1660-1684 Restoration

1660-1684 Restoration is in 17th Century Events.

Charles X King Sweden Dies Charles XI Succeeds

On 13 Feb 1660 Charles Gustav X King Sweden (age 37) died. His son Charles XI King Sweden (age 4) succeeded XI King Sweden.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1660. At the same time in comes Mr. Wade and Mr. Sterry, secretary to the plenipotentiary in Denmark, who brought the news of the death of the King of Sweden (deceased) at Gottenburgh the 3rd of the last month, and he told me what a great change he found when he came here, the secluded members being restored. He also spoke very freely of Mr. Wades profit, which he made while he was in Zeeland, how he did believe that he cheated Mr. Powell, and that he made above £500 on the voyage, which Mr. Wade did very angrily deny, though I believe he was guilty enough.Charles X King Sweden Dies Charles XI Succeeds

Declaration of Breda

04 Apr 1660 The Declaration of Breda [Map], written on 04 Apr 1660, was a part of the process of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) being restored to the English throne written in response to a message sent by George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 51). Initially secret the Declaration was made public on 01 May 1660. The Declaration promised a general pardon, retention of property religious toleration, payment of arrears to the army and continued army service.

Charles II Proclaimed

On 27 Apr 1660 Henry Jermyn 1st Earl St Albans (age 55) was created 1st Earl St Albans.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 May 1660. This day was his Majesty (age 29) proclaimed in London, etc.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1660. All the morning busy. After dinner come several persons of honour, as my Lord St. John (age 61) and others, for convoy to Flushing [Map], and great giving of them salutes. My Lord and we at nine-pins: I lost 9s. While we were at play Mr. Cook brings me word of my wife. He went to Huntsmore to see her, and brought her and my father Bowyer to London, where he left her at my father's (age 59), very well, and speaks very well of her love to me. My letters to-day tell me how it was intended that the King should be proclaimed to-day in London, with a great deal of pomp. I had also news who they are that are chosen of the Lords and Commons to attend the King. And also the whole story of what we did the other day in the fleet, at reading of the King's (age 29) declaration, and my name at the bottom of it. After supper some musique and to bed. I resolving to rise betimes to-morrow to write letters to London.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 May 1660. I stood in the Strand [Map] and beheld it, and blessed God. And all this was done without one drop of blood shed, and by that very army which rebelled against him: but it was the Lord's doing, for such a restoration was never mentioned in any history, ancient or modern, since the return of the Jews from their Babylonish captivity; nor so joyful a day and so bright ever seen in this nation, this happening when to expect or effect it was past all human policy.

On 29 May 1660, his thirtieth birthday, King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) was restored II King England Scotland and Ireland.

John Evelyn 1st Baronet (age 27) was created 1st Baronet Evelyn of Godstone. This is the first Baronetcy Charles II created following his Restoration indicating the high regard in which he held John Evelyn 1st Baronet (age 27) and the Evelyn family including John Evelyn (age 39).

1660 June Creation of Baronets

In Jun 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded those who supported his Restoration ...

6th William Wray 1st Baronet (age 35) and John Talbot of Lacock (age 29) were knighted.

7th Geoffrey Palmer 1st Baronet (age 62) was created 1st Baronet Palmer of Carlton in Northampton

7th Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet (age 54) was created 1st Baronet Bridgeman of Great Lever in Lancashire.

7th John Langham 1st Baronet (age 76) was created 1st Baronet Langham of Cottesbrooke in Northamptonshire.

11th Henry Wright 1st Baronet (age 23) was created 1st Baronet Wright of Dagenham. Ann Crew Lady Wright by marriage Lady Wright of Dagenham.

13th Nicholas Gould 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Gould of the City of London.

14th Thomas Allen 1st Baronet (age 27) was created 1st Baronet Allen of Totteridge in Middlesex.

18th Thomas Cullum 1st Baronet (age 73) was created 1st Baronet Cullum of Hastede in Suffolk.

19th Thomas Darcy 1st Baronet (age 28) was created 1st Baronet Darcy of St Osith's.

22nd Robert Cordell 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Cordell of Long Melford.

22nd John Robinson 1st Baronet (age 45) was created 1st Baronet Robinson of London. Anne Whitmore Lady Robinson (age 48) by marriage Lady Robinson of London.

25th William Bowyer 1st Baronet (age 47) was created 1st Baronet Bowyer of Denham Court. Margaret Weld Lady Bowyer (age 43) by marriage Lady Bowyer of Denham Court.

25th Thomas Stanley 1st Baronet (age 63) was created 1st Baronet Stanley of Alderley in Cheshire.

26th Jacob Astley 1st Baronet (age 21) was created 1st Baronet Astley of Hill Morton.

27th William Wray 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Wray of Ashby in Lincolnshire. Olympia Tufton Lady Ashby (age 36) by marriage Lady Wray of Ashby in Lincolnshire.

28th Oliver St John 1st Baronet (age 36) was created 1st Baronet St John of Woodford in Northamptonshire.

29th Ralph Delaval 1st Baronet (age 37) was created 1st Baronet Delaval of Seaton in Northumberland. Anne Leslie Lady Delaval by marriage Lady Delaval of Seaton in Northumberland.

30th Andrew Henley 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Henley of Henley in Somerset.

1660 July Creation of Peerages

1660 August Creation of Baronets

In Aug 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded those who supported his Restoration by awarding them Baronetcies ...

On 02 Aug 1660 Hugh Smithson 1st Baronet (age 62) was created 1st Baronet Smithson of Stanwick in Yorkshire.

On 10 Aug 1660 Peter Leicester 1st Baronet (age 46) was created 1st Baronet Leicester of Tabley in Cheshire. Elizabeth Gerard Lady Leicester by marriage Lady Leicester of Tabley in Cheshire.

On 11 Aug 1660 William wheler 1st Baronet 1611 1666 (age 49) was created 1st Baronet Wheler of the City of Westminster with a special remainder failing the heirs male of his body, "to Charles Wheeler (age 40) [rectius Wheler], cosin to the said Sir William and the heires males of the body of the said Sir Charles."

On 16 Aug 1660 Thomas Lee 1st Baronet (age 25) was created 1st Baronet Lee of Hartwell in Buckinghamshire.

On 16 Aug 1660 John Newton 1st Baronet (age 49) was created 1st Baronet Newton of Barrs Court.

On 16 Aug 1660 Thomas Smith 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Smith of Hatherton in Cheshire.

On 31 Aug 1660 John Drake 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Drake of Ashe in Devon. Dionise Strode Lady Drake by marriage Lady Drake of Ashe in Devon.

Indemnity and Oblivion Act

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Apr 1652. My brother George (age 34) brought to Sayes Court [Map] Cromwell's (age 52) Act of Oblivion to all that would submit to the Government.

On 29 Aug 1660 the Indemnity and Oblivion Act became law. The act was a general pardon for everyone who had committed crimes during the Civil War and Interregnum with the exception of certain crimes such as murder (without a licence granted by King or Parliament), piracy, buggery, rape and witchcraft, and people named in the act such as those involved in the regicide of Charles I.

Henry Mildmay (age 67) was excepted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act.

James Harington 3rd Baronet (age 52) was exempted. In 1661 his Baronetcy was forfeit for life.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Dec 1683. I was this day invited to a wedding of one Mrs. Castle, to whom I had some obligation, and it was to her fifth husband, a lieutenant-colonel of the city. She was the daughter of one Burton, a broom-man, by his wife, who sold kitchen stuff in Kent Street, whom God so blessed that the father became a very rich, and was a very honest man; he was Sheriff of Surrey, where I have sat on the bench with him. Another of his daughters was married to Sir John Bowles; and this daughter was a jolly friendly woman. There was at the wedding the Lord Mayor, the Sheriff, several Aldermen and persons of quality; above all, Sir George Jeffreys (age 38), newly made Lord Chief Justice of England, with Mr. Justice Withings, danced with the bride, and were exceedingly merry. These great men spent the rest of the afternoon, till eleven at night, in drinking healths, taking tobacco, and talking much beneath the gravity of judges, who had but a day or two before condemned Mr. Algernon Sidney (age 60), who was executed the 7th on Tower Hill [Map], on the single witness of that monster of a man, Lord Howard of Escrick, and some sheets of paper taken in Mr. Sidney's (age 60) study, pretended to be written by him, but not fully proved, nor the time when, but appearing to have been written before his Majesty's (age 53) Restoration, and then pardoned by the Act of Oblivion; so that though Mr. Sidney was known to be a person obstinately averse to government by a monarch (the subject of the paper was in answer to one by Sir E. Filmer), yet it was thought he had very hard measure. There is this yet observable, that he had been an inveterate enemy to the last king, and in actual rebellion against him; a man of great courage, great sense, great parts, which he showed both at his trial and death; for, when he came on the scaffold, instead of a speech, he told them only that he had made his peace with God, that he came not thither to talk, but to die; put a paper into the sheriff's hand, and another into a friend's; said one prayer as short as a grace, laid down his neck, and bid the executioner do his office.

Before 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" (age 49) was arrested. He was exempted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act. He was indicted on high treason by a Middlesex grand jury after charges were presented by the king's attorney general Sir Geoffrey Palmer (age 64) assisted by John Kelyng (age 54).

1660 September Creation of Peerages

In Sep 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded a further tranche of those who supported his Restoration ...

On 04 Sep 1660 John King 1st Baron Kingston was created 1st Baron Kingston of Kingston in Dublin.

On 05 Sep 1660 Roger Boyle 1st Earl Orrery (age 39) was created 1st Earl Orrery. Margaret Howard Countess Orrery (age 38) by marriage Countess Orrery.

On 05 Sep 1660 Oliver St George 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet St George of Carrickdrumrusk in Leitrim in the Peerage of England.

On 06 Sep 1660 Francis Boyle 1st Viscount Shannon (age 37) was created 1st Viscount Shannon. Elizabeth Killigrew Viscountess Shannon (age 38) by marriage Viscountess Shannon.

On 06 Sep 1660 Richard Coote 1st Baron Coote (age 40) was created 1st Baron Coote.

On 10 Sep 1660 Charles Gordon 1st Earl Aboyne (age 22) was created 1st Earl Aboyne.

1660 November Creation of Baronets

In Nov 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded of further tranche of those who supported his Restoration by awarding them Baronetcies ...

