2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth

May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth is in 15th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Marriage of Ralph Scrope and Cecily York

Before 07 Aug 1485 Ralph Scrope 9th Baron Scrope Masham and Cecily York, daughter of Edward IV (age 16) were married. The marriage had been arranged by King Richard III of England (age 32). There had been rumours that the King was going to marry one of his nieces, Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 19) or Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 16) so this marriage quelled those rumours. The marriage was annulled after the Battle of Bosworth as "as not being in the interests of the dynasty" [Note. No sources for this information.] The date of the marriage is unknown. However, see Mary Anne Everett Green Live of the Princesses of England Volume 1 Cecilia Third Daughter of Edward IV. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 48). They were half second cousin once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Execution of Roger Clifford

On 02 May 1485 Roger Clifford (age 48) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for supporting King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28).

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Henry Tudor lands at Mill Bay

On 07 Aug 1485 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) landed at Mill Bay Milford Haven [Map] with John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 35), John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 43), Richard Guildford (age 35), John Welles 1st Viscount Welles (age 35), Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath and Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26) all of whom were knighted.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Battle of Bosworth

On 22 Aug 1485 King Richard III of England (age 32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. His second cousin once removed Henry Tudor  (age 28) succeeded VII King England. Earl Richmond forfeit.

Those supporting Henry Tudor included:

John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 35).

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 43).

Richard Guildford (age 35).

Walter Hungerford (age 21).

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50).

John Wingfield.

Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 29).

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26).

Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 36).

Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53).

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 47).

Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney (age 34).

William Stanley (age 50).

Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 52).

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney (age 38).

William Brandon (age 29) was killed.

James Harrington (age 55) was killed.

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 60) was killed and attainted. He was buried firstly at Thetford Priory, Norfolk [Map] and therafter at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. Duke Norfolk, Baron Mowbray, Baron Segrave forfeit.

John Sacheverell (age 85) was killed.

Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath

William Norreys (age 44), Gilbert Talbot (age 33), John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 42) and John Savage (age 41) commanded,.

Robert Poyntz (age 35) was knighted.

Those who fought for Richard III included:

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers of Groby (age 47).

John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire (age 74).

Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 17).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 59).

Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh (age 28).

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 48).

Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham (age 26).

Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 50).

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 68).

Ralph Neville 3rd Earl of Westmoreland (age 29).

John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 23).

Humphrey Stafford (age 59).

George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 17).

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 42) was wounded, captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for three years. He was attainted; Earl Surrey forfeit.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 29) fought and escaped.

John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth (age 26) was captured.

John Babington (age 62), William Alington (age 65), Robert Mortimer (age 43), Robert Brackenbury, Richard Ratclyffe (age 55) and Richard Bagot (age 73) were killed

Walter Devereux Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 53) was killed.

William Catesby (age 35) was executed at Leicester, Leicestershire [Map] after the battle.

George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster (age 25) held as a hostage by Richard III before the Battle of Bosworth.

Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 36) betrayed King Richard III of England (age 32) by not committing his forces at the Battle of Bosworth.

John Iwardby (age 35) was killed.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, 1485 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 1485. This yearea was great death of the sicknesse called the sweatinge sicknesse;b and the crosse in Cheepe new made; and a great taske and dismec grawnted to the Kinge.

Note a. Henry VII's regnal years counted from 22nd Aug. 1485, the day of the Battle of Bosworth. The year in the text, howerer, are computed from Lord Mayor's day.

Note b. This disease, unknown to any other age or nation, appeared first in London about the middle of September, and by the end of October had decimated the population. Two mayors and six aldermen died of it within one week.— See "Hall's Chronicle."

Note c. This expression is copied from Arnold, signifying "tax and tenth." In Jean Falsgrare's "L'Eclaircissement de la Langue Franyaise" the word "taske" is rendered by the French "taux."

