Sep 1483 May 1485 Buckingham's Rebellion

Sep 1483 May 1485 Buckingham's Rebellion is in 15th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, Sep 1483 May 1485 Buckingham's Rebellion, Buckingham's Rebellion

In Oct 1483 Richard Haute took part in Buckingham's Rebellion. He escaped execution, and was subsequently pardoned.

In Oct 1483 Buckingham's Rebellion was an attempt to replace King Richard III of England (age 30) with Henry Tudor (age 26). Richard Haute took part. He escaped execution, and was subsequently pardoned. Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers (age 30) was attainted.

Around Nov 1483 Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 28) and Eleanor Bohun Countess Ormonde escaped to Henry VII in Brittany [Map]. Walter Hungerford (age 19), Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney (age 32) and Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 24) took part. The rebellion was suppressed by Richard Guildford (age 33) and Robert Willoughby 1st Baron Willoughby 9th Baron Latimer (age 31).

On 02 Nov 1483 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 29) was beheaded in Salisbury Marketplace [Map] for his part in the rebellion. His son Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 5) succeeded 8th Earl Stafford, 9th Baron Stafford.

On 08 Nov 1483 Thomas St Leger (age 43) was executed at Exeter Castle [Map].

On 04 Dec 1483 George Browne (age 43) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

On 23 Jan 1484 Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 40) was subject to an attainder in the first Parliament of Richard III for her involvement. Whilst the Act was described as an Attainder Richard in effect transferred all of Margaret's property to her husband Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 49) as follows:

An act for the attainder of Margaret, countess of Richmond (age 40):

Because Margaret, countess of Richmond, mother of the king's great rebel and traitor, Henry, earl of Richmond, has lately conspired, leagued and committed high treason against our sovereign lord King Richard III in various ways, and in particular by sending messages, writings and tokens to the said Henry, urging, instigating and stirring him by them to come into this realm to make war upon our said sovereign lord; to which urging, instigation and stirring the said Henry applied himself, as experience has recently shown. Also, the said countess supplied great sums of money within the city of London as well as elsewhere in this realm to be employed in the execution of the said treason and malicious purpose; and the said countess also conspired, leagued and plotted the destruction of our said sovereign lord, and knew of and assented to, and assisted in the treason planned and committed by Henry, late Duke of Buckingham, and his supporters, for which he and some of his supporters have been attainted by an act in this present parliament. Nevertheless, our said sovereign lord, of his special grace, mindful of the good and faithful service which Thomas, Lord Stanley, has given and intends to give our said sovereign lord, and for the sincere love and trust which the king has in him, and for his sake, remits and will forbear the great punishment of attainting the said countess, which she or anyone else doing the same has deserved; and in consideration of the foregoing, our said sovereign lord wills that it be enacted, ordained and decreed, by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal and the commons assembled in this present parliament, and by authority of the same, that the said countess henceforth shall be legally unable to have, inherit or enjoy any manors, lands or tenements, or other hereditaments or possessions whatsoever, and also henceforth shall be unable to bear or have any name of estate or dignity; and that the said countess shall forfeit to our said sovereign lord the king and his heirs all the castles, manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions and other hereditaments and possessions, whatsoever they may be, of which the said countess, or anyone else to her use, is now seised or possessed of estate of fee-simple, fee-tail, term of life, in dower or otherwise. And be it ordained by the said authority that all the said castles, manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions and other hereditaments with the appurtenances of which the said countess, or anyone else to her use, is now seised of estate of fee-simple or fee-tail, shall remain to the said Thomas for term of his life, and after his death to our said sovereign lord the king and his heirs. And moreover, all the lordships, manors, lands, tenements, rents, services and reversions of which the said countess, or any other person to her use, is now seised of estate, term of her life or in dower, shall remain to the said Thomas during her life. And if the said Thomas dies during the lifetime of the said countess, they shall remain to the king; saving to every person and persons, except the said countess and her heirs, their right, title and interest in the said lands and tenements.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. For hereupon, soon after, began the conspiracy, or rather good confederation, between the Duke of Buckingham and many other gentlemen against him. The occasion whereupon the King and the Duke fell out is by different folk, different ways presented. This duke, as I have for certain been informed, as soon as the Duke of Gloucester, upon the death of King Edward, came to York and there had solemn funeral service for King Edward, sent thither, in the most secret way he could, one Percival, his trusty servant, who came to John Ward, a chamber-man of like secret trust with the Duke of Gloucester, desiring that in the most close and covert manner he might be admitted to the presence and speech of his master. And the Duke of Gloucester, informed of his desire, caused him in the dead of the night, after all other folk left, to be brought unto him in his secret chamber, where Percival, after his master's recommendation, showed him what his master had secretly sent him to show him that in this new world he could take such part as he would, and Buckingham would wait upon him with a thousand good fellows if need were. The messenger, sent back with thanks and some secret instruction of the Protector's mind, yet he met him again with further message from the Duke, his master, within a few days after at Nottingham, to where the Protector from York with many gentlemen of the north country, up to the number of six hundred horse, was coming on his way to London. And after secret meeting and communication had, at once departed. Whereupon at Northampton the Duke met with the Protector himself, with three hundred horse, and from there still continued with him, partner of all his devices, such that after his coronation they departed, as it seemed, very great friends at Gloucester.