On 08 Nov 1660 William Russell 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Russell of Laugherne in Carmarthenshire.

On 12 Nov 1660 John Cutler 1st Baronet (age 57) was created 1st Baronet Cutler of London.

On 21 Nov 1660 John Clotworthy 1st Viscount Massereene was created 1st Viscount Massereene, 1st Baron Lough Neagh, in the Irish peerage, with remainder in default of male heirs to his son-in-law. See Viscountcies of England Created with a Special Remainder.

On 21 Nov 1660 Thomas Foote 1st Baronet (age 62) was created 1st Baronet Foote of London with a special remainder for title to revert on his death to his son-in-law, Arthur Onslow of West Clandon (age 36).

On 29 Nov 1660 John Wroth 1st Baronet (age 33) was created 1st Baronet Wroth of Blenden Hall in Kent.

1660 December Creation of Baronets and Peerages

In Dec 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded of further tranche of those who supported his Restoration by awarding them Baronetcies ...

On 03 Dec 1660 George Winn 1st Baronet (age 53) was created 1st Baronet Winn of Nostel in Yorkshire.

On 22 Dec 1660 John Keyt 1st Baronet (age 44) was created 1st Baronet Keyt of Ebrington in Gloucestershire for having raised a troop of horse to fight in the Royalist cause.

On 24 Dec 1660 William Frankland 1st Baronet (age 20) was created 1st Baronet Frankland of Thirkleby in Yorkshire.

On 31 Dec 1660 ...

George Marwood 1st Baronet (age 59) was created 1st Baronet Marwood Little Busby in Yorkshire.

John Jackson 1st Baronet (age 29) was created 1st Baronet Jackson of Hickleton in Yorkshire.

James Livingston 1st Earl Newburgh (age 38) was created 1st Earl of Newburgh, 1st Viscount of Kinnaird with remainder to his heirs whatsoever.

Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

On 19 Jan 1661 Thomas Venner was hanged, drawn and quartered for his leading Venner's Uprising aka the Fifth Monarchists.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1661. To the Comptroller's (age 50), and with him by coach to White Hall; in our way meeting Venner and Pritchard upon a sledge, who with two more Fifth Monarchy men were hanged to-day, and the two first drawn and quartered.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1661. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 60), the Comptroller (age 50) and I to Westminster, to the Commissioners for paying off the Army and Navy, where the Duke of Albemarle (age 52) was; and we sat with our hats on, and did discourse about paying off the ships and do find that they do intend to undertake it without our help; and we are glad of it, for it is a work that will much displease the poor seamen, and so we are glad to have no hand in it. From thence to the Exchequer, and took £200 and carried it home, and so to the office till night, and then to see Sir W. Pen (age 39), whither came my Lady Batten and her daughter, and then I sent for my wife, and so we sat talking till it was late. So home to supper and then to bed, having eat no dinner to-day. It is strange what weather we have had all this winter; no cold at all; but the ways are dusty, and the flyes fly up and down, and the rose-bushes are full of leaves, such a time of the year as was never known in this world before here. This day many more of the Fifth Monarchy men were hanged.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1661. At the office all the morning; dined at home, and after dinner to Fleet Street, with my sword to Mr. Brigden (lately made Captain of the Auxiliaries) to be refreshed, and with him to an ale-house, where I met Mr. Davenport; and after some talk of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw's bodies being taken out of their graves to-day1, I went to Mr. Crew's (age 63) and thence to the Theatre [Map], where I saw again "The Lost Lady", which do now please me better than before; and here I sitting behind in a dark place, a lady spit backward upon me by a mistake, not seeing me, but after seeing her to be a very pretty lady, I was not troubled at it at all. Thence to Mr. Crew's (age 63), and there met Mr. Moore, who came lately to me, and went with me to my father's, and with him to Standing's, whither came to us Dr. Fairbrother, who I took and my father to the Bear and gave a pint of sack and a pint of claret.

Note 1. "The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, John Bradshaw, and Thomas Pride, were dug up out of their graves to be hanged at Tyburn [Map], and buried under the gallows. Cromwell's vault having been opened, the people crowded very much to see him".-Rugge's Diurnal.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Jan 1661. This day (Oh, the stupendous and inscrutable judgments of God!) were the carcasses of those arch-rebels, Cromwell, Bradshawe (the judge who condemned his Majesty (age 30)), and Ireton (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged out of their superb tombs in Westminster [Map] among the Kings, to Tyburn [Map], and hanged on the gallows there from nine in the morning till six at night, and then buried under that fatal and ignominious. Monument in a deep pit; thousands of people who had seen them in all their pride being spectators. Look back at October 22 1658, and be astonished! and fear God and honor the King (age 30); but meddle not with them who are given to change!

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jan 1661. So I went home, and there understand that my mother is come home well from Brampton, and had a letter from my brother John (age 20), a very ingenious one, and he therein begs to have leave to come to town at the Coronacion. Then to my Lady Batten's; where my wife and she are lately come back again from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw hanged and buried at Tyburn [Map]. Then I home1.

Note 1. "Jan. 30th was kept as a very solemn day of fasting and prayer. This morning the carcases of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw (which the day before had been brought from the Red Lion Inn, Holborn), were drawn upon a sledge to Tyburn [Map], and then taken out of their coffins, and in their shrouds hanged by the neck, until the going down of the sun. They were then cut down, their heads taken off, and their bodies buried in a grave made under the gallows. The coffin in which was the body of Cromwell was a very rich thing, very full of gilded hinges and nails".-Rugge's Diurnal.

On 30 Jan 1661 the remains of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw were exhumed from and mutilated in a posthumous execution.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1661. Washing-day. My wife and I by water to Westminster. She to her mother's and I to Westminster Hall [Map], where I found a full term, and here I went to Will's, and there found Shaw and Ashwell and another Bragrave (who knew my mother wash-maid to my Lady Veere), who by cursing and swearing made me weary of his company and so I went away. Into the Hall and there saw my Lord Treasurer (who was sworn to-day at the Exchequer, with a great company of Lords and persons of honour to attend him) go up to the Treasury Offices, and take possession thereof; and also saw the heads of Cromwell, Bradshaw, and Ireton, set up upon the further end of the Hall. Then at Mrs. Michell's in the Hall met my wife and Shaw, and she and I and Captain Murford to the Dog [Map], and there I gave them some wine, and after some mirth and talk (Mr. Langley coming in afterwards) I went by coach to the play-house at the Theatre [Map], our coach in King Street breaking, and so took another. Here we saw Argalus and Parthenia, which I lately saw, but though pleasant for the dancing and singing, I do not find good for any wit or design therein. That done home by coach and to supper, being very hungry for want of dinner, and so to bed.

1661 Charles II Continues to Reward those who Supported His Restoration

In early 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded of further tranche of those who supported his Restoration ...

On 02 Jan 1661 Henry Bedingfield 1st Baronet (age 46) was created 1st Baronet Bedingfield of Oxburgh in Norfolk.

On 10 Jan 1661 Andrew Rutherford 1st Earl Teviot was created 1st Baron Rutherford with special remainder to his heirs and assignees whatsoever, and that under what provisions, restrictions, and conditions the said Lord Rutherford should think fit.

On 23 Jan 1661 John Cole 1st Baronet (age 41) was created Baronet Cole of Newland.

On 23 Feb 1661 Edward Smythe 1st Baronet (age 41) was created 1st Baronet Smythe.

On 04 Mar 1661 Compton Reade 1st Baronet (age 36) was created 1st Baronet Reade of Barton in Berkshire. Mary Cornwall Lady Reade (age 31) by marriage Lady Reade of Barton in Berkshire.

On 10 Mar 1661 Brian Broughton 1st Baronet (age 42) was created 1st Baronet Broughton of Broughton in Staffordshire.

On 20 Mar 1661 Thomas Rich 1st Baronet (age 60) was created 1st Baronet Rich of Sonning in Berkshire.

On 29 Mar 1661 Robert Cholmondeley 1st Viscount Cholmondeley (age 21) was created 1st Viscount Cholmondeley of Kells in County Meath.

On 30 Mar 1661 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 50) was created 1st Duke Ormonde by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30). Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Duchess Ormonde.

On 30 Mar 1661 John Fettiplace 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire. Anne Wenman Lady Fettiplace (age 31) by marriage Lady Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire.

Cavalier Parliament

In 1661 William Borlase (age 40) was elected MP Great Marlow in the Cavalier Parliament.

In 1661 Thomas Tomkins (age 56) was elected MP Weobley in the Cavalier Parliament which seat he held until his death in 1674.

In 1661 Edmund Pye 1st Baronet (age 54) was elected MP Wycombe in the Cavalier Parliament.

On 08 May 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) summoned his second Parliament.

John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston (age 44) was elected MP Wallingford.

James Thynne (age 56) was elected MP Wiltshire.

Adam Browne 2nd Baronet (age 35) was elected MP Surrey.

Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne (age 30) was elected MP Northumberland.

William Compton (age 36) was elected MP Cambridge.

Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry (age 32) was elected MP Camelford.

Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge (age 61) was elected MP Bath and Heytesbury.

Edward Hungerford (age 28) was elected MP Chippenham.

Robert Pierrepont (age 24) was elected MP Nottingham.

John Melbury Sampford Strangeways (age 75) was elected MP Weymouth.

Giles Strangeways (age 45) was elected MP Dorset.

John Strangeways (age 24) was elected MP Bridport.

William Wyndham 1st Baronet (age 29) was elected MP Taunton.

James Herbert (age 38) was elected MP Queenborough.

William Alington 1st and 3rd Baron Alington (age 21) was elected MP Cambridge.

William Bowes of Streatlam (age 4) was elected MP Durham.

Robert Brooke (age 24) was elected MP Aldeburgh.

Josiah Child (age 30) was elected MP Dartmouth.

Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet (age 73) was elected MP Nottinghamshire.

Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew (age 37) was elected MP Brackley.

Richard Jennings (age 42) was elected MP St Albans.

Robert Kemp 2nd Baronet (age 33) was elected MP Norfolk.

Edward Phelips (age 48) was elected MP Somerset.

Robert Robartes (age 27) was elected MP Bossiney.

Hender Robartes (age 25) was elected MP Bodmin.

Clement Fisher 2nd Baronet (age 48) was elected MP Coventry.

William Portman 6th Baronet (age 17) was elected MP Taunton.