Grafton's Chronicle. Sep 1485. In this same year a new kinde of sickness came suddenly through the whole region , even after the first entering of the King into this Isle , which was so sore , so painefull and sharp , that the like was never heard of, to any man's rememberance before that time . For suddenly a deadly and burning sweat invaded their bodies and vexed their blood , and with a most ardent heat infested the stomach , and the head grieviously : by the tormenting and vexation of which sickness , men were so sore handled , and so painfully pangued , that if they were layed in their bed , being not able to suffer the importunate heat, they cast away the sheets and all the cloths lying on the bed . If they were in their apparell and vestures , they would put of all their garments even to their shirtes . Other were so dry that they drank the cold water to quench their importunate heat and insatiable thirst . Others that could or at the least would abide the heate and stench ( for indeed the sweate had a great and strong savour ) caused clothes to be laid upon them as much as they coulde bear , to drive out the sweat , if it might be . All in maner as soon as the sweat took them , or within a short space after yielded up their ghost . So that of all them that sickened , there was not one amongst an hundredth that escaped. Insomuch, that beside the great number which deceased within the City of London, two Mayors, successively died of the same disease within eight days and six Aldermen. And when any person had fully and completely sweat twenty-four hours hours (for so long did the strength this plague hold them) he should be then clearly delivered of his disease. Yet not so clean rid of it, but that he might shortly relapse and fall again into the same evil pit , yea again and twice again , as many a one indeed did , which after the third time died of the same . At the length by study of Physicians and experience of the people driven thereunto by dreadful necessity , there was a remedy invented. For they that survived, considering the extremity of the pain in them that deceased , devised by things mere contrariant , to resist and withstand the furious rage of that burning furness , by luke warm drink , temperate heat , and measurable clothes . For such persons as relapsed agayn into the flame after the first deliverance , observed diligently and marked such things as did them ease and comfort at their first vexation , and usyng the same for a remedy and Medicine of their pain, adding ever somewhat thereto that was comfortable and wholesome . So that if any person ever after fell sick again , he observing the regimen that amongst the people was devised could shortly help himself , and easily as have the temper and avoid the strength and malice of the sweat . So that after the great losse of many men , they learned a present and a speedy remedy for the same disease and malady , the which is this: If a man on the day time were plagued with the sweat then he should straight lie down with all his clothes and garments , and lie still the whole twenty-four hours . If in the night he were taken , then he should not rise out of his bed for the space of twenty-four hours , and so cast the clothes that he might in no wise provoke the sweat , but so lie temperately that the water might distill out softly of the own accord , and to abstain from all meat if he might so long sustain and suffer hunger , and to take no more drink neither hot nor cold , then will moderately quench and delay his thirsty appetite . And in this his amending , one point diligently above all other is to be observed and attended , that he never put his hand or foote out of the bed to refresh or coole himselfe , the which to do is no less pain than short death . So you may plainely see what remedy was by the daily experience devised and invented for this strange and unknowne disease , the which at that time vexed and grieved onely the realme of England in every town and village as it did diverse times after . But fifty-five years after, it sailed into Flanders , and after into Germany , where it destroyed people innumerable for lack of knowlege of the English experience.

The Chronicle of John Harding: Henry VII. Sep 1485. In this year a new sickness did reign, and is1 so painfull as never was suffered before, the which was called the burning sweate. And this was so intollerable, that men could not keep their beds, but as lunatic like persons and out of their wittes, ran about naked, so that none escaped and were infected therewith. At the length, after the great death of many a thousand men, they learned a present remedy for the same disease, that is if he were sick of the sweat in the day, that he should straight lie down with his cloths and vestures; if in the night he should not rise for the space of twenty-four hours, and eat no meat at all, if he could forbear, and drink as little as he might.

This disease reigned throughout all England, whereof also ensued a plague, as a token, and as the people judged a plain argument that King Henry should never be out of fear and dread of some mischance, seeing that he was in such great vexation at the seditious tumulte that was risen at2 the claim or the crown

Note 1. that. ed. alt.

Note 2. this word appears as 'al' in the text. The editor has suggested at which makes more sense.

