7th Century Events is in 1st Millennium Events.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of Degsastan
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 603. This year Aeden (age 43), king of the Scots, fought with the Dalreathians, and with Ethelfrith (age 31), king of the Northumbrians, at Theakstone; where he lost almost all his army. Theobald also, brother of Ethelfrith (age 31), with his whole armament, was slain. None of the Scottish kings durst afterwards bring an army against this nation. Hering, the son of Hussa, led the army thither.
In 603 the Battle of Degsastan was fought between Æthelfrith King Northumbrians (age 31) and a combined Irish and Scottish army commanded by Áedán mac Gabráin King of Dál Riata. Æthelfrith's army won a decisive victory although his brother Theobald was killed by Máel Umai mac Báetáin.
Theobald Bernicia was killed.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Pope Gregory's Second Mission to Christianise the Anglo Saxons
Before 604 Archbishop Paulinus of York arrived during Pope Gregory's Second Mission to Christianise the Anglo Saxons.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of Cúl Sleamna
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Death of Æthelberht King of Kent
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 616. This year died Ethelbert (age 66), king of Kent, the first of English kings that received baptism: he was the son of Ermenric. He reigned fifty-six winters, and was succeeded by his son Eadbald. And in this same year had elapsed from the beginning of the world five thousand six hundred and eighteen winters. This Eadbald renounced his baptism, and lived in a heathen manner; so that he took to wife the relict of his father. Then Laurentius, who was archbishop in Kent, meant to depart southward over sea, and abandon everything. But there came to him in the night the apostle Peter, and severely chastised him19, because he would so desert the flock of God. And he charged him to go to the king, and teach him the right belief. And he did so; and the king returned to the right belief. In this king's days the same Laurentius, who was archbishop in Kent after Augustine, departed this life on the second of February, and was buried near Augustine. The holy Augustine in his lifetime invested him bishop, to the end that the church of Christ, which yet was new in England, should at no time after his decease be without an archbishop. After him Mellitus, who was first Bishop of London, succeeded to the archbishopric. The people of London, where Mellitus was before, were then heathens: and within five winters of this time, during the reign of Eadbald, Mellitus died. To him succeeded Justus, who was Bishop of Rochester, whereto he consecrated Romanus bishop.
Note 19. Literally, "swinged, or scourged him." Both Bede and Alfred begin by recording the matter as a vision, or a dream; whence the transition is easy to a matter of fact, as here stated by the Norman interpolators of the "Saxon Annals".
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of the River Idle
In 617 Raedwald King East Anglia (age 47) and his son Raegenhere Wuffingas fought the Battle of the River Idle which took place at the River Idle Markham Moor Retford which forms the western border of the Isle of Lindsey [Map].
Raegenhere Wuffingas was killed.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Boniface V Elected Pope
On 23 Dec 619 Boniface V Pope was elected Pope.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, King Raedwald's Burial at Sutton Hoo
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of Cirencester
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of Hatfield Chase
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 633. This year King Edwin (age 47) was slain by Cadwalla and Penda, on Hatfield moor, on the fourteenth of October [Note. Some sources say 12 Oct 633]. He reigned seventeen years. His son Osfrid was also slain with him. After this Cadwalla and Penda went and ravaged all the land of the Northumbrians; which when Paulinus saw, he took Ethelburga (age 28), the relict of Edwin, and went by ship to Kent. Eadbald and Honorius received him very honourably, and gave him the bishopric of Rochester, where he continued to his death.
On 12 Oct 633 King Penda's alliance of Gwynedd and Mercia defeated the Northumbrians at the Battle of Hatfield Chase.
Eadfrith Deira was captured.
Edwin's son Osfrith Deira was killed.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of Heavenfield
Bede. 634. AD. How, among innumerable other miracles of healing wrought by the wood of the cross, which King Oswald, being ready to engage against the barbarians, erected, a certain man had his injured arm healed.
