Heraldry, Terms, Charges, Foils aka Leaves

Foils aka Leaves is in Charges.

Foils aka Leaves. From French feuille = leaf ie foliage.

Heraldry, Terms, Charges, Foils aka Leaves, Cinquefoil

Cinquefoil. Having five leaves frequently with the centre pierced. From French feuille = leaf (ie foliage), cinque = five.

Darcy Arms. Azure semée of cross crosslets argent, three cinquefoils of the last. Source.

Chicheley Arms. Or, a chevron between three cinquefoils gules. Source.

Southwell Arms. Argent, three cinquefoils gules each charged with six annulets or. Source.

Umfraville Arms. Gules crusilly of crosses crosslet a cinquefoil or. Source.

Wodehouse Arms. Sable a chevron or between three cinquefoils. Source.

Bardolf Arms. Azure three cinquefoils buttoned gules. Source.

Heraldry, Terms, Charges, Foils aka Leaves, Quatrefoil

Quatrefoil. Having four leaves.

Heraldry, Terms, Charges, Foils aka Leaves, Trefoil

Trefoil. Having three leaves.

Hervey Arms. Gules, on a bend argent three trefoils slipped vert, Source.

Loftus Arms. Sable, a chevron engrailed ermine, between three trefoils slipped argent. Source.

Palmer Arms. Or, two bars gules each charged with three trefoils of the first in chief a greyhound currant sable. Source.

St Mary's Church, Stanford-on-Teme [Map]. Mark Downing FSA. A Late Fifteenth Century Knight at Stanford-on-Teme, Worcestershire.

This alabaster effigy lies on a high table-tomb, also of alabaster, in the north-east corner of the chancel. The sides of the tomb-chest are decorated with weepers, consisting of men in armour and ladies, each kneeling on a pedestal under a cusped ogee-headed Gothic arch, which are divided from each other by upright pinnacle shafts. As the tomb is positioned in the north-corner, only the south and west-sides are visible. The whole tomb and effigy is made of veined alabaster, similar to Martley.

The south-side of the tomb-chest consists of six kneeling men in armour, with their hands held together, facing east. They have long bobbed hair and are wearing tabards over their complete suits of armour. Positioned over the legs are shields, which are plain. No colour or heraldic arms remain on them.

The west-side of the tomb-chest consists of one kneeling man facing south, represented in the same manner as on the south-side, and also three ladies huddled together facing north with a shield over their legs. No colour remains on the shields.

A frieze with a torus moulding runs around the tomb above the alabaster panels. The frieze on the south-side has a Gothic inscription, which reads: ORATE PRO AIMA HUMFRIDI SALLWEY DOMINUS DE STANFORD ARMIGERI ET JOCOSE UXORIS EIUS QUI PREDICTUS HUMFRIDIUS [QUONDAM] [ISTI??] JOCOSA OBITT ANNO DOMINI MILLESIMO CCCC. (pray for the soul of humphrey salley lord of stanford esquire and of joyce his wife who the aforesaid humphrey [former?] [them?] joyce died ad one thousnad 400). When the tomb was removed from the old church and re-erected in present church in 1769, the frieze was reassembled incorrectly. Thomas Habington record the original inscription which is given in full below.

The effigy is represented lying flat on his back, straight-legged and with the hands in the conventional praying position. The head of the effigy rests on a 'frog-mouthed' tilting helm, which has a Saracen's crest on a twisted wreath. The head is uncovered, with the hair long at the back and short across the forehead. Protecting the neck is a mail standard with a stiff rim. The lower fringe has a vandyked border. The rings of mail are realistically represented. A similar effigy at Norbury, Staffordshire [Map], that of Sir Nicholas Fitzherbert ob.1473, has a mail standard which is secured at the back of the neck by a hexagonal bolt. Hanging around the neck and falling on the upper chest is a SS collar. The two ends are held together by a trefoil-shaped pendant.