From whence, as soon as the Duke came home, he so lightly turned from him and so highly conspired against him that a man would marvel whereof the change grew.

And surely the occasion of their variance is of different men differently reported. Some I have heard say that the Duke-a little before the coronation, among other things-required of the Protector the Duke of Hereford's lands, to which he pretended himself just inheritor. And forasmuch as the title that he claimed by inheritance was somewhat interlaced with the title to the crown by the line of King Henry VI, before deprived, the Protector conceived such indignation that he rejected the Duke's request with many spiteful and threatening words, which so wounded his heart with hatred and mistrust that he never after could endure to look aright on King Richard, but ever feared his own life, so far forth that when the Protector rode through London toward his coronation, he feigned himself sick because he would not ride with him. And the other, taking it in evil part, sent him word to rise and come ride, or he would make him be carried. Whereupon he rode on with evil will and, that notwithstanding, on the morrow rose from the feast feigning himself sick, and King Richard said it was done in hatred and contempt of him. And they say that ever after, continually, each of them lived in such hatred and distrust of other that the Duke verily looked to have been murdered at Gloucester, from which, nevertheless, he in fair manner departed.

But surely some right from those days' secrets deny this; and many right wise men think it unlikely (the deep dissimulating nature of both those men considered, and what need in that green world the Protector had of the Duke, and in what peril the Duke stood if he fell once in suspicion of the tyrant) that either the Protector would give the Duke occasion of displeasure, or the Duke the Protector occasion of mistrust. And men in fact think that, if King Richard had any such opinion conceived of the Duke, he would never have suffered him to escape his hands.

Very truth it is, the Duke was a high-minded man and could ill bear the glory of another, so that I have heard of some who said they saw it that the Duke, at such time as the crown was first set upon the Protector's head, his eye could not abide the sight thereof, but turned his head another way. But men say that he was, of truth, not well at ease, and that to King Richard was both well known and not ill taken, nor any demand of the Duke's discourteously rejected, but he with great gifts and high promises both, in most loving trusty manner departed at Gloucester. But soon after his coming home to Brecknock, having there in his custody by the commandment of King Richard, Doctor Morton, Bishop of Ely, who as you heard before was taken in the Council at the Tower, growing familiar with him, whose wisdom deceived his pride-to his own deliverance and the Duke's destruction.