The place is shown to this day, and held in much veneration, where Oswald (age 30), being about to engage in this battle, erected the symbol of the Holy Cross, and knelt down and prayed to God that he would send help from Heaven to his worshippers in their sore need. Then, we are told, that the cross being made in haste, and the hole dug in which it was to be set up, the king himself, in the ardour of his faith, laid hold of it and held it upright with both his hands, till the earth was heaped up by the soldiers and it was fixed. Thereupon, uplifting his voice, he cried to his whole army, "Let us all kneel, and together beseech the true and living God Almighty in His mercy to defend us from the proud and cruel enemy; for He knows that we have undertaken a just war for the safety of our nation." All did as he had commanded, and accordingly advancing towards the enemy with the first dawn of day, they obtained the victory, as their faith deserved. In the place where they prayed very many miracles of healing are known to have been wrought, as a token and memorial of the king's faith; for even to this day, many are wont to cut off small splinters from the wood of the holy cross, and put them into water, which they give to sick men or cattle to drink, or they sprinkle them therewith, and these are presently restored to health.
In 634 King Oswald of Northumberland (age 30) won a decisive victory over the army of the Cadwallon ap Cadfan King Gwynedd at the Battle of Heavenfield which was fought at Heavenfield [Map] around six miles north of Hexham [Map].
Cadwallon ap Cadfan King Gwynedd was killed at a place Bede describes as Denisesburna which is possibly Rowley Water some eight miles south of the site of the battle.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of Maserfield
On 05 Aug 641 (or 642 or 644 depending on the source) King Penda of Mercia Mercian and Welsh army defeated the Northumbrian army at the Battle of Maserfield. The battle is believed to have taken place at Oswestry, Shropshire. Northumbria was once again separated into two kingdoms.
King Oswald of Northumberland (age 37) was killed. His body was subsequently dismembered with his head and arms mounted on poles. His brother King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 29) succeeded King Bernicia. Rhiainfellt Rheged Queen Consort Bernicia by marriage Queen Consort Bernicia.
Eowa King Mercia was killed (probably).
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 642. This year Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was slain by Penda, king of the Southumbrians, at Mirfield, on the fifth day of August; and his body was buried at Bardney. His holiness and miracles were afterwards displayed on manifold occasions throughout this island; and his hands remain still uncorrupted at Barnburgh. The same year in which Oswald was slain, Oswy (age 30) his brother succeeded to the government of the Northumbrians, and reigned two less than thirty years.
After 1641. Around 1.5 km north of Winwick Church is St Oswald's Well, Hermitage Green supposedly at the place where King Oswald of Northumberland during the Battle of Maserfield. The well chamber is square and measures 0.7m across and is about 1.9m deep with three steps on the south side leading down to the water. A large stone slab has been placed over the aperture, covering half of the opening and protecting the remains from cattle or human access.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of Bradford on Avon
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of Strath Ethairt
In 654 Taloran King Picts (age 38) defeated the army of Dál Riata at the Battle of Strath Ethairt. Dúnchad mac Conaing King of Dál Riata was killed. The location of the battle in unknown.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of Bulcamp
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of the Winwaed
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 655. This year Penda was slain at Wingfield, and thirty royal personages with him, some of whom were kings. One of them was Ethelhere, brother of Anna, king of the East-Angles. The Mercians after this became Christians. From the beginning of the world had now elapsed five thousand eight hundred and fifty winters, when Peada, the son of Penda, assumed the government of the Mercians. In his time came together himself and Oswy (age 43), brother of King Oswald, and said, that they would rear a minster to the glory of Christ, and the honour of St. Peter. And they did so, and gave it the name of Medhamsted [Map]; because there is a well there, called Meadswell. And they began the groundwall, and wrought thereon; after which they committed the work to a monk, whose name was Saxulf. He was very much the friend of God, and him also loved all people. He was nobly born in the world, and rich: he is now much richer with Christ. But King Peada reigned no while; for he was betrayed by his own queen, in Easter-tide. This year Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester, consecrated Deus-dedit to Canterbury, on the twenty-sixth day of March.