The shoulders are protected by a pair of asymmetrical pauldrons of nine pieces all overlapping counter-tile-wise. The lowest lame has a series of cusps along its lower edge. Both pauldrons have a small reinforce plate shaped like a jousting shield, which has the top-edge angled forward. They are secured to the lowest lame of the pauldron by a square-headed bolt. Represented on the second and fourth lames of the pauldron, is a pair of arming points, utilised to secure the pauldron to the arming doublet. Protecting the upper and lower forearms are closed cannons. Each of the upper cannons is fastened on the inside by a single strap and buckle, secured to its plate by a single round-headed rivet. The buckle has a double loop with a D-shape chape. The outside has an oblong hinge made of two pieces and secured to their plates by three round-headed rivets. Clearly shown on both the inside and outside is a longitudinal joint. The lower cannons have a single strap and buckle on the inside, represented in the same manner as that on the upper cannons. The couters are fluted with scalloped-shaped side wings, and are laced to the straps linking the two cannons by a pair of arming points. Each has two articulating lames above and below. A square-head rivet is represented between the two arming points which secures the strap around the elbow. On the hands are plate mitten gauntlets with long pointed cuffs, longitudinally boxed in two places. Four pointed lames protect the backs of the hands, overlapping tile-wise.

The torso is protected by somewhat globular upper and lower breastplates, the latter which tapers upwards to a point high on the chest, and has four cusps on each side, which appears to extend well below the waist to form a flange to support the skirt of plates. The upper breastplate is joined to the lower by a strap and buckle on the left and right sides of the chest and also high on the chest, on the point. The straps and buckles are secured to its plate by a single round-headed rivet. The buckle has a double loop with a D-shape chape. Clearly shown on the both sides of the waist under the arms is a longitudinal closing joint, with two hinges represented on the right side and one strap and buckle on the left side, which secures the lower breastplate to the back-plate. The straps, buckles and hinges are represented in the same manner as those on the upper cannons. The skirt consists of six hoops over-lapping counter-tile-wise, which are secured on the left side by three straps with buckles, represented in the same manner as those on the upper cannons. The hoops have a series of cusps along their top edge, and are represented with a longitudinal closing joint on both sides of the hips. Strapped to the fifth lowest lame of the skirt are four small bluntly-pointed tassets, which have two cusps on each side, two are attached to the back of the skirt. Each tasset is secured by two straps with buckles and are decorated with an upward-pointed chevron. The sculptor has only shown half of the rear tassets. The straps and buckles of the tassets are represented in the same manner as on the left side of the skirt. Below the plate skirt hang three triangles of mail. The rings of the mail are realistically represented. It is impossible to know whether these were intended to represent the lower edge of a mail skirt attached to an arming-doublet, or a fringe attached to the lowest lame of the skirt.

Passing diagonally across the waist from high on the right side is a sword-belt. The loose end passes behind and is pulled through itself to form a knot. The belt, which is joined in the middle of the effigy by a rectangular buckle, is decorated with square-flowers of four leaves in saltire; positioned at equal intervals with round studs at their centres. The scabbard has almost disappeared: only its locket remains together with part of the quillons. The scabbard is attached to the belt by a loose ring. On the locket is the Sacred Monogram Ihc. Passing diagonally, across the waist, under the sword-belt is a narrow belt, decorated in the same manner as the sword-belt. The belt supports a cord for the dagger on the right. The dagger, on the base of the slab, is now damaged.

The cuisses have a longitudinal closing joint, both on the inside and outside, with two straps and buckles on the inside and two hinges on the outside, represented in the same manner as those on the upper cannons. Each of the poleyns has a central longitudinal ridge. Each is articulated by three lames above and below. The first two lames extend to a shallow central point. The third lames are edged with a series of cusps. The side-wings are shaped like hearts their points to the rear of the leg, with strong scallop-like fluting. The lowest lame, which is broader and deeper than the others, is secured to the greaves by turning-pins on their outer corners. The lower legs are protected by greaves, closed by two straps and buckles on the inside and two hinges on the outside, represented in the same manner as those on the upper cannons. The front plate extends over the ankle bones.

