1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events

8th Century Events is in 1st Millennium Events.

1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events, Second Battle of Woden's Barrow

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 715. This year Ina (age 45) and Ceolred fought at Wanborough;24 [possibly Wednesbury, Staffordshire [Map], Wanborough, Wiltshire or Woden's Barrow aka Adam's Grave [Map]] and King Dagobert (age 16) departed this life.

Note 24. Wothnesbeorhge, Ethelw.; Wonsdike, Malmsb.; Wonebirih, H. Hunt; Wodnesbeorh, Flor.; Wodnesbirch, M. West. There is no reason, therefore, to transfer the scene of action to Woodbridge, as some have supposed from an erroneous reading.

In 715 Ceolred King Mercia and King Ine of Wessex (age 45) were defeated by an unknown army during the Second Battle of Woden's Barrow at Adam's Grave [Map].

1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events, 722 Battle of Hehil

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 722. This year Queen Ethelburga (age 49) destroyed Taunton [Map], which Ina (age 52) had formerly built; Ealdbert wandered a wretched exile in Surrey and Sussex; and Ina (age 52) fought with the South-Saxons.

1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events, 740 York Fire

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 740. This year died King Ethelhard; and Cuthred, his relative, succeeded to the West-Saxon kingdom, which he held fourteen winters, during which time he fought many hard battles with Ethelbald, king of the Mercians. On the death of Archbishop Nothelm, Cuthbert was consecrated archbishop, and Dunn, Bishop of Rochester. This year York [Map] was on fire.

1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events, 752 Battle of Burford

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 752. This year, the twelfth of his reign, Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons, fought at Burford [Map]27 with Ethelbald, king of the Mercians, and put him to flight.

Note 27. Beorgforda, Ethelw.; Beorhtforda, Flor.; Hereford and Bereford, H. Hunt; Beorford, M. West. This battle of Burford has been considerably amplified by Henry of Huntingdon, and after him by Matthew of Westminster. The former, among other absurdities, talks of "Amazonian" battle-axes. They both mention the banner of the "golden dragon" etc.

1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events, 754 Canterbury Fire

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 754. This year died Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons; and Sebright, his relative, succeeded to the kingdom, which he held one year; Cyneard  succeeded Humferth in the see of Winchester; and Canterbury, Kent [Map] was this year on fire.

1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events, 774 Battle of Otford

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 774. This year the Northumbrians banished their king, Alred, from York at Easter-tide; and chose Ethelred (age 12), the son of Mull, for their lord, who reigned four winters. This year also appeared in the heavens a red crucifix, after sunset; the Mercians and the men of Kent fought at Otford; and wonderful serpents were seen in the land of the South-Saxons.

1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events, 777 Battle of Bensington

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 775. This year Cynewulf and Offa fought near Bensington, and Offa took possession of the town. In the days of this king, Offa, there was an abbot at Medhamsted, called Beonna; who, with the consent of all the monks of the minster, let to farm, to Alderman Cuthbert, ten copyhold lands at Swineshead, with leasow and with meadow, and with all the appurtenances; provided that the said Cuthbert gave the said abbot fifty pounds therefore, and each year entertainment for one night, or thirty shillings in money;29 provided also, that after his decease the said lands should revert to the monastery. The king, Offa, and King Everth, and Archbishop Hibbert, and Bishop Ceolwulf, and Bishop Inwona, and Abbot Beonna, and many other bishops, and abbots, and rich men, were witnesses to this. In the days of this same Offa was an alderman, of the name of Brorda, who requested the king for his sake to free his own monastery, called Woking, because he would give it to Medhamsted and St. Peter, and the abbot that then was, whose name was Pusa. Pusa succeeded Beonna; and the king loved him much. And the king freed the monastery of Woking, against king, against bishop, against earl, and against all men' so that no man should have any claim there, except St. Peter and the abbot. This was done at the king's town called Free-Richburn.

Note 29. Penga in the original, i.e. "of pence", or "in pence"; because the silver penny, derived from the Roman "denarius", was the standard coin in this country for more than a thousand years. It was also used as a weight, being the twentieth part of an ounce.