John Robinson 1st Baronet (age 46) was elected MP Rye.

In 1673 John Hobart 3rd Baronet (age 44) was elected MP Norfolk in the Cavalier Parliament which seat he held until Feb 1679.

1661 Creation of Baronets and Peerages by Charles II Post Coronation

In May 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

10 May 1661 William Smyth 1st Baronet (age 45) was created 1st Baronet Smyth of Redcliff in Buckinghamshire.

18 May 1661 Robert Jenkinson 1st Baronet (age 40) was created 1st Baronet Jenkinson of Walcot in Oxfordshire and of Hawkesbury in Gloucestershire.

20 May 1661 William Glynne 1st Baronet (age 23) was created 1st Baronet Glynne of Bicester aka Bisseter in Oxfordshire.

23 May 1661 Henry Ingram 1st Viscount Irvine (age 21) was created 1st Viscount Irvine.

In Jun 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

05 Jun 1661 James Clavering 1st Baronet (age 41) was created 1st Baronet Clavering of Axwell in County Durham.

13 Jun 1661 Thomas Adams 1st Baronet (age 75) was created 1st Baronet Adams of London.

14 Jun 1661 Henry Moore 1st Earl Drogheda (age 39) was created 1st Earl Drogheda.

On 17 Jun 1661 ...

Godfrey Copley 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Copley Sprotborough.

Abraham Cullen 1st Baronet (age 37) was created 1st Baronet Cullen of East Sheen in Surrey.

James Rushout 1st Baronet (age 17) was created 1st Baronet Rushout of Northwick Park in Worcestershire aged only seveneteen.

William Stanley 1st Baronet (age 33) was created 1st Baronet Stanley of Hooton in Cheshire. Charlotte Molyneux Lady Stanley by marriage Lady Stanley of Hooton in Cheshire.

Griffith Williams 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Williams of Penrhyn in Caernarfonshire.

18 Jun 1661 Thomas Vyner 1st Baronet (age 72) was created 1st Baronet Vyner of London.

18 Jun 1661 Henry Winchcombe 1st Baronet (age 18) was created 1st Baronet Winchcombe of Bucklebury in Berkshire.

26 Jun 1661 Theobald Taaffe 1st Earl Carlingford (age 58) was created 1st Earl Carlingford.

In Jul 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

10 Jul 1661 Christopher Guise 1st Baronet (age 44) was created 1st Baronet Guise of Elmore in Gloucestershire.

16 Jul 1661 Philip Parker 1st Baronet (age 43) was created 1st Baronet Parker of Arwarton in Suffolk. Rebecca Long Lady Parker by marriage Lady Parker of Arwarton in Suffolk.

21 Jul 1661 Charles Hussey 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Hussey of Caythorpe in Lincolnshire.

21 Jul 1661 Edward Barkham 1st Baronet (age 31) was created 1st Baronet Barkham Waynflete.

25 Jul 1661 John Banks 1st Baronet (age 34) was created 1st Baronet Banks of London by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland.

In Aug 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

02 Aug 1661 Thomas Carew 1st Baronet (age 29) was created 1st Baronet Carew of Haccombe in Devon.

04 Aug 1661 John Chichester 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Chichester of Raleigh in Devon.

07 Aug 1661 Mark Milbanke 1st Baronet (age 23) was created 1st Baronet Milbanke of Halnaby in Yorkshire. Elizabeth Acklom Lady Milbanke by marriage Lady Milbanke of Halnaby in Yorkshire.

17 Aug 1661 William Boyd 1st Earl Kilmarnock (age 15) was created 1st Earl Kilmarnock.

1662 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1662. Thence to the Hall, where I heard the House had ordered all the King's murderers, that remain, to be executed, but Fleetwood (age 44) and Downes (age 53).

1662 Great Storm

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1662. So home and to musique, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1662. All the morning at the office. At noon with Mr. Moore to the Coffee-house, where among other things the great talk was of the effects of this late great wind; and I heard one say that he had five great trees standing together blown down; and, beginning to lop them, one of them, as soon as the lops were cut off, did, by the weight of the root, rise again and fasten. We have letters from the forest of Deane, that above 1000 Oakes and as many beeches are blown down in one walk there. And letters from my father tell me of £20 hurt done to us at Brampton.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1662. This night my new camelott riding coat to my coloured cloth suit came home. More news to-day of our losses at Brampton by the late storm.

Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Dec 1661. I took leave of my Lord Peterborough (age 40), going now to Tangier, which was to be delivered to the English on the match with Portugal.

Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

Before 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" (age 49) was arrested. He was exempted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act. He was indicted on high treason by a Middlesex grand jury after charges were presented by the king's attorney general Sir Geoffrey Palmer (age 64) assisted by John Kelyng (age 54).

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock in the morning and upon business at my office. Then we sat down to business, and about 11 o'clock, having a room got ready for us, we all went out to the Tower-hill [Map]; and there, over against the scaffold, made on purpose this day, saw Sir Henry Vane (age 49) brought1. A very great press of people. He made a long speech, many times interrupted by the Sheriff and others there; and they would have taken his paper out of his hand, but he would not let it go. But they caused all the books of those that writ after him to be given the Sheriff; and the trumpets were brought under the scaffold that he might not be heard. Then he prayed, and so fitted himself, and received the blow; but the scaffold was so crowded that we could not see it done. But Boreman, who had been upon the scaffold, came to us and told us, that first he began to speak of the irregular proceeding against him; that he was, against Magna Charta, denied to have his exceptions against the indictment allowed; and that there he was stopped by the Sheriff. Then he drew out his, paper of notes, and begun to tell them first his life; that he was born a gentleman, that he was bred up and had the quality of a gentleman, and to make him in the opinion of the world more a gentleman, he had been, till he was seventeen years old, a good fellow, but then it pleased God to lay a foundation of grace in his heart, by which he was persuaded, against his worldly interest, to leave all preferment and go abroad, where he might serve God with more freedom. Then he was called home, and made a member of the Long Parliament; where he never did, to this day, any thing against his conscience, but all for the glory of God. Here he would have given them an account of the proceedings of the Long Parliament, but they so often interrupted him, that at last he was forced to give over: and so fell into prayer for England in generall, then for the churches in England, and then for the City of London: and so fitted himself for the block, and received the blow. He had a blister, or issue, upon his neck, which he desired them not hurt: he changed not his colour or speech to the last, but died justifying himself and the cause he had stood for; and spoke very confidently of his being presently at the right hand of Christ; and in all, things appeared the most resolved man that ever died in that manner, and showed more of heat than cowardize, but yet with all humility and gravity. One asked him why he did not pray for the King (age 32). He answered, "Nay", says he, "you shall see I can pray for the King (age 32): I pray God bless him!" the King (age 32) had given his body to his friends; and, therefore, he told them that he hoped they would be civil to his body when dead; and desired they would let him die like a gentleman and a Christian, and not crowded and pressed as he was.

Note 1. Sir Harry Vane (age 49) the younger was born 1612. Charles (age 32) signed on June 12th a warrant for the execution of Vane by hanging at Tyburn [Map] on the 14th, which sentence on the following day "upon humble suit made" to him, Charles was "graciously pleased to mitigate", as the warrant terms it, for the less ignominious punishment of beheading on Tower Hill [Map], and with permission that the head and body should be given to the relations to be by them decently and privately interred.- Lister's Life of Clarendon, ii, 123.

On 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" (age 49) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for treason against King Charles II (age 32). He had been sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered, however, King Charles II (age 32) commuted the sentence to beheading.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jun 1662. Coming home to-night, I met with Will. Swan, who do talk as high for the Fanatiques as ever he did in his life; and do pity my Lord Sandwich (age 36) and me that we should be given up to the wickedness of the world; and that a fall is coming upon us all; for he finds that he and his company are the true spirit of the nation, and the greater part of the nation too, who will have liberty of conscience in spite of this "Act of Uniformity", or they will die; and if they may not preach abroad, they will preach in their own houses. He told me that certainly Sir H. Vane (deceased) must be gone to Heaven, for he died as much a martyr and saint as ever man did; and that the King (age 32) hath lost more by that man's death, than he will get again a good while. At all which I know not what to think; but, I confess, I do think that the Bishops will never be able to carry it so high as they do.

1662 Montagu Chomeley Duel

Calendars. 18 Aug 1662. 59. -- to [Lord Conway]. Welcomes him to Dublin. Hopes he has received the tender of his brother Dering's service. The Doctors are both at Tunbridge, and are going to Italy. The writer's cousin, Hugh Cholmley (age 30), has fought a duel with Edward Montague (age 27), without harm, and Henry Jermyn (age 26) and Giles Rawlins against one of the Howards (age 31) and Lord Dillon's son; it was fought in St. James's Fields, Pall Mall, at 11am. Rawlins is slain, Jermyn (age 26) wounded, and the other two fled. The King intends to proclaim Tangiers a free port for five years. The London ministers who will not conform have parted from their congregations with great temper. Damaged.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1662. By and by to sit at the office; and Mr. Coventry (age 34) did tell us of the duell between Mr. Jermyn (age 26), nephew to my Lord St. Albans (age 57), and Colonel Giles Rawlins, the latter of whom is killed, and the first mortally wounded, as it is thought. They fought against Captain Thomas Howard (age 31), my Lord Carlisle's (age 33) brother, and another unknown; who, they say, had armour on that they could not be hurt, so that one of their swords went up to the hilt against it. They had horses ready, and are fled. But what is most strange, Howard sent one challenge, but they could not meet, and then another, and did meet yesterday at the old Pall Mall [Map] at St. James's, and would not to the last tell Jermyn what the quarrel was; nor do any body know. The Court is much concerned in this fray, and I am glad of it; hoping that it will cause some good laws against it.

1663 Blood's Plot

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jun 1663. So home to supper and to bed. This day I hear at Court of the great plot which was lately discovered in Ireland, made among the Presbyters and others, designing to cry up the Covenant, and to secure Dublin Castle and other places; and they have debauched a good part of the army there, promising them ready money1. Some of the Parliament there, they say, are guilty, and some withdrawn upon it; several persons taken, and among others a son of Scott's, that was executed here for the King's murder. What reason the King (age 33) hath, I know not; but it seems he is doubtfull of Scotland: and this afternoon, when I was there, the Council was called extraordinary; and they were opening the letters this last post's coming and going between Scotland and us and other places. Blessed be God, my head and hands are clear, and therefore my sleep safe.

