Biography of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685

Paternal Family Tree: Stewart

1662 Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

1683 Popish Plot

1683 Rye House Plot

1685 Death and Burial of Charles II

1685 Monmouth's Landing at Lyme Regis

1685 Battle of Sedgemoor

1685 Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

On 29 May 1630 [his father] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland was born to [his grandfather] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 29) and [his grandmother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 20) at St James's Palace [Map]. He was created Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay the same day.

On 09 Apr 1649 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 18) and Lucy Walter (age 19) at Rotterdam.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1649. I went to St. Germains, to kiss his Majesty's (age 19) hand; in the coach, which was my Lord Wilmot's (age 36), went [his mother] Mrs. Barlow (age 19), the King's mistress and mother to the Duke of Monmouth, a brown, beautiful, bold, but insipid creature.

In 1658 William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts (age 47) was created 1st Baron Crofts of Saxham and probably as a consequence of having been given charge of Charle's illegitimate son James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 8) whose mother [his mother] Lucy Walter (age 28) had died.

In 1658 [his mother] Lucy Walter (age 28) died.

Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1662. After I had talked an hour or two with her I went and gave Mr. Hunt a short visit, he being at home alone, and thence walked homewards, and meeting Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, he took me into Somersett House [Map]; and there carried me into the [his grandmother] Queen-Mother's (age 52) presence-chamber, where she was with our own Queen (age 23) sitting on her left hand (whom I did never see before); and though she be not very charming, yet she hath a good, modest, and innocent look, which is pleasing. Here I also saw Madam Castlemaine (age 21), and, which pleased me most, Mr. Crofts (age 13), the King's (age 32) bastard, a most pretty spark of about 15 years old, who, I perceive, do hang much upon my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), and is always with her; and, I hear, the Queens (age 23) both of them are mighty kind to him1.

Note 1. James (age 13), the son of Charles II (age 32) by [his mother] Lucy Walter, daughter of William Walter, of Roch Castle, co. Pembroke. He was born April 9th, 1649, and landed in England with the Queen-Mother (age 52), July 28th, 1662, when he bore the name of Crofts, after Lord Crofts (age 51), his governor. He was created Duke of Monmouth, February 14th, 1663, and married Lady Anne Scott (age 11), daughter and heiress of Francis, second Earl of Buccleuch, on April 20th following. In 1673 he took the name of Scott, and was created Duke of Buccleuch.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. He told me what great faction there is at Court; and above all, what is whispered, that young Crofts (age 13) is lawful son to the King (age 32), the King (age 32) being married to his [his mother] mother1. How true this is, God knows; but I believe the Duke of York (age 29) will not be fooled in this of three crowns.

Note 1. There has been much confusion as to the name and parentage of Charles's mistress. Lucy Walter was the daughter of William Walter of Roch Castle, co. Pembroke, and Mr. S. Steinman, in his "Althorp Memoirs" (privately printed, 1869), sets out her pedigree, which is a good one. Roch Castle was taken and burnt by the Parliamentary forces in 1644, and Lucy was in London in 1648, where she made the acquaintance of Colonel Algernon Sidney (age 39). She then fell into the possession of his brother, Colonel Robert Sidney2. In September of this same year she was taken up by Charles, Prince of Wales. Charles terminated his connection with her on October 30th, 1651, and she died in 1658, as appears by a document (administration entry in the Register of the Prerogative Court) met with by the late Colonel Chester. William Erskine, who had served Charles as cupbearer in his wanderings, and was appointed Master of the Charterhouse in December, 1677, had the care of Lucy Walter, and buried her in Paris. He declared that the King (age 32) never had any intention of marrying her, and she did not deserve it. Thomas Ross, the tutor of her son, put the idea of this claim into his head, and asked Dr. Cosin to certify to a marriage. In consequence of this he was removed from his office, and Lord Crofts (age 51) took his place (Steinman's "Althorp Memoirs"). Lucy Walter took the name of Barlow during her wanderings.

Note 2. TT. Not clear who Colonel Robert Sidney is since Algernon Sidney (age 39) didn't have a brother called Robert. Algernon's brothers were Philip Sidney 3rd Earl of Leicester (age 43) and Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney (age 21).

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1662. To the Duke's to-day, but he is gone a-hunting, and therefore I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), and having spoke a little with him about his businesses, I to Westminster Hall [Map] and there staid long doing many businesses, and so home by the Temple [Map] and other places doing the like, and at home I found my wife dressing by appointment by her woman [Mrs. Gosnell.] that I think is to be, and her other sister being here to-day with her and my wife's brother, I took Mr. Creed, that came to dine, to an ordinary behind the Change [Map], and there dined together, and after dinner home and there spent an hour or two till almost dark, talking with my wife, and making Mrs. Gosnell sing; and then, there being no coach to be got, by water to White Hall; but Gosnell not being willing to go through bridge, we were forced to land and take water, again, and put her and her sister ashore at the Temple. I am mightily pleased with her humour and singing. At White Hall by appointment, Mr. Creed carried my wife and I to the Cockpitt [Map], and we had excellent places, and saw the King (age 32), Queen (age 23), Duke of Monmouth (age 13), his son, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), and all the fine ladies; and "The Scornful Lady", well performed. They had done by eleven o'clock, and it being fine moonshine, we took coach and home, but could wake nobody at my house, and so were fain to have my boy get through one of the windows, and so opened the door and called up the maids, and went to supper and to bed, my mind being troubled at what my wife tells me, that her woman will not come till she hears from her mother, for I am so fond of her that I am loth now not to have her, though I know it will be a great charge to me which I ought to avoid, and so will make it up in other things. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1662. So to my brother's and shoemaker, and so to my Lord Crew's, and dined alone with him, and after dinner much discourse about matters. Upon the whole, I understand there are great factions at Court, and something he said that did imply a difference like to be between the King (age 32) and the Duke (age 29), in case the Queen (age 24) should not be with child. I understand, about this bastard (age 13)1. He says, also, that some great man will be aimed at when Parliament comes to sit again; I understand, the Chancellor (age 53) and that there is a bill will be brought in, that none that have been in arms for the Parliament shall be capable of office. And that the Court are weary of my Lord Albemarle (age 54) and Chamberlin (age 60). He wishes that my Lord Sandwich (age 37) had some good occasion to be abroad this summer which is coming on, and that my Lord Hinchingbroke (age 14) were well married, and Sydney (age 12) had some place at Court. He pities the poor ministers that are put out, to whom, he says, the King (age 32) is beholden for his coming in, and that if any such thing had been foreseen he had never come in.

Note 1. James Crofts (age 13), son of Charles II by Lucy Walter, created Duke of Monmouth (age 13) in 1663, Duke of Buccleuch in 1673, when he took the name of Scott.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Dec 1662. After all was done, the company broke up; and I spent a little while walking up and down the gallery seeing the ladies, the Queens, and the Duke of Monmouth (age 13) with his little mistress, which is very little, and like my brother-in-law's wife.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1662. Thence to White Hall, where I carried my wife to see the [his grandmother] Queen (age 53) in her presence-chamber; and the maydes of honour and the young Duke of Monmouth (age 13) playing at cards. Some of them, and but a few, were very pretty; though all well dressed in velvet gowns.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. By my last year's diligence in my office, blessed be God! I am come to a good degree of knowledge therein; and am acknowledged so by all-the world, even the Duke himself, to whom I have a good access and by that, and my being Commissioner with him for Tangier, he takes much notice of me; and I doubt not but, by the continuance of the same endeavours, I shall in a little time come to be a man much taken notice of in the world, specially being come to so great an esteem with Mr. Coventry (age 34). The only weight that lies heavy upon my mind is the ending the business with my uncle Thomas about my-dead uncle's estate, which is very ill on our side, and I fear when all is done I must be forced to maintain my father myself, or spare a good deal towards it out of my own purse, which will be a very great pull back to me in my fortune. But I must be contented and bring it to an issue one way or other. Publique matters stand thus: the King (age 32) is bringing, as is said, his family, and Navy, and all other his charges, to a less expence. In the mean time, himself following his pleasures more than with good advice he would do; at least, to be seen to all the world to do so. His dalliance with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) being publique, every day, to his great reproach; and his favouring of none at Court so much as those that are the confidants of his pleasure, as Sir H. Bennet (age 44) and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32); which, good God! put it into his heart to mend, before he makes himself too much contemned by his people for it! The Duke of Monmouth (age 13) is in so great splendour at Court, and so dandled by the King (age 32), that some doubt, if the King (age 32) should have no child by the Queen (age 24) (which there is yet no appearance of), whether he would not be acknowledged for a lawful son; and that there will be a difference follow upon it between the Duke of York (age 29) and him; which God prevent!

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. By and by comes the King (age 32) and Queen (age 24), the Duke and Duchess, and all the great ones: and after seating themselves, the King (age 32) takes out the Duchess of York (age 25); and the Duke, the Duchess of Buckingham; the Duke of Monmouth (age 13), my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22); and so other lords other ladies: and they danced the Bransle1.

