Biography of Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658

Paternal Family Tree: Williams aka Cromwell

1643 Trial and Execution of the Hothams

1643 Battle of Gainsborough

1649 Trial of Charles I

1649 Siege of Drogheda

1651 Battle of Worcester

1652 Indemnity and Oblivion Act

1653 Cromwell becomes Lord Protector

1658 Death and Funeral of Oliver Cromwell

1661 Execution of Deceased Regicides

On 25 Apr 1599 Oliver Cromwell was born to Robert Cromwell (age 36) and Elizabeth Steward (age 33) at Huntingdon [Map].

On 24 Jun 1617 [his father] Robert Cromwell (age 54) died at Huntingdon [Map].

On 22 Aug 1620 Oliver Cromwell (age 21) and Elizabeth Bourchier (age 22) were married.

In 1621 [his son] Robert Cromwell was born to Oliver Cromwell (age 21) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier (age 23).

In 1622 [his daughter] Oliver Cromwell was born to Oliver Cromwell (age 22) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier (age 24).

In 1624 [his daughter] Bridget Cromwell was born to Oliver Cromwell (age 24) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier (age 26).

On 04 Oct 1626 [his son] Richard Cromwell Lord Protector was born to Oliver Cromwell (age 27) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier (age 28).

On 20 Jan 1628 [his son] Henry Cromwell was born to Oliver Cromwell (age 28) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier (age 30) at Huntingdon [Map].

On 02 Jul 1629 [his daughter] Elizabeth Cromwell was born to Oliver Cromwell (age 30) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier (age 31).

In 1632 [his son] James Cromwell was born to Oliver Cromwell (age 32) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier (age 34).

In 1637 [his daughter] Mary Cromwell Countess Fauconberg was born to Oliver Cromwell (age 37) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier (age 39).

In 1638 [his daughter] Frances Cromwell Baroness Russell was born to Oliver Cromwell (age 38) and [his wife] Elizabeth Bourchier (age 40).

In 1639 [his son] Robert Cromwell (age 18) died.

Trial and Execution of the Hothams

In Apr 1643 John Hotham (age 33) joined his troops with the Parliamentarian forces in Lincolnshire. The bad behaviour of Hotham's troops, coupled with what appeared to be attempts by Hotham to co-opt the Parliamentarian officers, raised suspicions with then Colonel Oliver Cromwell (age 43) and John Hutchinson, the governor of Nottingham Castle. They denounced him to the Parliamentary Committee of Safety. In summer 1643 his (age 33) arrest was ordered. He fled to Nottingham then attempted to travel to Hull. He was arrested with his father John Hotham 1st Baronet (age 53).

Battle of Gainsborough

On 28 Jul 1643 the Parliamentary arms commanded by Oliver Cromwell (age 44) and the Royalist army commanded by Charles Cavendish (age 23) fought at the Battle of Gainsborough at North Scarle.

Charles Cavendish (age 23) was killed by James Berry. He was buried at Newark on Trent, Nottinghamshire [Map].

On 04 Aug 1643 the Royalist Newdigate Poyntz (age 34) died probably from wounds received at the battle.

In 1644 [his daughter] Oliver Cromwell (age 22) died of typhoid.

On 13 Jan 1646 [his son-in-law] John Claypole (age 20) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Cromwell (age 16) were married. She the daughter of Oliver Cromwell (age 46) and Elizabeth Bourchier (age 48).

On 15 Jun 1646 [his son-in-law] Henry Ireton (age 35) and [his daughter] Bridget Cromwell (age 22) were married. She the daughter of Oliver Cromwell (age 47) and Elizabeth Bourchier (age 48).

Evelyn's Diary. 04 May 1648. Came up the Essex petitioners for an agreement between his Majesty and the rebels. The 16th, the Surrey men addressed the Parliament for the same; of which some of them were slain and murdered by Oliver Cromwell's (age 49) guards, in the new palace yard [Map]. I now sold the impropriation of South Malling, near Lewes [Map], in Sussex, to Messrs. Kemp and Alcock, for £3,000.

Around 1649. Robert Walker (age 50). Oliver Cromwell (age 49).