The Bishop was a man of great natural wit, very well learned, and honorable in behavior, lacking no wise ways to win favor. He had been loyal to the part of King Henry while that part was in wealth, and nevertheless left it not, nor forsook it in woe, but fled the realm with the Queen and the Prince, and while King Edward had the King in prison, he never came home but to the battlefield. After this loss, and that part was utterly subdued, King Edward, for Morton's steadfast faith and wisdom, not only was content to receive him, but also wooed him to come and had him from thence forth both in secret trust and very special favor, in which he nothing deceived. For he was, as you have heard, after King Edward's death, first taken by the tyrant for his loyalty to the King, but found the means to turn this Duke to his plans, joining gentlemen together in the aid of King Henry, devising first the marriage between him and King Edward's daughter, by which he declared his faith and good service to both his masters at once, with infinite benefit to the realm, by the conjunction of those two bloods in one, whose several titles had long left the land without quiet. Afterwards, he fled the realm, went to Rome, never minding more to meddle with the world till the noble prince, King Henry the Seventh, got him home again, made him Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, whereunto the Pope joined the honor of Cardinal. Thus living many days in as much honor as one man might well wish, ended them so godly that his death, with God's mercy, well changed his life.

This man, therefore, as I was about to tell you, by long and often alternate proof, as well from prosperity as adverse fortune, had gotten by great experience, the very mother and mistress of wisdom, a deep insight in political, worldly drifts.

Whereby, perceiving now this Duke glad to come with him, he fed him with fair words and many pleasant praises. And perceiving by the process of their communications the Duke's pride now and then to let slip a little outburst of envy toward the glory of the King, and thereby feeling him easy to fall out if the matter were well handled, he craftily sought the ways to prick him forward, taking always the occasion of his coming, and so keeping himself close within his bonds that he rather seemed to follow him than to lead him.

For when the Duke first began to praise and boast of the King and show how much profit the realm should take by his reign, my Lord Morton answered, "Surely, my Lord, folly it were for me to lie, for if I would swear the contrary, your Lordship would not, I know, believe it, but that, if the world would have gone as I would have wished, King Henry's son had had the crown and not King Edward. But after God had ordered him to lose it, and King Edward to reign, I was never so mad that I would with a dead man strive against the living. So was I to King Edward faithful chaplain, and glad would have been that his child had succeeded him. However, if the secret judgment of God has otherwise provided, I propose not to spurn against a spur, nor labor to set up what God pulls down. And as for the late Protector and now King...." And even there he left off, saying that he had already meddled too much with the world and would from that day meddle with his book and his beads alone, and no further.

Then longed the Duke sore to hear what he would have said because he ended with the King and there so suddenly stopped, and so exhorted him familiarly between them to be so bold to say whatsoever he thought, whereof he faithfully promised there should never come hurt and perchance more good than he would know, and that he himself intended to use his faithful, secret advice and counsel; this counsel, he said, was the only cause for which he procured of the King to have him in his custody, where he might reckon himself at home, or else had he been put in the hands of them with whom he should not have found the like favor.

The Bishop right humbly thanked him and said, "In good faith, my Lord, I love not much to talk much of princes, as things not all out of peril even though the word be without fault-forasmuch as it shall not be taken as the party meant it, but as it pleases the prince to construe it. And ever I think on Aesop's tale, that one in which the lion had proclaimed on pain of death that no horned beast should abide in that wood. Then one who had on his forehead a lump of flesh fled away at great pace. The fox who saw him run so fast asked him why he made all that haste. And he answered: 'In faith, I neither know nor care, so I were once hence because of this proclamation made about horned beasts.'

"'What, fool!' said the fox. 'Thou may abide well enough; the lion meant not thee, for it is no horn that is on your head.'

"'No, marry,' said he. 'That know I well enough. But what if he call it a horn? Where am I then?'"

The Duke laughed merrily at the tale, and said, "My Lord, I warrant you, neither the lion nor the boar shall find any problem with anything here spoken, for it shall never come near their ear."

"In good faith, Sir," said the Bishop, "if it did, the thing that I was about to say, taken as well as before God as I meant it, could deserve but thanks. And yet taken as I know it would, might happen to turn me to little good and you to less."

