Culture, General Things, Church Monuments, Church Monument Details, Armour, Orle

Orle is in Armour.

Orle. A band around bascinet to provide additional protection; usually decorated.

On 23 Apr 1394 Hugh Calverley (age 70) died. He was probably buried in St Boniface's Church, Bunbury [Map]. Monument Early Plate Bascinet Period. Finely carved Calf's Head on the breastplate representing Hugh Calveley's canting arms. Calf's Head Crest. Hip Belt. Basinet with unusual decorated Orle.

Hugh Calverley: Around 1324 he was born to David Calverly of Lea. On 26 Mar 1351 thirty English and thirty French knights fought in an arranged battle at Guillac known as Battle of the Thirty. Hugh Calverley (age 27) fought, was captured and ransomed. On 29 Sep 1364 Battle of Auray decided the Breton Succession in favour of John Montfort V Duke Brittany (age 25). The Breton and English army was commanded by John Chandos (age 44) and included William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer of Corby (age 34), Miles Stapleton (age 44) and Hugh Calverley (age 40). Charles "Saint" Chatillon Duke Brittany (age 45) was killed. Bertrand Geusclin (age 44) surrendered. Effigy of Sir Hugh Calveley. SIR HUGH CALVELEY, or Calverley, of Lea, in Cheshire, was a most eminent soldier in the reign of Edward the Third, and his successor Richard the Second. In 1350 we find him one of the combatants in the celebrated pitched trial of arms, or combât-à-l'outrance fought between thirty men-at-arms on the English side, and thirty on that of the Bretons, called, in allusion to the number of the champions on either party, the Battle of Trente. Sir Richard Brembre commanded the English hand, and Marshal Beaumanoir the French. Among the companions of the valiant Calveley (twenty of whom were English, the rest foreigners) were, Sir Robert Knolles, also a most distinguished knight, Croquart the Freebooter, the gigantic Hulbitee, and Thomelin de Billefort, so called from his wielding an enormous weapon of the axe kind. Sir Richard Brembre was slain fighting hand-in-hand with the famous Bertram du Guesclin; Calveley, Knolles, and Croquart, the poor remains of the English party, were taken prisoners to the Castle of Josselina.

After 09 Aug 1396 Robert Willoughby 4th Baron Willoughby (age 47) was buried at St James' Church Spilsby [Map] with his third wife Elizabeth Latimer 5th Baroness Latimer, Baroness Neville and Willoughby. Early Plate Bascinet Period. Remarkable helm on which the Baron's head rests with a Bearded Man crest. Excellent orle around the Baron's bascinet.

Robert Willoughby 4th Baron Willoughby: Around 1349 he was born to John Willoughby 3rd Baron Willoughby (age 26) and Cecily Ufford Baroness Willoughby Eresby (age 22). Before 01 Oct 1369 Robert Willoughby 4th Baron Willoughby (age 20) and Margery Zouche Baroness Willoughby Eresby (age 30) were married. After 17 Oct 1388 Robert Willoughby 4th Baron Willoughby (age 39) and Elizabeth Latimer 5th Baroness Latimer, Baroness Neville and Willoughby (age 31) were married. She by marriage Baroness Willoughby de Eresby. Before Jul 1396 Thomas Willoughby (age 16) and Elizabeth Neville (age 12) were married. They were step-brother and sister since his father Robert Willoughby 4th Baron Willoughby (age 47) married her mother Elizabeth Latimer 5th Baroness Latimer, Baroness Neville and Willoughby in 1388. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. On 09 Aug 1396 Robert Willoughby 4th Baron Willoughby (age 47) died. His son William Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby (age 26) succeeded 5th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Lucy Strange Baroness Willoughby Eresby by marriage Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.

Elizabeth Latimer 5th Baroness Latimer, Baroness Neville and Willoughby: Around 1357 she was born to William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer of Corby (age 26) and Elizabeth Fitzalan (age 37). On 28 May 1381 William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer of Corby (age 51) died. He was buried at Gisborough Priory. His daughter Elizabeth Latimer 5th Baroness Latimer, Baroness Neville and Willoughby (age 24) succeeded 5th Baroness Latimer of Corby. Before 09 Oct 1381 John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby (age 44) and Elizabeth Latimer 5th Baroness Latimer, Baroness Neville and Willoughby (age 24) were married. She by marriage Baroness Neville Raby. The difference in their ages was 20 years. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. On 05 Nov 1395 Elizabeth Latimer 5th Baroness Latimer, Baroness Neville and Willoughby (age 38) died. Her son John Neville 6th Baron Latimer of Corby (age 13) succeeded 6th Baron Latimer of Corby 1C 1299.