Trial of Charles I

On 23 Jan 1649 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 48) was tried at Westminster Hall [Map] by Henry Mildmay (age 56). The fifty-nine signatories of his Death Warrant were:

1 Judge John Bradshaw

2 Thomas Grey

3 Oliver Cromwell

4 Edward Whalley

7 John Danvers

9 [his son-in-law] Henry Ireton

11 Hardress Waller

14 Major-General William Goffe

17 General Thomas Harrison

21 Admiral Richard Deane

27 Adrian Scrope

34 Richard Ingoldsby

42 John Jones

45 [his future son-in-law] Major General Charles Fleetwood

54 Gregory Clement

55 John Downes

57 Thomas Scot

58 John Carew

The commissioners who sat at the trial but did not sign the Death Warrant included:

William Monson 1st Viscount Monson (age 50)

James Harington 3rd Baronet (age 41)

The Captain of the Guard was Daniel Axtell (age 27). The guards included Francis Hacker, Matthew Tomlinson (age 31).

The Solicitor-General was John Cook (age 41).

Siege of Drogheda

Between 03 Sep 1649 and 11 Sep 1649 Drogheda [Map], under the command of the Royalist Arthur Aston Soldier (age 59), was besieged by the Parliamentary army commanded by Oliver Cromwell (age 50). When the Royalist forces surrendered they were killed once they had laid down their arms.

Arthur Aston Soldier (age 59) was killed.

Battle of Worcester

On 03 Sep 1651 at Worcester, Worcestershire [Map] the Battle of Worcester Oliver Cromwell (age 52) commanded the Parliamentary army with Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle (age 22). In the Royalist army Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 28), Thomas Blagge (age 38) and Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll (age 22) fought. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland (age 60) was captured. Giles Strangeways (age 36) provided 300 gold pieces to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 21) following his defeat to aid his escape.

Henry Lyttelton 2nd Baronet (age 27) fought for the Royalists, was captured and spent 17 months imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet (age 44) fought for th Royalists.

In 1652 [his son-in-law] Major General Charles Fleetwood (age 34) and [his daughter] Bridget Cromwell (age 28) were married. She the daughter of Oliver Cromwell (age 52) and Elizabeth Bourchier (age 54).

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Mar 1652. Saw the magnificent funeral of that arch-rebel, [his former son-in-law] Ireton, carried in pomp from Somerset House [Map] to Westminster [Map], accompanied with divers regiments of soldiers, horse and foot; then marched the mourners, General Cromwell (age 52) (his father-in-law), his mock-parliament-men, officers, and forty poor men in gowns, three led horses in housings of black cloth, two led in black velvet, and his charging horse, all covered over with embroidery and gold, on crimson velvet; then the guidons, ensigns, four heralds, carrying the arms of the State (as they called it), namely, the red cross and Ireland, with the casque, wreath, sword, spurs, etc.; next, a chariot canopied of black velvet, and six horses, in which was the corpse; the pall held up by the mourners on foot; the mace and sword, with other marks of his charge in Ireland (where he died of the plague), carried before in black scarfs. Thus, in a grave pace, drums covered with cloth, soldiers reversing their arms, they proceeded through the streets in a very solemn manner. This Ireton was a stout rebel, and had been very bloody to the King's (age 21) party, witness his severity at Colchester, when in cold blood he put to death those gallant gentlemen, Sir Charles Lucas (age 39) and Sir George Lisle. My cousin, R. Fanshawe (age 43), came to visit me, and informed me of many considerable affairs. Sir Henry Herbert (age 57) presented me with his brother, my Lord Cherbury's book, "De Veritate"..

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Mar 1652. I saw the "Diamond" and "Ruby" launched in the Dock at Deptford [Map], carrying forty-eight brass cannon each; Cromwell (age 52) and his grandees present, with great acclamations.

Indemnity and Oblivion Act

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Apr 1652. My brother George (age 34) brought to Sayes Court [Map] Cromwell's (age 52) Act of Oblivion to all that would submit to the Government.

Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society Volume 3 Pages 114-124. Sir, — I am very sorrye my occacion will not permit mee to returne ( i.e. to reply) to you as I would. I have not yett fully spoken with the gentlemen I sent to waite upon you? When I shall doe it, I shall be enabled to bee more particular, beinge unwillinge to detaine your servante any longer. With my service to your lady and family, I take leave, and rest

Your affectionate servante.

O. Cromwell (age 53).

July 30, 1652.

For my honoured friend, Mr. Hungerford, the elder, at his house, These.

On 10 May 1653 [his son] Henry Cromwell (age 25) and [his daughter-in-law] Elizabeth Russell were married. He the son of Oliver Cromwell (age 54) and Elizabeth Bourchier (age 55).

Cromwell becomes Lord Protector

On 16 Dec 1653 Oliver Cromwell (age 54) was appointed Lord Protector.