On 15 Nov 655 King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 43) defeated the Mercian army (probably) at Cock Beck during the Battle of the Winwaed ending the period of Mercian dominance. The battle is believed to have ended Anglo-Saxon paganism.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of Pen or Peonnum
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, 664 Plague Outbreak
In 664 Bishop Tuda died of plague.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 664. This year the sun was eclipsed, on the eleventh of May; and Erkenbert, King of Kent, having died, Egbert his son succeeded to the kingdom. Colman with his companions this year returned to his own country. This same year there was a great plague in the island Britain, in which died Bishop Tuda, who was buried at Wayleigh-Chad and Wilferth were consecrated-And Archbishop Deus-dedit died.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of the Two Rivers
In 671 King Ecgfrith of Northumbria (age 26) and BeornhAeth Sub King Northern Northumbria aka Lothian defeated Drest VI King Picts at the Battle of the Two Rivers bringing to an end the Pictish rebellion. The location of the battle is not known. Stephen of Ripon described the account in his account of the battle from Vita Sancti Wilfrithi: He slew an enormous number of the people, filling two rivers with corpses, so that, marvellous to relate, the slayers, passing over the rivers dry foot, pursued and slew a crowd of fugitives.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, 673 Synod of Hertford
Bede. "In the name of our Lord God and Saviour Jesus Christ, who reigns for ever and for ever, and governs his church, it was thought meet that we should assemble, according to the custom of the venerable canons, to treat about the necessary affairs of the church. We met on the 24th day of September, the first indiction, at a place called Hertford, Hertfordshire [Map], myself, Theodore, the unworthy bishop of the see of Canterbury, appointed by the Apostolic See, our fellow-priest and most reverend brother, Bisi, bishop of the East Angles; also by his proxies, our brother and fellow-priest, Wilfrid, bishop of the nation of the Northumbrians, as also our brothers and fellow priests, Putta, bishop of the Kentish castle, called Rochester; Eleutherius, bishop of the West Saxons, and Winfrid, bishop of the province of the Mercians. When we were all met together, and were sat down in order, I said, ' I beseech you, most dear brothers, for the love and fear of our Redeemer, that we may all treat in common for our faith; to the end that whatsoever has been decreed and defined by the holy and revered fathers, may be inviolably observed by all.' This and much more I spoke tending to the preservation of the charity and unity of the church; and when I had ended my discourse, I asked every one of them in order, whether they consented to observe the things that had been formerly canonically decreed by the fathers ? To which all our fellow-priests answered, ' It so pleases us, and we will all most willingly observe with a cheerful mind whatever is laid down in the canons of the holy fathers.' I then produced the said book of canons, and publicly showed them ten chapters in the same, which I had marked in several places, because I knew them to be of the most importance to us, and entreated that they might be most particularly received by them all.
Bede. "Chapter I. That we all in common keep the holy day of Easter on the Sunday after the fourteenth moon synod of the first month.
"II. That no bishop intrude into the diocese of another, but be satisfied with the government of the people committed to him.
III. That it shall not be lawful for any bishop to trouble monasteries dedicated to God, nor to take any thing forcibly from them.
IV. That monks do not remove from one place to another, that is, from monastery to monastery, unless by the consent of their own abbot; but that they continue in the obedience which they promised at the time of their conversion.
"V. That no clergyman, forsaking his own bishop, shall wander about, or be any where entertained without letters of recommendation from his own prelate. But if he shall be once received, and will not return when invited, both the receiver, and the person received, be under excommunication.
"VI. That bishops and clergymen, when travelling, shall be content with the hospitality that is afforded them; and that it be not lawful for them to exercise any priestly function without leave of the bishop in whose diocese they are.
"VII. That a synod be assembled twice a year; but in regard that several causes obstruct the same, it was approved by all, that we should meet on the 1st of August once a year, at the place called Clofeshoch [Note. The place Clovesho has never been conclusively identified.].
"VIII. That no bishop, through ambition, shall set himself before another; but that they shall all observe the time and order of their consecration.
"IX. It was generally set forth, that more bishops should be made, as the number of behevers increased; but this matter for the present was passed over.
