Venison

Venison is in Meat.

Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

Chronica Majora. 19 Jan 1236. There were assembled at the king's (age 28) nuptial festivities such a host of nobles of both sexes, such numbers of religious men, such crowds of the populace, and such a variety of actors, that London, with its capacious bosom, could scarcely contain them. The whole city was ornamented with flags and banners, chaplets and hangings, candles and lamps, and with wonderful devices and extraordinary representations, and all the roads were cleansed from mud and dirt, sticks, and everything offensive. The citizens, too, went out to meet the king (age 28) and queen (age 13), dressed out in their ornaments, and vied with each other in trying the speed of their horses. On the same day, when they left the city for Westminster, to perform the duties of butler to the king (which office belonged to them by right of old, at the coronation), they proceeded thither dressed in silk garments, with mantles worked in gold, and with costly changes of raiment, mounted on valuable horses, glittering with new bits and saddles, and riding in troops arranged in order. They carried with them three hundred and sixty gold and silver cups, preceded by the king's trumpeters and with horns sounding, so that such a wonderful novelty struck all who beheld it with astonishment. The archbishop of Canterbury (age 61), by the right especially belonging to him, performed the duty of crowning, with the usual solemnities, the bishop of London assisting him as a dean, the other bishops taking their stations according to their rank. In the same way all the abbats, at the head of whom, as was his right, was the abbat of St. Alban's (for as the Protomartyr of England, B. Alban, was the chief of all the martyrs of England, so also was his abbat the chief of all the abbats in rank and dignity), as the authentic privileges of that church set forth. The nobles, too, performed the duties, which, by ancient right and custom, pertained to them at the coronations of kings. In like manner some of the inhabitants of certain cities discharged certain duties which belonged to them by right of their ancestors. The earl of Chester (age 29) carried the sword of St. Edward, which was called "Curtein", before the king, as a sign that he was earl of the palace, and had by right the power of restraining the king if he should commit an error. The earl was attended by the constable of Chester (age 44), and kept the people away with a wand when they pressed forward in a disorderly way. The grand marshal of England, the earl of Pembroke (age 39), carried a wand before the king and cleared the way before him both, in the church and in the banquet-hall, and arranged the banquet and the guests at table. The Wardens of the Cinque Ports carried the pall over the king, supported by four spears, but the claim to this duty was not altogether undisputed. The earl of Leicester (age 28) supplied the king with water in basins to wash before his meal; the Earl Warrenne performed the duty of king's Cupbearer, supplying the place of the earl of Arundel, because the latter was a youth and not as yet made a belted knight. Master Michael Belet was butler ex officio; the earl of Hereford (age 32) performed the duties of marshal of the king's household, and William Beauchamp (age 51) held the station of almoner. The justiciary of the forests arranged the drinking cups on the table at the king's right hand, although he met with some opposition, which however fell to the ground. The citizens of London passed the wine about in all directions, in costly cups, and those of Winchester superintended the cooking of the feast; the rest, according to the ancient statutes, filled their separate stations, or made their claims to do so. And in order that the nuptial festivities might not be clouded by any disputes, saving the right of any one, many things were put up with for the time which they left for decision at a more favourable opportunity. The office of chancellor of England, and all the offices connected with the king, are ordained and assized in the Exchequer. Therefore the chancellor, the chamberlain, the marshal, and the constable, by right of their office, took their seats there, as also did the barons, according to the date of their creation, in the city of London, whereby they each knew his own place. The ceremony was splendid, with the gay dresses of the clergy and knights who were present. The abbat of Westminster sprinkled the holy water, and the treasurer, acting the part of sub-dean, carried the Paten. Why should I describe all those persons who reverently ministered in the church to God as was their duty? Why describe the abundance of meats and dishes on the table & the quantity of venison, the variety of fish, the joyous sounds of the glee-men, and the gaiety of the waiters? Whatever the world could afford to create pleasure and magnificence was there brought together from every quarter.

The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Rutland 1640. 04 Jan 1640. Savoy.

F. Lord Willoughby to his uncle, the Earl of Rutland (age 60), at Belvoir Castle [Map].

When we ate your venison my wife and I drank your health and my Lady's and did not forget little Mr. George, whom, I am glad to hear, grows towards a man. "There hath beene a marriage at the court betweene one of my Lord of Corcke (age 73) sonnse (age 21) and my Lady Elizabeth Feelding, about which there is a greate stur, for it seemes he did not prove eoe rite as a man should be to goo about such a business. For the report goese that his manly part had lost something in his former serviocesse, and beside that he was soe full of severall disceases ... as that it was tould the Queene (age 30), whoe sent for my Lady Elizabeth, and tould her that she must desier her not to lett her husband lye with her that night, whoe put of, modilestly making little answere, but she seemed so lothe to understand the Queene (age 30), as that she tould her she must command her not to come in a pair of sheets with him, and tould her the reasons; soe as that he is gone out of the way some say into France, others thinks he is in London under cower. It was discovered by his sister (age 30) Mr. Goring's (age 31) wife, to whom he had imparted his grevancess, and she had plotted it soe, to make an excuse for him, that he should falie downe stares that day, and she would come and take him up, and soe he should complane how he had breused himselfe and strained his back with the fale, that he should be soe ill he was not fitt to goe to bed to his wife that night. But could not keepe her counsel but must tell her husband Jorge Goring (age 31), and he presently ran and tould the Queene (age 30), and soe it was discovered and then it was presently in every buddy's mouth.".