Note 1. Branle. Espece de danse de plusieurs personnes, qui se tiennent par la main, et qui se menent tour-a-tour. "Dictionnaire de l'Academie. A country dance mentioned by Shakespeare and other dramatists under the form of brawl, which word continued to be used in the eighteenth century. "My grave Lord Keeper led the brawls; The seals and maces danced before him". Gray, 'A Long Story.'

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. After that, the King (age 32) led a lady a single Coranto [swift and lively] and then the rest of the lords, one after another, other ladies very noble it was, and great pleasure to see. Then to country dances; the King (age 32) leading the first, which he called for; which was, says he, "Cuckolds all awry", the old dance of England. Of the ladies that danced, the Duke of Monmouth's (age 13) mistress, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and a daughter of Sir Harry de Vicke's, were the best. The manner was, when the King (age 32) dances, all the ladies in the room, and the Queen (age 24) herself, stand up: and indeed he dances rarely, and much better that the Duke of York (age 29). Having staid here as long as I thought fit, to my infinite content, it being the greatest pleasure I could wish now to see at Court, I went out, leaving them dancing, and to Mrs. Pierce's, where I found the company had staid very long for my coming, but all gone but my wife, and so I took her home by coach and so to my Lord's again, where after some supper to bed, very weary and in a little pain from my riding a little uneasily to-night in the coach.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1663. Another story was how Captain Ferrers and W. Howe both have often, through my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) window, seen her go to bed and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33) in the chamber all the while with her. But the other day Captn. Ferrers going to Sir Charles to excuse his not being so timely at his arms the other day, Sir Charles swearing and cursing told him before a great many other gentlemen that he would not suffer any man of the King's Guards to be absent from his lodging a night without leave. Not but that, says he, once a week or so I know a gentleman must go..., and I am not for denying it to any man, but however he shall be bound to ask leave to lie abroad, and to give account of his absence, that we may know what guard the King (age 32) has to depend upon. The little Duke of Monmouth (age 13), it seems, is ordered to take place of all Dukes, and so to follow Prince Rupert (age 43) now, before the Duke of Buckingham (age 35), or any else.

On 14 Feb 1663 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 13) was created 1st Duke Monmouth, 1st Earl Doncaster, 1st Baron Scott of Tynedale by [his father] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32).

On 28 Mar 1663 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 13) was appointed 467th Knight of the Garter by [his father] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Apr 1663. Here I also saw the Duke of Monmouth (age 13), with his Order of the Garter, the first time I ever saw it. I am told that the University of Cambridge did treat him a little while since with all the honour possible, with a comedy at Trinity College, and banquet; and made him Master of Arts there. All which, they say, the King (age 32) took very well. Dr. Raynbow, Master of Magdalen, being now Vice-Chancellor.

On 20 Apr 1663 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 14) and Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch (age 12) were married. She by marriage Duchess Monmouth. She the daughter of Francis Scott 2nd Earl Buccleuch and Margaret Leslie Countess Buccleuch and Wemyss (age 42). He the illegitmate son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32) and Lucy Walter.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1663. So to bed. This day the little Duke of Monmouth (age 14) was married at White Hall, in the King's chamber; and tonight is a great supper and dancing at his lodgings, near Charing-Cross. I observed his coat at the tail of his coach he gives the arms of England, Scotland, and France, quartered upon some other fields, but what it is that speaks his being a bastard I know not.

On 20 Apr 1663 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 14) was created 1st Duke Buccleuch, 1st Earl Dalkeith, 1st Baron Scott of Whitchester and Eskdale. Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch (age 12) by marriage Duchess Buccleuch.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1663. St. George's day and Coronacion, the King (age 32) and Court being at Windsor, at the installing of the King of Denmark (age 17)1 by proxy and the Duke of Monmouth (age 14).

Note 1. TT. Christian V King Denmark and Norway (age 17) didn't become King until 1670.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1663. At home with my wife and Ashwell talking of her going into the country this year, wherein we had like to have fallen out, she thinking that I have a design to have her go, which I have not, and to let her stay here I perceive will not be convenient, for she expects more pleasure than I can give her here, and I fear I have done very ill in letting her begin to learn to dance. The Queen (age 24) (which I did not know) it seems was at Windsor, at the late St. George's feast there; and the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) dancing with her with his hat in his hand, the King (age 32) came in and kissed him, and made him put on his hat, which every body took notice of.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1663. The talk being done, we fell off to White Hall, leaving the King (age 32) in the Park, and going back, met the Duke going towards St. James's to meet us. So he turned back again, and to his closett at White Hall; and there, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) present, we did our weekly errand, and so broke up; and I down into the garden with my Lord Sandwich (age 37) (after we had sat an hour at the Tangier Committee); and after talking largely of his own businesses, we begun to talk how matters are at Court: and though he did not flatly tell me any such thing, yet I do suspect that all is not kind between the King (age 32) and the Duke (age 29), and that the King's fondness to the little Duke (age 14) do occasion it; and it may be that there is some fear of his being made heir to the Crown. But this my Lord did not tell me, but is my guess only; and that my Chancellor (age 54) is without doubt falling past hopes.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1663. Then abroad to the Temple [Map], and up and down about business, and met Mr. Moore; and with him to an alehouse in Holborn; where in discourse he told me that he fears the King (age 32) will be tempted to endeavour the setting the Crown upon the little Duke (age 14), which may cause troubles; which God forbid, unless it be his due! He told me my Lord do begin to settle to business again, which I am glad of, for he must not sit out, now he has done his own business by getting his estate settled, and that the King (age 32) did send for him the other day to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), to play at cards, where he lost £50; for which I am sorry, though he says my Lord was pleased at it, and said he would be glad at any time to lose £50 for the King (age 32) to send for him to play, which I do not so well like.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. After dinner I went up to Sir Thomas Crew (age 39), who lies there not very well in his head, being troubled with vapours and fits of dizziness: and there I sat talking with him all the afternoon from one discourse to another, the most was upon the unhappy posture of things at this time; that the King (age 32) do mind nothing but pleasures, and hates the very sight or thoughts of business; that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) rules him, who, he says, hath all the tricks of Aretin1 that are to be practised to give pleasure. In which he is too able .... but what is the unhappiness in that, as the Italian proverb says, "lazzo dritto non vuolt consiglio [Translation: An erection seeks no advice]". If any of the sober counsellors give him good advice, and move him in anything that is to his good and honour, the other part, which are his counsellers of pleasure, take him when he is with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and in a humour of delight, and then persuade him that he ought not to hear nor listen to the advice of those old dotards or counsellors that were heretofore his enemies: when, God knows! it is they that now-a-days do most study his honour. It seems the present favourites now are my Lord Bristol (age 50), Duke of Buckingham (age 35), Sir H. Bennet (age 45), my Lord Ashley (age 41), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33); who, among them, have cast my Chancellor (age 54) upon his back, past ever getting up again; there being now little for him to do, and he waits at Court attending to speak to the King (age 32) as others do: which I pray God may prove of good effects, for it is feared it will be the same with my Lord Treasurer (age 56) shortly. But strange to hear how my Lord Ashley (age 41), by my Lord Bristol's (age 50) means (he being brought over to the Catholique party against the Bishopps, whom he hates to the death, and publicly rails against them; not that he is become a Catholique, but merely opposes the Bishopps; and yet, for aught I hear, the Bishopp of London (age 64) keeps as great with the King (age 32) as ever) is got into favour, so much that, being a man of great business and yet of pleasure, and drolling too, he, it is thought, will be made Lord Treasurer (age 56) upon the death or removal of the good old man. My Lord Albemarle (age 54), I hear, do bear through and bustle among them, and will not be removed from the King's good opinion and favour, though none of the Cabinett; but yet he is envied enough. It is made very doubtful whether the King (age 32) do not intend the making of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) legitimate2; but surely the Commons of England will never do it, nor the Duke of York (age 29) suffer it, whose lady (age 26), I am told, is very troublesome to him by her jealousy.

Note 1. An allusion to Aretin's infamous letters and sonnets accompanying the as infamous "Postures" engraved by Marc Antonio from the designs of Julio Romano (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1871).

Note 2. Thomas Ross, Monmouth's tutor, put the idea into his head that Charles II had married his mother. The report was sedulously spread abroad, and obtained some kind of credence, until, in June, 1678, the King (age 32) set the matter at rest by publishing a declaration, which was entered in the Council book and registered in Chancery. The words of the declaration are: "That to avoid any dispute which might happen in time to come concerning the succession of the Crown, he (Charles) did declare, in the presence of Almighty God, that he never gave, nor made any contract of marriage, nor was married to Mrs. Barlow, alias Waters, the Duke of Monmouth's (age 14) mother, nor to any other woman whatsoever, but to his present wife, Queen (age 24) Catherine, then living".