In 1654 William Lockhart of Lee (age 33) and Robina Sewster (age 24) were married. She being a niece of Oliver Cromwell (age 54).

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Feb 1654. Ash Wednesday. In contradiction to all custom and decency, the usurper, Cromwell (age 54), feasted at the Lord Mayor's, riding in triumph through the city.

On 30 May 1654 Hugh Wyndham Baron of the Exchequer (age 52) was appointed Justice of the Common Pleas by Oliver Cromwell (age 55).

On 18 Nov 1654 [his mother] Elizabeth Steward (age 89) died.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Apr 1655. I went to see the great ship newly built by the usurper, Oliver (age 55), carrying ninety-six brass guns, and 1,000 tons burden. In the prow was Oliver (age 55) on horseback, trampling six nations under foot, a Scot, Irishman, Dutchman, Frenchman, Spaniard, and English, as was easily made out by their several habits. A Fame held a laurel over his insulting head; the word, God with us.

On 06 Jun 1655 Geoffrey Palmer 1st Baronet (age 57) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] on suspicion of raising forces against Oliver Cromwell (age 56)..

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Nov 1655. This day, came forth the Protector's (age 56) Edict, or Proclamation, prohibiting all ministers of the Church of England from preaching or teaching any schools, in which he imitated the apostate, Julian; with the decimation of all the royal party's revenues throughout England.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Dec 1655. I went to London, where Dr. Wild preached the funeral sermon of Preaching, this being the last day; after which Cromwell's (age 56) proclamation was to take place, that none of the Church of England should dare either to preach, or administer Sacraments, teach schools, etc., on pain of imprisonment, or exile. So this was the most mournful day that in my life I had seen, or the Church of England herself, since the Reformation; to the great rejoicing of both Papist and Presbyter.54 So pathetic was his discourse, that it drew many tears from the auditory. Myself, wife (age 20), and some of our family, received the Communion, God make me thankful, who hath hitherto provided for us the food of our souls as well as bodies! The Lord Jesus pity our distressed Church, and bring back the captivity of Zion!

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Feb 1656. I heard Dr. Wilkins (age 41) preach before the Lord Mayor in St. Paul's [Map], showing how obedience was preferable to sacrifice. He was a most obliging person, who had married the Protector's (age 56) [his sister] sister, and took great pains to preserve the Universities from the ignorant, sacrilegious commanders and soldiers, who would fain have demolished all places and persons that pretended to learning.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Jul 1656. I returned homeward, passing again through Colchester [Map]; and, by the way, near the ancient town of Chelmsford [Map], saw New Hall, built in a park by Henry VII. and VIII., and given by Queen Elizabeth to the Earl of Sussex, who sold it to the late great Duke of Buckingham, and since seized on by Oliver Cromwell (age 57) (pretended Protector). It is a fair old house, built with brick, low, being only of two stories, as the manner then was; the gate-house better; the court, large and pretty; the staircase, of extraordinary wideness, with a piece representing Sir Francis Drake's action in the year 1580, an excellent sea-piece; the galleries are trifling; the hall is noble; the garden a fair plot, and the whole seat well accommodated with water; but, above all, I admired the fair avenue planted with stately lime trees, in four rows, for near a mile in length. It has three descents, which is the only fault, and may be reformed. There is another fair walk of the same at the mall and wilderness, with a tennis-court, and pleasant terrace toward the park, which was well stored with deer and ponds.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Aug 1656. Was a confused election of Parliament called by the Usurper (age 57).

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Sep 1656. Now was old Sir Henry Vane (age 43) sent to Carisbrook Castle, in Wight, for a foolish book he published; the pretended Protector (age 57) fortifying himself exceedingly, and sending many to prison.

On 15 Sep 1656 John Dethick was knighted by Oliver Cromwell (age 57).

After 1657 Colonel Silius Titus (age 34) was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) for having published a pamphlet "Killing No Murder" advocating the assassination of Oliver Cromwell (age 57).

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Feb 1657. I went to visit the governor of Havannah, a brave, sober, valiant Spanish gentleman, taken by Captain Young, of Deptford, when, after twenty years being in the Indies, and amassing great wealth, his lady and whole family, except two sons, were burned, destroyed, and taken within sight of Spain, his eldest son, daughter, and wife, perishing with immense treasure. One son, of about seventeen years old, with his brother of one year old, were the only ones saved. The young gentleman, about seventeen, was a well-complexioned youth, not olive-colored; he spoke Latin handsomely, was extremely well-bred, and born in the Caraccas, 1,000 miles south of the equinoctial, near the mountains of Potosi; he had never been in Europe before. The Governor was an ancient gentleman of great courage, of the order of St. Jago, sorely wounded in his arm, and his ribs broken; he lost for his own share £100,000 sterling, which he seemed to bear with exceeding indifference, and nothing dejected. After some discourse, I went with them to Arundel House [Map], where they dined. They were now going back into Spain, having obtained their liberty from Cromwell (age 57). An example of human vicissitude!