My Lord Keeper is so ill that the physicians think he cannot recover. My Lord Chief Justice Bramstone is talked of to be Lord Keeper, and Bishop Wren (age 54). It is known to be between those two. My Lord Finch (age 12) will be Chief Justice of the King's Bench and the Attorney General to be Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. Signet.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Nov 1644. We went from Sienna, desirous of being present at the cavalcade of the new Pope, Innocent X., who had not yet made the grand procession to St. John di Laterano. We set out by Porto Romano, the country all about the town being rare for hunting and game. Wild boar and venison are frequently sold in the shops in many of the towns about it. We passed near Monte Oliveto, where the monastery of that Order is pleasantly situated, and worth seeing. Passing over a bridge, which, by the inscription, appears to have been built by Prince Matthias, we went through Buon-Convento, famous for the death of the Emperor, Henry VII., who was here poisoned with the Holy Eucharist. TORRINIERIThence, we came to Torrinieri, where we dined. This village is in a sweet valley, in view of Montalcino, famous for the rare Muscatello.22 After three miles more, we go by St. Quirico, and lay at a private osteria near it, where, after we were provided of lodging, came in Cardinal Donghi, a Genoese by birth, now come from Rome; he was so civil as to entertain us with great respect, hearing we were English, for that, he told us he had been once in our country. Among other discourse, he related how a dove had been seen to sit on the chair in the Conclave at the election of Pope Innocent, which he magnified as a great good omen, with other particulars which we inquired of him, till our suppers parted us. He came in great state with his own bedstead and all the furniture, yet would by no means suffer us to resign the room we had taken up in the lodging before his arrival. Next morning, we rode by Monte Pientio, or, as vulgarly called, Monte Mantumiato, which is of an excessive height, ever and anon peeping above any clouds with its snowy head, till we had climbed to the inn at Radicofani, built by Ferdinand, the great Duke, for the necessary refreshment of travelers in so inhospitable a place. As we ascended, we entered a very thick, solid, and dark body of clouds, looking like rocks at a little distance, which lasted near a mile in going up; they were dry misty vapors, hanging undissolved for a vast thickness, and obscuring both the sun and earth, so that we seemed to be in the sea rather than in the clouds, till, having pierced through it, we came into a most serene heaven, as if we had been above all human conversation, the mountain appearing more like a great island than joined to any other hills; for we could perceive nothing but a sea of thick clouds rolling under our feet like huge waves, every now and then suffering the top of some other mountain to peep through, which we could discover many miles off: and between some breaches of the clouds we could see landscapes and villages of the subjacent country. This was one of the most pleasant, new, and altogether surprising objects that I had ever beheld.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Mar 1646. I was invited to excellent English potted venison, at Mr. Hobbson's, a worthy merchant.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Jul 1654. To the hunting of a sorel deer, and had excellent chase for four or five hours, but the venison little worth.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1660. This morning the carpenter made an end of my door out of my chamber upon the leads. This morning we met at the office: I dined at my house in Seething Lane, and after that, going about 4 o'clock to Westminster, I met with Mr. Carter and Mr. Cooke coming to see me in a coach, and so I returned home. I did also meet with Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, with a porter with him, with a barrel of Lemons, which my man Burr sends me from sea. I took all these people home to my house and did give them some drink, and after them comes Mr. Sheply, and after a little stay we all went by water to Westminster as far as the New Exchange. Thence to my Lord about business, and being in talk in comes one with half a buck from Hinchinbroke, and it smelling a little strong my Lord did give it me (though it was as good as any could be). I did carry it to my mother, where I had not been a great while, and indeed had no great mind to go, because my father did lay upon me continually to do him a kindness at the Wardrobe, which I could not do because of my own business being so fresh with my Lord. But my father was not at home, and so I did leave the venison with her to dispose of as she pleased. After that home, where W. Hewer (age 18) now was, and did lie this night with us, the first night. My mind very quiet, only a little trouble I have for the great debts which I have still upon me to the Secretary, Mr. Kipps, and Mr. Spong for my patent.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1660. We sat at the office this morning, Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Mr. Pett (age 49) being upon a survey to Chatham, Kent [Map]. This morning I sent my wife to my father's (age 59) and he is to give me £5 worth of pewter. After we rose at the office, I went to my father's (age 59), where my Uncle Fenner and all his crew and Captain Holland and his wife and my wife were at dinner at a venison pasty of the venison that I did give my mother the other day. I did this time show so much coldness to W. Joyce that I believe all the table took notice of it. After that to Westminster about my Lord's business and so home, my Lord having not been well these two or three days, and I hear that Mr. Barnwell at Hinchinbroke is fallen sick again. Home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Aug 1660. Office, and thence with Sir William Batten (age 59) and Sir William Pen (age 39) to the parish church to find out a place where to build a seat or a gallery to sit in, and did find one which is to be done speedily. Hence with them to dinner at a tavern in Thames Street, where they were invited to a roasted haunch of venison and other very good victuals and company. Hence to Whitehall to the Privy Seal, but nothing to do. At night by land to my father's (age 59), where I found my mother not very well. I did give her a pint of sack. My father came in, and Dr. T. Pepys (age 39), who talked with me in French about looking out for a place for him. But I found him a weak man, and speaks the worst French that ever I heard of one that had been so long beyond sea. Hence into St Pauls's Churchyard and bought Barkley's Argenis in Latin, and so home and to bed. I found at home that Captain Burr had sent me 4 dozen bottles of wine today. The King came back to Whitehall to-night.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Aug 1661. Called up at three o'clock, and was a-horseback by four; and as I was eating my breakfast I saw a man riding by that rode a little way upon the road with me last night; and he being going with venison in his pan-yards to London, I called him in and did give him his breakfast with me, and so we went together all the way.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1662. To my office all the morning, to get things ready against our sitting, and by and by we sat and did business all the morning, and at noon had Sir W. Pen (age 41), who I hate with all my heart for his base treacherous tricks, but yet I think it not policy to declare it yet, and his son William, to my house to dinner, where was also Mr. Creed and my cozen Harry Alcocke. I having some venison given me a day or two ago, and so I had a shoulder roasted, another baked, and the umbles1 baked in a pie, and all very well done. We were merry as I could be in that company, and the more because I would not seem otherwise to Sir W. Pen (age 41), he being within a day or two to go for Ireland.