1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events, 786 Assassination of King Cynewulf

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 755. This year Cynewulf, with the consent of the West-Saxon council, deprived Sebright, his relative, for unrighteous deeds, of his kingdom, except Hampshire; which he retained, until he slew the alderman who remained the longest with him. Then Cynewulf drove him to the forest of Andred [Note. The Weald in South-East England], where he remained, until a swain stabbed him at Privett, and revenged the alderman, Cumbra. The same Cynewulf fought many hard battles with the Welsh; and, about one and thirty winters after he had the kingdom, he was desirous of expelling a prince called Cyneard, who was the brother of Sebright. But he having understood that the king was gone, thinly attended, on a visit to a lady at Merton28, rode after him, and beset him therein; surrounding the town without, ere the attendants of the king were aware of him. When the king found this, he went out of doors, and defended himself with courage; till, having looked on the etheling, he rushed out upon him, and wounded him severely. Then were they all fighting against the king, until they had slain him. As soon as the king's thanes in the lady's bower heard the tumult, they ran to the spot, whoever was then ready. The etheling immediately offered them life and rewards; which none of them would accept, but continued fighting together against him, till they all lay dead, except one British hostage, and he was severely wounded. When the king's thanes that were behind heard in the morning that the king was slain, they rode to the spot, Osric his alderman, and Wiverth his thane, and the men that he had left behind; and they met the etheling at the town, where the king lay slain. The gates, however, were locked against them, which they attempted to force; but he promised them their own choice of money and land, if they would grant him the kingdom; reminding them, that their relatives were already with him, who would never desert him. To which they answered, that no relative could be dearer to them than their lord, and that they would never follow his murderer. Then they besought their relatives to depart from him, safe and sound. They replied, that the same request was made to their comrades that were formerly with the king; "And we are as regardless of the result," they rejoined, "as our comrades who with the king were slain." Then they continued fighting at the gates, till they rushed in, and slew the etheling and all the men that were with him; except one, who was the godson of the alderman, and whose life he spared, though he was often wounded. This same Cynewulf reigned one and thirty winters. His body lies at Winchester, and that of the etheling at Axminster. Their paternal pedigree goeth in a direct line to Cerdic. The same year Ethelbald, king of the Mercians, was slain at Seckington; and his body lies at Repton [Map]. He reigned one and forty years; and Bernred then succeeded to the kingdom, which he held but a little while, and unprosperously; for King Offa the same year put him to flight, and assumed the government; which he held nine and thirty winters. His son Everth held it a hundred and forty days. Offa was the son of Thingferth, Thingferth of Enwulf, Enwulf of Osmod, Osmod of Eawa, Eawa of Webba, Webba of Creoda, Creoda of Cenwald, Cenwald of Cnebba-, Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomer, Eomer of Angelthew, Angelthew of Offa, Offa of Wermund, Wermund of Witley, Witley of Woden.

Note 28. The minuteness of this narrative, combined with the simplicity of it, proves that it was written at no great distance of time from the event. It is the first that occurs of any length in the older MSS. of the "Saxon Chronicle".

In 786 Cynewulf King of Wessex was killed by Cyneheard the Ætheling at Merton, Surrey while visiting his [Cynewulf's] mistress. King Beorhtric of Wessex succeeded King Wessex.

In 786 Cyneheard the Ætheling died at Merton, Surrey having murdered Cynewulf King of Wessex.

1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events, 787 First Viking Attack

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 786. This year King Bertric took Edburga the daughter of Offa to wife. And in his days came first three ships of the Northmen from the land of robbers. The reve30 then rode thereto, and would drive them to the king's town; for he knew not what they were; and there was he slain. These were the first ships of the Danish men that sought the land of the English nation.

Note 30. Since called "sheriff"; i.e. the reve, or steward, of the shire. "Exactor regis".—Ethelw.

1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events, 793 Viking Attack on Lindisfarne

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 795. This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery, dragons flying across the firmament. These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island, by rapine and slaughter. Siga died on the eighth day before the calends of March.

1st Millennium Events, 8th Century Events, 796 Death of King Offa

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 796. This year died Pope Adrian; and also Offa, King of Mercia, on the fourth day before the ides of August, after he had reigned forty winters.

On 29 Jul 796 King Offa of Mercia died. His son King Ecgfrith of Mercia succeeded King Mercia.