Revolt of Hereward the Wake is in 11th Century Events.
John of Worcester. 1071. Earls Edwin and Morcar escaped secretly from king William's (age 43) court, finding that he intended to arrest them, and they were for some time in arms against him; but seeing that their enterprise was not successful, Edwin resolved to go to Malcolm (age 39), king of the Scots, but, during the journey, he fell into an ambuscade laid by his own people, and was killed. Morcar and Ethelwine, bishop of Durham, Siward, surnamed Barn, and Hereward (age 36), a man of great bravery, with many others, took ship and went to the Isle of Ely [Map], intending to winter there. The king, hearing of this, blocked up every outlet on the eastern side of the island by means of his boatmen, and caused a bridge, two miles long, to be constructed on the western side. When they saw that they were thus shut in, they resisted no longer, and all surrendered themselves to the king, except the brave Hereward (age 36), who escaped through the fens with a few others. The king immediately sent bishop Ethelwine to Abingdon, where he was imprisoned, and died the same winter. The earl and the rest were dispersed in various parts of England, some being placed in confinement, and others set at liberty with the loss of their hands or eyes.
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, Accord of Winchester
Archbishop Ealdred who signed "I concede" whereas other signatories signed "I subscribe".
Bishop Wulfstan (age 64).
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, Sancho "Strong" Crowned King Leon
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, Revolt of the Earls
In 1075 Ralph de Gael 2nd Earl East Anglia (age 33) forfeit his Earldom and his lands.
Flowers of History. 1075. Queen Edith (age 49) died on the fifth of April. The same year, king William (age 47) gave the daughter of William, the son of Osbert, to earl Radolph (age 33), as his wife, and gave him also the government of Norfolk and Suffolk. This Radolph was of British extraction, on his mother's side, and his father was an Englishman. He was born in Norfolk, and there he celebrated his marriage, which was the cause of destruction to many persons. At that wedding there were present earl Roger and earl Waltheof; and many bishops and abbots; and they took counsel how to expel king William (age 47) from his kingdom. And this speedily became known to the king, who was in Normandy, and immediately the king returned to England, and took Waltheof, and Roger, who was his own kinsman, and threw them into prison. As to the rest who were present at the wedding, he deferred his determination.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1075. This year King William (age 47) gave Earl Ralph (age 33) the daughter of William Fitz-Osborne to wife. This same Ralph (age 33) was British on his mother's side; but his father, whose name was also Ralph, was English; and born in Norfolk. The king (age 47) therefore gave his son the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk; and he then led the bride to Norwich [Map]. There was that bride-ale The source of man's bale. There was Earl Roger, and Earl Waltheof, and bishops, and abbots; who there resolved, that they would drive the king (age 47) out of the realm of England. But it was soon told the king (age 47) in Normandy how it was determined. It was Earl Roger and Earl Ralph (age 33) who were the authors of that plot; and who enticed the Britons to them, and sent eastward to Denmark after a fleet to assist them. Roger went westward to his earldom, and collected his people there, to the king's (age 47) annoyance, as he thought; but it was to the great disadvantage of himself. He was however prevented. Ralph (age 33) also in his earldom would go forth with his people; but the castlemen that were in England and also the people of the land, came against him, and prevented him from doing anything. He escaped however to the ships at Norwich [Map].97 And his wife was in the castle; which she held until peace was made with her; when she went out of England, with all her men who wished to join her. The king (age 47) afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger, his relative, and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof went over sea, and bewrayed himself; but he asked forgiveness, and proffered gifts of ransom. The king (age 47), however, let him off lightly, until he98 came to England; when he had him seized. Soon after that came east from Denmark two hundred ships; wherein were two captains, Cnute Swainson, and Earl Hacco; but they durst not maintain a fight with King William (age 47). They went rather to York, and broke into St. Peter's minster, and took therein much treasure, and so went away. They made for Flanders over sea; but they all perished who were privy to that design; that was, the son of Earl Hacco, and many others with him. This year died the Lady Edgitha (age 49), who was the relict of King Edward, seven nights before Christmas, at Winchester; and the king (age 47) caused her to be brought to Westminster with great pomp; and he laid her with King Edward, her lord. And the king (age 47) was then at Westminster, at midwinter; where all the Britons were condemned who were at the bride-ale at Norwich. Some were punished with blindness; some were driven from the land; and some were towed to Scandinavia. So were the traitors of King William (age 47) subdued.
Note 97. Whence he sailed to Bretagne, according to Flor. S. Dunelm, etc.; but according to Henry of Huntingdon he fled directly to Denmark, returning afterwards with Cnute and Hacco, who invaded England With a fleet of 200 sail.