Note 1. The umbles are the liver, kidneys, and other portions of the inside of the deer. They were usually made into pies, and old cookery books contain directions for the making of 'umble pies.'.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1662. So home, and at noon Dr. T. Pepys (age 41) came to me, and he and I to the Exchequer, and so back to dinner, where by chance comes Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, and then Mr. Battersby, the minister, and then Mr. Dun, and it happened that I had a haunch of venison boiled, and so they were very wellcome and merry; but my simple Dr. do talk so like a fool that I am weary of him.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1662. Up early, and to my office, and by and by we sat all the morning. At noon, though I was invited to my uncle Fenner's to dinner to a haunch of venison I sent him yesterday, yet I did not go, but chose to go to Mr. Rawlinson's (age 48), where my uncle Wight and my aunt, and some neighbour couples were at a very good venison pasty. Hither came, after we were set down, a most pretty young lady (only her hands were not white nor handsome), which pleased me well, and I found her to be sister to Mrs. Anne Wight that comes to my uncle Wight's. We were good company, and had a very pretty dinner. And after dinner some talk, I with my aunt and this young lady about their being [at] Epsom, from whence they came to-day, and so home and to my office, and there doing business till past 9 at night, and so home and to bed. But though I drank no wine to-day, yet how easily was I of my own accord stirred up to desire my aunt and this pretty lady (for it was for her that I did it) to carry them to Greenwich, Kent [Map] and see the pleasure boats. But my aunt would not go, of which since I am much glad.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1662. Up betimes and among my works and workmen, and with great pleasure seeing them go on merrily, and a good many hands, which I perceive makes good riddance, and so to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon dined alone with Sir W. Batten (age 61), which I have not done a great while, but his lady being out of the way I was the willinger to do it, and after dinner he and I by water to Deptford, and there found Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and my Lady at dinner, and so we sat down and eat another dinner of venison with them, and so we went to the payhouse, and there staid till to o'clock at night paying off the Martin and Kinsale, being small but troublesome ships to pay, and so in the dark by water home to the Custom House and so got a lanthorn to light us home, there being Mr. Morrice the wine cooper with us, he having been at Deptford, Kent [Map] to view some of the King's casks we have to sell. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1662. At my office betimes, and by and by we sat, and at noon Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Mr. Pett (age 52), and myself by water to Deptford, where we met Sir G. C. (age 52), Sir W. B. (age 61), and Sir W. P. (age 41) at the pay of a ship, and we dined together on a haunch of good venison boiled, and after dinner returned again to the office, and there met several tradesmen by our appointment to know of them their lowest rates that they will take for their several provisions that they sell to us, for I do resolve to know that, and to buy no dearer, that so when we know the lowest rate, it shall be the Treasurer's fault, and not ours, that we pay dearer.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1663. Thence by coach to Mr. Povy's (age 49), being invited thither by (him) came a messenger this morning from him, where really he made a most excellent and large dinner, of their variety, even to admiration, he bidding us, in a frolique, to call for what we had a mind, and he would undertake to give it us: and we did for prawns, swan, venison, after I had thought the dinner was quite done, and he did immediately produce it, which I thought great plenty, and he seems to set off his rest in this plenty and the neatness of his house, which he after dinner showed me, from room to room, so beset with delicate pictures, and above all, a piece of perspective in his closett in the low parler; his stable, where was some most delicate horses, and the very-racks painted, and mangers, with a neat leaden painted cistern, and the walls done with Dutch tiles, like my chimnies. But still, above all things, he bid me go down into his wine-cellar, where upon several shelves there stood bottles of all sorts of wine, new and old, with labells pasted upon each bottle, and in the order and plenty as I never saw books in a bookseller's shop; and herein, I observe, he puts his highest content, and will accordingly commend all that he hath, but still they deserve to be so.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1663. This day I sent my cozen Edward Pepys (age 46) his Lady, at my cozen Turner's, a piece of venison given me yesterday, and Madam Turner (age 40) I sent for a dozen bottles of her's, to fill with wine for her. This day I met with Pierce the surgeon, who tells me that the King (age 33) has made peace between Mr. Edward Montagu (age 28) and his father Lord Montagu, and that all is well again; at which; for the family's sake, I am very glad, but do not think it will hold long.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1663. So I landed them at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there to a garden, and gave them fruit and wine, and so to boat again, and finally, in the cool of the evening, to Lyon Kee1, the tide against us, and so landed and walked to the Bridge [Map], and there took a coach by chance passing by, and so I saw them home, and there eat some cold venison with them, and drunk and bade them good night, having been mighty merry with them, and I think it is not amiss to preserve, though it cost me a little, such a friend as Mrs. Turner (age 40).