"X. Of marriages, that none be allowed any but lawful wedlock; that none commit incest; no man quit his true wife, unless, as the Gospel teaches, on account of forncation. And if any man shall put away his own wife, lawfully joined to him in matrimony, that he take no other, if he wishes to be a good Christian, but continue as he is, or else be reconciled to his own wife.
Bede. "These chapters being thus treated of and defined by all, to the end, that for the future, no scandal of contention might arise from any of us, or that things be falsely set forth, it was thought fit that every one of us should, by subscribing his hand, confirm all the particulars so laid down. Which definitive judgment of ours, I dictated to be written by Titillus our notary. Done in the month and indiction aforesaid. Whosoever, therefore, shall presume in any way to oppose or infringe this decision, confirmed by our consent, and by the subscription of our hands, according to the decree of the canons, must take notice, that he is excluded from all sacerdotal functions, and from our society. May the Divine Grace preserve us in safety, living in the unity of his holy church."
Bede. This synod was held in the year from the incarnation of our Lord 673. In which year, Egbert, king of Kent, died in the month of July; his brother Lothere succeeded him on the throne, which he had held eleven years and seven months. Bisi, the bishop of the East Angles, who is said to have been in the aforesaid synod, was successor to Boniface, before spoken of, a man of much sanctity and religion; for when Boniface died, after having been bishop seventeen years, he was by Theodore substituted in his place. Whilst he was still alive, but hindered by much sickness from administering his episcopal functions, two bishops, Ecci and Badwin, were elected and consecrated in his place; from which time to the present, that province has had two bishops.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, 675 Battle of Biedanheafde
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 675. This year Wulfere (age 35), the son of Penda, and Escwin, the son of Cenfus, fought at Bedwin. The same year died Wulfere (age 35), and Ethelred succeeded to the government. In his time sent he to Rome Bishop Wilfrid to the pope that then was, called Agatho, and told him by word and by letter, how his brothers Peada and Wulfere (age 35), and the Abbot Saxulf, had wrought a minster, called Medhamsted; and that they had freed it, against king and against bishop, from every service; and he besought him that he would confirm it with his writ and with his blessing. And the pope sent then his writ to England, thus saying: "I Agatho, Pope of Rome, greet well the worthy Ethelred, king of the Mercians, and the Archbishop Theodorus of Canterbury (age 73), and Saxulf, the bishop of the Mercians, who before was abbot, and all the abbots that are in England; God's greeting and my blessing. I have heard the petition of King Ethelred, and of the Archbishop Theodorus (age 73), and of the Bishop Saxulf, and of the Abbot Cuthbald; and I will it, that it in all wise be as you have spoken it. And I ordain, in behalf of God, and of St. Peter, and of all saints, and of every hooded head, that neither king, nor bishop, nor earl, nor any man whatever, have any claim, or gable, or gild, or levy, or take any service of any kind, from the abbey of Medhamsted. I command also, that no shire-bishop be so bold as to hold an ordination or consecration within this abbacy, except the abbot intreat him, nor have there any claim to proxies, or synodals, or anything whatever of any kind. And I will, that the abbot be holden for legate of Rome over all that island; and whatever abbot is there chosen by the monks that he be consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury. I will and decree, that, whatever man may have made a vow to go to Rome, and cannot perform it, either from infirmity, or for his lord's need, or from poverty, or from any other necessity of any kind whatever, whereby he cannot come thither, be he of England, or of whatever other island he be, he may come to that minster of Medhamsted, and have the same forgiveness of Christ and St. Peter, and of the abbot, and of the monks, that he should have if he went to Rome. Now bid I thee, brother Theodorus (age 73), that thou let it be proclaimed through all England, that a synod be gathered, and this writ be read and observed. Also I tell thee, Bishop Saxulf, that, as thou desirest it, that the minster be free, so I forbid thee, and all the bishops that after thee come, from Christ and from all his saints, that ye have no demand from that minster, except so much as the abbot will. Now will I say in a word, that, whoso holdeth this writ and this decree, then be he ever dwelling with God Almighty in the kingdom of heaven. And whoso breaketh it, then be he excommunicated, and thrust down with Judas, and with all the devils in hell, except he come to repentance. Amen!" This writ sent the Pope Agatho, and a hundred and twenty-five bishops, by Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, to