Note 98. i.e. Earl Waltheof.
In 1075 three Earls joined in rebellion against King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 47). The three Earls were: Roger de Breteuil Fitzosbern 2nd Earl Hereford, Ralph de Gael 2nd Earl East Anglia (age 33) and Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon. The ostensible cause of their rebellion was William's (age 47) the marriage of Emma Fitzosbern Countess East Anglia, daughter of William Fitzosbern 1st Earl Hereford, with Ralph de Gael 2nd Earl East Anglia (age 33). Possibly to do with she being Norman and he being British/English.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1076. This year also was Earl Waltheof beheaded at Winchester [Map], on the mass-day of St. Petronilla;99 and his body was carried to Croyland [Map], where he lies buried. King William (age 48) now went over sea, and led his army to Brittany, and beset the castle of Dol; but the Bretons defended it, until the king (age 23) came from France; whereupon William (age 48) departed thence, having lost there both men and horses, and many of his treasures.
Note 99. This notice of St. Petronilla, whose name and existence seem scarcely to have been known to the Latin historians, we owe exclusively to the valuable MS. "Cotton Tiberius" B lv. Yet if ever female saint deserved to be commemorated as a conspicuous example of early piety and christian zeal, it must be Petronilla.
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, 1077 Burning of London
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, 1079 William The Conqueror Battle with his son Robert Curthose
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1079. This year Robert (age 28), the son of King William (age 51), deserted from his father to his uncle Robert in Flanders (age 46); because his father (age 51) would not let him govern his earldom in Normandy; which he himself, and also King Philip (age 26) with his permission, had given him. The best men that were in the land also had sworn oaths of allegiance to him, and taken him for their lord. This year, therefore, Robert (age 28) fought with his father (age 51), without Normandy, by a castle called Gerberoy; and wounded him in the hand; and his horse, that he sat upon, was killed under him; and he that brought him another was killed there right with a dart. That was Tookie Wiggodson. Many were there slain, and also taken. His son William (age 23) too was there wounded; but Robert (age 37) returned to Flanders. We will not here, however, record any more injury that he did his father (age 51).
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, Christening of Edith Matilda of Scotland
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, Battle of Mynydd Carn
In 1081 the Battle of Mynydd Carn was fought between the armies of King Gruffudd ap Cynan of Gwynedd (age 26) and Rhys ap Tewdwr King Deheubarth (age 16), and the army of Caradog ap Gruffydd Prince of Gwent and Trahaearn ap Caradog (age 46) as part of a dynastic struggle for control of the Welsh kingdoms of Gwynedd and Deheubarth. The result of the battle had a radical effect on the history of Wales.
Caradog ap Gruffydd Prince of Gwent, Meilir ap Rhiwallon (age 46) and Trahaearn ap Caradog (age 46) were killed.
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, 1085 Domesday Book
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1085. In this year men reported, and of a truth asserted, that Cnute, King of Denmark (age 43), son of King Sweyne, was coming hitherward, and was resolved to win this land, with the assistance of Robert, Earl of Flanders (age 52);106 for Cnute (age 43) had Robert's (age 52) daughter (age 21). When William, King of England (age 57), who was then resident in Normandy [Map] (for he had both England and Normandy), understood this, he went into England with so large an army of horse and foot, from France and Brittany, as never before sought this land; so that men wondered how this land could feed all that force. But the king (age 57) left the army to shift for themselves through all this land amongst his subjects, who fed them, each according to his quota of land. Men suffered much distress this year; and the king (age 57) caused the land to be laid waste about the sea coast; that, if his foes came up, they might not have anything on which they could very readily seize. But when the king (age 57) understood of a truth that his foes were impeded, and could not further their expedition107, then let he some of the army go to their own land; but some he held in this land over the winter. Then, at the midwinter, was the king (age 57) in Glocester [Map] with his council, and held there his court five days. And afterwards the archbishop and clergy had a synod three days. There was Mauritius chosen Bishop of London, William of Norfolk, and Robert of Cheshire. These were all the king's (age 57) clerks. After this had the king (age 57) a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort of men. Then sent he his men over all England into each shire; commissioning them to find out "How many hundreds of hides were in the shire, what land the king (age 57) himself had, and what stock upon the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the shire." Also he commissioned them to record in writing, "How much land his archbishops had, and his diocesan bishops, and his abbots, and his earls;" and though I may be prolix and tedious, "What, or how much, each man had, who was an occupier of land in England, either in land or in stock, and how much money it were worth." So very narrowly, indeed, did he commission them to trace it out, that there was not one single hide, nor a yard108 of land, nay, moreover (it is shameful to tell, though he thought it no shame to do it), not even an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was there left, that was not set down in his writ. And all the recorded particulars were afterwards brought to him.109
Note 106. and of Clave Kyrre, King of Norway. Vid. "Antiq. Celto-Scand".