Note 1. Lion Key, Lower Thames Street, where the famous Duchess of Suffolk in the time of Bishop Gardiner's persecution took boat for the continent. James, Duke of York (age 29), also left the country from this same place on the night of April 20th, 1648, when he escaped from St. James's Palace.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1663. By and by up to dinner with my Lord Mayor and the Aldermen, and a very great dinner and most excellent venison, but it almost made me sick by not daring to drink wine.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Sep 1663. And by and by comes my uncle Wight to bid us to dinner to-morrow to a haunch of venison I sent them yesterday, given me by Mr. Povy (age 49), but I cannot go, but my wife will.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Nov 1663. There found them busy still, and I up to my vyall. Anon, the comfiture being well done, my wife and I took Mrs. Hunt at almost 9 at night by coach and carried Mrs. Hunt home, and did give her a box of sugar and a haunch of venison given me by my Lady the other day. We did not 'light, but saw her within doors, and straight home, where after supper there happening some discourse where my wife thought she had taken Jane in a lie, she told me of it mighty triumphantly, but I, not seeing reason to conclude it a lie, was vexed, and my wife and I to very high words, wherein I up to my chamber, and she by and by followed me up, and to very bad words from her to me, calling me perfidious and man of no conscience, whatever I pretend to, and I know not what, which troubled me mightily, and though I would allow something to her passion, yet I see again and again that she spoke but somewhat of what she had in her heart. But I tempered myself very well, so as that though we went to bed with discontent she yielded to me and began to be fond, so that being willing myself to peace, we did before we sleep become very good friends, it being past 12 o'clock, and so with good hearts and joy to rest.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Nov 1663. Was the first anniversary of our Society for the choice of new officers, according to the tenor of our patent and institution. It being St. Andrew's day, who was our patron, each fellow wore a St. Andrew's cross of ribbon on the crown of his hat. After the election we dined together, his Majesty (age 33) sending us venison.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map] a little and thence brought Mr. Barrow to dinner with me, where I had a haunch of venison roasted, given me yesterday, and so had a pretty dinner, full of discourse of his business, wherein the poor man is mightily troubled, and I pity him in it, but hope to get him some ease.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1664. At noon to dinner, where the remains of yesterday's venison and a couple of brave green geese, which we are fain to eat alone, because they will not keepe, which troubled us.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1664. This day I sent a side of venison and six bottles of wine to Kate Joyce.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1665. So took leave of her, and then down to the buttery, and eat a piece of cold venison pie, and drank and took some bread and cheese in my hand; and so mounted after them, Mr. Marr very kindly staying to lead me the way.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Sep 1665. Up and walked to the office, there to do some business till ten of the clock, and then by agreement my Lord, Sir J. Minnes (age 66), Sir W. Doyly (age 51), and I took boat and over to the ferry, where Sir W. Batten's (age 64) coach was ready for us, and to Walthamstow [Map] drove merrily, excellent merry discourse in the way, and most upon our last night's revells; there come we were very merry, and a good plain venison dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Sep 1665. Up, and walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], taking pleasure to walk with my minute watch in my hand, by which I am come now to see the distances of my way from Woolwich, Kent [Map] to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and do find myself to come within two minutes constantly to the same place at the end of each quarter of an houre. Here we rendezvoused at Captain Cocke's (age 48), and there eat oysters, and so my Lord Bruncker (age 45), Sir J. Minnes (age 66), and I took boat, and in my Lord's coach to Sir W. Hickes's, whither by and by my Lady Batten and Sir William comes. It is a good seat, with a fair grove of trees by it, and the remains of a good garden; but so let to run to ruine, both house and every thing in and about it, so ill furnished and miserably looked after, I never did see in all my life. Not so much as a latch to his dining-room door; which saved him nothing, for the wind blowing into the room for want thereof, flung down a great bow pott that stood upon the side-table, and that fell upon some Venice glasses, and did him a crown's worth of hurt. He did give us the meanest dinner (of beef, shoulder and umbles of venison1 which he takes away from the keeper of the Forest, and a few pigeons, and all in the meanest manner) that ever I did see, to the basest degree.