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Mar 1657. The Protector Oliver (age 57), now affecting kingship, is petitioned to take the title on him by all his newly-made sycophant lords, etc.; but dares not, for fear of the fanatics, not thoroughly purged out of his rebel army.

On 11 Nov 1657 [his son-in-law] Robert Rich (age 23) and [his daughter] Frances Cromwell Baroness Russell (age 19) were married. He died three months later. She the daughter of Oliver Cromwell (age 58) and Elizabeth Bourchier (age 59). He the son of Robert Rich 3rd Earl Warwick (age 46) and Anne Cavendish Countess Warwick.

On 18 Nov 1657 [his son-in-law] Thomas Belasyse 1st Earl Fauconberg (age 30) and [his daughter] Mary Cromwell Countess Fauconberg (age 20) were married. She by marriage Viscountess Faunconberg. She the daughter of Oliver Cromwell (age 58) and Elizabeth Bourchier (age 59).

In 1658 John Marlay (age 68) offered to sell the Royalists' plans for the restoration of Charles II to Oliver Cromwell (age 58) for £100 and permission to return home. His reputation never recovered from this act of treason.

On 02 Aug 1658 [his daughter] Elizabeth Cromwell (age 29) died.

Death and Funeral of Oliver Cromwell

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Sep 1658. Died that arch-rebel, Oliver Cromwell (age 59), called Protector.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Oct 1658. Saw the superb funeral of the protector (deceased). He was carried from Somerset House [Map] in a velvet bed of state, drawn by six horses, housed with the same; the pall held by his new lords; Oliver lying in effigy, in royal robes, and crowned with a crown, sceptre, and globe, like a king. The pendants and guidons were carried by the officers of the army; the imperial banners, achievements, etc., by the heralds in their coats; a rich caparisoned horse, embroidered all over with gold; a knight of honor, armed cap-a-pie, and, after all, his guards, soldiers, and innumerable mourners. In this equipage, they proceeded to Westminster: but it was the most joyful funeral I ever saw; for there were none that cried but dogs, which the soldiers hooted away with a barbarous noise, drinking and taking tobacco in the streets as they went.

On 03 Sep 1658 Oliver Cromwell (age 59) died at Whitehall Palace [Map]. His son [his son] Richard Cromwell Lord Protector (age 31) succeeded Lord Protector.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Sep 1660. Office Day. I put on my mourning and went to the office. At noon thinking to have found my wife in hers, I found that the tailor had failed her, at which I was vexed because of an invitation that we have to a dinner this day, but after having waited till past one o'clock I went, and left her to put on some other clothes and come after me to the Mitre tavern in Wood-street (a house of the greatest note in London), where I met W. Symons, and D. Scobell, and their wives, Mr. Samford, Luellin, Chetwind, one Mr. Vivion, and Mr. White1, formerly chaplin to the Lady Protectresse (age 62)2 (and still so, and one they say that is likely to get my [his daughter] Lady Francess (age 22) for his wife). Here we were very merry and had a very good dinner, my wife coming after me hither to us.

Note 1. According to Noble, Jeremiah White married Lady Frances Cromwell's waiting-woman, in Oliver's lifetime, and they lived together fifty years. Lady Frances (age 22) had two husbands, [his former son-in-law] Mr. Robert Rich and Sir John Russell of Chippenham (age 20), the last of whom she survived fifty-two years dying 1721-22 The story is, that Oliver found White on his knees to Frances Cromwell (age 22), and that, to save himself, he pretended to have been soliciting her interest with her waiting-woman, whom Oliver compelled him to marry. (Noble's "Life of Cromwell", vol. ii. pp. 151, 152.) White was born in 1629 and died 1707.

