Twenty Trees

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Biography of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701

Battle of Lowestoft

1600 Baptism of Prince Charles

1626 English Coronation of Charles I

1649 Execution of Charles I

1651 Charles II Crowned King Scotland

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1662 Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

1666 Four Days' Battle

1671 Woodcock and Flatfoot Race at Newmarket

1672 Battle of Solebay

1673 1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

1673 Test Act

1676 Treaty of Nimeguen

1677 Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

1682 Sinking of HMS Gloucester

1683 Rye House Plot

1683 Popish Plot

1683 Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George

1685 Death and Burial of Charles II

1685 Coronation James II and Mary

1685 Argyll's Rising

1688 Test Act

1688 Seven Bishops Imprisoned

1688 Glorious Revolution

1688 Battle of Reading

1688 Abdication of James II

1689 Act of Poll

1689 Coronation William III and Mary II

1690 Battle of the Boyne

1694 Death of Queen Mary II

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

1701 Death of King James II

1702 Queen Anne Accession


Family Trees

Royal Ancestry

Royal Descendants

Ancestry

Battle of Lowestoft

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court. Sir George Berkeley, afterwards Earl of Falmouth, was the confidant and favourite of the King: he commanded the Duke of York’s regiment of guards, and governed the Duke himself. He had nothing very remarkable either in his wit, or his person; but his sentiments were worthy of the fortune which awaited him, when, on the very point of his elevation, he was killed at sea. Never did disinterestedness so perfectly characterise the greatness of the soul: he had no views but what tended to the glory of his master: his credit was never employed but in advising him to reward services, or to confer favours on merit: so polished in conversation, that the greater his power, the greater was his humility; and so sincere in all his proceedings, that he would never have been taken for a courtier.

Chapter 6 His Arrival at the English Court - The Various Personages of the Court. It was in the height of the rejoicings they were making for this new queen, in all the splendour of a brilliant court, that the Chevalier de Grammont arrived to contribute to its magnificence and diversions.
Accustomed as he was to the grandeur of the court of France, he was surprised at the politeness and splendour of the court of England. The [his brother] king was inferior to none, either in shape or air; his wit was pleasant; his disposition easy and affable; his soul, susceptible of opposite impressions, was compassionate to the unhappy, inflexible to the wicked, and tender even to excess; he showed great abilities in urgent affairs, but was incapable of application to any that were not so: his heart was often the dupe, but oftener the slave, of his engagements.
The character of the Duke of York was entirely different he had the reputation of undaunted courage, an inviolable attachment for his word, great economy in his affairs, hauteur, application, arrogance, each in their turn: a scrupulous observer of the rules of duty and the laws of justice; he was accounted a faithful friend, and an implacable enemy.
His morality and justice, struggling for some time with prejudice, had at last triumphed, by his acknowledging for his [his future future wife] [his future future wife] wife Miss Hyde, maid of honour to the [his sister] Princess Royal, whom he had secretly married in Holland. Her father, from that time prime minister of England, supported by this new interest, soon rose to the head of affairs, and had almost ruined them: not that he wanted capacity, but he was too self-sufficient.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two Putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

John Evelyn's Diary 1686 December. 29 Dec 1686. I went to hear the music of the Italians in the new chapel, now first opened publicly at Whitehall for the Popish Service. Nothing can be finer than the magnificent marble work and architecture at the end, where are four statues, representing St. John, St. Peter, St. Paul, and the Church, in white marble, the work of Mr. Gibbons, with all the carving and Pillars of exquisite art and great cost. The altar piece is the Salutation; the volto in fresco, the Assumption of the blessed Virgin, according to their tradition, with our blessed Savior, and a world of figures painted by Verrio. The throne where the King and Queen sit is very glorious, in a closet above, just opposite to the altar. Here we saw the Bishop in his mitre and rich copes, with six or seven Jesuits and others in rich copes, sumptuously habited, often taking off and Putting on the Bishop's mitre, who sat in a chair with arms pontifically, was adored and censed by three Jesuits in their copes; then he went to the altar and made divers cringes, then censing the images and glorious tabernacle placed on the altar, and now and then changing place: the crosier, which was of silver, was put into his hand with a world of mysterious ceremony, the music playing, with singing. I could not have believed I should ever have seen such things in the [his brother] King of England's palace, after it had pleased God to enlighten this nation; but our great sin has, for the present, eclipsed the blessing, which I hope he will in mercy and his good time restore to its purity.
Little appearance of any winter as yet.