Then longed the Duke yet much more to know what it was. Whereupon the Bishop said: "In good faith, my Lord, as for the late Protector, since he is now King in possession, I propose not to dispute his title. But for the welfare of this realm, whereof his Grace has now the governance and whereof I am myself one poor member, I was about to wish that to those good abilities, whereof he has already right many, little needing my praise, it might yet have pleased God for the better store to have given him some of such other excellent virtues suitable for the rule of a realm, as our Lord has planted in the person of your Grace."

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, Sep 1483 May 1485 Buckingham's Rebellion, 1484 Opening Parliament

Calendars. Be it remembered that on Friday, 23 January in the first year of the reign of King Richard the third (age 31) since the conquest, that is, on the first day of parliament, with the lord king sitting on the royal throne in the Painted Chamber [Map] within his palace of Westminster, then being present many lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons of the realm of England, assembled at the aforesaid parliament at the king's command, the venerable father John, Bishop of  Lincoln, chancellor of England memorably declared and announced the reasons for summoning the aforesaid parliament, taking as his theme: 'In the body there are many limbs, but not all have the same function'. In which words he gravely and very astutely explained the fealty which subjects of the king (age 31) and the functions individual members owe to the principal member, asserting that there are three kinds of body, namely the natural, the aggregate and the politic, and going on to suggest that one coin, the tenth, had been lost from the most precious fabric of the body politic of England and that to hunt for it and find it would require the king and all the lords spiritual and temporal to be very assiduous and diligent during this parliament; concluding that after the finding of the tenth coin, which signifies perfection, our body politic of England would endure gloriously and for a long time, healthy, safe and free from all damage or injury; the king (age 31), the great men of the realm and the commons eternally cherishing peace outward and inward and the author of that peace. At the end of which declaration and announcement, the aforesaid chancellor in the king's (age 31) name firmly ordered the commons to assemble on the following day in their common house as usual and elect one of their number as their speaker, and to present the man thus elected to the same lord king. The same chancellor announced moreover that the said lord king, wishing justice to be done more swiftly both to denizens and aliens wishing to complain in the said parliament, had appointed and assigned certain receivers of the petitions to be presented in the same parliament in the following form ...

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, Sep 1483 May 1485 Buckingham's Rebellion, Richard III Secures Elizabeth Woodville's Daughters

In Mar 1484 King Richard III of England (age 31) attempted to persuade Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 47) to leave Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey [Map] by promising to secure suitable marriages for her daughters.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, Sep 1483 May 1485 Buckingham's Rebellion, Death of King Richard III's Heir

On 09 Apr 1484 Edward York Prince of Wales (age 10) died at Middleham Castle [Map] leaving his father King Richard III of England (age 31) without an heir. Duke Cornwall, Earl Salisbury, Earl Chester extinct.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, Sep 1483 May 1485 Buckingham's Rebellion, Battle of Lochmaben Fair

On 22 Jul 1484 James Douglas 9th Earl Douglas 3rd Earl Avondale (age 58) was captured during the Battle of Lochmaben Fair.

On 22 Jul 1484 William Douglas 4th Lord Drumlanrig was killed during the Battle of Lochmaben Fair. Note. Some sources report this as the Battle of Kirtie on 02 Jul 1484?

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, Sep 1483 May 1485 Buckingham's Rebellion, Titulus Regius

In 1484 Titulus Regius was the Act of Parliament that justified King Richard III's (age 31) succession.

To the High and Myghty Prince Richard Duc of Gloucester (age 31).

Please it youre Noble Grace to understande the Consideracon, Election and Peticion underwritten, of use the Lords Spirituelx and Temporelx, and Commons of this Reame of Englond, and thereunto agreably to geve your assent, to the common and public wele of this Lande, to the comforte and gladnesse of all the people of the same.