Note 1. This was known as "Blood's Plot", and was named after Colonel Thomas Blood (age 45), afterwards notorious for his desperate attack upon the Duke of Ormond (age 52) in St. James's Street (1670) and for his robbery of the crown jewels in the Tower (1671). He died August 24th, 1680.

1663 Battle of Ameixial

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1663. Up betimes and to my office, and by and by to the Temple [Map], and there appointed to meet in the evening about my business, and thence I walked home, and up and down the streets is cried mightily the great victory got by the Portugalls against the Spaniards, where 10,000 slain, 3 or 4,000 taken prisoners, with all the artillery, baggage, money, &c., and Don John of Austria (age 34)1 forced to flee with a man or two with him, which is very great news.

Note 1. He was natural son of Philip IV., King of Spain (age 58), who, after his father's death in 1665, exerted his whole influence to overthrow the Regency appointed during the young king's minority. B.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1663. So to St. James's by water with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), I giving occasion to a wager about the tide, that it did flow through bridge, by which Sir W. Batten (age 62) won 5s. of Sir J. Minnes (age 64). At St. James's we staid while the Duke (age 29) made himself ready. Among other things Sir Allen Apsley (age 47) showed the Duke (age 29) the Lisbon Gazette in Spanish, where the late victory is set down particularly, and to the great honour of the English beyond measure. They have since taken back Evora, which was lost to the Spaniards, the English making the assault, and lost not more than three men. Here I learnt that the English foot are highly esteemed all over the world, but the horse not so much, which yet we count among ourselves the best; but they abroad have had no great knowledge of our horse, it seems.

1663 Farneley Wood Plot

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1663. It seems that, after the much talk of troubles and a plot, something is found in the North that a party was to rise, and some persons that were to command it are found, as I find in a letter that Mr. Coventry (age 35) read to-day about it from those parts1.

Note 1. This refers to a rising in the West Riding of Yorkshire, which took place on October 12th, and was known as the Farneley Wood Plot. The rising was easily put down, and several prisoners were taken. A special commission of oyer and terminer was sent down to York to try the prisoners in January, 1663-64, when twenty-one were convicted and executed. (See Whitaker's "Loidis and Elmete", 1816.).

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1664. The general talke of the towne still is of Collonell Turner (age 55), about the robbery; who, it is thought, will be hanged. I heard the Duke of York (age 30) tell to-night, how letters are come that fifteen are condemned for the late plot by the judges at York; and, among others, Captain Oates, against whom it was proved that he drew his sword at his going out, and flinging away the scabbard, said that he would either return victor or be hanged.

1663 Storm Tide

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1663. At White Hall I hear and find that there was the last night the greatest tide that ever was remembered in England to have been in this river: all White Hall having been drowned, of which there was great discourse.

Conventicle Act

In 1664 the Conventicle Act forbade conventicles, defined as religious assemblies of more than five people other than an immediate family, outside the auspices of the Church of England as a means of discouaging non-conformism and to stregthen the position of the Church of England.

Battle of Tangier

On 04 May 1664 the Battle of Tangier took place when a force of Moorish warriors ambushed and defeated a detachment of the garrison of English Tangier led by the Governor Andrew Rutherford 1st Earl Teviot.

Andrew Rutherford 1st Earl Teviot was killed. Earl Teviot extinct. Thomas Rutherford of Hunthill 2nd Baron Rutherford succeeded 2nd Baron Rutherford.

Battle of Levice

On 19 Jul 1664 the Habsburg Imperial Army commanded by Jean-Louis Raduit Count de Souches (age 55) defeated an Ottoman army under the command of Ali Pasha. Ali Pasha was killed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1664. So to the Coffee-house, and there all the house full of the victory Generall Soushe (age 55)1 (who is a Frenchman, a soldier of fortune, commanding part of the German army) hath had against the Turke; killing 4,000 men, and taking most extraordinary spoil.

Note 1. General Soushe (age 55) was Louis Ratuit, Comte de Souches. The battle was fought at Lewenz (or Leva), in Hungary. B.

Battle of St Gothard

On 23 Jul 1664 the Battle of St Gothard was a victory for the Imperial Army (Germans, Swedish and French) over the Ottoman army.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Aug 1664. They gone I to my office, and there my head being a little troubled with the little wine I drank, though mixed with beer, but it may be a little more than I used to do, and yet I cannot say so, I went home and spent the afternoon with my wife talking, and then in the evening a little to my office, and so home to supper and to bed. This day comes the newes that the Emperour hath beat the Turke1 killed the Grand Vizier and several great Bassas, with an army of 80,000 men killed and routed; with some considerable loss of his own side, having lost three generals, and the French forces all cut off almost. Which is thought as good a service to the Emperour as beating the Turke almost, for had they conquered they would have been as troublesome to him2.

Note 1. This was the battle of St. Gothard, in which the Turks were defeated with great slaughter by the imperial forces under Montecuculli, assisted by the confederates from the Rhine, and by forty troops of French cavalry under Coligni. St. Gothard is in Hungary, on the river Raab, near the frontier of Styria; it is about one hundred and twenty miles south of Vienna, and thirty east of Gratz. The battle took place on the 9th Moharrem, A.H. 1075, or 23rd July, A.D. 1664 (old style), which is that used by Pepys. B.

Note 2. The fact is, the Germans were beaten by the Turks, and the French won the battle for them. B.

1664 Transit of Mercury

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Oct 1664. We dined at Sir Timothy Tyrill's (age 47) at Shotover. This gentleman married the daughter and heir (age 45) of Dr. James Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, that learned prelate. There is here in the grove a fountain of the coldest water I ever felt, and very clear. His plantation of oaks and other timber is very commendable. We went in the evening to Oxford, lay at Dr. Hyde's (age 47), principal of Magdalen-Hall (related to the Lord Chancellor (age 55)), brother to the Lord Chief Justice (age 69) and that Sir Henry Hyde, who lost his head for his loyalty. We were handsomely entertained two days. The Vice-Chancellor, who with Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church, the learned Dr. Barlow, Warden of Queen's, and several heads of houses, came to visit Lord Cornbury his father (age 55) being now Chancellor of the University), and next day invited us all to dinner. I went to visit Mr. Boyle (age 37) (now here), whom I found with Dr. Wallis and Dr. Christopher Wren, in the tower of the schools, with an inverted tube, or telescope, observing the discus of the sun for the passing of Mercury that day before it; but the latitude was so great that nothing appeared; so we went to see the rarities in the library, where the keepers showed me my name among the benefactors. They have a cabinet of some medals, and pictures of the muscular parts of man's body. Thence, to the new theater, now building at an exceeding and royal expense by the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury [Sheldon (age 66)], to keep the Acts in for the future, till now being in St. Mary's Church. The foundation had been newly laid, and the whole designed by that incomparable genius my worthy friend, Dr. Christopher Wren, who showed me the model, not disdaining my advice in some particulars. Thence, to see the picture on the wall over the altar of All Souls, being the largest piece of fresco painting (or rather in imitation of it, for it is in oil of turpentine) in England, not ill designed by the hand of one Fuller; yet I fear it will not hold long. It seems too full of nakeds for a chapel.

1664 Comet

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1664. So to the Coffeehouse, where great talke of the Comet seen in several places; and among our men at sea, and by my Lord Sandwich (age 39), to whom I intend to write about it to-night.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Dec 1664. So home and to my office, where late, and then home to bed. Mighty talke there is of this Comet that is seen a'nights; and the King (age 34) and Queene (age 55) did sit up last night to see it, and did, it seems. And to-night I thought to have done so too; but it is cloudy, and so no stars appear. But I will endeavour it. Mr. Gray did tell me to-night, for certain, that the Dutch, as high as they seem, do begin to buckle; and that one man in this Kingdom did tell the King (age 34) that he is offered £40,000 to make a peace, and others have been offered money also. It seems the taking of their Bourdeaux fleete thus, arose from a printed Gazette of the Dutch's boasting of fighting, and having beaten the English: in confidence whereof (it coming to Bourdeaux), all the fleete comes out, and so falls into our hands.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1664. My Lord Sandwich (age 39) this day writes me word that he hath seen (at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]) the Comet, and says it is the most extraordinary thing that ever he saw.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Dec 1664. This year I planted the lower grove next the pond at Sayes Court [Map]. It was now exceedingly cold, and a hard, long, frosty season, and the comet was very visible.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1664. This day Sir W. Batten (age 63) sent and afterwards spoke to me, to have me and my wife come and dine with them on Monday next: which is a mighty condescension in them, and for some great reason I am sure, or else it pleases God by my late care of business to make me more considerable even with them than I am sure they would willingly owne me to be. God make me thankfull and carefull to preserve myself so, for I am sure they hate me and it is hope or fear that makes them flatter me. It being a bright night, which it has not been a great while, I purpose to endeavour to be called in the morning to see the Comet, though I fear we shall not see it, because it rises in the east but 16 degrees, and then the houses will hinder us.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1664. So home and to my office, where late. This evening I being informed did look and saw the Comet, which is now, whether worn away or no I know not, but appears not with a tail, but only is larger and duller than any other star, and is come to rise betimes, and to make a great arch, and is gone quite to a new place in the heavens than it was before: but I hope in a clearer night something more will be seen.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1664. Having sat up all night to past two o'clock this morning, our porter, being appointed, comes and tells us that the bellman tells him that the star is seen upon Tower Hill [Map]; so I, that had been all night setting in order all my old papers in my chamber, did leave off all, and my boy and I to Tower Hill [Map], it being a most fine, bright moonshine night, and a great frost; but no Comet to be seen. So after running once round the Hill, I and Tom, we home and then to bed. Rose about 9 o'clock and then to the office, where sitting all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1664. The Comet appeared again to-night, but duskishly. I went to bed, leaving my wife and all her folks, and Will also, too, come to make Christmas gambolls to-night.

Five Mile Act

In 1665 the Five Mile Act sought to place further constraints on non-conformists by forbidding clergymen to live within five miles of a parish from which they had been expelled unless they swore an oath never to resist the king, or attempt to alter the government of Church or State. The latter involved swearing to obey the 1662 prayer book. Thousands of ministers were deprived of a living under this act.