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

John Evelyn's Diary Introduction. Returned to England, Evelyn strictly follows the line of the average English country gentleman, execrating the execution of Charles I., disgusted beyond measure with the suppression of the Church of England service, but submissive to the powers that be until there are evident indications of a change, which he promotes in anything but a Quixotic spirit. Although he is sincerely attached to the monarchy, the condition of the Church is evidently a matter of greater concern to him: Oliver Cromwell would have done much to reconcile the royalists to his government, had it been possible for him to have restored the liturgy and episcopacy. The same lesson is to be derived from his demeanor during the reigns of Charles and James. The exultation with which the Restoration is at first hailed soon evaporates. The scandals of the Court are an offense, notwithstanding Evelyn's personal attachment to the King. But the chief point is not vice or favoritism or mismanagement, but alliances with Roman Catholic powers against Protestant nations. Evelyn is enraged to see Charles missing the part so clearly pointed out to him by Providence as the protector of the Protestant religion all over Europe. The conversion of the Duke of York is a fearful blow, James's ecclesiastical policy after his accession adds to Evelyn's discontent day by day, while political tyranny passes almost without remark. At last the old cavalier is glad to welcome the Prince of Orange as deliverer, and though he has no enthusiasm for William in his character as King, he remains his dutiful subject. Just because Evelyn was by no means an extraordinary person, he represents the plain straightforward sense of the English gentry. The questions of the seventeenth century were far more religious than political. The synthesis "Church and King" expressed the dearest convictions of the great majority of English country families, but when the two became incompatible they left no doubt which held the first place in their hearts. They acted instinctively on the principle of the Persian lady who preferred her brother to her husband. It was not impossible to find a new King, but there was no alternative to the English Church.

[his son] Charles Stewart 1st Duke Kendal 1666-1667 was created 1st Duke Kendal (1C 1666).

Baptism of Prince Charles

On 23 Dec 1600 [his father] the future King Charles I was baptised at Holyrood Palace. He was created Duke Albany (4C 1600).

In 1605 [his father] Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (4) was created 1st Duke York (4C 1605).

English Coronation of Charles I

On 02 Feb 1626 [his father] Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (25) was crowned I King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart at Westminster Abbey. His wife [his mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (16) was not crowned since she being Catholic refused to attend an Anglican service. She watched Charles at a discreet distance.
Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 (52) carried the Orb. Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (3) bore the Second Sword of State. Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke, 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (41) carried the Spurs. Francis Manners 6th Earl Rutland 1578-1632 (48) bore the Rod with the Dove.
William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire 1617-1684 (8),James Stanley 7th Earl Derby 1607-1651 (19), Roger Palmer 1577-1657 (49) and Mildmay Fane 2nd Earl Westmoreland 1602-1666 (24), John Maynard 1592-1658 (34) were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

Around 1647. Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (28). Portrait of William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire 1617-1684 (29) although the painting says somewhat curiously 2nd Earl Devonshire.

Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (35). Portrait of James Stanley 7th Earl Derby 1607-1651 (27) and Charlotte Thouars Countess Derby 1599-1664 (35) and their daughter.

On 29 May 1630 [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was born to [his father] Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (29) and [his mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (20) at St James's Palace. He was created as Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay the same day.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

On 14 Oct 1633 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 was born to [his father] Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) and [his mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (23) at St James's Palace.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

After 14 Oct 1633 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 was created 1st Duke York (5C 1633).

On 02 May 1641 William Orange-Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (14) and [his sister] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (9) were married.

In 1642 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (8) was appointed 439th Knight of the Garter by [his father] Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41).

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 [his father] Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

John Evelyn's Diary 1649 September. 13th September 1649. The [his brother] King (19) invited the Prince of Condé (28) to supper at St. Cloud; there I kissed the Duke of York's (15) hand in the tennis court, where I saw a famous match between Monsieur Saumeurs and Colonel Cooke, and so returned to Paris. It was noised about that I was knighted, a dignity I often declined.

Charles II Crowned King Scotland

On 01 Jan 1651 [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (20) was crowned II King Scotland: Stewart at Scone Abbey, Scone.

John Evelyn's Diary 1651 September. 28th September 1651. I was shown a collection of books and prints made for the Duke of York (17).

John Evelyn's Diary 1651 December. 25th December, 1651. The [his brother] King (21) and Duke (18) received the Sacrament first by themselves, the Lords Byron (52) and Wilmot (39) holding the long towel all along the altar.

John Evelyn's Diary 1657 January. 7th January 1657. Came Mr. Matthew Wren (28) (since secretary to the Duke (23)), slain in the Dutch war, eldest son to the Bishop of Ely (71), now a prisoner in the Tower; a most worthy and honored gentleman.

On 19 May 1658 John Berkeley 1st Baron Berkeley 1602-1678 (56) was created 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton in Cornwall for having been governor to the James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (24) in their travels through the Low Countrries.

On 13 May 1659 [his brother] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (18) was created 1st Duke Gloucester (4C 1659), 1st Earl Cambridge (5C 1659).