Note 1. Dr. Johnson was puzzled by the following passage in "The Merry Wives of Windsor", act v., sc. 3: "Divide me like a bribe-buck, each a haunch. I will keep the sides to myself; my shoulders for the fellow of this walk". If he could have read the account of Sir William Hickes's dinner, he would at once have understood the allusion to the keeper's perquisites of the shoulders of all deer killed in his walk. B.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1666. At noon had a haunch of venison boiled and a very good dinner besides, there dining with me on a sudden invitation the two mayden sisters, Bateliers, and their elder brother, a pretty man, understanding and well discoursed, much pleased with his company. Having dined myself I rose to go to a Committee of Tangier, and did come thither time enough to meet Povy (age 52) and Creed and none else.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1666. At noon home, and there dined with me my Lady Pen (age 42) only and W. Hewer (age 24) at a haunch of venison boiled, where pretty merry, only my wife vexed me a little about demanding money to go with my Lady Pen (age 42) to the Exchange [Map] to lay out.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1666. At noon, with my wife, against her will, all undressed and dirty, dined at Sir W. Pen's (age 45), where was all the company of our families in towne; but, Lord! so sorry a dinner: venison baked in pans, that the dinner I have had for his lady alone hath been worth four of it.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1666. At noon to dinner, having a haunch of venison boiled; and all my clerks at dinner with me; and mightily taken with Mr. Gibson's discourse of the faults of this war in its management compared [with] that in the last war, which I will get him to put into writing.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jul 1667. At noon home to dinner, where my wife mighty musty, [Dull, heavy, spiritless] but I took no notice of it, but after dinner to the office, and there with Mr. Harper did another good piece of work about my late collection of the accounts of the Navy presented to the Parliament at their last session, which was left unfinished, and now I have done it which sets my mind at my ease, and so, having tired myself, I took a pair of oares about five o'clock, which I made a gally at Redriffe [Map], and so with very much pleasure down to Gravesend, Kent [Map], all the way with extraordinary content reading of Boyle's (age 40) Hydrostatickes, which the more I read and understand, the more I admire, as a most excellent piece of philosophy; as we come nearer Gravesend, Kent [Map], we hear the Dutch fleete and ours a-firing their guns most distinctly and loud. But before we got to Gravesend, Kent [Map] they ceased, and it grew darkish, and so I landed only (and the flood being come) and went up to the Ship [Map] and discoursed with the landlord of the house, who undeceives me in what I heard this morning about the Dutch having lost two men-of-war, for it is not so, but several of their fire-ships. He do say, that this afternoon they did force our ships to retreat, but that now they are gone down as far as Shield-haven: but what the event hath been of this evening's guns they know not, but suppose not much, for they have all this while shot at good distance one from another. They seem confident of the security of this town and the River above it, if the enemy should come up so high; their fortifications being so good, and guns many. But he do say that people do complain of Sir Edward Spragg (age 47), that he hath not done extraordinary; and more of Sir W. Jenings, that he come up with his tamkins1 in his guns. Having discoursed this a little with him, and eat a bit of cold venison and drank, I away, took boat, and homeward again, with great pleasure, the moon shining, and it being a fine pleasant cool evening, and got home by half-past twelve at night, and so to bed.