Furst, we considre how that heretofore in tyme passed, this Lande many years stode in great prosperite, honoure and tranquillite; which was caused, forsomoch as the Kings than reignyng, used and followed the advice and counsaill of certaine Lords Spirituelx and Temporelx, and othre personnes of approved sadnesse, prudence, policie and experience, dreding God, and havying tendre zele and affection to indifferent ministration of Justice, and to the common and politique wele of the Land; than oure Lord God was dred, luffed and honoured; than within the Land was peas and tranquillite, and among Neghbours concorde and charite; than the malice of outward Enemyes was myghtily resisted and repressed, and the Land honorably defended with many grete and glorious victories; than the entrecourse of Merchandizes was largely used and exercised: by which things above remembred, the Land was greatly enriched, soo that as wele the Merchants and Artificers, as other poure people, laborying for their livyng in diverse occupations, had competent gayne, to the sustentation of thaym and their households, livyng without miserable and intollerable povertie. But afterward, whan that such as had the rule and governaunce of this Land, delityng in adulation and flattery, and lede by sensuality and concupiscence, folowed the counsaill of personnes, insolent, vicious, and of inordinate avarice, despisyng the counsaill of good, vertuouse and prudent personnes, such as above be remembred; the prosperite of this Land daily decreased, soo that felicite was turned into miserie, and prosperite into adversite, and the ordre of polecye, and of the Lawe of God and Man, confounded; whereby it is likely this Reame to falle into extreme miserie and desolation, which God defende, without due provision of couvenable remedie bee had in this behalfe in all goodly hast.

Over this, amonges other things, more specially wee consider, howe that, the tyme of the Reigne of Kyng Edward the IIIIth , late decessed, after the ungracious pretensed Marriage, as all England hath cause soo to say, made betwixt the said King Edward, and Elizabeth, sometyme Wife to Sir John Grey Knight, late nameing herself and many years heretofore Quene of Englond, the ordre of all poletique Rule was perverted, the Lawes of God and of Gods Church, and also the Lawes of Nature and of Englond, and also the laudable Customes and Liberties of the same, wherein every Englishman in Inheritor, broken, subverted and contempned, against all reason and justice, soo that this Land was ruled by selfewill and pleasure, feare and drede, all manner of Equite and Lawes layd apart and despised, whereof ensued many inconvenients and mischiefs, as Murdres, Extorsions and Oppressions, namely of poore and impotent people, soo that no Man was sure of his Lif, Land ne Lyvelode, ne of his Wif, Doughter ne Servaunt, every good Maiden and Woman standing in drede to be ravished and defouled. And beides this, what Discords, inwarde Battailles, etfusion of Christian Mens Blode, and namely, by the destruction of the Blode of this Londe, was had and comitted within the same, it is evident and notarie thourough all this Reame, unto the great sorowe and hevynesse of all true Englishmen. And here also we considre, howe that the seid pretensed Mariage bitwixt the above named King Edward and Elizabeth Grey, was made of grete presumption, without the knowyng and assent of the Lords of this Lond, and also by Sorcerie and Wichecrafte, committed by the said Elizabeth, and her Moder Jaquett Duchesse of Bedford, as the common opinion of the people, and the publique voice and same is thorough all this Land; and herafter, if and as the caas shall require, shall bee proved sufficiently in tyme and place convenient. And here also we consider, howe that said pretensed Mariage was made privaly and secretely, without Edition of Banns, in a private Chamber, an prophane place, and not openly in the face of the Church, aftre the Lawe of Godds Churche, bot contrarie thereunto, and the laudable Custome of the Church of Englond. And howe also, that at the tyme of contract of the same pretensed Mariage, and bifore and longe tyme after, the seid King Edward was and stode maryed and trouth plight to oone Dame Elianor Butteler, Doughter of the old Earl of Shrewesbury, with whom the same King Edward had made a precontracte of Matrimonie, longe tyyme bifore he made the said pretensed Mariage with the said Elizabeth Grey, in maner and fourme abovesaid. Which premisses being true, as in veray trouth they been true, it appearreth and foloweth evidently, that the said King Edward duryng his lif, and the seid Elizabeth, lived together sinfully and dampnably in adultery, against the Lawe of God and of his Church; and therfore noo marivaile that the Souverain Lord and the head of this Land, being of such ungoldy disposicion, and provokyng the ire and indinacion of oure Lord God, such haynous mischieffs and inconvenients, as is above remembred, were used and comitted in the Reame amongs the Subjects. Also it appeareth evidently and followeth, that all th'Issue and Children of the seid King Edward, been Bastards, and unable to inherite or to clayme any thing by Inheritance, by the Lawe and Custome of Englond.