England. This was done after our Lord's Nativity 680, the sixth year of King Ethelred. Then the king commanded the Archbishop Theodorus (age 73), that he should appoint a general Wittenmoot at the place called Hatfield. When they were there collected, then he allowed the letter to be read that the pope sent thither; and all ratified and confirmed it. Then said the king: "All things that my brother Peada, and my brother Wulfere (age 35), and my sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, gave and granted to St. Peter and the abbot, these I will may stand; and I will in my day increase it, for their souls and for my soul. Now give I St. Peter to-day into his minster, Medhamsted, these lands, and all that thereto lyeth; that is, Bredon, Repings, Cadney, Swineshead, Hanbury, Lodeshall, Scuffanhall, Cosford, Stratford, Wattleburn, Lushgard, Ethelhun-island, Bardney [Map]. These lands I give St. Peter just as freely as I possessed them myself; and so, that none of my successors take anything therefrom. Whoso doeth it, have he the curse of the Pope of Rome, and the curse of all bishops, and of all those that are witnesses here. And this I confirm with the token of Christ." (+) "I Theodorus (age 73), Archbishop of Canterbury, am witness to this charter of Medhamsted; and I ratify it with my hand, and I excommunicate all that break anything thereof; and I bless all that hold it." (+) "I Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, am witness to this charter; and I ratify this same curse." (+) "I Saxulf, who was first abbot, and now am bishop, I give my curse, and that of all my successors, to those who break this."-"I Ostritha, Ethelred's queen, confirm it."-"I Adrian, legate, ratify it."-"I Putta, Bishop of Rochester, subscribe it."-"I Waldhere, Bishop of London, confirm it."-"I Cuthbald, abbot, ratify it; so that, whoso breaketh it, have he the cursing of all bishops and of all christian folk. Amen."
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of the Trent
Bede. BISHOP THEODORE MADE PEACE BETWEEN THE KINGS EGFRID AND ETHELRED
In the ninth year of the reign of King Egfrid, a great battle was fought between him and Ethelred, king of the Mercians, near the river Trent, and Elfwin, brother to King Egfrid, was slain, a youth about eighteen years of age, and much beloved by both provinces, for King Ethelred had married his sister Osthrid. There was now reason to expect a more bloody war, and more lasting enmity between those kings and their fierce nations; but Theodore, the bishop beloved of God, relying on the Divine assistance, by his wholesome admonitions extinguished the dangerous fire that was breaking out; so that the kings and their people on both sides being appeased, no man was put to death, but only the usual mulct paid to the king for his brother that had been killed; and this peace continued long after between those kings and their kingdoms.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, 680 Synod of Heathfield
Bede. 680. About this time, Theodore (age 78) being informed that the faith of the church at Constantinople was much perplexed by the heresy of Eutyches, and desiring to preserve the churches of the English, over which he presided, from that infection, an assembly of many venerable priests and doctors was convened, at which he diligently inquired into their doctrines, and found they all unanimously agreed in the Catholic faith. This he took care to have committed to writing by the authority of the synod, as a memorial, and for the instruction of succeeding generations; the beginning of which instrument is as follows:
"In the name of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, in the tenth year of the reign of our most pious lord, Egfrid, king of the Northumbrians (age 35), the seventeenth of October, the eighth indiction; and in the sixth year of the reign of Ethelfrid, king of the Mercians, in the seventeenth year of the reign of Aldhulf, of the East Angles, in the seventh year of the reign of Lothair, king of Kent; Theodore (age 78), by the grace of God, archbishop of the island of Britain, and of the city of Canterbury, being president, and the other venerable bishops of the island of Britain sitting with him, the holy Gospels being laid before them, at the place which, in the Saxon tongue, is called Heathfield [Map], we conferred together, and expounded the true and orthodox faith, as our Lord Jesus in the flesh delivered the same to his disciples, who saw him present, and heard his words, and as it is delivered in the creed of the holy fathers, and by all holy and universal synods in general, and by the consent of all approved doctors of the Catholic church; we, therefore, following them jointly and orthodoxly, and professing accordance to their divinely inspired doctrine, do believe, and do, according to the holy fathers, firmly confess, properly and truly, the Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost, a trinity consubstantial in unity, and unity in trinity, that is, one God subsisting in three consubstantial persons, of equal honour and glory."