The sabatons are of six tile-wise over-lapping lames extending to a point. Each has a central longitudinal keel. The first lame is secured to the third lame on both sides of the foot by a strap and buckle. The straps and buckles are represented in the same manner as those on the upper cannons. Closing the open joint between the greaves and the sabatons is a gusset of mail. The rings of the mail are realistically represented. Attached to the feet by straps are spurs with slightly-curved arms, the functional part of which are now missing. The spur-straps are decorated in the same manner as the sword-belt.

The lion below the feet looks towards the effigy's right its body is unnaturally elongated. The bushy tail passes between its legs on to its back: the sculptor using the end of the tail as a support for the toes. It is very well preserved, although the sword is mostly missing.

The effigy appears to be from the same workshop as Martley, although some twenty years later. He is rather slender with some fine details represented on the armour. Two effigies closely related to that at Stanford-On-Teme, can be seen for instance, at Radbourne c.1500 and Scropton c.1500 both Derbyshire.

Thomas Habington recorded the effigy in the chancel of the old church thus: 'On the north syde of the chauncell is a fayre and auntient monument raysed vnder an arche, wheare lyethe portrayed in alabaster a man all armed savinge his heade supported with his helmet, on which is a wreathe and his creast, beeinge a Saracen's heade manteled and doubled. About his necke a coller of esses, at his feete a lyon: and dyd not the inscription style hym an Esquyre, I should esteeme hym of greater eminency. On hys leafte hand hys wyfe, with a bonet like a hatt wantinge brims of Sables, laced downe, with a rose on the topp of Or: this rarety makethe mee decipher itt. Her mantell, gowne, and other attyre pretendethe her extraordinary quality: at her feete towe littell dogs. At theyre heades and theyre ryght sydes kneele theyre seavne sonnes, armed all savinge theyre heades, on theyre coates armors Sables, a Salteyre ingrailed Or, and eavery one of them havinge a sheylde of the same armes quartered with Gules, a lyon rampant out of the feyld Argent (which I suppose to bee the paynter's error), and in the dexter point on an Ogress a cinquefoyle of the secound. At theyre feete theyre three daughters prayinge, with Mr. Salweye's armes on theyre gownes. Over all is wrytten, Hic iacent, but about the tombe the inscription is in the begininge obscured with a seate, and I gvesse it to bee Hic iacent corpora Humfredi Salwey quondam (the rest appearethe) Dominus de Stanford Armigeri et Jocosae Uxoris eius qui predictus Humfridus quondam Marscallus curiae Regis Henrici sexti qui obiit An. Do. 14.. Dicta Jocosa obiit An. Do. 14.. Theare are newly paynted over theyre heades Sables, a salteyre ingrayled Or, impalinge Argent, on a fesse betweene six martlets Gules 3 quaterfoiles of the feyld: Salwey impalinge Washborne, subscrybed, John Salwey, buried at Kancke. In the syde of the tombe and face of the monument over the portraitures, Salwey impalinge Palee of six Argent and Azure, subscrybed Humfry Salwey and Sterloy. Next Salwey impalinge Argent, towe lyons queue furche passunt Gules, subscrybed, Thomas Salwey and Lygon. After that, Salwey impalinge Argent a fesse ingrailed Sables fretted Or, in cheife three belles of the secound, subscrybed Thomas Salwey and Porter. Last Salwey impalinge Gules, on a cheueron between three trefoils slypped Argent as many Ogresses, subscrybed, Arthur Salwey and Searle'. Thomas Habington also recorded in the east window of the chancel, Salwey arms, Sable a Saltire ingrailed Or.

The effigy obviously represents Sir Humphrey Salwey as the inscription recorded by Habington on the tomb-chest makes that clear, but it does not give his date of death or his wife's. All that Habington recorded was '14..' The tomb was presumably set up during Humphrey's lifetime with the intention of adding the dates of death later. Humphrey died 14 March 1493. He held the manor of Stanford-On-Teme and lands in Staffordshire, including Cannock. He was an Escheator for Staffordshire and Worcestershire, and an Assessor of a tax in Worcestershire in 1463.