A Boke Or Counsel Against The Disease Commonly Called The Sweating Sicknesse. In the yere of our Lorde God 1485 shortly after the 7th day of August, at which time kynge Henry the Seventh arrived at Milford in Wales, out of France, and in the first year of his reign, there chanced a disease among the people, lasting the rest of that month & all September, which for the sudden sharpeness and unwont cruelness passed the pestilence. For this commonly gave three or four often five sumtyme six as that first at Athenes which Thucidides describes in his second book, sometime eleven and sometime fourteen days respect, to whom it vexed. But, that immediatly killed some in opening there windows, some in playing with children in their street doors, some in one hour, many in two it destroyed, & at the longest, to the that merily dined, it gave a sorrowfull supper. As it found them so it took them, some in sleep some in wake, some in mirth some in care, some fasting & some full, some busy and some idle, and in one house sometime three sometime five, sometime seven sometime eight, sometime more sometime all, of the which, if the half in every Town escaped, it was thought great favour. How, or with what manner it took them, with what grief, and accidents it held them, hereafter the I will declare, whe I shall come to show the signs therof. In the mean space, know that this disease (because it most did stand in sweating from the beginning until the ending) was called here, the Sweating Sickenesse: and because it first beganne in England, it was named in other countries, the Englishe Sweat. Yet some conjecture that it, or the like, have been before seen among the Greeks in the siege of Troie. In the Emperor Octavius wars at Cantabria, called now Biscay, in Spain: and in the Turkes, at the Rhodes. How true that is, let the authors look: how true this is, the best of our Chronicles show, & of the late begin disease the fresh memory yet confirms. But if the name wer now to be given, and at my libertie to make the same: I would of the manner and space of the disease (by cause the same is no sweat only, as herafter I will declare, & in the spirites) make the name Ephemera, which is to say, a fever of one natural day. A fever, for the fervor or burning, dry & sweating fever like. Of one naturall day, for that it lasteth but the time of twenty-four hours. And for a distinction from the commune Ephemera, that Galene writes of, comming both of other causes, and wyth vnlike paines, I wold putte to it either Englishe, for that it followeth somoche English menne, to who it is almoste proper, and also began here: or els pestilent, for that it cometh by infection & putrefaction, otherwise then doth the other Ephemera. Whiche thing I suppose may the better be done, because I se straunge and no english names both in Latine and Greke by commune vsage taken for Englishe. As in Latin, Feure, Qnotidia, Tertian, Quartane, Aier, Infection, Pestilence, Uomite. Person, Reines, Ueines, Peines, Chamere, Numbre, &c. a litle altered by the commune pronunciation. In Greke, Plcuresie, Ischiada, Hydrops, Apostema, Phlegma, and Chole: called by the vulgare pronunciatio, Schiatica, Dropsie, Impostume, Phleume, & Choler: Gyne also, and Boutyre, Sciourel, Mouse, Rophe, Phrase, Paraphrase, & cephe, wherof cometh Chancers couercephe, in the romant of the Rose, writte and pronouced comoly, kerchief in the south, & courchief in the north. Thereof euery head or principall thing, is comonlye called cephe, pronouced & writte, chief. Uery many other there be in our commune tongue, whiche here to rehearse were to long. These for an example shortelye I haue here noted. But for the name of this disease it maketh now no matter, the name of Sweat being commonly used. Let us therefore return to the thing, which as occasion & cause served, came againe in the 1506 the twenty-second year of the said Kyng Henry the seuenth. After that, in the yeare 1526 the ninth yeare of Kyng Henry the VIII, and endured from July, unto middle of Decembre.

Life of King Henry VII by Francis Bacon. 21 Sep 1485. About this time in autumn, towards the end of September, there began and reigned in the city, and other parts of the kingdom, a disease then new: which by the accidents and manner thereof they called the sweating sickness. This disease had a swift course, both in the sick body, and in the time and period of the lasting thereof; for they that were taken with it, upon four and twenty hours escaping, were thought almost assured. And as to the time of the malice and reign of the disease, ere it ceased ; it began about the one and twentieth of September, and cleared up before the end of October, insomuch as it was no hindrance to the King's coronation, which was the last of October; nor, which was more, to the holding of the parliament, which began but seven days after. It was a pestilent fever, but, as it seemeth, not seated in the veins or humours, for there followed no carbuncle, no purple or livid spots, or the like the mass of the body being not tainted ; only a malign vapour flew to the heart, and seized the vital spirits ; which stirred nature to strive to send it forth by an extreme sweat. And it appeared by experience, that this disease was rather a surprise of nature than obstinate to remedies, if it were in time looked unto. For if the patient were kept in an equal temper, both for clothes, fire, and drink, moderately warm, with temperate cordials, whereby nature's work were neither irritated by heat, nor turned back by cold, he com monly recovered. But infinite persons died suddenly of it, before the manner of the cure and attendance was known. It was conceived not to be an epidemic disease, but to proceed from a malignity in the constitution of the air, gathered by the predispositions of seasons ; and the speedy cessation declared as much.