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. He tells me that the King (age 33) by name, with all his dignities, is prayed for by them that they call Fanatiques, as heartily and powerfully as in any of the other churches that are thought better: and that, let the King (age 33) think what he will, it is them that must helpe him in the day of warr. For as they are the most, so generally they are the most substantial sort of people, and the soberest; and did desire me to observe it to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), among other things, that of all the old army now you cannot see a man begging about the street; but what? You shall have this captain turned a shoemaker; the lieutenant, a baker; this a brewer; that a haberdasher; this common soldier, a porter; and every man in his apron and frock, &c., as if they never had done anything else: whereas the others go with their belts and swords, swearing and cursing, and stealing; running into people's houses, by force oftentimes, to carry away something; and this is the difference between the temper of one and the other; and concludes (and I think with some reason,) that the spirits of the old parliament soldiers are so quiett and contented with God's providences, that the King (age 33) is safer from any evil meant him by them one thousand times more than from his own discontented Cavalier. And then to the publique management of business: it is done, as he observes, so loosely and so carelessly, that the Kingdom can never be happy with it, every man looking after himself, and his owne lust and luxury; among other things he instanced in the business of money, he do believe that half of what money the Parliament gives the King (age 33) is not so much as gathered. And to the purpose he told me how the Bellamys (who had some of the Northern counties assigned them for their debt for the petty warrant victualling) have often complained to him that they cannot get it collected, for that nobody minds, or, if they do, they won't pay it in. Whereas (which is a very remarkable thing,) he hath been told by some of the Treasurers at Warr here of late, to whom the most of the £120,000 monthly was paid, that for most months the payments were gathered so duly, that they seldom had so much or more than 40s., or the like, short in the whole collection; whereas now the very Commissioners for Assessments and other publique payments are such persons, and those that they choose in the country so like themselves, that from top to bottom there is not a man carefull of any thing, or if he be, he is not solvent; that what between the beggar and the knave, the King (age 33) is abused the best part of all his revenue. From thence we began to talk of the Navy, and particularly of Sir W. Pen (age 42), of whose rise to be a general I had a mind to be informed. He told me he was always a conceited man, and one that would put the best side outward, but that it was his pretence of sanctity that brought him into play. Lawson, and Portman, and the Fifth-monarchy men, among whom he was a great brother, importuned that he might be general; and it was pleasant to see how Blackburne himself did act it, how when the Commissioners of the Admiralty would enquire of the captains and admirals of such and such men, how they would with a sigh and casting up the eyes say, "Such a man fears the Lord", or, "I hope such a man hath the Spirit of God", and such things as that. But he tells me that there was a cruel articling against Pen after one fight, for cowardice, in putting himself within a coyle of cables, of which he had much ado to acquit himself: and by great friends did it, not without remains of guilt, but that his brethren had a mind to pass it by, and Sir H. Vane did advise him to search his heart, and see whether this fault or a greater sin was not the occasion of this so great tryall. And he tells me, that what Pen gives out about Cromwell's sending and entreating him to go to Jamaica, is very false; he knows the contrary: besides, the Protector never was a man that needed to send for any man, specially such a one as he, twice. He tells me that the business of Jamaica did miscarry absolutely by his pride, and that when he was in the Tower he would cry like a child. This he says of his own personal knowledge, and lastly tells me that just upon the turne, when Monk (age 54) was come from the North to the City, and did begin to think of bringing in the King (age 33), Pen was then turned Quaker. This he is most certain of. He tells me that Lawson was never counted any thing but only a seaman, and a stout man, but a false man, and that now he appears the greatest hypocrite in the world. And Pen the same. He tells me that it is much talked of, that the King (age 33) intends to legitimate the Duke of Monmouth (age 14); and that he has not, nor his friends of his persuasion, have any hopes of getting their consciences at liberty but by God Almighty's turning of the King's heart, which they expect, and are resolved to live and die in quiett hopes of it; but never to repine, or act any thing more than by prayers towards it. And that not only himself but all of them have, and are willing at any time to take the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy. Thus far, and upon many more things, we had discoursed when some persons in a room hard by began to sing in three parts very finely and to play upon a flagilette so pleasantly that my discourse afterwards was but troublesome, and I could not attend it, and so, anon, considering of a sudden the time of night, we found it 11 o'clock, which I thought it had not been by two hours, but we were close in talk, and so we rose, he having drunk some wine and I some beer and sugar, and so by a fair moonshine home and to bed, my wife troubled with tooth ache.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. The Duke of Monmouth (age 14) is to have part of the Cockpitt [Map] new built for lodgings for him, and they say to be made Captain of the Guards in the room of my Lord Gerard (age 45). Having thus talked with him, there comes into the Hall Creed and Ned Pickering (age 45), and after a turne or two with them, it being noon, I walked with them two to the King's Head ordinary, and there we dined; little discourse but what was common, only that the Duke of Yorke (age 30) is a very, desperate huntsman, but I was ashamed of Pickering, who could not forbear having up my Lord Sandwich (age 38) now and then in the most paltry matters abominable.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Dec 1663. Up, and after being ready and done several businesses with people, I took water (taking a dram of the bottle at the waterside) with a gaily, the first that ever I had yet, and down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], calling at Ham Creeke, where I met Deane (age 30), and had a great deal of talke with him about business, and so to the Ropeyard [Map]e and Docke, discoursing several things, and so back again and did the like at Deptford, and I find that it is absolutely necessary for me to do thus once a weeke at least all the yeare round, which will do me great good, and so home with great ease and content, especially out of the content which I met with in a book I bought yesterday, being a discourse of the state of Rome under the present Pope, Alexander the 7th, it being a very excellent piece. After eating something at home, then to my office, where till night about business to dispatch. Among other people came Mr. Primate, the leather seller, in Fleete Streete, to see me, he says, coming this way; and he tells me that he is upon a proposal to the King (age 33), whereby, by a law already in being, he will supply the King (age 33), without wrong to any man, or charge to the people in general, so much as it is now, above £200,000 per annum, and God knows what, and that the King (age 33) do like the proposal, and hath directed that the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), with their consent, be made privy, and go along with him and his fellow proposer in the business, God knows what it is; for I neither can guess nor believe there is any such thing in his head.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1664. Home to dinner, and after dinner my wife and I by water, which we have not done together many a day, that is not since last summer, but the weather is now very warm, and left her at Axe Yard [Map], and I to White Hall, and meeting Mr. Pierce walked with him an hour in the Matted Gallery; among other things he tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine (age 23) is not at all set by by the King (age 33), but that he do doat upon Mrs. Stewart (age 16) only; and that to the leaving of all business in the world, and to the open slighting of the [his grandmother] Queene (age 54); that he values not who sees him or stands by him while he dallies with her openly; and then privately in her chamber below, where the very sentrys observe his going in and out; and that so commonly, that the Duke (age 30) or any of the nobles, when they would ask where the King (age 33) is, they will ordinarily say, "Is the King (age 33) above, or below?" meaning with Mrs. Stewart (age 16): that the King (age 33) do not openly disown my Baroness Castlemaine (age 23), but that she comes to Court; but that my Lord FitzHarding (age 34) and the Hambletons1, and sometimes my Lord Sandwich (age 38), they say, have their snaps at her. But he says my Lord Sandwich (age 38) will lead her from her lodgings in the darkest and obscurest manner, and leave her at the entrance into the Queene's (age 54) lodgings, that he might be the least observed; that the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) the King (age 33) do still doat on beyond measure, insomuch that the King (age 33) only, the Duke of York (age 30), and Prince Rupert (age 44), and the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), do now wear deep mourning, that is, long cloaks, for the Duchesse of Savoy; so that he mourns as a Prince of the Blood, while the Duke of York (age 30) do no more, and all the nobles of the land not so much; which gives great offence, and he says the Duke of York (age 30) do consider. But that the Duke of York (age 30) do give himself up to business, and is like to prove a noble Prince; and so indeed I do from my heart think he will. He says that it is believed, as well as hoped, that care is taken to lay up a hidden treasure of money by the King (age 33) against a bad day, pray God it be so! but I should be more glad that the King (age 33) himself would look after business, which it seems he do not in the least.

Note 1. The three brothers, George Hamilton, James Hamilton (age 34), and the Count Antoine Hamilton (age 18), author of the "Memoires de Grammont"..

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1664. Up, and by coach called upon Mr. Phillips, and after a little talk with him away to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), but he being gone abroad, I staid a little and talked with Mr. Howe, and so to Westminster in term time, and there met Mr. Pierce, who told me largely how the King (age 33) still do doat upon his women, even beyond all shame; and that the good Queen (age 25) will of herself stop before she goes sometimes into her dressing-room, till she knows whether the King (age 33) be there, for fear he should be, as she hath sometimes taken him, with Mrs. Stewart (age 16); and that some of the best parts of the Queen's (age 25) joynture are, contrary to faith, and against the opinion of my Lord Treasurer (age 56) and his Council, bestowed or rented, I know not how, to my Lord Fitz-Harding (age 34) and Mrs. Stewart (age 16), and others of that crew that the King (age 33) do doat infinitely upon the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), apparently as one that he intends to have succeed him. God knows what will be the end of it!