Moreover we considre, howe that afterward, by the thre Estates of this Reame assembled in a Parliament holden at Westminster, the XVIIth yere of the Regne of the said King Edward the IIIIth, he than being in possession of the Coroune and Roiall Estate, by an Acte made in the same Parliament, George Duc of Clarence, Brother to the said King Edward nowe decessed, was convicted and atteinted of High Treason; as in the same Acte is conteigned more at large. Bicause and by reason wherof, all the Issue of the said George, was and is dishabled and barred of all Right and Clayme, that in any wise they might have or chalenge by Enheritance, to the Crown and Dignite Roiall of this Reame, by the auncien Lawe and Custome of this same Reame.

Over this we cosidre, howe that Ye be the undoubted Son and Heire of Richard late Duke of Yorke, verray enheritour to the seid Crowne and Dignite Roiall, and as in right Kyng of Englond, by wey of Enheritaunce; and that at ths tyme, the premisses duely considered, there is noon other persoune lyvyng but Ye only, that by Right may clayme the said Coroune and Dignite Royall, by way of Enheritaunce, and howe that Ye be born withyn this Lande; by reason wherof, as we deme in oure myndes, Ye be more naturally enclyned to the prosperite and commen wele of the same; and all the thre Estatis of the Lande have, and may have, more certayn knowlage of youre Byrth and Filiation aboveseid. Wee considre also, the greate Wytte, Prudence, Justice, Princely Courage, and the memorable and laudable Acts in diverse Batalls, whiche as we by experience knowe Ye heretofore have done, for the salvacion and defence of this same Reame; and also the greate noblesse and excellence of your Byrth and Blode, as of hym that is descended of the thre moost Royall houses in Cristendom, that is to say, England, Fraunce, and Hispanic.

Wherfore, these premisses by us diligently considred, we desyryng effectuonsly the peas, tranquillite, and wele publique of this Lande, and the reduccion of the same to the auncien honourable estate and prosperite, and havyng in youre greate Prudence, Justice, Princely Courage, and excellent Vertue, singuler confidence, have chosen in all that that in us is, and by this our Wrytyng choise You, high and myghty Prynce, into oure Kyng and Soveraigne Lorde &c., to whom we knowe for certayn it apperteygneth of Enheritaunce soo to be chosen. And herupon we humbly desire, pray, and require youre seid Noble Grace, that, accordyng to this Eleccion of us the Thre Estates of this Lande, as by youre true Enherritaunce, Ye will accepte and take upon You the said Crown and Royall Dignite, with all thyngs therunto annexed and apperteynyng, as to You of Right bilongyng, as wele by Enherritaunce as by lawfull Eleccion; and, in caas Ye so do, we promitte to serve and to assiste your Highnesse, as true and feithfull Subgietts and Leigemen, and to lyve and dye with You in this matter, and every other juste quarrell. For certainly wee be determined, rather to aventure and committe us to the perill of oure lyfs and jopardye of deth, than to lyve in suche thraldome and bondage as we have lyved long tyme hertofore, oppressed and injured by Extorcions and newe Imposicons, agenst the Lawes of God and Man, and the Libertee, old Police, and Lawes of this Reame, wheryn every Englisshman is enherited. Oure Lorde God, Kyng of all Kyngs, by whos infynyte goodnesse and eternall providence all thyngs been pryncipally gouverned in this world, lighten youre soule, and graunt You grace to do, as well in this matier as in all other, all that that may be accordyng to his wille and pleasure, and to the comen and publique wele of this Lande; to that, after greate cloudes, troubles, stormes and tempestes, the Son of Justice and of Grace may shyne uppon us, to the comforte and gladnesse of all true Englishmen.