Sinking of The London

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1665. Though a bitter cold day, yet I rose, and though my pain and tenderness in my testicle remains a little, yet I do verily think that my pain yesterday was nothing else, and therefore I hope my disease of the stone may not return to me, but void itself in pissing, which God grant, but I will consult my physitian. This morning is brought me to the office the sad newes of "The London", in which Sir J. Lawson's (age 50) men were all bringing her from Chatham, Kent [Map] to the Hope, and thence he was to go to sea in her; but a little a'this side the buoy of the Nower, she suddenly blew up. About 24 [men] and a woman that were in the round-house and coach saved; the rest, being above 300, drowned: the ship breaking all in pieces, with 80 pieces of brass ordnance. She lies sunk, with her round-house above water. Sir J. Lawson (age 50) hath a great loss in this of so many good chosen men, and many relations among them. I went to the 'Change [Map], where the news taken very much to heart.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Mar 1665. I went to receive the poor creatures that were saved out of the London frigate, blown up by accident, with above 200 men. .

Evelyn's Diary. 16 May 1665. To London, to consider of the poor orphans and widows made by this bloody beginning, and whose husbands and relations perished in London frigate, of which there were fifty widows, and forty-five of them with child. See Sinking of The London.

Second Anglo Dutch War

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Apr 1665. Was a day of public humiliation and for success of this terrible war, begun doubtless at secret instigation of the French to weaken the States and Protestant interest. Prodigious preparations on both sides.

1665 Battle of Vågen

Pepy's Diary. 10 Sep 1665. But before I come out there happened newes to come to the by an expresse from Mr. Coventry (age 37), telling me the most happy news of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) meeting with part of the Dutch; his taking two of their East India ships, and six or seven others, and very good prizes and that he is in search of the rest of the fleet, which he hopes to find upon the Wellbancke, with the loss only of the Hector, poor Captain Cuttle. This newes do so overjoy me that I know not what to say enough to express it, but the better to do it I did walk to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there sending away Mr. Andrews (age 33), I to Captain Cocke's (age 48), where I find my Lord Bruncker (age 45) and his mistress, and Sir J. Minnes (age 66). Where we supped (there was also Sir W. Doyly (age 51) and Mr. Evelyn (age 44)); but the receipt of this newes did put us all into such an extacy of joy, that it inspired into Sir J. Minnes (age 66) and Mr. Evelyn (age 44) such a spirit of mirth, that in all my life I never met with so merry a two hours as our company this night was. Among other humours, Mr. Evelyn's (age 44) repeating of some verses made up of nothing but the various acceptations of may and can, and doing it so aptly upon occasion of something of that nature, and so fast, did make us all die almost with laughing, and did so stop the mouth of Sir J. Minnes (age 66) in the middle of all his mirth (and in a thing agreeing with his own manner of genius), that I never saw any man so out-done in all my life; and Sir J. Minnes's (age 66) mirth too to see himself out-done, was the crown of all our mirth. In this humour we sat till about ten at night, and so my Lord (age 45) and his mistress home, and we to bed, it being one of the times of my life wherein I was the fullest of true sense of joy.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1665. To hear that poor Payne, my waiter, hath buried a child, and is dying himself. To hear that a labourer I sent but the other day to Dagenhams, to know how they did there, is dead of the plague; and that one of my own watermen, that carried me daily, fell sick as soon as he had landed me on Friday morning last, when I had been all night upon the water (and I believe he did get his infection that day at Brainford), and is now dead of the plague. To hear that Captain Lambert and Cuttle are killed in the taking these ships; and that Mr. Sidney Montague is sick of a desperate fever at my Baroness Carteret's (age 63), at Scott's-hall. To hear that Mr. Lewes hath another daughter sick.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1665. Down to the office, and there wrote letters to and again about this good newes of our victory, and so by water home late. Where, when I come home I spent some thoughts upon the occurrences of this day, giving matter for as much content on one hand and melancholy on another, as any day in all my life. For the first; the finding of my money and plate, and all safe at London, and speeding in my business of money this day.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1665. At noon to dinner to my Lord Bruncker (age 45), where Sir W. Batten (age 64) and his Lady come, by invitation, and very merry we were, only that the discourse of the likelihood of the increase of the plague this weeke makes us a little sad, but then again the thoughts of the late prizes make us glad.

1666 Great Storm

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1666. Up and to the office and then to dinner. After dinner to the office again all the afternoon, and much business with me. Good newes beyond all expectation of the decrease of the plague, being now but 79, and the whole but 272. So home with comfort to bed. A most furious storme all night and morning.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1666. By agreement my Lord Bruncker (age 46) called me up, and though it was a very foule, windy, and rainy morning, yet down to the waterside we went, but no boat could go, the storme continued so. So my Lord to stay till fairer weather carried me into the Tower [Map] to Mr. Hore's and there we staid talking an houre, but at last we found no boats yet could go, so we to the office, where we met upon an occasion extraordinary of examining abuses of our clerkes in taking money for examining of tickets, but nothing done in it.

Holme's Bonfire

On 09 Aug 1666 and 10 Aug 1666 Holme's Bonfire was an attack by the English fleet commanded by Admiral Robert Holmes (age 44) on a Dutch merchant fleet of 140 ships at the Vlie estuary. The town of West-Terschelling was burnt down.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1666. Thence to the office, and there did the remainder of my business, and so home to supper and to bed. This afternoon I hear as if we had landed some men upon the Dutch coasts, but I believe it is but a foolery either in the report or the attempt.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1666. Mighty sleepy; slept till past eight of the clock, and was called up by a letter from Sir W. Coventry (age 38), which, among other things, tells me how we have burned one hundred and sixty ships of the enemy within the Fly1. I up, and with all possible haste, and in pain for fear of coming late, it being our day of attending the Duke of Yorke (age 32), to St. James's, where they are full of the particulars; how they are generally good merchant ships, some of them laden and supposed rich ships. We spent five fire-ships upon them. We landed on the Schelling (Sir Philip Howard (age 35) with some men, and Holmes (age 44), I think; with others, about 1000 in all), and burned a town; and so come away.

Note 1. On the 8th August the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) reported to Lord Arlington (age 48) that he had "sent 1000 good men under Sir R. Holmes (age 44) and Sir William Jennings to destroy the islands of Vlie and Schelling". On the 10th James Hayes wrote to Williamson: "On the 9th at noon smoke was seen rising from several places in the island of Vlie, and the 10th brought news that Sir Robert had burned in the enemy's harbour 160 outward bound valuable merchant men and three men-of-war, and taken a little pleasure boat and eight guns in four hours. The loss is computed at a million sterling, and will make great confusion when the people see themselves in the power of the English at their very doors. Sir Robert then landed his forces, and is burning the houses in Vlie and Schelling as bonfires for his good success at sea" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 21,27).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1666. This day Sir W. Batten (age 65) did show us at the table a letter from Sir T. Allen (age 54), which says that we have taken ten or twelve' ships (since the late great expedition of burning their ships and towne), laden with hempe, flax, tarr, deales, &c. This was good newes; but by and by comes in Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and he asked us with full mouth what we would give for good newes. Says Sir W. Batten (age 65), "I have better than you, for a wager". They laid sixpence, and we that were by were to give sixpence to him that told the best newes. So Sir W. Batten (age 65) told his of the ten or twelve ships Sir G. Carteret (age 56) did then tell us that upon the newes of the burning of the ships and towne the common people a Amsterdam did besiege De Witt's house, and he was force to flee to the Prince of Orange (age 15), who is gone to Cleve to the marriage of his sister (age 23) [Notee. his aunt]. This we concluded all the best newest and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and myself did give Sir G. Carteret (age 56) our sixpence a-piece, which he did give Mr. Smith to give the poor. Thus we made ourselves mighty merry.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Aug 1666. Up and by coach with £100 to the Exchequer to pay fees there. There left it, and I to St. James's, and there with; the Duke of Yorke (age 32). I had opportunity of much talk with Sir. W. Pen (age 45) to-day (he being newly come from the fleete); and he, do much undervalue the honour that is given to the conduct of the late business of Holmes (age 44) in burning the ships and town1 saying it was a great thing indeed, and of great profit to us in being of great losse to the enemy, but that it was wholly a business of chance, and no conduct employed in it. I find Sir W. Pen (age 45) do hold up his head at this time higher than ever he did in his life. I perceive he do look after Sir J. Minnes's (age 67) place if he dies, and though I love him not nor do desire to have him in, yet I do think (he) is the first man in England for it.

Note 1. The town burned (see August 15th, ante) was Brandaris, a place of 1000 houses, on the isle of Schelling; the ships lay between that island and the Fly (i.e. Vlieland), the adjoining island. This attack probably provoked that by the Dutch on Chatham, Kent [Map].

Pentland Rising

Battle of Rullion Green

On 28 Nov 1666 the Battle of Rullion Green between Covenanter dissidents and the Scottish government. The battle ended the Pentland Rising.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1666. So to bed, and with more cheerfulness than I have done a good while, to hear that for certain the Scott rebells are all routed; they having been so bold as to come within three miles of Edinburgh, and there given two or three repulses to the King's forces, but at last were mastered. Three or four hundred killed or taken, among which their leader, one Wallis, and seven ministers, they having all taken the Covenant a few days before, and sworn to live and die in it, as they did; and so all is likely to be there quiet again. There is also the very good newes come of four New-England ships come home safe to Falmouth, Cornwall with masts for the King (age 36); which is a blessing mighty unexpected, and without which, if for nothing else, we must have failed the next year. But God be praised for thus much good fortune, and send us the continuance of his favour in other things! So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1666. So to supper and to bed. This day, in the Gazette, is the whole story of defeating the Scotch rebells, and of the creation of the Duke of Cambridge (age 3), Knight of the Garter.

Paper Bill

Paper Bill. An Act for Duty on sealed Paper and Parchment.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1666. The House have been mighty hot to-day against the Paper Bill, showing all manner of averseness to give the King (age 36) money; which these courtiers do take mighty notice of, and look upon the others as bad rebells as ever the last were. But the courtiers did carry it against those men upon a division of the House, a great many, that it should be committed; and so it was: which they reckon good news.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1666. Good news to-day upon the Exchange [Map], that our Hamburgh fleete is got in; and good hopes that we may soon have the like of our Gottenburgh, and then we shall be well for this winter. Very merry at dinner. And by and by comes in Matt. Wren (age 37) from the Parliament-house; and tells us that he and all his party of the House, which is the Court party, are fools, and have been made so this day by the wise men of the other side; for, after the Court party had carried it yesterday so powerfully for the Paper-Bill1, yet now it is laid aside wholly, and to be supplied by a land-tax; which it is true will do well, and will be the sooner finished, which was the great argument for the doing of it. But then it shews them fools, that they would not permit this to have been done six weeks ago, which they might have had. And next, they have parted with the Paper Bill, which, when once begun, might have proved a very good flower in the Crowne, as any there. So do really say that they are truly outwitted by the other side.