Note. Two lord mayors (Thomas Hill and Sir William Stokker) and six aldermen died of this disease in one week in London (see Hall's Chronicle), and it is said that of those whom it attacked not more than one in a hundred escaped. The disease appeared afterwards in 1517, and occasioned also great mortality in Oxford in 1575.

Hall's Chronicle 1486. Nov 14851. In this same year a new kind of sickness [Sweating Sickness] came suddenly through the whole region even after the first entry of the King into this Isle, which was so sore, so painful, and sharp that the like was never heard of, to any man's remembrance before that time: For suddenly a deadly and burning sweat invaded their bodies and vexed their blood with a most ardent heat infested the stomach and the head grievously: by the tormenting and vexation of which sickness, men were so sore handled and so painfully panged that if they were laid in their bed being not liable to suffer the importunate heat, they cast away the sheets and all the clothes lying on the bed. If they were in their apparel and vestures, they would put of all their garments even to their shirts. Other were so dry that they drank the cold water to quench their importune heat and insatiable thirst. Other that could or at the least would abide the heat and stink (for indeed the sweat had a great and a strong savour) caused clothes to be laid upon them as much as they could bear, to dry out the sweat if it might be. All in manner as one as the sweat took them, or within a short space after, yielded, up their ghost. So that of all them that sickened there was not one amongst an hundred that escaped: in so much, that beside the great number which deceased within the city of London, two Mayors successively died of the same disease within eight days and six Aldermen. And when any person had fully and completely sweat twenty-four hours (for so did the strength of this plague hold them) he should be then clearly delivered of his disease: Yet not so clean rid of it, but that he might shortly relapse and fall again into the same evil pit, yea again and twice again as many one indeed did, which after the third time died of the same. At the length by study of the Physicians and experience of the people, drying thereunto by dreadful necessity, there was a remedy invented. For they that survived, considering the extremity of the pain in them that deceased, devised by things mere contrariant, to resist and withstand the furious rage of that burning furnace, by lukewarm drink, temperate heat, and measurable clothes. For such persons as relapsed again into the flame after the first deliverance, observed diligently and marked such things as did them ease and comfort at their first vexation, and using the same for a remedy and medicine of their pain, adding ever somewhat thereto that was sanative and wholesome. So that if any person either after fell sick again, he observing the regiment that amongst the people was devised could shortly help himself, and easily temper and avoid the strength and malice of the sweat. So that after the great loss of many men, they learned a present and a speedy remedy for the same disease and malady, the which is this: If a man on the day time were plagued with the sweat, then he should straight lie down with all his clothes and garments and lie still the whole twenty-four hours. If in the night he were taken, then he should not rise out of his bed for the space of twenty-four hours, and so cast the clothes that he might in no wise provoke the sweat, but so lie temperately that the water might distil out softly of the own accord, and to abstain from all meat if he might so long sustain and suffer hunger and to take no more drink neither hole nor cold, then will moderately quench and delay his thirsty appetite. And in this his amending, one point diligently above all other is to be observed and attended, that he never put his hand or foot out of the bed to refresh or cool himself, the which to do is no less pain then short death. So you may plainly see what remedy was by the daily experience excogitated and invented for this strange and unknown disease, the which at that time vexed and grieved only the realm of England in every town and village as it did diverse times after. But fifty-five years after, it sailed into Flanders and after into Germany, where it destroyed people innumerable for lack of knowledge of the English experience. This contagious and evil plague chanced in the first year of King Henry's reign as a token and a plain sign (if to the vain judgement of the people which commonly common more fantastically then wisely, any faith or credit is to be had gave or attributed) that King Henry should have a hard and sore beginning, but more truly if vain superstition can set forth any truth, it pretended and signified that King Henry to the extreme point and end of his natural life should never have his spirit and mind quiet, considering that now in the very beginning of his new obtained reign he was (as you shall shortly hear) with sedition and emotion of his people, troubled, vexed and unquieted, and it was in manner a manifest proof that hereafter he should live in small rest and great mistrust of such rebellious and seditious conspiracies. These were the fantastical judgements of the unlettered persons which I overpass, and return to my purpose.

Note. This entry describes events in Nov 1485 despite being in Henry VII's second year.