Albeit that the Right, Title, and Estate, whiche oure Souveraigne Lord the Kyng Richard the Third, hath to and in the Crown and Roiall Dignite of this Reame of Englond, with all thyngs therunto within the same Reame, and without it, united, annexed and apperteynyng, been juste and lawefull, as grounded upon the Lawes of God and of Nature, and also upon the auncien Lawes and laudable Customes of this said Reame, and so taken and reputed by all suche persounes as ben lerned in the abovesaid Lawes and Custumes. Yit neverthelesse, forasmoche as it is considred, that the most parte of the people of this Lande is not suffisantly lerned in the abovesaid Lawes and Custumes, wherby the trueth and right in this behalf of liklyhode may be hyd, and nat clerely knowen to all the people, and thereupon put in doubt and question. And over this, howe that the Courte of Parliament is of suche auctorite, and the people of this Lande of suche nature and disposicion, as experience teacheth, that manifestacion and declaration of any trueth or right, made by the Thre Estates of this Reame assembled in Parliament, and by auctorite of the same, maketh, before all other thyngs, moost seith and certaynte; and, quietyng mens myndes, remoeveth the occasion of all doubts and seditious langage. Therfore, at the request, and by assent of the Thre Estates of this Reame, that is to say, the Lordes Spirituelx and Temporalx, and Commens of this Lande, assembled in this present Parliament, by auctorite of the same, bee it pronounced, decreed, and declared, that oure said Soveraign Lorde the Kyng was, and is, veray and undoubted Kyng of this Reame of Englond, with all thyngs therunto withyn the same Reame, and without it, united, annexed and apperteyning, as well by right of Consanguinite and Enheritaunce, as by lawefull Elleccion, Consecration, and Coronacion. And over this, that, at the request, and by the assent and auctorite abovesaid, bee it ordeigned, enacted and establisshed, that the said Crown and Roaill Dignite of this Reame, and the Enheritaunce of the same, and other thyngs therunto within this same Reame, or withoute it, unite, annexed, and nowe apperteigning, rest and abyde in the persoune of oure said Soveraigne Lorde the Kyng, duryng his Lyff, and, after his Decesse, in his heires of his Body begotten. And in especiall, at the request, and by assent and auctorite abovesaid, bee it ordeigned, enacted, establed, pronounced, decreed, and declared, that the High and Excellent Prynce Edward, Son of oure said Soveraign Lorde the Kyng, be Heire Apparent of the same our Soveraign Lord the Kyng, to succede to hym in the abovesaid Crown and Roaill Dignite, with all thyngs as is aforesaid therunto unite, annexed and apperteigning; to have them after the Decesse of oure said Soveraign Lorde the Kyng, to hym and to his heires of his Body laufully begotten.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, Sep 1483 May 1485 Buckingham's Rebellion, Queen Consort Anne Neville Dies

On 16 Mar 1485 Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 28) died at Westminster Palace [Map]. Probably of tuberculosis. The day she died there was an Eclipse of the Sun; a bad omen to some. There were rumours of foul play.

Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick (age 10) abeyance terminated 6th Baron Montagu, 9th Baron Montagu.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, Sep 1483 May 1485 Buckingham's Rebellion, Richard III publicly denies that he intended to marry his niece Elizabeth

On 30 Mar 1485 King Richard III of England (age 32) publicly rebutted rumours in front of the Mayor and citizens of London that he intended to marry his niece Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 19). Her sister Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 16) was probably also included in the rebuttal.