Note 1. Tamkin, or tampion, the wooden stopper of a cannon placed in the muzzle to exclude water or dust.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Aug 1667. Home, and dined with my wife at Sir W. Pen's (age 46), where a very good pasty of venison, better than we expected, the last stinking basely, and after dinner he and my wife and I to the Duke of York's house, and there saw "Love Trickes, or the School of Compliments"; a silly play, only Miss [Davis's] (age 19) dancing in a shepherd's clothes did please us mightily.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Aug 1667. Walk back home and to our own church, where a dull sermon and our church empty of the best sort of people, they being at their country houses, and so home, and there dined with me Mr. Turner and his daughter Betty (age 14)1. Her mother should, but they were invited to Sir J. Minnes (age 68), where she dined and the others here with me. Betty is grown a fine lady as to carriage and discourse. I and my wife are mightily pleased with her. We had a good haunch of venison, powdered and boiled, and a good dinner and merry.

Note 1. Betty Turner (age 14), who is frequently mentioned after this date, appears to have been a daughter of Serjeant John Turner (age 54) and his wife Jane (age 44), and younger sister of Theophila Turner (age 15) (see January 4th, 6th, 1668-69).

Pepy's Diary. 28 Dec 1667. Up, and to the office, where busy all the morning, at noon home, and there to dinner with my clerks and Mr. Pelting, and had a very good dinner, among others a haunch of venison boiled, and merry we were, and I rose soon from dinner, and with my wife and girle to the King's house, and there saw "The Mad Couple", which is but an ordinary play; but only Nell's (age 17) and Hart's (age 42) mad parts are most excellently done, but especially hers: which makes it a miracle to me to think how ill she do any serious part, as, the other day, just like a fool or changeling; and, in a mad part, do beyond all imitation almost1. Many fine faces here to-day.

Note 1. It pleased us mightily to see the natural affection of a poor woman, the mother of one of the children brought on the stage: the child crying, she by force got upon the stage, and took up her child and carried it away off of the stage from Hart (age 42).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1668. Betimes at my business again, and so to the office, and dined with Brouncker (age 48) and J. Minnes (age 69), at Sir W. Pen's (age 47) at a bad pasty of venison, and so to work again, and at it till past twelve at night, that I might get my great letter1 to the Duke of York (age 34) ready against to-morrow, which I shall do, to my great content. So to bed.

Note 1. In the Pepysian Library is a MS. (No. 2242), entitled, "Papers conteyning my addresse to his Royall Highnesse James Duke of Yorke (age 34), Lord High Admirall of England, &c., by letter dated the 20th of August, 1668, humbly tendering him my advice touching the present State of the Office of the Navy, with his Royall Highness's proceedings upon the same, and their result"..

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Jul 1670. I accompanied my worthy friend, that excellent man, Sir Robert Murray (age 62), with Mr. Slingsby (age 49), Master of the Mint, to see the latter's seat and estate at Burrow-Green [Map] in Cambridgeshire, he desiring our advice for placing a new house, which he was resolved to build. We set out in a coach and six horses with him and his lady, dined about midway at one Mr. Turner's, where we found a very noble dinner, venison, music, and a circle of country ladies and their gallants. After dinner, we proceeded, and came to Burrow-Green [Map] that night. This had been the ancient seat of the Cheekes (whose daughter Mr. Slingsby (age 49) married), formerly tutor to King Henry VI [NOTE. Possibly a mistake for Edward VI since John Cheke was tutor to Edward VI]. The old house large and ample, and built for ancient hospitality, ready to fall down with age, placed in a dirty hole, a stiff clay, no water, next an adjoining church-yard, and with other inconveniences. We pitched on a spot of rising ground, adorned with venerable woods, a dry and sweet prospect east and west, and fit for a park, but no running water; at a mile distance from the old house.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Jul 1679. Sending a piece of venison to Mr. Pepys (age 46), still a prisoner, I went and dined with him.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Aug 1681. I went to Wotton, Surrey [Map], and, on the following day, was invited to Mr. Denzil Onslow's (age 39) at his seat at Purford, where was much company, and such an extraordinary feast, as I had hardly seen at any country gentleman's table. What made it more remarkable was, that there was not anything save what his estate about it did afford; as venison, rabbits, hares, pheasants, partridges, pigeons, quails, poultry, all sorts of fowl in season from his own decoy near his house, and all sorts of fresh fish. After dinner we went to see sport at the decoy, where I never saw so many herons.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Sep 1685. Early next morning we went to Portsmouth [Map], something before his Ma* (age 51) ariv'd. We found all the way full of people, the women in their best dress, in expectation of seeing the King pass by, which he did riding on horseback a good part of the way. We found the Maior and Aldermen with their mace, and in their formalities, standing at the entrance of the fort, a mile on this side of the towne, where the Maior made a speech to the King, and then the guns of the fort were fired, as were those of the garrison so soone as the King was come into Portsmouth. All the souldiers (neere 3000) were drawn up, and lining the streetes and platforme to God's-house (the name of the Governor's house), where, after he had view'd the new fortifications and ship-yard, his Ma* was entertain'd at a magnificent dinner by Sir Slingsby yc Lieut. Governor (age 47), all the gentlemen in his traine setting down at table with him, wch I also had don had I not ben before engag'd to Sir Rob Holmes (age 63), Gov of ye Isle of Wight, to dine with him at a private house, where likewise we had a very sumptuous and plentiful repast of excellent venison, fowle, fish, and fruit.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Oct 1685. I was invited to dine at Sir Ste. Fox's (age 58) with my Lord Lieutenant, where was such a dinner for variety of all things as I had seldome seene, and it was so for the trial of a master cooke whom Sir Stephen (age 58) had recommended to go with his Lordship Into Ireland; there were all ye dainties not onely of the season, but of what art could add, venison, plaine solid meate, fowle, bak'd and boil'd meates, banquet [desert], &c. in exceeding plenty and exquisitely dress'd. There also din'd my Lord Ossory (age 20) and Lady (the Duke of Beaufort's daughter) (age 21), my Lady Treasurer, Lord Cornbery (age 23), &c.