William Mainwaring: Around 1345 he was born to William "The Elder" IV Mainwaring (age 29) in Over Peover.

After 01 Sep 1414 William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 44) was buried at Belvoir Priory [Map]. At the dissolution of the monasteries his monument was moved to the Chancel of St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Leicestershire [Map] on the right side of the High Altar. Alabaster Monument of the Camail and Jupon Period. Possibly Sutton and Prentys.

Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields.

Scabbard with IHS. Wire Wrapped Grip. Hip Belt.

Detail of the Ros Family Peacock Crest surmounting his Great Helm.

Detail of decorated Orle and Vervelle Cover.

Detail of Lancastrian Esses Collar and face. Note the twisted moustache that is frequently seen on Sutton and Prentys monuments. The fixing of the Esses Collar to the Camail using a small trefoil.

After 1418. Monument to John Harrington 4th Baron Harington (age 34) and Elizabeth Courtenay Baroness Bonville and Harington. Finely carved alabaster. Monument of the Early Plate Bascinet and Gorget Period. Decorated orle and the plate gorget (throat protection), Hip Belt and the Horses Head Crest. She wearing a Crespine Headress. Chunky Lions Mane. Angels Supporting Pillow.

John Harrington 4th Baron Harington: In 1384 he was born to Robert Harrington 3rd Baron Harington (age 28) and Isabel Loring Baroness Harington. On 21 May 1406 Robert Harrington 3rd Baron Harington (age 50) died at Aldingham Furness. His son John Harrington 4th Baron Harington (age 22) succeeded 4th Baron Harington 1C 1326. On 11 Apr 1418 John Harrington 4th Baron Harington (age 34) died. He was buried in the Lady Chapel of St Dubricius Church Porlock. His brother William Harrington 5th Baron Harington (age 28) succeeded 5th Baron Harington 1C 1326. After 17 Feb 1461 John Harrington 4th Baron Harington and Elizabeth Courtenay Baroness Bonville and Harington were married. She by marriage Baroness Harington. She the daughter of Edward "Blind Earl" Courtenay 11th Earl Devon and Maud Camoys Countess Devon. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Elizabeth Courtenay Baroness Bonville and Harington: She was born to Edward "Blind Earl" Courtenay 11th Earl Devon and Maud Camoys Countess Devon. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. Before 09 Oct 1427 William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 35) and she were married. She the daughter of Edward "Blind Earl" Courtenay 11th Earl Devon and Maud Camoys Countess Devon. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. On 10 Mar 1449 William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 56) was created 1st Baron Bonville. She by marriage Baroness Bonville. 18 Oct 1471 she died. She was buried at St Dubricius Church Porlock.

After 17 Jan 1425. Monument in Church of St Oswald, Methley [Map] to Robert Waterton Constable (deceased) and Cecily Fleming.

York School of Carving. Crocketed arch. He in Early Plate Bascinet Period armour. Large Orle highly decorated with head resting on great helm with feathered crest. Beard with spiral twists. Collar Esses and Crowns Alternating. Misericorde. Hip Belt with decorated buckle. She wearing a squared crespine headress and small Esses Collar. Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields. Chunky Lions Mane.

Robert Waterton Constable: Around 1360 he was born to John Waterton and Joan Mauley. Before 1398 Robert Waterton Constable (age 38) and Cecily Fleming were married. In 1399 Robert Waterton Constable (age 39) was appointed Constable of Pontefract Castle. In Jan 1400 he was given custody of King Richard II of England (age 31) who died shortly thereafter. On 20 Nov 1399 Robert Waterton Constable (age 39) was appointed Master of the Horse to the newly crowned Henry IV King England (age 32). In or before 1422 Robert Waterton Constable (age 62) and Margaret Clarell Lady of the Garter (age 24) were married. The difference in their ages was 37 years. On 17 Jan 1425 Robert Waterton Constable (age 65) died.

Cecily Fleming: She was born to Robert Fleming of Woodhall.