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. There was a French book in verse, the other day, translated and presented to the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) in such a high stile, that the Duke of York (age 30), he tells me, was mightily offended at it.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. This evening came Mr. Alsopp the King's brewer, with whom I spent an houre talking and bewailing the posture of things at present; the King (age 33) led away by half-a-dozen men, that none of his serious servants and friends can come at him. These are Lauderdale (age 47), Buckingham (age 36), Hamilton, Fitz-Harding (age 34) (to whom he hath, it seems, given £2,000 per annum in the best part of the King's estate); and that that the old Duke of Buckingham could never get of the King (age 33). Progers is another, and Sir H. Bennett (age 46). He loves not the Queen (age 25) at all, but is rather sullen to her; and she, by all reports, incapable of children. He is so fond of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), that every body admires it; and he says the Duke hath said, that he would be the death of any man that says the King (age 33) was not married to his mother: though Alsopp says, it is well known that she was a common whore before the King (age 33) lay with her. But it seems, he says, that the King (age 33) is mighty kind to these his bastard children; and at this day will go at midnight to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 23) nurses, and take the child and dance it in his arms: that he is not likely to have his tables up again in his house1, for the crew that are about him will not have him come to common view again, but keep him obscurely among themselves. He hath this night, it seems, ordered that the Hall (which there is a ball to be in to-night before the King (age 33)) be guarded, as the [his grandmother] Queen-Mother's (age 54) is, by his Horse Guards; whereas heretofore they were by the Lord Chamberlain or Steward, and their people. But it is feared they will reduce all to the soldiery, and all other places taken away; and what is worst of all, that he will alter the present militia, and bring all to a flying army.

Note 1. The tables at which the King (age 33) dined in public.-B.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. The Duke of Monmouth's (age 14) [his mother] mother's brother hath a place at Court; and being a Welchman (I think he told me) will talk very broad of the King's being married to his sister.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1664. Up and to my office, whither by and by comes Mr. Cholmely (age 31), and staying till the rest of the company come he told me how Mr. Edward Montagu (age 29) is turned out of the Court, not [to] return again. His fault, I perceive, was his pride, and most of all his affecting to seem great with the [his grandmother] Queene (age 54) and it seems indeed had more of her eare than any body else, and would be with her talking alone two or three hours together; insomuch that the Lords about the King (age 33), when he would be jesting with them about their wives, would tell the King (age 33) that he must have a care of his wife too, for she hath now the gallant: and they say the King (age 33) himself did once ask Montagu (age 29) how his mistress (meaning the Queene (age 54)) did. He grew so proud, and despised every body, besides suffering nobody, he or she, to get or do any thing about the Queene (age 54), that they all laboured to do him a good turn. They also say that he did give some affront to the Duke of Monmouth (age 15), which the King (age 33) himself did speak to him of. But strange it is that this man should, from the greatest negligence in the world, come to be the miracle of attendance, so as to take all offices from everybody, either men or women, about the Queene (age 54). Insomuch that he was observed as a miracle, but that which is the worst, that which in a wise manner performed [would] turn to his greatest advantage, was by being so observed employed to his greatest wrong, the world concluding that there must be something more than ordinary to cause him to do this. So he is gone, nobody pitying but laughing at him; and he pretends only that he is gone to his father, that is sick in the country.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Nov 1664. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and Sir W. Batten (age 63) to the Council Chamber at White Hall, to the Committee of the Lords for the Navy, where we were made to wait an houre or two before called in. In that time looking upon some books of heraldry of Sir Edward Walker's making, which are very fine, there I observed the Duke of Monmouth's (age 15) armes are neatly done, and his title, "The most noble and high-born Prince, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth (age 15), &c."; nor could Sir J. Minnes (age 65), nor any body there, tell whence he should take the name of Scott? And then I found my Lord Sandwich (age 39), his title under his armes is, "The most noble and mighty Lord, Edward, Earl of Sandwich, &c".

Pepy's Diary. 03 Feb 1665. So home, and among other letters found one from Jane, that is newly gone, telling me how her mistresse won't pay her her Quarter's wages, and withal tells me how her mistress will have the boy sit 3 or 4 hours together in the dark telling of stories, but speaks of nothing but only her indiscretion in undervaluing herself to do it, but I will remedy that, but am vexed she should get some body to write so much because of making it publique. Then took coach and to visit my Lady Sandwich (age 40), where she discoursed largely to me her opinion of a match, if it could be thought fit by my Lord, for my Lady Jemimah, with Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) eldest son; but I doubt he hath yet no settled estate in land. But I will inform myself, and give her my opinion. Then Mrs. Pickering (age 23) (after private discourse ended, we going into the other room) did, at my Lady's command, tell me the manner of a masquerade1 before the King (age 34) and Court the other day. Where six women (my Baroness Castlemayne (age 24) and Duchesse of Monmouth being two of them) and six men (the Duke of Monmouth (age 15) and Lord Arran (age 25) and Monsieur Blanfort, being three of them) in vizards, but most rich and antique dresses, did dance admirably and most gloriously. God give us cause to continue the mirthe! So home, and after awhile at my office to supper and to bed.

Note 1. The masquerade at Court took place on the 2nd, and is referred to by Evelyn, who was present, in his Diary. Some amusing incidents connected with the entertainment are related in the "Grammont Memoirs (chapter vii.).

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Feb 1665. I was invited to a great feast at Mr. Rich's (a relation of my wife's (age 30), now reader at Lincoln's Inn); where was the Duke of Monmouth (age 15), the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 66), Bishops of London (age 33) and Winchester (age 66), the Speaker of the House of Commons (age 48), divers of the Judges, and several other great men.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jul 1665. And then up and home, and there dressed myself, and by appointment to Deptford, Kent [Map], to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), between six and seven o'clock, where I found him and my George Carteret 1st Baronet (age 55) and Lady (age 63) almost ready, and by and by went over to the ferry, and took coach and six horses nobly for Dagenhams, himself and lady and their little daughter, Louisonne, and myself in the coach; where, when we come, we were bravely entertained and spent the day most pleasantly with the young ladies, and I so merry as never more. Only for want of sleep, and drinking of strong beer had a rheum in one of my eyes, which troubled me much. Here with great content all the day, as I think I ever passed a day in my life, because of the contentfulnesse of our errand, and the noblenesse of the company and our manner of going. But I find Mr. Carteret (age 24) yet as backward almost in his caresses, as he was the first day. At night, about seven o'clock, took coach again; but, Lord! to see in what a pleasant humour Sir G. Carteret (age 55) hath been both coming and going; so light, so fond, so merry, so boyish (so much content he takes in this business), it is one of the greatest wonders I ever saw in my mind. But once in serious discourse he did say that, if he knew his son to be a debauchee, as many and, most are now-a-days about the Court, he would tell it, and my Lady Jem. should not have him; and so enlarged both he and she about the baseness and looseness of the Court, and told several stories of the Duke of Monmouth (age 16), and Richmond (age 26), and some great person, my Lord of Ormond's (age 54) second son (age 26), married to a Richard Butler 1st Earl Arran (age 26) and lady (age 14) of extraordinary quality (fit and that might have been made a wife for the King (age 35) himself), about six months since, that this great person hath given the pox to---; and discoursed how much this would oblige the Kingdom if the King (age 35) would banish some of these great persons publiquely from the Court, and wished it with all their hearts.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1665. The Duke of Monmouth (age 16) is the most skittish leaping gallant that ever I saw, always in action, vaulting or leaping, or clambering.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1665. Up, and after doing a little business, down to Deptford, Kent [Map] with Sir W. Batten (age 64), and there left him, and I to Greenwich, Kent [Map] to the Park, where I hear the King (age 35) and Duke (age 31) are come by water this morn from Hampton Court [Map]. They asked me several questions. The King (age 35) mightily pleased with his new buildings there. I followed them to Castle's (age 36) ship in building, and there, met Sir W. Batten (age 64), and thence to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), where all the morning with them; they not having any but the Duke of Monmouth (age 16), and Sir W. Killigrew (age 59), and one gentleman, and a page more. Great variety of talk, and was often led to speak to the King (age 35) and Duke (age 31).