Note 1. It was called "A Bill for raising part of the supply for his Majesty by an imposition on Sealed Paper and Parchment" B.

1667 Thames Frozen

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1667. Lay long, being a bitter, cold, frosty day, the frost being now grown old, and the Thames covered with ice. Up, and to the office, where all the morning busy. Se Freezing of the River Thames.

1667 Treaty of Breda

On 31 Jul 1667 the 1667 Treaty of Breda was signed bringing to an end hostilties between England and its opponents in the Second Anglo-Dutch War: Dutch Republic, France and Denmark-Norway.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Nov 1671. We ordered that a proclamation should be presented to his Majesty (age 41) to sign, against what Sir Charles Wheeler (age 51) had done in St. Christopher's since the war, on the articles of peace at Breda. He was shortly afterward recalled.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Aug 1674. His Majesty (age 44) told me how exceedingly the Dutch were displeased at my treatise of the "History of Commerce;" that the Holland Ambassador had complained to him of what I had touched of the Flags and Fishery, etc., and desired the book might be called in; while on the other side, he assured me he was exceedingly pleased with what I had done, and gave me many thanks. However, it being just upon conclusion of the treaty of Breda (indeed it was designed to have been published some months before and when we were at defiance), his Majesty (age 44) told me he must recall it formally; but gave order that what copies should be publicly seized to pacify the Ambassador, should immediately be restored to the printer, and that neither he nor the vender should be molested. The truth is, that which touched the Hollander was much less than what the King (age 44) himself furnished me with, and obliged me to publish, having caused it to be read to him before it went to press; but the error was, it should have been published before the peace was proclaimed. The noise of this book's suppression made it presently to be bought up, and turned much to the stationer's advantage. It was no other than the preface prepared to be prefixed to my "History of the Whole War;" which I now pursued no further.

Frederick III King Denmark Dies Christian V King Denmark Succeeds

On 09 Feb 1670 Frederick III King Denmark (age 60) died. His son Christian V King Denmark and Norway (age 23) succeeded V King Denmark and Norway. Charlotte Amalie Hesse-Kassel Queen Consort Denmark and Norway (age 19) by marriage Queen Consort Denmark and Norway.

Lord Ross Divorce

On 15 Jul 1658 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland (age 20) and Anne Pierrepont (age 27) were married. See Lord Ross Divorce. She the daughter of Henry Pierrepont 1st Marquess Dorchester (age 52) and Cecilia Bayning. He the son of John Manners 8th Earl of Rutland (age 54) and Frances Montagu Countess Rutland (age 44). They were second cousins.

In 1663 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland (age 24) and Anne Pierrepont (age 32) were separated. He obtained a "separation from bed and board" on the grounds of her adultery. See Lord Ross Divorce. Around this time it appears her father Henry Pierrepont 1st Marquess Dorchester (age 56) offered John Manners 1st Duke Rutland (age 24) a duel which he declined. See Lord Ross Divorce.

In 1667 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland (age 28) procured an Act of Parliament by which his issue since 1659 were legally illegitimate barring them from inheriting his title. See Lord Ross Divorce.

In 1670 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland (age 31) procured permission from Parliament to re-marry so that his title would continue. See Lord Ross Divorce.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Mar 1670. I went to Westminster, where in the House of Lords I saw his Majesty (age 39) sit on his throne, but without his robes, all the peers sitting with their hats on; the business of the day being the divorce of my Lord Ross. Such an occasion and sight had not been seen in England since the time of Henry VIII.

The Lord Ross Divorce attracted considerable public attention since it highlighted the shortcomings of the divorce laws. Anne Pierrepont had clearly committed adultery since she was in London at the time of the conception whilst her husband, known by the courtesy title Lord Ross was at Belvoir Castle [Map]. The child would be considered legitimate since the parents were married; the law made no provision for adultery or divorce. He was forced to seek legislation in Parliament that made the child illegitimate and, therefore, unable to inherit his title. He was further compelled to seek legislation so that he could marry again so that he could produce an heir.

King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland took a more than passing interest, it is believed, since divorce may have been an option since he and his wife Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England had not had any children in their eight years of marriage despite he having had eight illegitimate children.

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

Evelyn's Diary. 26 May 1670. Receiving a letter from Mr. Philip Howard (age 41), Lord Almoner to the Queen, that Monsieur Evelin, first physician to Madame (age 25) (who was now come to Dover to visit the King (age 39) her brother), was come to town, greatly desirous to see me; but his stay so short, that he could not come to me, I went with my brother (age 52) to meet him at the Tower [Map], where he was seeing the magazines and other curiosities, having never before been in England: we renewed our alliance and friendship, with much regret on both sides that, he being to return toward Dover, Kent [Map] that evening, we could not enjoy one another any longer. How this French family, Ivelin, of Evelin, Normandy, a very ancient and noble house is grafted into our pedigree, see in the collection brought from Paris, 1650.

The 1670 Secret Treaty of Dover was a pact between France and England for England to abandon its alliance with Sweden and the Duct Republic, allowing France to conquer the Dutch Republic after which France would England a number of stratgeic ports on Dutch Rivers.

King Charles II's sister Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans was instrumental in arranging the Treaty - she was married to the French King's brother Philip Bourbon I Duke Orléans.

The signatories included:

Richard Bellings

Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington

Henry Arundell 3rd Baron Arundel

1670 Death of Henrietta Stewart

On 30 Jun 1670 Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans (age 26) (sister of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40)) died at the Château de Saint Cloud. Her death came shortly after she had visited Dover, Kent [Map]. She had suffered pains in her side for a number of years. The evening before she consumed a glass of chicory water after which she immediately cried out that she had been posisoned.

1671 Raid on Panama

On 19 Jan 1671 Captain Henry Morgan Privateer (age 35) routed a superior Spanish force and captured Old Panama City.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Aug 1671. To Council. The letters of Sir Thomas Modiford (age 51) were read, giving relation of the exploit at Panama, which was very brave; they took, burned, and pillaged the town of vast treasures, but the best of the booty had been shipped off, and lay at anchor in the South Sea, so that, after our men had ranged the country sixty miles about, they went back to Nombre de Dios, and embarked for Jamaica. Such an action had not been done since the famous Drake.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Oct 1674. At Lord Berkeley's (age 46), I discoursed with Sir Thomas Modiford (age 54), late Governor of Jamaica, and with Colonel Morgan (age 39), who undertook that gallant exploit from Nombre de Dios to Panama, on the Continent of America; he told me 10,000 men would easily conquer all the Spanish Indies, they were so secure. They took great booty, and much greater had been taken, had they not been betrayed and so discovered before their approach, by which the Spaniards had time to carry their vast treasure on board ships that put off to sea in sight of our men, who had no boats to follow. They set fire to Panama, and ravaged the country sixty miles about. The Spaniards were so supine and unexercised, that they were afraid to fire a great gun.

1672 Declaration of Indulgence

On 15 Mar 1672. The Royal Declaration of Indulgence was Charles II's (age 41) attempt to extend religious liberty to Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics. It was highly controversial. Sir Orlando Bridgeman (age 66) resigned as Lord Keeper of the Great Seal because he refused to apply the Great Seal to it.

Around Mar 1673 the Test Act was a law enacted by Parliament that required public servants to take an oath according to the rites of the English church and to deny the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. The Act undermined the 1672 Declaration of Indulgence.

Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

On 09 May 1671 Colonel Thomas Blood (age 53) attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London [Map]. He was captured whilst trying to escape the Tower of London [Map] with the Crown. Following his capture he refused to to answer to anyone but the King (age 40). He was questioned by the King (age 40) and Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 51). For unknown reasons he was pardoned by the King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and rewarded with land in Ireland worth £500 per year much to the irritation of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 60), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whom Blood had attempted to kidnap twice before.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 May 1671. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's (age 40), in company with Monsieur De Grammont (age 50) and several French noblemen, and one Blood (age 53), that impudent, bold fellow who had not long before attempted to steal the imperial crown itself out of the Tower of London [Map], pretending only curiosity of seeing the regalia there, when, stabbing the keeper, though not mortally, he boldly went away with it through all the guards, taken only by the accident of his horse falling down. How he came to be pardoned, and even received into favor, not only after this, but several other exploits almost as daring both in Ireland and here, I could never come to understand. Some believed he became a spy of several parties, being well with the sectaries and enthusiasts, and did his Majesty (age 40) services that way, which none alive could do so well as he; but it was certainly the boldest attempt, so the only treason of this sort that was ever pardoned. This man had not only a daring but a villanous, unmerciful look, a false countenance, but very well-spoken and dangerously insinuating.

Woodcock and Flatfoot Race at Newmarket

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Oct 1671 and 10 Oct 1671. I went, after evening service, to London, in order to a journey of refreshment with Mr. Treasurer (age 41), to Newmarket, Suffolk, where the King (age 41) then was, in his coach with six brave horses, which we changed thrice, first, at Bishop-Stortford [Map], and last, at Chesterford; so, by night, we got to Newmarket, Suffolk, where Mr. Henry Jermain (age 35) (nephew to the Earl of St. Alban (age 66)) lodged me very civilly. We proceeded immediately to Court, the King (age 41) and all the English gallants being there at their autumnal sports. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's; and, the next day, after dinner, I was on the heath, where I saw the great match run between Woodcock and Flatfoot, belonging to the King (age 41), and to Mr. Eliot, of the bedchamber, many thousands being spectators; a more signal race had not been run for many years.