Elizabeth Percy Countess of Westmoreland: Around 1395 she was born to Henry "Hotspur" Percy (age 30) and Elizabeth Mortimer Baroness Camoys (age 23) at Alnwick Castle. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Around 1404 John Clifford 7th Baron Clifford (age 15) and Elizabeth Percy Countess of Westmoreland (age 9) were married. She by marriage Baroness de Clifford. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. In 1426 Ralph Neville 2nd Earl of Westmoreland (age 19) and Elizabeth Percy Countess of Westmoreland (age 31) were married. They were second cousin once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. On 26 Oct 1436 Elizabeth Percy Countess of Westmoreland (age 41) died.

Margaret Stafford Baroness Neville Raby: Around 1364 she was born to Hugh Stafford 2nd Earl Stafford (age 28) and Philippa Beauchamp Countess Stafford (age 30). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. In or before 1383 Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 19) and Margaret Stafford Baroness Neville Raby (age 18) were married. She the daughter of Hugh Stafford 2nd Earl Stafford (age 46) and Philippa Beauchamp Countess Stafford (age 48). They were second cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. On 17 Oct 1388 John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby (age 51) died. His son Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 24) succeeded 4th Baron Neville Raby 1C 1295. Margaret Stafford Baroness Neville Raby (age 24) by marriage Baroness Neville Raby. On 09 Jun 1396 Margaret Stafford Baroness Neville Raby (age 32) died. She was buried at St Brandon's Church, Brancepeth.

Around 1465. All Saints Church Harewood [Map]. Monument to William Gascoigne XII (age 56) and Margaret Clarell Lady of the Garter. Fluted Period. Suns and Roses Collar. His bare head, with finely detailed hair, no facial hair, rests on an unusual helm which appears to be a Maiden's Face, with an orle. Below the waist faulds and tassets under which mail may be seen. Both rest on a chest tomb with finely detailed weepers on each side. She, on his right, with a Widow's Barbe drawn up to her chin at the finely carved end of her dress two dogs, one pulling at the folds. Dogs chewing at her dress with Studded Collar. Dress Folds at Feet.

William Gascoigne XII: Around 1409 he was born to William Gascoigne (age 43) at Gawthorpe Hall. On 07 Feb 1426 William Gascoigne XII (age 17) and Margaret Clarell Lady of the Garter (age 29) were married. Around 1465 William Gascoigne XII (age 56) died at Gawthorpe Hall. All Saints Church Harewood.

Margaret Clarell Lady of the Garter: Around 1397 she was born to Thomas Clarell of Aldwarke. In 1462 Margaret Clarell Lady of the Garter (age 65) died. Before 17 Sep 1474 John Fitzwilliam (age 77) and she were married.

Introduction. The third period inclosed the body from head to loot in plate of steel, and the chain-mail only makes its appearance at the or armpit joints of the armour, either as gussets, or worn under-neath, as a haubergeon, or lighter shirt of maila. The camail, or gorget of mail, so called from its being attached by a lace to the basinet, or cap, was, on account of the pliability which it afforded to the motion of the neck, at first retained, but was ultimately displaced by a gorget of plate. To the breastplate the protuberant form of a pigeon's breast was given, particularly well calculated to glance off the thrust of a spear, and to prevent the body from being injured by blows causing deep indentations in the armour. The term hauberk seems to have been used either for the corselet, or body-armour of mail or of plate. Chaucer thus describes the armour of a knight, in his 'Rhime of Sir Thopas':

'He did on next his white lere

Of cloth of lake full line and clere,

A breche, and eke a sherte.

And next his sherte an hakaton,

And ovir that an hagergeon

For percing of his herte;

And over that a fine hauberke

Was all ywrought of Jewis werke;

Full strong it was of plate.

And ovir that his cote-armure.

As white as is the lilly-floure.

In which he would debate.

His shelde was all of gold so redde

And thereon was a boris hedde;

A carboncle beside.

* * * * * *

His jambeux were of cure bulyb;

His swordis shethe of ivory;

His helm of laton bright;

His sadell was of ruell bonec;

His bridle as the sunne yshone.

Or as the moone ylight;

His spere was of the hne cypres.

That bodeth warre, and nothing pece.

The hedde full sharpe igrounded."

Note a. In Dr. Mcyrick's line collection of ancient arms and armour, we see a figure wearing the habergeon of mail over the hauberk of plate. This does not appear to accord with the arrangement of the harness on Chaucer's night; but both modes were no doubt adopted, according to the pleasure of the wearer.