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1666. Thence walked to Mr. Pierce's, and there dined, I alone with him and her and their children: very good company and good discourse, they being able to tell me all the businesses of the Court; the amours and the mad doings that are there; how for certain Mrs. Stewart (age 18) do do everything with the King (age 35) that a mistress should do; and that the King (age 35) hath many bastard children that are known and owned, besides the Duke of Monmouth (age 17). After a great deale of this discourse I walked thence into the Parke with her little boy James with me, who is the wittiest boy and the best company in the world, and so back again through White Hall both coming and going, and people did generally take him to be my boy and some would aske me.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1666. Presently after the King (age 36) was come in, he took the [his grandmother] Queene (age 56), and about fourteen more couple there was, and began the Bransles. As many of the men as I can remember presently, were, the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 33), Prince Rupert (age 46), Duke of Monmouth (age 17), Duke of Buckingham (age 38), Lord Douglas (age 20), Mr. [George] Hamilton (age 59), Colonell Russell (age 46), Mr. Griffith, Lord Ossory (age 32), Lord Rochester (age 19); and of the ladies, the Queene (age 56), Duchess of York (age 29), Mrs. Stewart (age 19), Duchess of Monmouth (age 15), Lady Essex Howard, Mrs. Temples (age 17), Swedes Embassadress, Lady Arlington (age 32); Lord George Barkeley's daughter (age 16) [Note. Assumed Elizabeth], and many others I remember not; but all most excellently dressed in rich petticoats and gowns, and dyamonds, and pearls.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1666. Up, and by water to the Exchequer, where I got my tallys finished for the last quarter for Tangier, and having paid all my fees I to the Swan [Map], whither I sent for some oysters, and thither comes Mr. Falconbridge and Spicer and many more clerks; and there we eat and drank, and a great deal of their sorry discourse, and so parted, and I by coach home, meeting Balty (age 26) in the streete about Charing Crosse (age 17) walking, which I am glad to see and spoke to him about his mustering business, I being now to give an account how the several muster-masters have behaved themselves, and so home to dinner, where finding the cloth laid and much crumpled but clean, I grew angry and flung the trenchers about the room, and in a mighty heat I was: so a clean cloth was laid, and my poor wife very patient, and so to dinner, and in comes Mrs. Barbara Sheldon, now Mrs. Wood, and dined with us, she mighty fine, and lives, I perceive, mighty happily, which I am glad [of] for her sake, but hate her husband for a block-head in his choice.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1666. Thence in the evening round by coach home, where I find Foundes his present, of a fair pair of candlesticks, and half a dozen of plates come, which cost him full £50, and is a very good present; and here I met with, sealed up, from Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), the lampoone, or the Mocke-Advice to a Paynter1, abusing the Duke of York (age 33) and my Lord Sandwich (age 41), Pen (age 45), and every body, and the King (age 36) himself, in all the matters of the navy and warr. I am sorry for my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) having so great a part in it. Then to supper and musique, and to bed.

Note 1. In a broadside (1680), quoted by Mr. G. T. Drury in his edition of Waller's Poems, 1893, satirical reference is made to the fashionable form of advice to the painter. "Each puny brother of the rhyming trade At every turn implores the Painter's aid, And fondly enamoured of own foul brat Cries in an ecstacy, Paint this, draw that". The series was continued, for we find "Advice to a Painter upon the Defeat of the Rebels in the West and the Execution of the late Duke of Monmouth (age 17)" ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 148); "Advice to a Painter, being a Satire on the French King", &c., 1692, and "Advice to a Painter", 1697 ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 428).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1666. Left them, and in the dark and cold home by water, and so to supper and to read and so to bed, my eyes being better to-day, and I cannot impute it to anything but by my being much in the dark to-night, for I plainly find that it is only excess of light that makes my eyes sore. This after noon I walked with Lord Bruncker (age 46) into the Park and there talked of the times, and he do think that the King (age 36) sees that he cannot never have much more money or good from this Parliament, and that therefore he may hereafter dissolve them, that as soon as he has the money settled he believes a peace will be clapped up, and that there are overtures of a peace, which if such as the Chancellor (age 57) can excuse he will take. For it is the Chancellor's (age 57) interest, he says, to bring peace again, for in peace he can do all and command all, but in war he cannot, because he understands not the nature of the war as to the management thereof. He tells me he do not believe the Duke of York (age 33) will go to sea again, though there are a great many about the King (age 36) that would be glad of any occasion to take him out of the world, he standing in their ways; and seemed to mean the Duke of Monmouth (age 17), who spends his time the most viciously and idly of any man, nor will be fit for any thing; yet bespeaks as if it were not impossible but the King (age 36) would own him for his son, and that there was a marriage between his [his mother] mother and him; which God forbid should be if it be not true, nor will the Duke of York (age 33) easily be gulled in it. But this put to our other distractions makes things appear very sad, and likely to be the occasion of much confusion in a little time, and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) seems to say that nothing can help us but the King's making a peace soon as he hath this money; and thereby putting himself out of debt, and so becoming a good husband, and then he will neither need this nor any other Parliament, till he can have one to his mind: for no Parliament can, as he says, be kept long good, but they will spoil one another, and that therefore it hath been the practice of kings to tell Parliaments what he hath for them to do, and give them so long time to do it in, and no longer. Harry Kembe, one of our messengers, is lately dead.

