of England and conquered the greater part of the land he holds in Ireland.
Hears, through France, that there is a plague in England, and that the King had absented himself in consequence.
Has received a letter from the ambassador, dated London, 25 Aug., stating that the Queen and Princess are well, and that a friar has been martyred in the archbishopric of York (Hiorc) in the same manner and for the same reason as the Carthusians. Rome, 6 Oct. 1535.
Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.
Letters and Papers 1535. 08 Oct 1535. MS. 28, 588, f. 25. B. M. 565. Count of Cifuentes to Charles V.
Wrote on the day of the Pope's departure for Perosa. He is now returned, and is well, and desirous of seeing the Emperor. Was told by the Pope that the cardinal of Paris had said that the French king had sent to the king of England the brief touching help to be given for his deprivation, that he might the better understand the Pope's wishes, and be persuaded to return to his obedience to the Apostolic See. The messenger had not returned, as there was plague in London, and the King had gone inland. His Holiness denied that the French king had done this with his knowledge, but he believed that it would do good. Thought this unlikely; but the king of France would make his profit out of the brief with the king of England. The Pope said that he had been told that the Emperor had also sent on to the king of England the Pope's brief to himself on the same matter, which is incredible. Said that even if it were here, his intentions were very different to those of the French king. He replied that he was sure of that, and that he was contented with the answers given to the Nuncio about the Council, Camarino, and the Emperor's visit to Rome. The Pope said also that the king of England was labouring with certain princes and estates in Germany to prevent the Council. He had men there, and was sending others.
Letters and Papers 1535. 20 Oct 1535. R. O.646. Rowland Morton to Cromwell.
I send you a list of those in this county who have taken the oath to the Act of Succession, although I never could get a sight of the Commission. You will see my diligence by the records presented to you, both now and at Tewkesbury. Of the 22 hundreds into which the county is divided, eight were left to me, not only by the Act of Succession but likewise in the county of Worcester, besides the taxation of the subsidy in both, the tenth of the spiritualty, the commission of musters,&c., to my great labor and charge. The acceptance of my services would be of great solace to me. "Now heartless without refuge, unless your mastership tender the same, I open my stomach as a poor man loaded and overcharged with worldly burdens." Therefore I beg you will dispense with my personal appearance at London this "soure" time of sickness. Twynnynge, 20 Oct. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add.: Secretary.
After a good passage, and the loss today of my servant Wodal by the great sickness, wherewith he was infected at his late being in London longer than I would he should, tomorrow I leave for the French court. My journey, though slow, is, I fear me, "more speedy than my horse, by reason of their travail on the seas, will maintain." The bailly of Troyes left me word to make no haste. If you think greater speed necessary, I shall use the post. I write you this that you may explain to the King the delay in my journey, which, in the "strange watery weather" in France, is more cumbrous than wont. Calays, 24 Oct. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Chief Secretary. Endd.
I have received your letter by your servant Bryant, and sped him of your requests. My Lord Chancellor prays you not to be so liberal in granting these petitions. I told him it was usual with your predecessors. He said, Never came so many; and told me to inform you that the certificate of the spiritualty was not correct, and that displeasure would be taken if it were known. I told him you would not certify from any partiality. He asked me why you had not certified Stanyngfyld. I told him "hit wasse a neuter;" and he said you ought to certify it as within the English pale, and that the King's subject was master of the house; also that you had omitted to certify the house of the sisters by the walls of Calais. Your lease of Sybberton is made sure. Please remember the matter between Golfon (Golston) and me. My Lord Leonard Graye (age 56) has gone into Ireland again, and many gunners with him. The King gave him 500 marks and £100 land to him and his heirs, besides his previous grant of 300 marks land. Also the King gave him a ship well trimmed, and the Queen (age 34) a chain of gold from her middle, worth 100 marks, and a purse of 20 sovereigns. The death is well stopped in London. All manner of grain is at a great price. St. Simon and St. Jude's Day.
Commends himself to his brother Sir Ric. Graynfyld and Mr. Porter.
Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.
Letters and Papers 1535. Nov 1535. R. O. 913. Richard Gylham to Mr. Porter.1
I have buried four persons of pestilence since Saturday, and I have one more to bury today. Yesterday I was in the house where the plague is very sore, and therefore dare not come to Mr. Auditor. I send a copy of my patent from the prior and convent of Moche Malverne for him to see. Whatever way he takes with the lease I will stand to it.
The charges which the prior and convent should pay out of the vicarage of Moche Malverne are as follows:—To the vicar of Malverne, all manner of charges discharged to the King and the ordinary, £8 To the archdeacon, for proxy at Easter, 9s. 5½d., and for synnage money, 12d. To the bishop of Worcester:—for the Communion at Easter, six gallons of wine 6s., bread 5d.; for the Communion through the whole year, 8s. 2d. These are all the charges which I as yet pay, except the archdeacon, for he is unpaid for five years.
Some years the vicarage is not worth £6 13s. 4d. The prior should pay me £8 yearly, and discharge me of 16s. to the King for my tenths. "I was not very well since I was in the house where the plague was." Moch Malverne, this present day of November.
The whole sum that goeth out with the vicar's wages is £9 14s. 6d. There is 16s. more which the King should pay for the prior to me.
Hol., pp. 2.
Note 1. There is no clear indication of the date of this document except that it was written in a plague year. From the reference to the bishop of Worcester, however, it was probably not during the time Ghinucci held that bishopric. Gylham was "curate" (i.e., vicar of Much Malvern,) in 1585. SeeValor Eccl. iii. 246.
Letters and Papers 1535. 16 Dec 1535. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 87. B. M. 983. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.
Wrote last on Nov. 22. Is glad to hear the good news that the Turk has been defeated by the Sophi, with a loss of 40,000 horse (de acaballo) and 40 great pieces of artillery, his army having been 70,000.
In the cause of the Queen of England (age 50), the Consistory has ordered of itself a monitory to be issued, fixing a space of two months for the King to turn from his heresy and schism and public adultery, and then he will not be declared deprived of his kingdom.
The Imperial ambassador writes that he has not leave to visit or send any person to see the Queen and Princess. Those with the Queen are guards and spies, not servants, for they have sworn in favor of Anne (age 34), not to call her highness Queen, nor serve her with royal state. So, not to give them cause to sin, the Queen has not left her chamber for two years; and perhaps if she wished to, it would not be allowed, "y que no manda un ducado," nor has she any of her old servants except her confessor, physician, and apothecary. The King always asks those who wish to join him (se quisieren juntar con el) to renounce obedience to the Apostolic See, and he who formerly appealed to a Council now wishes it not to be held.