Roger Whitley's Diary. 21 Jul 1690. Monday, Alderman Mainwaring's man brought me 2 Irish letters from my sonne (age 39); Crosse & Cotton came about sealing Cotton's lease for his house without the Norgate; dined with us; went past 2: daughters & sisters went to Utkinton, retorned at 8; G. Taylor came from Peover with a letter & venison from daughter Mainwaring.

Roger Whitley's Diary. 10 Sep 1690. Wednesday, Mainwaring went to Edisbury's; Bidolph & sonne (age 39) & Morgan went a setting in afternoone; Traverse came back with them & supt; a man of Whitchurch brought venison from Frodesley.

Roger Whitley's Diary. 11 Sep 1690. Thursday, Bidolph Morgan & sonne (age 39) went a coursing; Traverse came with them home,& dined; after dinner I, sonne (age 39), Bidolph & Morgan went to Utkington; there was Crew, Church, Damport, Huxley, another (a stranger),&c. we came at 4, parted at 6; came home; Mainwaring came back after I was in bed; the gardner went to Warburton with venison.

Roger Whitley's Diary. 12 Sep 1690. Friday, I sent the Smith with venison to Cooper, Johnson & Deane; after dinner, Bidolph & Mainwaring went a setting; Tomkinson retorned from Dysert; Hardwar came & stayd an houer in the evening;.

Roger Whitley's Diary. 14 Sep 1690. Sonday, I went to church in the afternoone, &c. Cadwallader brought venison, &

Roger Whitley's Diary. 02 Oct 1690. Thursday, one Powell & another came about money due from Roger to Boudler; they & the keeper retorned past 12; 2 men came from Yates about Boothe's money; had it & went away; Sefton came from Barrow about recommending a servant & another man thence about his sonne (age 39) to be my cowman; Salmon & his sonne (age 39) came about work & a man from Shotwick with venison; Bellot, T. Whitley, & L: Lloyd dined with us; Bellot went about 7; the rest stayd all night; also Ned Morgan & Morgan W:

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. In which time of his latter days, this realm was in quiet and prosperous estate: no fear of outward enemies, no war in hand, nor none toward, but such as no man looked for; the people toward the Prince, not in a constrained fear, but in a willing and loving obedience; among themselves, the commons in good peace. The lords whom he knew at variance, he himself in his deathbed appeased. He had left all gathering of money (which is the only thing that withdraws the hearts of Englishmen from the prince), nor anything he intended to take in hand by which he should be driven thereunto, for his tribute out of France he had obtained before, and the year foregoing his death he had obtained Berwick Castle [Map]. And although throughout his reign he was with his people so benign, courteous and so familiar that no part of his virtues was more esteemed, yet that condition in the end of his days (in which many princes by a long continued sovereignty decline into a proud port from their debonair behavior at the beginning) marvelously in him grew and increased so far forth that, in the summer, the last that ever he saw, his Highness, being at Windsor hunting, sent for the Mayor and Aldermen of London to him-for no other errand but to have them hunt and be merry with him. Here he treated them not so stately but so friendly and of so familiar cheer, and sent venison from there so freely into the city, that no one thing in many days before got him either more hearts or more hearty favor among the common people, who oftentimes more esteem and take for greater kindness a little courtesy than a great benefit.