In 1667 [his father] King Chales II (age 36), his brother [his uncle] James (age 33), Prince Rupert (age 47) and James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 17) dined with Richard Neville (age 51) at Billingbear House, Waltham St Lawrence.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Apr 1667. Up, and having dressed myself, to the office a little, and out, expecting to have seen the pretty daughter of the Ship [Map] taverne at the hither end of Billiter Lane (whom I never yet have opportunity to speak to). I in there to drink my morning draught of half a pint of Rhenish wine; but a ma doleur elle and their family are going away thence, and a new man come to the house. So I away to the Temple [Map], to my new. bookseller's; and there I did agree for Rycaut's late History of the Turkish Policy, which costs me 55s.; whereas it was sold plain before the late fire for 8s., and bound and coloured as this is for 20s.; for I have bought it finely bound and truly coloured, all the figures, of which there was but six books done so, whereof the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33), and Duke of Monmouth (age 17), and Lord Arlington, had four. The fifth was sold, and I have bought the sixth.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1667. She is gone yesterday with her Lord to Cobham, Kent. He did tell me of the ridiculous humour of our King and Knights of the Garter the other day, who, whereas heretofore their robes were only to be worn during their ceremonies and service, these, as proud of their coats, did wear them all day till night, and then rode into the Parke with them on. Nay, and he tells me he did see my Lord Oxford (age 40) and the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) in a Hackney-coach with two footmen in the Parke, with their robes on; which is a most scandalous thing, so as all gravity may be said to be lost among us.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1667. After dinner comes Fist, and he and I to our report again till 9 o'clock, and then by coach to my Chancellor's (age 58), where I met Mr. Povy (age 53), expecting the coming of the rest of the Commissioners for Tangier. Here I understand how the two Dukes, both the only sons of the Duke of York (age 33), are sick even to danger, and that on Sunday last they were both so ill, as that the poor Duchess (age 30) was in doubt which would die first: the Duke of Cambridge (age 3) of some general disease; the other little Duke (age 18), whose title I know not, of the convulsion fits, of which he had four this morning. Fear that either of them might be dead, did make us think that it was the occasion that the Duke of York (age 33) and others were not come to the meeting of the Commission which was designed, and my Chancellor (age 58) did expect.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jun 1667. Up; and there comes to me Mr. Commander, whom I employ about hiring of some ground behind the office, for the building of me a stable and coach-house: for I do find it necessary for me, both in respect to honour and the profit of it also, my expense in Hackney-coaches being now so great, to keep a coach, and therefore will do it. Having given him some instructions about it, I to the office, where we sat all the morning; where we have news that our peace with Spayne, as to trade, is wholly concluded, and we are to furnish him with some men for Flanders against the French. How that will agree with the French, I know not; but they say that he also hath liberty, to get what men he pleases out of England. But for the Spaniard, I hear that my Lord Castlehaven (age 50) is raising a regiment of 4000 men, which he is to command there; and several young gentlemen are going over in commands with him: and they say the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) is going over only as a traveller, not to engage on either side, but only to see the campagne, which will be becoming him much more than to live whoreing and rogueing, as he now do.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jun 1667. To Sir W. Coventry (age 39), and there talked with him a great while; and mighty glad I was of my good fortune to visit him, for it keeps in my acquaintance with him, and the world sees it, and reckons my interest accordingly. In comes my Lord Barkeley (age 65), who is going down to Harwich [Map] also to look after the militia there: and there is also the Duke of Monmouth (age 18), and with him a great many young Hectors, the Lord Chesterfield (age 33), my Lord Mandeville (age 33), and others: but to little purpose, I fear, but to debauch the country women thereabouts. My Lord Barkeley (age 65) wanting some maps, and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) recommending the six maps of England that are bound up for the pocket, I did offer to present my Lord with them, which he accepted: and so I will send them him.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Sep 1667. But here come Mr. Moore, and sat and discoursed with me of publique matters: the sum of which is, that he do doubt that there is more at the bottom than the removal of the Chancellor (age 58); that is, he do verily believe that the King (age 37) do resolve to declare the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) legitimate, and that we shall soon see it. This I do not think the Duke of York (age 33) will endure without blows; but his poverty, and being lessened by having the Chancellor (age 58) fallen and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) gone from him, will disable him from being able to do any thing almost, he being himself almost lost in the esteem of people; and will be more and more, unless my Chancellor (age 58), who is already begun to be pitied by some people, and to be better thought of than was expected, do recover himself in Parliament. He would seem to fear that this difference about the Crowne (if there be nothing else) will undo us. He do say that, that is very true; that my Lord [Chancellor (age 58)] did lately make some stop of some grants of £2000 a-year to my Lord Grandison (age 50), which was only in his name, for the use of my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 26) children; and that this did incense her, and she did speak very scornful words, and sent a scornful message to him about it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1667. And he tells me that he do think that what the King (age 37) do, of giving the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) the command of his Guards, and giving my Lord Gerard (age 49) £12,000 for it, is merely to find an employment for him upon which he may live, and not out of any design to bring him into any title to the Crowne; which Mr. Moore did the other day put me into great fear of.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1667. Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) do not seem to think there is any such thing can be in the King's intention as that of raising the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) to the Crowne, though he thinks there may possibly be some persons that would, and others that would be glad to have the Queen (age 28) removed to some monastery, or somewhere or other, to make room for a new wife; for they will all be unsafe under the Duke of York (age 33). He says the King (age 37) and Parliament will agree; that is, that the King (age 37) will do any thing that they will have him. We together to the Exchequer about our Tangier orders, and so parted at the New Exchange, where I staid reading Mrs. Phillips's poems till my wife and Mercer called me to Mrs. Pierce's, by invitation to dinner, where I find her painted, which makes me loathe her, and the nastiest poor dinner that made me sick, only here I met with a Fourth Advice to the Painter upon the coming in of the Dutch to the River and end of the war, that made my heart ake to read, it being too sharp, and so true. Here I also saw a printed account of the examinations taken, touching the burning of the City of London, shewing the plot of the Papists therein; which, it seems, hath been ordered and to have been burnt by the hands of the hangman, in Westminster Palace. I will try to get one of them.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1667. Thence home, and there met Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and he and I to the Excise Office to see what tallies are paying, and thence back to the Old Exchange [Map], by the way talking of news, and he owning Sir W. Coventry (age 39), in his opinion, to be one of the worthiest men in the nation, as I do really think he is. He tells me he do think really that they will cut off my Chancellor's (age 58) head, the Chancellor (age 58) at this day showing as much pride as is possible to those few that venture their fortunes by coming to see him; and that the Duke of York (age 34) is troubled much, knowing that those that fling down the Chancellor (age 58) cannot stop there, but will do something to him, to prevent his having it in his power hereafter to avenge himself and father-in-law upon them. And this Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) fears may be by divorcing the Queen (age 28) and getting another, or declaring the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) legitimate; which God forbid! He tells me he do verily believe that there will come in an impeachment of High Treason against my Lord of Ormond (age 57); among other things, for ordering the quartering of soldiers in Ireland on free quarters; which, it seems, is High Treason in that country, and was one of the things that lost the Lord Strafford his head, and the law is not yet repealed; which, he says, was a mighty oversight of him not to have it repealed, which he might with ease have done, or have justified himself by an Act. From the Exchange [Map] I took a coach, and went to Turlington, the great spectacle-maker, for advice, who dissuades me from using old spectacles, but rather young ones, and do tell me that nothing can wrong my eyes more than for me to use reading-glasses, which do magnify much.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Dec 1667. Up, and to the office, where very busy all the morning, and then in the afternoon I with Sir W. Pen (age 46) and Sir T. Harvy (age 42) to White Hall to attend the Duke of York (age 34), who is now as well as ever, and there we did our usual business with him, and so away home with Sir W. Pen (age 46), and there to the office, where pretty late doing business, my wife having been abroad all day with Mrs. Turner (age 44) buying of one thing or other. This day I do hear at White Hall that the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) is sick, and in danger of the smallpox.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1667. Thence to White Hall, and there to visit Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and there was with him a great while, and my Lady and they seem in very good humour, but by and by Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I alone, and there we did talk of the ruinous condition we are in, the King (age 37) being going to put out of the Council so many able men; such as my Lord Anglesey (age 53), Ashly (age 46), Hollis (age 68), Secretary Morrice (age 65) (to bring in Mr. Trevor), and the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 69), and my Lord Bridgewater (age 44). He tells me that this is true, only the Duke of York (age 34) do endeavour to hinder it, and the Duke of York (age 34) himself did tell him so: that the King (age 37) and the Duke of York (age 34) do not in company disagree, but are friendly; but that there is a core in their hearts, he doubts, which is not to be easily removed; for these men do suffer only for their constancy to the Chancellor (age 58), or at least from the King's ill-will against him: that they do now all they can to vilify the clergy, and do accuse Rochester, Kent [Map] [Dolben]... and so do raise scandals, all that is possible, against other of the Bishops. He do suggest that something is intended for the Duke of Monmouth (age 18), and it may be, against the [his grandmother] Queene (age 58) also: that we are in no manner sure against an invasion the next year: that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) do rule all now, and the Duke of York (age 34) comes indeed to the Caball, but signifies little there. That this new faction do not endure, nor the King (age 37), Sir W. Coventry (age 39); but yet that he is so usefull that they cannot be without him; but that he is not now called to the Caball. That my Lord of Buckingham (age 39), Bristoll (age 55), and Arlington (age 49), do seem to agree in these things; but that they do not in their hearts trust one another, but do drive several ways, all of them. In short, he do bless himself that he is no more concerned in matters now; and the hopes he hath of being at liberty, when his accounts are over, to retire into the country. That he do give over the Kingdom for wholly lost. So after some other little discourse, I away, meeting with Mr. Cooling. I with him by coach to the Wardrobe, where I never was since the fire in Hatton Garden [Map], but did not 'light: and he tells me he fears that my Lord Sandwich (age 42) will suffer much by Mr. Townsend's being untrue to him, he being now unable to give the Commissioners of the Treasury an account of his money received by many thousands of pounds, which I am troubled for.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jan 1668. Thence by coach to Mrs. Pierce's, where my wife and Deb. is; and there they fell to discourse of the last night's work at Court, where the ladies and Duke of Monmouth (age 18) and others acted "The Indian Emperour"; wherein they told me these things most remark able: that not any woman but the Duchesse of Monmouth (age 16) and Mrs. Cornwallis (age 18) did any thing but like fools and stocks, but that these two did do most extraordinary well: that not any man did any thing well but Captain O'Bryan, who spoke and did well, but, above all things, did dance most incomparably. That she did sit near the players of the Duke's house; among the rest, Mis Davis (age 20), who is the most impertinent slut, she says, in the world; and the more, now the King (age 37) do show her countenance; and is reckoned his mistress, even to the scorne of the whole world; the King (age 37) gazing on her, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) being melancholy and out of humour, all the play, not smiling once. The King (age 37), it seems, hath given her a ring of £700, which she shews to every body, and owns that the King (age 37) did give it her; and he hath furnished a house for her in Suffolke Street most richly, which is a most infinite shame. It seems she is a bastard of Colonell Howard, my Lord Berkshire (age 80), and that he do pimp to her for the King (age 37), and hath got her for him; but Pierce says that she is a most homely jade as ever she saw, though she dances beyond any thing in the world. She tells me that the Duchesse of Richmond (age 20) do not yet come to the Court, nor hath seen the King (age 37), nor will not, nor do he own his desire of seeing her; but hath used means to get her to Court, but they do not take.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1668. So to the fishmonger's, and bought a couple of lobsters, and over to the sparagus garden, thinking to have met Mr. Pierce, and his wife and Knepp; but met their servant coming to bring me to Chatelin's, the French house, in Covent Garden [Map], and there with musick and good company, Manuel and his wife, and one Swaddle, a clerk of Lord Arlington's (age 50), who dances, and speaks French well, but got drunk, and was then troublesome, and here mighty merry till ten at night, and then I away, and got a coach, and so home, where I find Balty (age 28) and his wife come to town, and did sup with them, and so they to bed. This night the Duke of Monmouth (age 19) and a great many blades were at Chatelin's, and I left them there, with a Hackney-coach attending him.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1668. So to the office, and thence to St. James's to the Duke of York (age 34), walking it to the Temple [Map], and in my way observe that the Stockes are now pulled quite down; and it will make the coming into Cornhill [Map] and Lumber Street mighty noble. I stopped, too, at Paul's, and there did go into St. Fayth's Church [Map], and also in the body of the west part of the Church; and do see a hideous sight of the walls of the Church ready to fall, that I was in fear as long as I was in it: and here I saw the great vaults underneath the body of the Church. No hurt, I hear, is done yet, since their going to pull down the Church and steeple; but one man, on Monday this week, fell from the top to a piece of the roof, of the east end, that stands next the steeple, and there broke himself all to pieces. It is pretty here to see how the late Church was but a case wrought over the old Church; for you may see the very old pillars standing whole within the wall of this. When I come to St. James's, I find the Duke of York (age 34) gone with the King (age 38) to see the muster of the Guards in Hyde Park; and their Colonel, the Duke of Monmouth (age 19), to take his command this day of the King's Life-Guard, by surrender of my Lord Gerard (age 50). So I took a Hackney-coach and saw it all: and indeed it was mighty noble, and their firing mighty fine, and the Duke of Monmouth (age 19) in mighty rich clothes; but the well-ordering of the men I understand not. Here, among a thousand coaches that were there, I saw and spoke to Mrs. Pierce: and by and by Mr. Wren (age 39) hunts me out, and gives me my Lord Anglesey's (age 54) answer to the Duke of York's (age 34) letter, where, I perceive, he do do what he can to hurt me, by bidding the Duke of York (age 34) call for my books: but this will do me all the right in the world, and yet I am troubled at it. So away out of the Park, and home; and there Mr. Gibson and I to dinner: and all the afternoon with him, writing over anew, and a little altering, my answer to the Duke of York (age 34), which I have not yet delivered, and so have the opportunity of doing it after seeing all their answers, though this do give me occasion to alter very little. This done, he to write it over, and I to the Office, where late, and then home; and he had finished it; and then he to read to me the life of Archbishop Laud, wrote by Dr. Heylin; which is a shrewd book, but that which I believe will do the Bishops in general no great good, but hurt, it pleads for so much Popish. So after supper to bed. This day my father's letters tell me of the death of poor Fancy, in the country, big with puppies, which troubles me, as being one of my oldest acquaintances and servants. Also good Stankes is dead.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1668. So to White Hall, where a Committee of Tangier expected, but none met. I met with Mr. Povy (age 54), who I discoursed with about publick business, who tells me that this discourse which I told him of, of the Duke of Monmouth (age 19) being made Prince of Wales, hath nothing in it; though he thinks there are all the endeavours used in the world to overthrow the Duke of York (age 35). He would not have me doubt of my safety in the Navy, which I am doubtful of from the reports of a general removal; but he will endeavour to inform me, what he can gather from my Lord Arlington (age 50). That he do think that the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath a mind rather to overthrow all the Kingdom, and bring in a Commonwealth, wherein he may think to be General of their Army, or to make himself King, which, he believes, he may be led to, by some advice he hath had with conjurors, which he do affect.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1669. Up, and with W. Hewer (age 27) by Hackney coach to White Hall, where the King (age 38) and the Duke of York (age 35) is gone by three in the morning, and had the misfortune to be overset with the Duke of York (age 35), the Duke of Monmouth (age 19), and the Prince, at the King's Gate' in Holborne; and the King (age 38) all dirty, but no hurt. How it come to pass I know not, but only it was dark, and the torches did not, they say, light the coach as they should do. I thought this morning to have seen my Lord Sandwich (age 43) before he went out of town, but I come half an hour too late; which troubles me, I having not seen him since my Lady Palls died. So W. Hewer (age 27) and I to the Harp-and-Ball, to drink my morning draught, having come out in haste; and there met with King, the Parliament-man, with whom I had some impertinent talk. And so to the Privy Seal Office, to examine what records I could find there, for my help in the great business I am put upon, of defending the present constitution of the Navy; but there could not have liberty without order from him that is in present waiting, Mr. Bickerstaffe, who is out of town. This I did after I had walked to the New Exchange and there met Mr. Moore, who went with me thither, and I find him the same discontented poor man as ever. He tells me that Mr. Shepley is upon being turned away from my Lord's family, and another sent down, which I am sorry for; but his age and good fellowship have almost made him fit for nothing.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1669. With my coach to St. James's; and there finding the Duke of York (age 35) gone to muster his men, in Hyde Park, I alone with my boy thither, and there saw more, walking out of my coach as other gentlemen did, of a soldier's trade, than ever I did in my life: the men being mighty fine, and their Commanders, particularly the Duke of Monmouth (age 20); but me-thought their trade but very easy as to the mustering of their men, and the men but indifferently ready to perform what was commanded, in the handling of their arms. Here the news was first talked of Harry Killigrew's (age 32) being wounded in nine places last night, by footmen, in the highway, going from the Park in a Hackney-coach towards Hammersmith, to his house at Turnham Greene: they being supposed to be my Lady Shrewsbury's (age 27) men, she being by, in her coach with six horses; upon an old grudge of his saying openly that he had lain with her.