Annales of England by John Stow. The sweating began the 21st of September, continued till the ende of October: of the which sickness a wonderful number died, and in London beside other, died Thomas Hall Mayor, in whose place was chosen William Stocker, who likewise deceased about seven daies later: in which space departed other foure Alderman, Thomas Ilam, Richard Rawson, Thomas Norland, and John Stocker, and then was chosen Mayor John Warder, who continued till the feast of Simon and Jude [28 October].

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Coronation of Henry VII

On 16 Oct 1485 Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath was created 1st Earl Bath at Tower of London [Map] by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) for having supported Henry's claim to the throne.

On 28 Oct 1485 Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53) was created 1st Duke Bedford by Henry VII (age 28) for having supported Henry's claim to the throne. Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford (age 27) by marriage Duchess Bedford.

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50) was created 1st Earl Derby.

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26) was created 1st Earl Devon. It is believed he was restored 11th Baron Okehampton at the same time?

Reginald Bray (age 45), John Fitzwalter, Thomas Cokesge, Roger Lewknor, Henry Haydon and John Verney were appointed Knight of the Bath.

On 29 Oct 1485 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) processed from Tower of London [Map] to Westminster Abbey [Map]. Ahead of him marched the heralds and serjeants-at-arms, the Esquire of the Body, the King's Secretary Richard Fox (age 37), almoner Christopher Urswick (age 37), the mayor of London and the Garter King of Arms. Also ahead of him were Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50), John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 23), John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 43) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 59). Following behind were the only two Dukes: Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53), created the day before, and John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 43).

On 30 Oct 1485 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) was crowned VII King England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 67) at Westminster Abbey [Map]. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 42), his mother, attended.

Robert Dymoke (age 24) attended as the Kings' Champion.

John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 43) carried the King's train.

Earl Richmondmerged with the Crown.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Birth of Catherine of Aragon

On 16 Dec 1485 Catherine of Aragon was born to Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 33) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 34). She was possibly named after her Great Grandmother Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile daughter of John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster and Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.23%.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

On 18 Jan 1486 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) and Elizabeth, Edward IV's eldest daughter (age 19) were married at Westminster Abbey [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 49). He the son of Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 42). They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Vatican Regesta Vol. DCLXXXV Secretarum Tomus IV 2 Innocent VIII. 10 Kal. Aug. Decree, at the petition of king Henry (age 29) and queen Elizabeth (age 20), that a notarial copy of the process before James, bishop of Imola, Apostolic Nuncio with the power of a legate de latere, in regard to the dispensation granted by him to them to contract marriage, notwithstanding the impediment arising from their being related in the double fourth degree of kindred, shall have the same credence as the original letters of the said bishop. The Pope (age 54) exemplifies the said letters and process as follows:

Public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation 1486, after the computation of the English church, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII [16 Jan 1486], in the chapel of St. Mary [the Virgin] on the east side of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London [Map], before James, bishop of Imola, apostolic legate to England and Scotland, in presence of the below-written notaries public, appointed by the said bishop as scribes in the below-written matter of dispensation, and witnesses below-named, there appeared in person Master Robert Morton (age 51), Archdeacon of Winchester, and John de Giglis, I.U.D., as proctors of king Henry (age 29), and Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the household of the said king, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, as proctors of the lady Elizabeth (age 20), eldest daughter of the late king Edward IV, who produced their mandates of procuration and presented to the said legate a schedule of petition on behalf of the said king and lady, praying him to dispense them to marry, notwithstanding the impediment of their relationship in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, as was specified by the said Master Robert Morton (age 51).

The said instrument exemplifies the said procurations and schedule, as follows:

(i) A public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation, etc., 1486, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII, January 14, in a certain great chamber within the palace royal at Westminster, before Thomas, archbishop of York (age 62) and legate of the apostolic see, John, bishop of Worcester (age 56), chancellor of England, and Jasper duke of Bedford (age 54), and many other nobles and magnates, in the presence of me, Richard Spencer, notary public below-written, the said king (age 29), present in person, appointed Masters John de Giglis, I.U.D., and Robert Morton (age 51), master or keeper of the rolls of the chancery of the said king, as his proctors to appear before the said bishop and legate (who, as is said, has faculty from the apostolic see to dispense a certain number of persons related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred and affinity to contract marriage), and to request him to exhibit, etc., the said letters, and execute them in accordance with the desire of the said king, etc. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the above-named witnesses and of Richard Spencer, clerk, of the diocese of Lincoln, notary public by apostolic and imperial authorities, registrar-principal of the court of Canterbury, and keeper of the registers of the same court, the said notary has made the present public instrument, and, being otherwise engaged, has caused it to be written by another, and has published and drawn it up in this public form, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(ii) A like public instrument, setting forth that on the same date as in the preceding, and in a certain chamber within the royal palace of Westminster, before John, bishop of Worcester, chancellor of England (age 56), John lord de Wellys (age 36), Master William Smyth, dean of the chapel royal of Wymbourn in the diocese of Salisbury, and other witnesses, in the presence of the above notary, Richard Spencer, the above lady Elizabeth (age 20), present in person, appointed Masters Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the king's household, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, and commissary-general of the official of the court of Canterbury and president of the said court, in the absence of the said official, as her proctors to appear, etc., as in the preceding. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the abovenamed witnesses and of … Richard Spencer, clerk, etc., as above, the said notary has made, written, subscribed, published, and drawn up in this public form the present public instrument, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(iii) The petition to James, bishop of Imola, apostolic legate to England and Scotland, on behalf of the most serene prince and lord, the lord Henry (age 29), by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the one part, and of the most illustrious (clarissime) lady, the lady Elizabeth (age 20), eldest legitimate and natural daughter of the late Edward, sometime king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the other part, setting forth that whereas the said king Henry has by God's providence won his realm of England, and is in peaceful possession thereof, and has been asked by all the lords of his realm, both spiritual and temporal, and also by the general council of the said realm, called Parliament, to take the said lady Elizabeth to wife, he, wishing to accede to the just petitions of his subjects, desires to take the said lady to wife, but cannot do so without dispensation, inasmuch as they are related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, wherefore petition is made on their behalf to the said legate to grant them dispensation by his apostolic authority to contract marriage and remain therein, notwithstanding the said impediment of kindred, and to decree the offspring to be born thereof legitimate.

Letters and Papers 1529. After 28 Jun 1529. Vit. B. XII. 70. B. M. 5774. Catharine of Arragon.

A set of depositions as to Catharine's marriage with Prince Arthur.

1. of George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), seneschal of the King's household, at the Coldherbar, on Monday, 28 June 1529. Is 59 years of age. Was present at the marriage of Henry VII. at Westminster, and at the creation of Arthur prince of Wales and Henry Duke of York (age 38). They were always considered as brothers, and he never heard it contradicted. Was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur with Catharine, now Queen, at St. Paul's, in Nov. 17 Henry VII. 1521 (sic). Believes that Arthur was then 14 or more. Saw the Queen Elizabeth and him a month after his birth, at Winchester [Map], in 2 Henry VII. Believes that Catharine was more than 14. Thinks that Arthur must have been nearer 15 than 14. At night, with the Lord of Oxford (age 58) and others, conducted Prince Arthur to the lady Catharine's (age 43) bedchamber, and left him there. Supposes that the Prince consummated the marriage,as he did so, being only 15 years when he was married. They were always considered lawfully married during the life of Prince Arthur. Saw the funeral of Prince Arthur at Worcester, and the marriage of the King and Queen at Greenwich. Cannot answer the 6th and 7th articles, but leaves them to the laws. Never heard what is contained in the 8th article. As to the 9th, knows that the King and Queen cohabited and treated each other as husband and wife, but cannot say whether lawfully or not. Can say nothing from his own knowledge as to the 10th, 11th, and 12th articles. Has made this deposition without being instructed or corrupted in any way, only for the sake of truth.

Vit. B. XII. 80. B. M.

2. of Thomas marquis of Dorset (age 52). Is 52 years of age. The 1st and 2nd articles contain the truth. Was present at the baptism of Arthur and Henry, the former at Winchester, and the latter at Greenwich. Was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur with Catharine, now Queen, at St Paul's, on a Sunday in Nov. 1501, 17 Henry VII. Believes Arthur was about 15, for he has seen in the book in which are written the births of the King's children that he was born 20 Sept. 1486. Was present when Prince Arthur went to bed after his marriage, where the lady Catharine (age 43) lay under the coverlet, "as the manner is of Queens in that behalf." Thinks that he used the princess as his wife, for he was of a good and sanguine complexion, and they were commonly reputed as man and wife during Prince Arthur's life. As to the 5th article, he can depose nothing to the first part, as he was then prisoner at Calais; but the remainder, touching cohabitation and reputation, is true. Can say nothing to the 6th, 7th, and 8th. The 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th contain the truth, as he believes.