Note 107. Because there was a mutiny in the Danish fleet; which was carried to such a height, that the king, after his return to Denmark, was slain by his own subjects. Vid. "Antiq. Celto-Scand", also our "Chronicle" A.D. 1087.
Note 108. i.e. a fourth part of an acre.
Note 109. At Winchester; where the king held his court at Easter in the following year; and the survey was accordingly deposited there; whence it was called "Rotulus Wintoniae", and "Liber Wintoniae".
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, 1087 Burning of St Paul's
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1087. After the birth of our Lord and Saviour Christ, one thousand and eighty-seven winters; in the one and twentieth year after William (age 59) began to govern and direct England, as God granted him, was a very heavy and pestilent season in this land. Such a sickness came on men, that full nigh every other man was in the worst disorder, that is, in the diarrhoea; and that so dreadfully, that many men died in the disorder. Afterwards came, through the badness of the weather as we before mentioned, so great a famine over all England, that many hundreds of men died a miserable death through hunger. Alas! how wretched and how rueful a time was there! When the poor wretches lay full nigh driven to death prematurely, and afterwards came sharp hunger, and dispatched them withall! Who will not be penetrated with grief at such a season? or who is so hardhearted as not to weep at such misfortune? Yet such things happen for folks' sins, that they will not love God and righteousness. So it was in those days, that little righteousness was in this land with any men but with the monks alone, wherever they fared well. The king (age 59) and the head men loved much, and overmuch, covetousness in gold and in silver; and recked not how sinfully it was got, provided it came to them. The king (age 59) let his land at as high a rate as he possibly could; then came some other person, and bade more than the former one gave, and the king (age 59) let it to the men that bade him more. Then came the third, and bade yet more; and the king (age 59) let it to hand to the men that bade him most of all: and he recked not how very sinfully the stewards got it of wretched men, nor how many unlawful deeds they did; but the more men spake about right law, the more unlawfully they acted. They erected unjust tolls, and many other unjust things they did, that are difficult to reckon. Also in the same year, before harvest, the holy minster of St. Paul, the episcopal see in London, was completely burned, with many other minsters, and the greatest part, and the richest of the whole city. So also, about the same time, full nigh each head-port in all England was entirely burned. Alas! rueful and woeful was the fate of the year that brought forth so many misfortunes.
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, King William "The Conqueror" Dies King William II Succeeds
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1087. In the same year also, before the Assumption of St. Mary, King William (age 59) went from Normandy [Map] into France with an army, and made war upon his own lord Philip, the king (age 34), and slew many of his men, and burned the town of Mante, and all the holy minsters that were in the town; and two holy men that served God, leading the life of anachorets, were burned therein. This being thus done, King William (age 59) returned to Normandy. Rueful was the thing he did; but a more rueful him befel. How more rueful? He fell sick, and it dreadfully ailed him. What shall I say? Sharp death, that passes by neither rich men nor poor, seized him also. He died in Normandy, on the next day after the Nativity of St. Mary, and he was buried at Caen in St. Stephen's minster [Map], which he had formerly reared, and afterwards endowed with manifold gifts. Alas! how false and how uncertain is this world's weal! He that was before a rich king (age 59), and lord of many lands, had not then of all his land more than a space of seven feet! and he that was whilom enshrouded in gold and gems, lay there covered with mould! He left behind him three sons; the eldest, called Robert (age 36), who was earl in Normandy after him; the second, called William (age 31), who wore the crown after him in England; and the third, called Henry (age 19), to whom his father bequeathed immense treasure. If any person wishes to know what kind of man he was, or what honour he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then will we write about him as well as we understand him: we who often looked upon him, and lived sometime in his court. This King William (age 59) then that we speak about was a very wise man, and very rich; more splendid and powerful than any of his predecessors were. He was mild to the good men that loved God, and beyond all measure severe to the men that gainsayed his will. On that same spot where God granted him that he should gain England, he reared a mighty minster, and set monks therein, and well endowed it. In his days was the great monastery in Canterbury built, and also very many others over all England. This land was moreover well filled with monks, who modelled their lives after the rule of St. Benedict. But such was the state of Christianity in his time, that each man followed what belonged to his profession-he that would. He was also very dignified. Thrice he bare his crown each year, as oft as he was in England. At Easter he bare it in Winchester, at Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter in Glocester. And then were with him all the rich men over all England; archbishops and diocesan bishops, abbots and earls, thanes and knights. So very stern was he also and hot, that no man durst