Around 1670. John Riley (age 24). Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 20).

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Aug 1670. At Windsor, Berkshire [Map] I supped with the Duke of Monmouth (age 21); and, the next day, invited by Lord Arlington (age 52), dined with the same Duke and divers Lords. After dinner my Lord and I had a conference of more than an hour alone in his bedchamber, to engage me in the History. I showed him something that I had drawn up, to his great satisfaction, and he desired me to show it to the Treasurer (age 40).

On 21 Dec 1670, owing to a jest made by Coventry (age 34) in the House of Commons on the subject of the King's amours, Sir Thomas Sandys, an officer of the guards, with other accomplices, by the order of Monmouth (age 21), and (it was said) with the approval of the king himself, waylaid him as he was returning home to Suffolk Street and slit his nose to the bone. The outrage created an extraordinary sensation in the Commons, and in consequence Parliament debated a bill 'to prevent malicious maiming and wounding' (22 & 23 Chas. II, c.1), a measure known as the "Coventry Act" was passed, declaring assaults accompanied by personal mutilation a felony without benefit of clergy, an Act not repealed until 1828.

On 24 Aug 1672 [his son] Charles Scott Earl Doncaster was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 23) and Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch (age 21). He a grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Mar 1673. Dr. Pearson (age 60), Bishop of Chester, preached on Hebrews ix. 14; a most incomparable sermon from one of the most learned divines of our nation. I dined at my Lord Arlington's (age 55) with the Duke (age 23) and Duchess of Monmouth (age 22); she is one of the wisest and craftiest of her sex, and has much wit. Here was also the learned Isaac Vossius (age 55).

On 09 Feb 1674 [his son] Charles Scott Earl Doncaster (age 1) died.

On 23 May 1674 [his son] James Scott was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 25) and Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch (age 23). He a grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Aug 1674. In one of the meadows at the foot of the long Terrace below the Windsor Castle [Map], works were thrown up to show the King (age 44) a representation of the city of Maestricht, newly taken by the French. Bastians, bulwarks, ramparts, palisadoes, graffs, horn-works, counter-scarps, etc., were constructed. It was attacked by the Duke of Monmouth (age 25) (newly come from the real siege) and the [his uncle] Duke of York (age 40), with a little army, to show their skill in tactics. On Saturday night they made their approaches, opened trenches, raised batteries, took the counter-scarp and ravelin, after a stout defense; great guns fired on both sides, grenadoes shot, mines sprung, parties sent out, attempts of raising the siege, prisoners taken, parleys; and, in short, all the circumstances of a formal siege, to appearance, and, what is most strange all without disorder, or ill accident, to the great satisfaction of a thousand spectators. Being night, it made a formidable show. The siege being over, I went with Mr. Pepys (age 41) back to London, where we arrived about three in the morning.

On 17 Feb 1675 [his daughter] Anne Scott was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 25) and Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch (age 24). She a granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

In 1676 [his son] Henry Scott 1st Earl Deloraine was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 26) and Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch (age 24). He a grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Sep 1676. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's (age 58), where also supped the famous beauty and errant lady, the Duchess of Mazarine (age 30) (all the world knows her story), the Duke of Monmouth (age 27), [his illegitimate half-sister] Countess of Sussex (age 15) (both natural children of the King (age 46) by the Duchess of Cleveland (age 35)) [Note. A mistake by Evelyn. Jame's Scott's (age 27) mother was [his mother] Lucy Walter, Anne Fitzroy's (age 15) mother was Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 35)], and the Countess of Derby (age 16), a virtuous lady, daughter to my best friend, the Earl of Ossory (age 42).

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Sep 1679. To Windsor, Berkshire [Map], to congratulate his Majesty (age 49) on his recovery; I kissed the [his uncle] Duke's (age 45) hand, now lately returned from Flanders to visit his brother the King (age 49), on which there were various bold and foolish discourses, the Duke of Monmouth (age 30) being sent away.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Nov 1679. Came over the Duke of Monmouth (age 30) from Holland unexpectedly to his Majesty (age 49); while the [his uncle] Duke of York (age 46) was on his journey to Scotland, whither the King (age 49) sent him to reside and govern. The bells and bonfires of the city at this arrival of the Duke of Monmouth (age 30) publishing their joy, to the no small regret of some at Court. This Duke (age 30), whom for distinction they called the Protestant Duke (though the son of an [his mother] abandoned woman), the people made their idol.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Nov 1681. I dined with the Earl of Essex (age 49) who, after dinner in his study, where we were alone, related to me how much he had been scandalized and injured in the report of his being privy to the marriage of his Lady's (age 45) niece (age 14), the rich young widow of the late Lord Ogle, sole daughter of the Earl of Northumberland; showing me a letter of Mr. Thynn's (age 33), excusing himself for not communicating his marriage to his Lordship (age 49). He acquainted me also with the whole story of that unfortunate lady being betrayed by her grandmother, the Countess of Northumberland (age 58), and Colonel Bret, for money; and that though, upon the importunity of the Duke of Monmouth (age 32), he had delivered to the grandmother a particular of the jointure which Mr. Thynn (age 33) pretended he would settle on the lady, yet he totally discouraged the proceeding as by no means a competent match for one that both by birth and fortune might have pretended to the greatest prince in Christendom; that he also proposed the Earl of Kingston (age 21), or the Lord Cranburn, but was by no means for Mr. Thynn (age 33).

Around 1682 [his illegitimate daughter] Henrietta Scott aka Crofts was born illegitimately to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 32) and Eleanor Needham. She a granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

Popish Plot

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the King (age 53) and the [his uncle] Duke (age 49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower [Map], the Lord Russell (age 43), eldest son of the Earl of Bedford (age 66), the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney (age 60), son to the old Earl of Leicester, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth (age 34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King (age 53), others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Essex (age 60) and Russell (age 43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the King (age 53), or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!