1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Mar 1672. Now was the first blow given by us to the Dutch convoy of the Smyrna fleet, by Sir Robert Holmes (age 32) and Lord Ossory (age 37), in which we received little save blows, and a worthy reproach for attacking our neighbors ere any war was proclaimed, and then pretending the occasion to be, that some time before, the Merlin yacht chancing to sail through the whole Dutch fleet, their Admiral did not strike to that trifling vessel. Surely, this was a quarrel slenderly grounded, and not becoming Christian neighbors. We are likely to thrive, accordingly. Lord Ossory (age 37) several times deplored to me his being engaged in it; he had more justice and honor than in the least to approve of it, though he had been over-persuaded to the expedition. There is no doubt but we should have surprised this exceeding rich fleet, had not the avarice and ambition of Holmes (age 32) and Spragge (age 52) separated themselves, and willfully divided our fleet, on presumption that either of them was strong enough to deal with the Dutch convoy without joining and mutual help; but they so warmly plied our divided fleets, that while in conflict the merchants sailed away, and got safe into Holland.

On 12 Mar 1672 Admiral John Holmes (age 32), commanding The Gloucester, and Thomas Butler 6th Earl Ossory (age 37) attacked the Dutch Smyrna Fleet on its return from the Mediterranean beginning the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

The London Gazette 662. 21 Mar 1672. The Hague. 1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet. Most of our Smirna Fleet are arrived in Zealand and in the Maes, together with the Mep of war, under whose Convoy they were, though extremely torn and very much disabled 5 five of ©ur Merchant men were taken bythe English-two of which were the richest in the Fleet, laden with Silks and other rich Commodities, and were called the Landtman oi Amsterdam, and the Vrede of Rotterdam, besides one of our men of War, called the Little Holland, mounted with 44 Guns and 150 men J Captain de Hies Admiral of this Fleet was killed in this engagement, with many of our men, and many more wounded, who have been since brought a shore at Rotterdam and other places. The men of War which served for Convoys to the said Fleet were.

Ships, Captains, Guns, Men.

The Ulisstiing, Adrian de Haes, 50, 250.

The Dort, Thomas de Bois, 46, 170.

The Entrecht, Cornelius Everfon, 48, 220.

the Hollandia, Thomas Nes, 44, 150.

The Delf, Pourt, 38, 145.

The Lion, Lenny, 34, 140.

The Centaur, Thomas Anderson, 41, 120.

The Friezland, Jacon Anderson, 30, 110.

The Munnick, a considerable Merchant man mounted with 30 guns was so torn and disabled that with much difficulty they have brought her into port, Captain du Bois Vice-=Admiral of this Fleet hath lost his right arm, and many of his men.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Mar 1672. I visited the coasts in my district of Kent, and divers wounded and languishing poor men, that had been in the Smyrna conflict. I went over to see the new-begun Fort of Tilbury; a royal work, indeed, and such as will one day bridle a great city to the purpose, before they are aware.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1673. It was reported with these particulars, that, causing his servant to leave him unusually one morning, locking himself in, he strangled himself with his cravat upon the bed-tester; his servant, not liking the manner of dismissing him, and looking through the keyhole (as I remember), and seeing his master hanging, broke in before he was quite dead, and taking him down, vomiting a great deal of blood, he was heard to utter these words: "Well; let men say what they will, there is a God, a just God above"; after which he spoke no more. This, if true, is dismal. Really, he was the chief occasion of the Dutch war, and of all that blood which was lost at Bergen in attacking the Smyrna fleet, and that whole quarrel.

1672 Battle of Solebay

On 28 May 1672 Freschville Holles (age 29) died at the 1672 Battle of Solebay at which he was in command of the Cambridge. He was buried at the Chapel of St Edmund, Westminster Abbey [Map] in an unmarked grave.

On 28 May 1672 Philip Carteret (age 31) and Winston Churchill were killed at Solebay, Southwold [Map].

Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 46) was killed. His son Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich (age 24) succeeded 2nd Earl Sandwich.

George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth (age 25) fought.

Charles Harbord (age 32) was killed. The inscription on his. Monument in Westminster Abbey [Map] reads ... Sr. Charles Harbord Knt. his Majesties Surveyor General, and First Lieutenant of the Royall James, under the most noble and illustrious captain Edward, Earle of Sandwich (age 46), Vice Admirall of England, which after a terrible fight maintained to admiration against a squadron of the Holland fleet for above six houres, neere the Suffolk coast, having put off two fireships, at last being utterly dissabled and few of her men remaining unhurt, was by a third unfortunately set on fire: but he (though he swam well) neglected to save himselfe as some did, and out of the perfect love to that worthy lord (whom for many yeares he had constantly accompanyed in all his honourable imployments, and in all the engagements of the former warr) dyed with him at the age of XXXIII, much bewailed of his father whom he never offended, and much beloved of all for his knowne piety, vertue, loyalty, fortitude and fidelity.

Captain John Cox was killed in action.

Admiral John Holmes (age 32) fought as commander of Rupert.

The Gloucester took part.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 May 1672. I received another command to repair to the seaside; so I went to Rochester, Kent [Map], where I found many wounded, sick, and prisoners, newly put on shore after the engagement on the 28th, in which the Earl of Sandwich (deceased), that incomparable person and my particular friend, and divers more whom I loved, were lost. My Lord (who was Admiral of the Blue) was in the "Prince", which was burnt, one of the best men-of-war that ever spread canvas on the sea. There were lost with this brave man, a son of Sir Charles Cotterell (age 57) (Master of the Ceremonies), and a son (age 32) of Sir Charles Harbord (his Majesty's (age 42) Surveyor-General), two valiant and most accomplished youths, full of virtue and courage, who might have saved themselves; but chose to perish with my Lord, whom they honored and loved above their own lives.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jun 1672. Trinity Sunday, I passed at Rochester, Kent [Map]; and, on the 5th, there was buried in the Cathedral [Map] Monsieur Rabiniére, Rear Admiral of the French squadron, a gallant person, who died of the wounds he received in the fight. This ceremony lay on me, which I performed with all the decency I could, inviting the Mayor and Aldermen to come in their formalities. Sir Jonas Atkins (age 62) was there with his guards; and the Dean and Prebendaries: one of his countrymen pronouncing a funeral oration at the brink of his grave, which I caused to be dug in the choir. This is more at large described in the "Gazette" of that day; Colonel Reymes (age 58), my colleague in commission, assisting, who was so kind as to accompany me from London, though it was not his district; for indeed the stress of both these wars lay more on me by far than on any of my brethren, who had little to do in theirs. I went to see Upnor Castle, Kent [Map], which I found pretty well defended, but of no great moment.

The London Gazette 684. Rochester, 06 Jun 1672.

Yesterday was performed the solemn Enterment Monseur Rabiniere tres le boys, Rear-Admiral of the French Squadron who some days since dyed here of the Wounds he received in the late Engagement. The Corps was accomapanied by several persons of quality (his Pall being born up by Sir Johnathan Atkins (age 62), His Majesties Governor here, Colonel Rheyms (age 58), Mr Evelin (age 51), and a person of quality related to the Deceased) together with the Mayor and Alderman of this place in the Formalities, and all other solemnity we are here capable of, to the place of Enterment, which was in the Quire of our Cathedral Church [Map], where was pronounced an excellent Funeral Oration with an Elogy on the Deceased by Dr. God, one of the Prebends; the whole having been concluded by three Volleys of the several Companies of Guard, now here, who likewise assisted at this Solemnity in excellent order.

Treaty of Nimeguen

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Apr 1673. I dined with the plenipotentiaries designed for the Treaty of Nimeguen.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Oct 1675. I settled affairs, my son (age 20) being to go into France with my Lord Berkeley (age 47), designed Ambassador-extraordinary for France and Plenipotentiary for the general treaty of peace at Nimeguen.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 May 1676. I spoke to the Duke of York (age 42) about my Lord Berkeley's (age 74) going to Nimeguen. Thence, to the Queen's Council at Somerset House [Map], about Mrs. Godolphin's (age 23) lease of Spalding [Map], in Lincolnshire.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Jun 1677. I went to London, to give the Lord Ambassador Berkeley (age 75) (now returned from the treaty at Nimeguen) an account of the great trust reposed in me during his absence, I having received and remitted to him no less than £20,000 to my no small trouble and loss of time, that during his absence, and when the Lord Treasurer (age 45) was no great friend [of his] I yet procured him great sums, very often soliciting his Majesty (age 47) in his behalf; looking after the rest of his estates and concerns entirely, without once accepting any kind of acknowledgment, purely upon the request of my dear friend, Mr. Godolphin (age 31). I returned with abundance of thanks and professions from my Lord Berkeley (age 49) and my Lady.

Between 1678 and 1679 The Treaty of Nimeguen was a series of treaties that sought to bring peace between European nations. The ten Treaties were signed between 1678 and 1679.

1673 Test Act

Around Mar 1673 the Test Act was a law enacted by Parliament that required public servants to take an oath according to the rites of the English church and to deny the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. The Act undermined the 1672 Declaration of Indulgence.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Apr 1673. Dr. Lamplugh (age 58) preached at St. Martin's [Map] the Holy Sacrament following, which I partook of, upon obligation of the late Act of Parliament, enjoining everybody in office, civil or military, under penalty of £500, to receive it within one month before two authentic witnesses; being engrossed on parchment, to be afterward produced in the Court of Chancery, or some other Court of Record; which I did at the Chancery bar, as being one of the Council of Plantations and Trade; taking then also the oath of allegiance and supremacy, signing the clause in the said Act against Transubstantiation.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Jun 1673. Congratulated the new Lord Treasurer, Sir Thomas Osborne (age 41), a gentleman with whom I had been intimately acquainted at Paris, and who was every day at my father-in-law's (age 68) house and table there; on which account I was too confident of succeeding in his favor, as I had done in his predecessor's; but such a friend shall I never find, and I neglected my time, far from believing that my Lord Clifford (age 42) would have so rashly laid down his staff, as he did, to the amazement of all the world, when it came to the test of his receiving the Communion, which I am confident he forbore more from some promise he had entered into to gratify the Duke, than from any prejudice to the Protestant religion, though I found him wavering a pretty while.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Jul 1673. I went to Tunbridge Wells, Kent [Map], to visit my Lord Clifford (age 42), late Lord Treasurer, who was there to divert his mind more than his body; it was believed that he had so engaged himself to the Duke (age 39), that rather than take the Test, without which he was not capable of holding any office, he would resign that great and honorable station. This, I am confident, grieved him to the heart, and at last broke it; for, though he carried with him music, and people to divert him, and, when I came to see him, lodged me in his own apartment, and would not let me go from him, I found he was struggling in his mind; and being of a rough and ambitious nature, he could not long brook the necessity he had brought on himself, of submission to this conjuncture. Besides, he saw the Dutch war, which was made much by his advice, as well as the shutting up of the Exchequer, very unprosperous. These things his high spirit could not support. Having stayed here two or three days, I obtained leave of my Lord to return.