Bede. And after much more of this sort, appertaining to the confession of the true faith, this holy synod added to its instrument, "We have received the five holy and general councils of the blessed fathers acceptable to God; that is, of 318 bishops, who were assembled at Nice, against the most impious Arius and his tenets; and at Constantinople, of 150, against the madness of Macedonius and Eudoxius, and their tenets; and at Ephesus, first of 200, against the most wicked Nestorius, and his tenets; and at Chalcedon, of 680, against Eutyches and Nestoriiis, and their tenets; and again, at Constantinople, in a fifth council, in the reign of Justinian the younger, against Theodorus and Theodoret, and the epistles of Iba, and their tenets, against Cyril;" and again a little lower, "the synod held in the city of Rome, in the time of the blessed Pope Martin, in the eighth indiction, and in the ninth year of the most pious Emperor Constantine, we receive: and we glorify our Lord Jesus Christ, as they glorified him, neither adding nor diminishing any thing; anathematizing those with our hearts and mouths whom they anathematized, and receiving those whom they received, glorifying God the Father, who is without beginning, and his only begotten Son generated from eternity, and the Holy Ghost proceeding from the Father and the Son in an ineffable manner, as those holy apostles, prophets, and doctors, whom we have above-mentioned, did declare. And all we, who, with Archbishop Theodore, have thus expounded the Catholic faith, have also subscribed thereto."
Bede. Among those who were present at this synod, was the venerable John, archchanter of the church of the holy Apostle Peter, and abbot of the monastery of St. Martin, who came lately from Rome, by order of Pope Agatho, together with the most reverend Abbot Biscop, surnamed Benedict, of whom mention has been made above, and this John, with the rest, signed the declaration of the Catholic faith. For the said Benedict, having built a monastery [Map] in Britain, in honour of the most blessed prince ot the apostles, at the mouth of the river Were went to Rome with Ceolfrid, his companion and fellow labourer in that work, who was after him abbot of the same monastery; he had been several times before at Rome, and was now honourably received by Pope Agatho of blessed memory; from whom he also obtained the confirmation of the immunities of this monastery, being a bull of privilege signed by apostolical authority, pursuant to what he knew to be the will and grant of King Egfrid, by whose consent and gift of land he had built that monastery.
1st Millennium Events, 7th Century Events, Battle of Dun Nechtain
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 685. This year King Everth (age 40) commanded Cuthbert (age 51) to be consecrated a bishop; and Archbishop Theodore (age 83), on the first day of Easter, consecrated him at York Bishop of Hexham; for Trumbert had been deprived of that see. The same year Everth (age 40) was slain by the north sea, and a large army with him, on the thirteenth day before the calends of June. He continued king fifteen winters; and his brother Elfrith succeeded him in the government. Everth (age 40) was the son of Oswy. Oswy of Ethelferth, Ethelferth of Ethelric, Ethelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. About this time Ceadwall (age 26) began to struggle for a kingdom. Ceadwall (age 26) was the son of Kenbert, Kenbert of Chad (age 95), Chad of Cutha, Cutha of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic. Mull, who was afterwards consigned to the flames in Kent, was the brother of Ceadwall (age 26). The same year died Lothhere, King of Kent; and John was consecrated Bishop of Hexham, where he remained till Wilferth was restored, when John was translated to York on the death of Bishop Bosa. Wilferth his priest was afterwards consecrated Bishop of York, and John retired to his monastery [Map]21 in the woods of Delta. This year there was in Britain a bloody rain, and milk and butter were turned to blood.