Note 2. Elizabeth, wife of Oliver Cromwell.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1660. From thence I to my Lord's, and dined with him and told him what we had done to-day. Sir Tho. Crew (age 36) dined with my Lord to-day, and we were very merry with Mrs. Borfett, who dined there still as she has always done lately. After dinner Sir Tho. (age 36) and my Lady to the Playhouse [Map] to see "The Silent Woman". I home by water, and with Mr. Hater in my chamber all alone he and I did put this morning's design into order, which being done I did carry it to Sir W. Batten (age 59), where I found some gentlemen with him (Sir W. Pen (age 39) among the rest pretty merry with drink) playing at cards, and there I staid looking upon them till one o'clock in the morning, and so Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I went away, and I to bed. This day the Parliament voted that the bodies of Oliver, [his former son-in-law] Ireton, Bradshaw, &c., should be taken up out of their graves in the Abbey, and drawn to the gallows, and there hanged and buried under it: which (methinks) do trouble me that a man of so great courage as he was, should have that dishonour, though otherwise he might deserve it enough.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

On 30 Jan 1661 the remains of Oliver Cromwell, [his former son-in-law] Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw were exhumed from and mutilated in a posthumous execution.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Jan 1661. This day (Oh, the stupendous and inscrutable judgments of God!) were the carcasses of those arch-rebels, Cromwell, Bradshawe (the judge who condemned his Majesty (age 30)), and [his former son-in-law] Ireton (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged out of their superb tombs in Westminster [Map] among the Kings, to Tyburn [Map], and hanged on the gallows there from nine in the morning till six at night, and then buried under that fatal and ignominious. Monument in a deep pit; thousands of people who had seen them in all their pride being spectators. Look back at October 22 1658, and be astonished! and fear God and honor the King (age 30); but meddle not with them who are given to change!

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Aug 1661. I first saw the famous Queen Pine brought from Barbadoes, and presented to his Majesty (age 31); but the first that were ever seen in England were those sent to Cromwell four years since.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1662. In our discourse in the boat Mr. Coventry (age 34) told us how the Fanatiques and the Presbyters, that did intend to rise about this time, did choose this day as the most auspicious to them in their endeavours against monarchy: it being fatal twice to the King (age 32), and the day of Oliver's death1. But, blessed be God! all is likely to be quiet, I hope.

Note 1. Cromwell had considered the 3rd of September as the most fortunate day of his life, on account of his victories at Dunbar and Worcester. It was also remarkable for the great storm that occurred at the time of his death; and as being the day on which the Fire of London, in 1666, burnt with the greatest fury. B.

In 1665 [his former wife] Elizabeth Bourchier (age 67) died.

Grammont. Curiosity to see a man equally famous for his crimes and his elevation, had once before induced the Chevalier de Grammont to visit England. Reasons of state assume great privileges. Whatever appears advantageous is lawful, and every thing that is necessary is honourable in politics. While the King of England sought the protection of Spain in the Low Countries, and that of the States-General in Holland, other powers sent splendid embassies to Cromwell.

[his father] Robert Cromwell and [his mother] Elizabeth Steward were married.

Grammont. This man, whose ambition had opened him a way to sovereign power by the greatest crimes, maintained himself in it by accomplishments which seemed to render him worthy of it by their lustre. The nation, of all Europe the least submissive, patiently bore a yoke which did not even leave her the shadow of that liberty of which she is so jealous; and Cromwell, master of the Commonwealth, under the title of Lord Protector, feared at home, but yet more dreaded abroad, was at his highest pitch of glory when he was seen by the Chevalier de Grammont; but the Chevalier did not see any appearance of a court. One part of the nobility proscribed, the other removed from employments; an affectation of purity of manners, instead of the luxury which the pomp of courts displays all taken together, presented nothing but sad and serious objects in the finest city in the world; and therefore the Chevalier acquired nothing by this voyage but the idea of some merit in a profligate man, and the admiration of some concealed beauties he had found means to discover.

Royal Ancestors of Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658

Kings Wessex: Great x 23 Grand Son of King Edward "Elder" of the Anglo Saxons

Kings England: Great x 17 Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Kings Franks: Great x 25 Grand Son of Louis "Pious" King Aquitaine I King Franks

Kings France: Great x 20 Grand Son of Robert "Pious" II King France

Ancestors of Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658

Great x 2 Grandfather: Morgan Williams

Great x 1 Grandfather: Richard Cromwell 14 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Cromwell 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Walter Cromwell 12 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Katherine Cromwell 13 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Katherine Glossop

GrandFather: Henry Cromwell aka Williams 15 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Murfyn

Great x 1 Grandmother: Frances Mirfyn

Father: Robert Cromwell 16 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Warren of Feering in Essex

Great x 1 Grandfather: Ralph Warren

GrandMother: Joan Warren

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Lake alias Davy of Cornwall

Great x 1 Grandmother: Joan Trelake

Oliver Cromwell 17 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

GrandFather: William Steward

Mother: Elizabeth Steward