Pot Venison

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1660. Monday. In the morning called out to carry £20 to Mr Downing (age 35), which I did and came back, and finding Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, I took him to the Axe and gave him his morning draft. Thence to my office and there did nothing but make up my balance. Came home and found my wife dressing of the girl's head, by which she was made to look very pretty. I went out and paid Wilkinson [Note. Landlord of the Crown Tavern] what I did owe him, and brought a piece of beef home for dinner. Thence I went out and paid Waters [Note. Landlord of The Sun, King Street], the vintner, and went to see Mrs. Jem, where I found my Lady Wright, but Scott was so drunk that he could not be seen. Here I staid and made up Mrs. Ann's bills, and played a game or two at cards, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], it being very dark. I paid Mrs. Michell, my bookseller, and back to Whitehall, and in the garden, going through to the Stone Gallery [Note. The Stone Gallery was a long passage between the Privy Garden and the river. It led from the Bowling Green to the Court of the Palace] I fell into a ditch, it being very dark. At the Clerk's chamber I met with Simons and Luellin, and went with them to Mr. Mount's chamber at the Cock Pit [Map], where we had some rare pot venison, and ale to abundance till almost twelve at night, and after a song round we went home. This day the Parliament sat late, and resolved of the declaration to be printed for the people's satisfaction, promising them a great many good things.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1664. So Creed and I by boat to my house, and thence to coach with my wife and called at Alderman Backewell's (age 46) and there changed Mr. Falconer's state-cup, that he did give us the other day, for a fair tankard. The cup weighed with the fashion £5 16s., and another little cup that Joyce Norton did give us 17s., both £6 13s.; for which we had the tankard, which came to £6 10s., at 5s. 7d. per oz., and 3s. in money, and with great content away thence to my brother's, Creed going away there, and my brother bringing me the old silk standard that I lodged there long ago, and then back again home, and thence, hearing that my uncle Wight (age 62) had been at my house, I went to him to the Miter [Map], and there with him and Maes, Norbury, and Mr. Rawlinson (age 50) till late eating some pot venison (where the Crowne earthen pot pleased me mightily), and then homewards and met Mr. Barrow, so back with him to the Miter [Map] and sat talking about his business of his discontent in the yard, wherein sometimes he was very foolish and pettish, till 12 at night, and so went away, and I home and up to my wife a-bed, with my mind ill at ease whether I should think that I had by this made myself a bad end by missing the certainty of £100 which I proposed to myself so much, or a good one by easing myself of the uncertain good effect but the certain trouble and reflection which must have fallen on me if we had proceeded to a public dispute, ended besides embarking myself against my Lord, who (which I had forgot) had given him his hand for the value of the pieces of eight at his rates which were all false, which by the way I shall take heed to the giving of my Lord notice of it hereafter whenever he goes out again.

Umbles

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1662. To my office all the morning, to get things ready against our sitting, and by and by we sat and did business all the morning, and at noon had Sir W. Pen (age 41), who I hate with all my heart for his base treacherous tricks, but yet I think it not policy to declare it yet, and his son William, to my house to dinner, where was also Mr. Creed and my cozen Harry Alcocke. I having some venison given me a day or two ago, and so I had a shoulder roasted, another baked, and the umbles1 baked in a pie, and all very well done. We were merry as I could be in that company, and the more because I would not seem otherwise to Sir W. Pen (age 41), he being within a day or two to go for Ireland.

Note 1. The umbles are the liver, kidneys, and other portions of the inside of the deer. They were usually made into pies, and old cookery books contain directions for the making of 'umble pies.'.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Sep 1665. Up, and walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], taking pleasure to walk with my minute watch in my hand, by which I am come now to see the distances of my way from Woolwich, Kent [Map] to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and do find myself to come within two minutes constantly to the same place at the end of each quarter of an houre. Here we rendezvoused at Captain Cocke's (age 48), and there eat oysters, and so my Lord Bruncker (age 45), Sir J. Minnes (age 66), and I took boat, and in my Lord's coach to Sir W. Hickes's, whither by and by my Lady Batten and Sir William comes. It is a good seat, with a fair grove of trees by it, and the remains of a good garden; but so let to run to ruine, both house and every thing in and about it, so ill furnished and miserably looked after, I never did see in all my life. Not so much as a latch to his dining-room door; which saved him nothing, for the wind blowing into the room for want thereof, flung down a great bow pott that stood upon the side-table, and that fell upon some Venice glasses, and did him a crown's worth of hurt. He did give us the meanest dinner (of beef, shoulder and umbles of venison1 which he takes away from the keeper of the Forest, and a few pigeons, and all in the meanest manner) that ever I did see, to the basest degree.

Note 1. Dr. Johnson was puzzled by the following passage in "The Merry Wives of Windsor", act v., sc. 3: "Divide me like a bribe-buck, each a haunch. I will keep the sides to myself; my shoulders for the fellow of this walk". If he could have read the account of Sir William Hickes's dinner, he would at once have understood the allusion to the keeper's perquisites of the shoulders of all deer killed in his walk. B.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Nov 1667. Thence with great trouble and charge getting a coach (it being now and having been all this day a most cold and foggy, dark, thick day), we home, and there I to my office, and saw it made clean from top to bottom, till I feared I took cold in walking in a damp room while it is in washing, and so home to supper and to bed. This day I had a whole doe sent me by Mr. Hozier, which is a fine present, and I had the umbles of it for dinner. This day I hear Kirton, my bookseller, poor man, is dead, I believe, of grief for his losses by the fire.