Vit. B. XII. 85. B. M.

3. of Sir Antony Willoughby. Has lived 15 years in Hampshire, for 12 years previously in Wiltshire. Was five years in the service of Prince Arthur, for five years before that in the service of the Bishop of Durham, and before that time in his father's household. Believes the 1st and 2nd articles to be true. To the 3rd and 4th, was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur and lady Catharine. By favor of his father, Lord Broke, steward of the King's household, was present when Prince Arthur went to bed on his marriage night in the palace of the Bishop of London. In the morning the prince, in the presence of Mores St. John, Mr. Cromer, Mr. William Woddall, Mr. Griffith Rice, and others, said to him, "Willoughby, bring me a cup of ale, for I have been this night in the midst of Spain;" and afterward said openly, "Masters, it is good pastime to have a wife." He, therefore, supposes that the marriage was consummated; and he heard that they lay together the Shrovetide following at Ludlow.

Knows that they lived together as man and wife during the remainder of the Prince's life.

Believes the 5th article to be true. Can depose nothing to the 6th, 7th and 8th. Believes the 9th, 10th and 11th to be true. The 12th contains law; to which he is not bound to reply. To the second additional interrogatory he replies, that it contains the truth, for he has been present twenty times at the solemnization of marriage, and the said form of words is always used.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Birth and Christening of Arthur Prince of Wales

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 1486. This yeared Prince Arthure was borne at Windsore [Map].e

Note d. This paragraph is wrongly placed both in Arnold and our MS. after the next entry, but I hare restored it to its proper date.

Note e. A clerical error for Winchester [Map].

On 20 Sep 1486, nine months exactly after his parents married, Prince Arthur Tudor was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 29) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 20) at Winchester Priory [Map]. he was created Duke Cornwall at birth.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Stafford and Lovell Rebellion

Around Apr 1486 the Stafford and Lovell Rebellion was an armed uprising against King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 29). With the failure of the plot Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 30) fled to Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 39) in Flanders.

On 08 Jul 1486 brothers Humphrey Stafford (age 60) and Thomas Stafford was executed at Tyburn [Map].

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Lambert Simnel Rebellion

In 1487 Bishop Robert Stillington (age 67) was imprisoned during the Lambert Simnel Rebellion.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Battle of Stoke Field

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 16 Jun 1487. The Earle of Lincolne (age 25)1, the Lord Lovell (age 31), and one Martin Swarte, a straunger, slayne all in a feild that they made againste the Kinge.2

Note 1. John Earl of Lincoln (age 25) was son of John de la Pole (age 44), Duke of Suffolk, and of Elizabeth (age 43), eldest sister of Edward IV.

Note 2. This battle was fought at the village of Stoke [Map], near Newark [Map], 16th June, 1487, when Lambert Simnel (age 10) was made prisoner.

On 16 Jun 1487 a Lancastrian army defeated a Yorkist army at the Battle of Stoke Field; considered by many to be the last battle of the Wars of the Roses.

The Lancastrian army of Henry Tudor comprised:

John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 44).

Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 55).

George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 19).

Henry Willoughby (age 36).

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 45).

John Mordaunt (age 31).

Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape (age 19).

William Norreys (age 46).

Edward Norreys (age 23) wounded.

John Paston (age 43).

George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster (age 27).

Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 31).

Thomas Lovell, knighted.

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney (age 40).

Edward Belknapp of Blackfriars in London

William Lyttelton (age 37) who was knighted after the battle.

The Yorksists:

John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 25) was killed. Earl Lincoln extinct.

Thomas Fitzgerald (age 29) and Martin Schwartz were killed.

Lambert Simnel (age 10) fought and was captured. He was pardoned by King Henry VII and put to work in the in the royal kitchen as a spit-turner. When he grew older, he became a falconer. Almost no information about his later life is known.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 31) fought and escaped. He was attainted. Baron Deincourt, Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh, Baron Holand forfeit.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, May 1485 Dec 1485 Bosworth, Coronation of Elizabeth of York

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 25 Nov 1487. This yeare the Queene was crowned.f

Note f. At Westminster on the 25th November, 1487.