Note b. Cuir bouilli was extensively used in armour. The corselet, or body-armour, superadded to the hauberk, was at first composed of it, and in the term cuirass we have etymological record that it was so employed; and plastron implies a defence of leather, sitting as close to the breast as a plaister. The figure of John of Eltham may be considered to afford a good example of plate and leather-armour intermixed. Du Cange, in his Notes on Joinville, cites a very curious inventory of the armour necessary for a knight, which will be found to corroborate the above remarks: "Premierement, un harnois de jambes covert de cuir comme a esguillettes, ou long de la garnbe jusques au genouïl, et deux attaches large pour son barrueir (breeches), et souleres values (qu. velours?) attaches au gruës (greaves).

"Item. Cuisses et poullains (knee-plates) de cuir, armoiez de Varennes, des armes au chevalier.

"Item, un chausse de mailles par-dessus le harnois de jambes, attachée au braier, comme dit est par-dessus les cuisses (this was, perhaps, the gipon, jupon, or little petticoat of mail), et uns esperons dorez qui sont attachez a une cordelette autour de la jambe, afin que la molette (rowel) ne tourne dessous le pied.

"Item, pans et manchez, qui sont attachez a la cuirie (cuirass, leather corselet) a tous ses esgrappes sur les espaules, et un seursliere (sous cervelliere or camail) sur le pis (breast) avant.

"Item, bracheres a tout le harnois (qu. bracers or straps for the whole harness?) et le han escucon de la banniere sur le col (shield of his banner or arms slung from the neck), couvert de cuir, avec les tonnerres pour les attacher au braier a la cuirie, et sur le bacinet une coiffe de mailles, et un bel orfroy par devant le front qui veut (qu. a circlet ornamented in front with goldsmiths' work; see effigy of William de Valence).

"Item, bracellets attachez aux espaules de la cuirie (qu. brassarts, arm-plates, fastened to the cuirass at the shoulders?)

"Item, un gaigne pain pour mettre es mains du chevalier (a sword for the knight's hand, here called by a nickname in general use, a 'bread-earner').

"Item, un heaume et le tymbre (crest), tel comme ll voudra.

"Item, deux chains a attachier a la poitrine de la cuirie, une pour Tepee, Tautrepour le baston, en deux vigeres, pour le heaume attacher. (Two chains; one to fasten the sword to the breast of the cuirass, another having some contrivance of a stick to attach the helmet in the same way.)

Note c. Ruell-bone; bone or stained with divers colours.

Note d. The following passage of Froissart will afford an idea of the power of a sharp-ground lance: "Among the Cambresians was a young squire from Gascony, called William Marchant, who came to the held of battle mounted on a good steed, his shield hanging to his neck, his lance in its rest, completely armed, and spurring on to the combat. When Sir Giles Manny saw him approach, he spurred on to meet him most vigorously, and they met, lance in hand, without fear of each other. Sir Giles had his shield pierced through, as well as all the armour near his heart, and the iron passed quite through his body."—Johnes's Translation, 8vo, vol. 1. p. 169.

The Early Plate Bascinet Period has similarities with the preceding Camail and Jupon Period. The primary difference being the bascinet being decorated with an orle as a means of further protection.

Culture, General Things, Church Monuments, Church Monument Details, Armour, Decorated Orle

After 23 Mar 1421 John Ros 7th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 24) was buried at Belvoir Priory [Map]. His remains and monument were subsequently relocated to the Chancel of St Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Leicestershire [Map]. Early Plate Bascinet Period.

John Ros 7th Baron Ros Helmsley: Around 1397 he was born to William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 27) and Margaret Fitzalan Baroness Ros Helmsley (age 25). On 01 Sep 1414 William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 44) died. His son John Ros 7th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 17) succeeded 7th Baron Ros Helmsley. Before 23 Mar 1421 John Ros 7th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 24) and Margery Despencer 3rd Baroness Despencer Baroness Ros Helmsley (age 24) were married. She by marriage Baroness Ros Helmsley. They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry III of England.

Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields.

Detail of Lancastrian Esses Collar and the trefoil fixing holding the Lancastrian Esses Collar to the bottom of the Camail.

Detail of IHC NASARE Lettering and Decorated Orle and decorated Vervelle Cover. Bascinet with Gorget. Lancastrian Esses Collar.

Detail of the Ros Peacock Crest which surmounted his Great Helm; only the feet remain.

Detail of the Spaulder and Besagew with some early graffiti.

Detail of the Hourglass Gauntlets and graffiti.