do anything against his will. He had earls in his custody, who acted against his will. Bishops he hurled from their bishoprics, and abbots from their abbacies, and thanes into prison. At length he spared not his own brother Odo, who was a very rich bishop in Normandy. At Baieux was his episcopal stall; and he was the foremost man of all to aggrandise the king (age 59). He had an earldom in England; and when the king (age 59) was in Normandy, then was he the mightiest man in this land. Him he confined in prison. But amongst other things is not to be forgotten that good peace that he made in this land; so that a man of any account might go over his kingdom unhurt with his bosom full of gold. No man durst slay another, had he never so much evil done to the other; and if any churl lay with a woman against her will, he soon lost the limb that he played with. He truly reigned over England; and by his capacity so thoroughly surveyed it, that there was not a hide of land in England that he wist not who had it, or what it was worth, and afterwards set it down in his book.110 The land of the Britons was in his power; and he wrought castles therein; and ruled Anglesey withal. So also he subdued Scotland by his great strength. As to Normandy, that was his native land; but he reigned also over the earldom called Maine; and if he might have yet lived two years more, he would have won Ireland by his valour, and without any weapons. Assuredly in his time had men much distress, and very many sorrows. Castles he let men build, and miserably swink the poor. The king (age 59) himself was so very rigid; and extorted from his subjects many marks of gold, and many hundred pounds of silver; which he took of his people, for little need, by right and by unright. He was fallen into covetousness, and greediness he loved withal. He made many deer-parks; and he established laws therewith; so that whosoever slew a hart, or a hind, should be deprived of his eyesight. As he forbade men to kill the harts, so also the boars; and he loved the tall deer as if he were their father. Likewise he decreed by the hares, that they should go free. His rich men bemoaned it, and the poor men shuddered at it. But he was so stern, that he recked not the hatred of them all; for they must follow withal the king's (age 59) will, if they would live, or have land, or possessions, or even his peace. Alas! that any man should presume so to puff himself up, and boast o'er all men. May the Almighty God show mercy to his soul, and grant him forgiveness of his sins! These things have we written concerning him, both good and evil; that men may choose the good after their goodness, and flee from the evil withal, and go in the way that leadeth us to the kingdom of heaven. Many things may we write that were done in this same year. So it was in Denmark, that the Danes, a nation that was formerly accounted the truest of all, were turned aside to the greatest untruth, and to the greatest treachery that ever could be. They chose and bowed to King Cnute, and swore him oaths, and afterwards dastardly slew him in a church. It happened also in Spain, that the heathens went and made inroads upon the Christians, and reduced much of the country to their dominion. But the king of the Christians, Alphonzo by name, sent everywhere into each land, and desired assistance. And they came to his support from every land that was Christian; and they went and slew or drove away all the heathen folk, and won their land again, through God's assistance.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Sep 1087. In this land also, in the same year, died many rich men; Stigand, Bishop of Chichester, and the Abbot of St. Augustine, and the Abbot of Bath, and the Abbot of Pershore, and the lord of them all, William, King of England (age 59), that we spoke of before. After his death his son, called William (age 31) also as the father, took to the kingdom, and was blessed to king (age 31) by Archbishop Landfranc (age 82) at Westminster three days ere Michaelmas day. And all the men in England submitted to him, and swore oaths to him. This being thus done, the king (age 31) went to Winchester, and opened the treasure house, and the treasures that his father had gathered, in gold, and in silver, and in vases, and in palls, and in gems, and in many other valuable things that are difficult to enumerate. Then the king (age 31) did as his father bade him ere he was dead; he there distributed treasures for his father's soul to each monastery that was in England; to some ten marks of gold, to some six, to each upland111 church sixty pence. And into each shire were sent a hundred pounds of money to distribute amongst poor men for his soul. And ere he departed, he bade that they should release all the men that were in prison under his power. And the king (age 31) was on the midwinter in London.
Note 110. An evident allusion to the compilation of Doomsday book, already described in A.D. 1085.
Note 111. Uppe-land, Sax.—i.e. village-church.
On 09 Sep 1087 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 59) died at the Priory of St Gervaise, Rouen. He was buried at Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen, Calvados, Basse Normandie at a ceremony presided over by Gilbert Arques Bishop Evreux. King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 19) attended. His son William "Rufus" II King England (age 31) succeeded II King England. His son Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 36) succeeded III Duke Normandy.
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, Battle of Brecon
2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, Revolt of Hereward the Wake, First Crusade
In 1096 Ivo Grandesmil (age 9) joined during the First Crusade.