Battles of Schooneveld

On 07 Jun 1673 and 14 Jun 1673 two naval battles took place between an allied Anglo-French fleet commanded by Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 53) on his flagship the Royal Charles, and the fleet of the United Provinces, commanded by Admiral Michiel de Ruyter (age 66). The Dutch won both battles.

The Gloucester took part.

Battle of Texel

On 21 Aug 1673 the Battle of Texel was a naval battle between the English and Dutch. Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 53) commanded the Allied fleet of about 92 ships and 30 fireships. Jean II d'Estrées commanding the van, and Sir Edward Spragge (age 53) the rear division. The Dutch fleet of 75 ships and 30 fireships was commanded by Admiral Michiel de Ruyter (age 66).

Although there were no major ship losses, many were seriously damaged and about 3,000 men died, two-thirds of them English or French.

The Gloucester fought.

Suicide of Lord Clifford

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1673. And I the rather am confident of it, remembering what Sir Edward Walker (age 62) (Garter King at Arms) had likewise affirmed to me a long time before, even when he was first made a Lord; that carrying his pedigree to Lord Clifford (age 43) on his being created a peer, and, finding him busy, he bade him go into his study and divert himself there till he was at leisure to discourse with him about some things relating to his family; there lay, said Sir Edward, on his table, his horoscope and nativity calculated, with some writing under it, where he read that he should be advanced to the highest degree in the state that could be conferred upon him, but that he should not long enjoy it, but should die, or expressions to that sense; and I think, (but cannot confidently say) a bloody death. This Sir Edward (age 62) affirmed both to me and Sir Richard Browne; nor could I forbear to note this extraordinary passage in these memoirs.

Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

On 04 Nov 1677 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 27) and Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 15) were married. She by marriage Princess Orange. She the daughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 44) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England. They were first cousins. He a grandson of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Nov 1677. The Queen's (age 38) birthday, a great ball at Court, where the Prince of Orange (age 27) and his new Princess (age 15) danced.

Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2

In 1679 Walter Long 2nd Baronet (age 52) was elected MP Bath during the Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2.

In Mar 1679 William Bowes of Streatlam (age 22) was elected MP Durham during the Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2.

In Mar 1679 Robert Pierrepont (age 42) was elected MP Nottingham during the Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2.

Exclusion Bill Parliament 4C2

In Jul 1679 William Bowes of Streatlam (age 22) was elected MP Durham during the Exclusion Bill Parliament 4C2.

In Jul 1679 Robert Pierrepont (age 42) was elected MP Nottingham during the Exclusion Bill Parliament 4C2.

Siege of Tangier

On 17 Oct 1680 Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth (age 23) died of dysentery at Tangier during the Siege of Tangier. Earl Plymouth, Viscount Totnes and Baron Dartmouth extinct.

Oxford Parliament 5C2

On 21 Mar 1681 Edward Hungerford (age 48) was elected MP Chippenham at Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map] during the Oxford Parliament 5C2.

Murder of Tom of Ten Thousand Thynne

On 12 Feb 1682 Thomas "Tom of Ten Thousand" Thynne (age 34) was shot and killed while riding in his coach along Pall Mall [Map], by three men, Christopher Vratz, John Stern and Charles George Borosky who were believed to be acting for her lover the Swedish Count Karl Johann von Königsmark (age 22). He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Mar 1682. This day was executed Colonel Vrats, and some of his accomplices, for the execrable murder of Mr. Thynn (deceased), set on by the principal Koningsmark (age 22). He went to execution like an undaunted hero, as one that had done a friendly office for that base coward, Count Koningsmark (age 22), who had hopes to marry his widow, the rich Baroness Ogle (age 15), and was acquitted by a corrupt jury, and so got away. Vrats told a friend of mine who accompanied him to the gallows, and gave him some advice that he did not value dying of a rush, and hoped and believed God would deal with him like a gentleman. Never man went, so unconcerned for his sad fate.

Sinking of the Gloucester

On 03 May 1682 the Duke of York (age 48) and his retinue including John Churchill 1st Duke of Marlborough (age 31) and George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth (age 35) were seen off on their journey north by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland from Margate Roads, Kent [Map]. James (age 48) was possibly travelling to Edinburgh to collect his six months pregnant wife Mary of Modena (age 23) to ensure their child was born in England.

On 06 May 1682 The Gloucester sank during a strong gale when it struck a sandbank twenty-eight miles off Great Yarmouth, Norfolk [Map] on a journey from Portsmouth to Edinburgh. Of the estimated 330 people on board it is believed between 130 and 250 sailors and passengers perished.

The Duke of York (age 48) [the future King James II] and John Churchill 1st Duke of Marlborough (age 31) were rescued in the ship's boat.

Robert Ker 3rd Earl Roxburghe (age 24) drowned. His son Robert Ker 4th Earl Roxburghe (age 5) succeeded 4th Earl Roxburghe.

John Hope of Hopetoun drowned. He gave up his seat in a lifeboat to the future King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 48) for which his son was rewarded with an Earldom twenty-one years later when he came of age.

Richard Hill drowned.

The pilot James Ayres was blamed for the disaster. The Duke of York (age 48) wished him to be hanged immediately. He was court-martialled and imprisoned.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 May 1682. The Duke (age 48) and King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 48) and Duchess of York (age 23) were just now come to London, after his escape and shipwreck, as he went by sea for Scotland.

On 15 Apr 1703 Charles Hope 1st Earl Hopetoun (age 22) was created 1st Earl Hopetoun by Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland (age 38) in recognitions of his father having given up his seat in a lifeboat to the Duke of York during the Sinking of the Gloucester; his father subsequently drowned.

In 2007 the wreck of The Gloucester was discovered by Norfolk-based printer brothers Julian and Lincoln Barnwell, together with their late father, friend James Little and another unnamed friend.

The shipwreck is split down the keel, with remains of the hull submerged in sand, and it is not known how much of it is intact. There are no plans to raise any part of it.

The finds included glasses found in the original case, clothes, shoes, navigational equipment, personal possessions and unopened wine bottles. One of the wine bottles bears a glass seal with the crest of the Legge family.

In 2012 the bell of the The Gloucester was raised to the surface providing evidence of the identity of the vessel.

Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jul 1683. He was married to the Lady Anne (age 18) at Whitehall. Her Court and household to be modeled as the Duke's, her father (age 49), had been, and they to continue in England. See Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George.

Frost Fair

In Dec 1683 the River Thames froze for a period of six weeks during which a great Frost Fair took place on the frozen surface.

The printer Croom sold souvenir cards written with the customer's name, the date, and the fact that the card was printed on the Thames; he was making five pounds a day (ten times a labourer's weekly wage). King Charles II (age 53) bought one.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Dec 1683. The smallpox very prevalent and mortal; the Thames frozen.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Dec 1683. I went to visite Sir John Chardin (age 40), a French gentleman who had travell'd three times by land into Persia, and had made many curious researches in his travells, of which he was now setting forth a relation. It being in England this year one of the severest frosts that had hap pen'd of many yeares, he told me the cold in Persia was much greater, the ice of an incredible thicknesse; that they had little use of iron in all that country, it being so moiste (tho' the aire admirably clear and healthy), that oyle would not preserve it from rusting, so that they had neither clocks nor watches; some padlocks they had for doores and boxes.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Jan 1684. The weather continuing intolerably severe, streetes of booths were set upon the Thames; the aire was so very cold and thick, as of many yeares there had not ben the like. The smallpox was very mortal.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jan 1684. The river quite frozen.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Jan 1684. I went crosse the Thames on the ice, now become so thick as to beare not onely streetes of boothes, in which they roasted meate, and had divers shops of wares, quite acrosse as in a towne, but coaches, carts, and horses, passed over. So I went from Westminster Stayres to Lambeth [Map], and din'd with the Archbishop (age 66): where I met my Lord Bruce, Sir Geo. Wheeler (age 32), Coll. Cooke, and severall divines. After dinner and discourse with his Grace till evening prayers, Sir Geo. Wheeler (age 32) and I walked over the ice from Lambeth Stayres to the horse ferry.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Jan 1684. The Thames was fill'd with people and tents, selling all sorts of wares as in the Citty.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Jan 1684. The frost continuing more and more severe, the Thames before London was still planted with boothes in formal streetes, all sorts of trades and shops furnish'd and full of commodities, even to a printing presse, where the peopje and ladyes tooke a fancy to have their names printed, and the day and yeare set down when printed on the Thames; this humour tooke so universally, that 'twas estimated the printer gain'd £5. a day, for printing a line onely, at sixpence a name, be sides what he got by ballads, &c. Coaches plied from Westminster to the Temple, and from several other staires to and fro, as in the streetes, sleds, sliding with skeetes, a bull-baiting, horse and coach races, puppet plays and interludes, cookes, tlpling, and other lewd places, so that it seem'd to be a bacchanalian triumph, or carnival on the water, whilst it was a severe judgment on the land, the trees not onely splitting as if lightning-struck, but men and cattle perishing in divers places, and the very seas so lock'd up with ice, that no vessells could stir out or come in. The fowles, fish, and birds, and all our exotiq plants and greenes universally perishing. Many parkes of deer were destroied, and all sorts of fuell so deare that there were greate con tributions to preserve the poore alive. Nor was this severe weather much lesse intense in most parts of Europe, even as far as Spaine and the most Southern tracts. London, by reason of the excessive coldnesse of the aire hindering the ascent of the smoke, was so fill'd with the fuliginous steame of the sea-coale, that hardly could one see crosse the streetes, and this filling the lungs with its grosse particles, exceedingly obstructed the breast, so as one could scarcely breath. Here was no water to be had from the pipes and engines, nor could the brewers and divers other tradesmen worke, and every moment was full of disastrous accidents.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Feb 1684. It began to thaw, but froze againe. My coach crossed from Lambeth [Map] to the Horseferry at Millbank, Westminster. The booths were almost all taken downe, but there was first a Map or Landskip cut in copper representing all the manner of the camp, and the several actions, sports, and pastimes thereon, in memory of so signal a frost.