Rye House Plot

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Nov 1683. The Duke of Monmouth (age 34), till now proclaimed traitor on the pretended plot for which Lord Russell was lately beheaded, came this evening to Whitehall [Map] and rendered himself, on which were various discourses.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jun 1684. Last Friday Sir Tho. Armstrong (deceased) was executed at Tyburn [Map] for treason, without tryal, having ben outlaw'd and apprehended in Holland, on the conspiracy of the Duke of Monmouth (age 35), Lord Russell, &c. which gave occasion of discourse to people and lawyers, in reguard it was on an outlawry that judgment was given and execution.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Dec 1683. The Duke of Monmouth (age 34), now having his pardon, refuses to acknowledge there was any treasonable plot; for which he is banished Whitehall. This is a great disappointment to some who had prosecuted Trenchard, Hampden, etc., that for want of a second witness were come out of the Tower upon their habeas corpus.

Death and Burial of Charles II

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Feb 1685. Prayers were solemnly made in all the Churches, especialy in both ye Court Chapells, where the Chaplaines reliev'd one another every halfe quarter of an houre from the time he began to be in danger till he expir'd, according to the forme prescrib'd in the Church Offices. Those who assisted his Majesty's (age 54) devotions were, the Abp. of Canterbury (age 68), the Bishops of London (age 53), Durham (age 52), and Ely (age 47), but more especialy Dr. Ken, the Bp. of Bath and Wells (age 47) receiving the Holy Sacrament, but his Ma* told them he would consider of it, which he did so long 'till it was too late. Others whisper'd that the Bishops and Lords, except the Earles of Bath (age 56) and Feversham (age 44), being order'd to withdraw the night before, Hurlston, the 'Priest, had presumed to administer the Popish Offices. He gave his breeches and keys to yc [his uncle] Duke (age 51), who was almost continually kneeling by his bed-side, and in teares. He also recommended to him the care of his natural children, all except the Duke of Monmouth (age 35), now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He intreated the Queene (age 46) to pardon him (not without cause); who a little before had sent a Bishop to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in reguard of her excessive griefe, and withall, that his Ma* (age 54) would forgive it if at any time she had offended him. He spake to ye Duke (age 51) to be kind to the Dutchesse of Cleaveland (age 44), and especialy Portsmouth (age 35), and that Nelly (age 35) might not starve.

On 06 Feb 1685 [his father] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54) died at 1145 in the morning at Whitehall Palace [Map] attended by Charles Scarburgh (age 69). His brother [his uncle] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland. Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) by marriage Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland. His brother King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51), William Chiffinch (age 83), Richard Mason (age 52) and Archbishop William Sancroft (age 68) were present. Duke York merged with the Crown.

Monmouth's Landing at Lyme Regis

In Jun 1685 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 36) landed at James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 36) with Ford Grey 1st Earl Tankerville (age 29).

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Jun 1685. There was now certaine intelligence of the Duke of Monmouth (age 36) landing at Lyme in Dorsetshire, and of his having set up his standard as King of England. I pray God deliver us from the confusion which these beginnings threaten! Such a dearth for want of raine was never in my memory.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Jun 1685. The Duke (age 36) landed with but 150 men, but the whole Kingdom was alarm'd, fearing triat the disaffected would joyn them, many of the train'd bands flocking to him. At his landing he publish'd a declaration, charging his [his uncle] Ma* (age 51) with usurpation and several horrid crimes, on pretence of his owne title, and offering to call a free Parliament. This declaration was order'd to be burnt by the hangman, the Duke proclaim'd a traytor, and a reward of £5,000 to any who should kill him. At this time the words engraved on the. Monument in London, intimating that the Papists fir'd the Citty, were erased and cut out.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jul 1685. No considerable account of the troops sent against the Duke (age 36), tho' greate forces sent. There was a smart skirmish, but he would not be provok'd to come to an encounter, but still kept in the fastnesses. Dangerfield (deceased) whipp'd, like Oates (age 35), for perjurie.

Battle of Sedgemoor

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jul 1685. Came news of Monmouth's (age 36) utter defeate, and the next day of his being taken by Sr Wm Portman (age 41) and Lord Lumley (age 35) with the militia of their counties. It seemes the horse, commanded by Lord Grey (age 29), being newly rais'd and undisciplin'd, were not to be brought in so short a time to endure the fire, which expos'd the foote to the King's, so as when Monmouth had led the foote in greate silence and order, thinking to surprize Lieut Gen Lord Feversham (age 44) newly encamp'd, and given him a smart charge, interchanging both greate and small shot, the horse, breaking their owne ranks, Monmouth (age 36) gave it over, and fled with Grey (age 29), leaving their party to be cut in pieces to the number of 2000. The whole number reported to be above 8,000, the King's but 2,700. The slaine were most of them Mendip-miners, who did greate execution with their tooles, and sold their lives very dearely, whilst their leaders flying were pursu'd and taken the next morning, not far from one another. Monmouth (age 36) had gone 16 miles on foote, changing; his habite for a poore coate, and was found by Lord Lumley (age 35) in a dry ditch cover'd with fern-brakes, but without sword, pistol, or any weapon, and so might have pass'd for some countryman, his beard being grown so long and so grey as hardly to be known, had not his George [Note. This is possible a reference to the Small St George Pendant] discover'd him, which was found in his pocket. 'Tis said he trembl'd exceedingly all over, not able to speake. Grey (age 29) was taken not far from him. Most of his party were anabaptists and poore cloth workers of yu country, no gentlemen of account being come in to him. The arch-boutefeu Ferguson, Matthews, *&c. were not yet found. The £5,000 to be given to whoever should bring Monmouth in, was to be distributed among the militia by agreement between Sr Wm Portman (age 41) and Lord Lumley (age 35). The battail ended, some words, first In jest, then in passion, pass'd between Sharington Talbot (deceased) (a worthy gent. son to Sr John Talbot (age 55), and who had behav'd himselfe very handsomely) and one Capt. Love, both commanders of the militia, as to whose souldiers fought best, both drawing their swords and passing at one another. Sharington (deceased) was wounded to death on the spot, to the greate regret of those who knew him. He was Sir John's only son.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jul 1685. Monmouth (age 36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the [his uncle] King (age 51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (age 48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower [Map], had an interview with his late Dutchesse (age 34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (age 24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he profess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell, and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (age 36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill [Map]) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (age 51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the late King, his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (age 48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (age 47) and Bath and Wells (age 48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.

Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jul 1685. Thus ended this quondam Duke (age 36), darling of his father and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the King being of another religion, to gather a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General of the King his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July [Note. Most sources quote 15 Jul 1685]. His [his mother] mother, whose name was Barlow [Note. Lucy Walter is often spoken of incorrectly as Mrs. Walters or Waters, and during her career she seems to have adopted the alias of Mrs. Barlo or Barlow (the name of a family with which the Walters of Pembrokeshire had intermarried). From Dictionary of National Biography.], daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the King had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney, who was familiar with his mother) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.

On 15 Jul 1685 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 36) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. Bishop Francis Turner (age 47) acted a Chaplain. Duke Monmouth and Duke Buccleuch forfeit.

[his daughter] Charlotte Scott was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch and Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch. She a granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

[his illegitimate daughter] Isabel Scott was born illegitimately to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch and Eleanor Needham. She a granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

[his illegitimate son] James Scott was born illegitimately to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch and Eleanor Needham. He a grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

[his son] Francis Scott was born to James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch and Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch. He a grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625

King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685

Royal Ancestors of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685

Kings Wessex: Great x 18 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 15 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 21 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 16 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland

Kings Scotland: Great x 11 Grand Son of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 14 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great Grand Son of Henry IV King France

Ancestors of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabel or Elizabeth Stewart Countess Lennox 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart Great Grand Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandfather: Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus 10 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox Grand Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandfather: King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandfather: King James IV of Scotland 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King James V of Scotland Grand Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 2 Grandmother: Mary Queen of Scots Great Grand Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandfather: Claude Lorraine 1st Duke Guise 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Antoinette Bourbon Duchess of Guise 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland Son of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Frederick I of Denmark

Great x 3 Grandfather: Christian III King Denmark 10 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anna of Brandenburg 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Frederick II King Denmark 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Dorothea of Saxe Lauenburg Queen Consort Denmark and Norway

Great x 1 Grandmother: Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland England and Ireland 12 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Albrecht VII Duke Mecklenburg

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ulrich Mecklenburg-Schwerin 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anna Hohenzollern Duchess Mecklenburg 10 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Sophie Mecklenburg-Schwerin Queen Consort Denmark 12 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Father: King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland Son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandfather: Francis Bourbon Count Vendôme and Soissons 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Charles Bourbon Duke Vendôme 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Luxemburg Countess Vendôme and Soissons 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Antoine King Navarre 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Rene Valois Duke Alençon 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Françoise Valois Countess Vendôme 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Lorraine Duchess Alençon 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Henry IV King France 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Jean III King Navarre 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Henry II of Navarre 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Catherine Grailly I Queen Navarre 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles Valois Orléans Count Angoulême 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Marguerite Valois Orléans Queen Consort Navarre 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Louise of Savoy Countess Angoulême 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandMother: Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joanna of Austria Grand Duchess Tuscany 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Vladislaus II King Hungary 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Anne Jagiellon Holy Roman Empress 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anna Foix Queen Consort of Hungary and Bohemia 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch Son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland

GrandFather: William Walter

Mother: Lucy Walter