John Evelyn's Diary 1660 June. 4th June 1660. I received letters of Sir Richard Browne's (55) landing at Dover, and also letters from the Queen (50), which I was to deliver at Whitehall, not as yet presenting myself to his [his brother] Majesty (30), by reason of the infinite concourse of people. The eagerness of men, women, and children, to see his Majesty (30), and kiss his hands, was so great, that he had scarce leisure to eat for some days, coming as they did from all parts of the nation; and the King (30) being as willing to give them that satisfaction, would have none kept out, but gave free access to all sorts of people.
Addressing myself to the Duke (26), I was carried to his Majesty (30), when very few noblemen were with him, and kissed his hands, being very graciously received. I then returned home, to meet Sir Richard Browne (55), who came not till the 8th, after nineteen years exile, during all which time he kept up in his chapel the Liturgy and Offices of the Church of England, to his no small honor, and in a time when it was so low, and as many thought utterly lost, that in various controversies both with Papists and Sectaries, our divines used to argue for the visibility of the Church, from his chapel and congregation.
I was all this week to and fro at court about business.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

On 03 Sep 1660 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (26) and [his future wife] [his future wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) were married in secret. Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) by marriage Duchess York (5C 1633).

On 13 Sep 1660 [his brother] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (20) died of smallpox. On 21 Sep 1660 Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (20) was buried at South Side Henry VII Chapel, Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

John Evelyn's Diary 1660 October. 7th October, 1660. There dined with me a French count, with Sir George Tuke, who came to take leave of me, being sent over to the Queen-Mother (50), to break the marriage of the Duke (26) with the [his future wife] [his future wife] daughter (23) of Chancellor Hyde (51). The Queen (50) would fain have undone it; but it seems matters were reconciled, on great offers of the Chancellor's (51) to befriend the Queen (50), who was much in debt, and was now to have the settlement of her affairs go through his hands.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

On 22 Oct 1660 [his son] Charles Stewart 1660-1661 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (27) and [his future wife] [his future wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) at Worcester House, Worcester Park, Sutton.

On 24 Dec 1660 [his sister] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (29) died of smallpox.

Coronation of Charles II

On 22 Apr 1661 [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) rode from the Tower of London to Whitehall Palace. At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".
Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street, that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.
At the Conduit in Cornhill a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.
The procession included the Duke of York (27), the Lord High Constable (58) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (53)
The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond, 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660.

On 23 Apr 1661 [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland: Stewart at Westminster Abbey.
John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston 1616-1695 (44),Francis Fane -1691 and Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (28) were appointed Knight of the Bath.
Francis Godolphin 1605-1667 (55) was knighted.
Josceline Percy 11th Earl of Northumberland 1644-1670 (16) attended.

On 05 May 1661 [his son] Charles Stewart 1660-1661 died of smallpox at Whitehall Palace.

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 October. 1st October, 1661. I sailed this morning with his [his brother] Majesty (31) in one of his yachts (or pleasure boats), vessels not known among us till the Dutch East India Company presented that curious piece to the King (31); being very excellent sailing vessels. It was on a wager between his other new pleasure boat, built frigate-like, and one of the Duke of York's (27); the wager £100; the race from Greenwich to Gravesend and back. The King (31) lost it going, the wind being contrary, but saved stakes in returning. There were divers noble persons and lords on board, his Majesty (31) sometimes steering himself. His barge and kitchen boat attended. I brake fast this morning with the King (31) at return in his smaller vessel, he being pleased to take me and only four more, who were noblemen, with him; but dined in his yacht, where we all ate together with his Majesty (31). In this passage he was pleased to discourse to me about my book inveighing against the nuisance of the smoke of London, and proposing expedients how, by removing those particulars I mentioned, it might be reformed; commanding me to prepare a Bill against the next session of Parliament, being, as he said, resolved to have something done in it. Then he discoursed to me of the improvement of gardens and buildings, now very rare in England comparatively to other countries. He then commanded me to draw up the matter of fact happening at the bloody encounter which then had newly happened between the French and Spanish Ambassadors near the Tower, contending for precedency, at the reception of the Swedish Ambassador; giving me orders to consult Sir William Compton (36), Master of the Ordnance, to inform me of what he knew of it, and with his favorite, Sir Charles Berkeley (31), captain of the Duke's life guard, then present with his troop and three foot companies; with some other reflections and instructions, to be prepared with a declaration to take off the reports which went about of his Majesty's (31) partiality in the affairs, and of his officers' and spectators' rudeness while the conflict lasted. So I came home that night, and went next morning to London, where from the officers of the Tower, Sir William Compton (36), Sir Charles Berkeley (31), and others who were attending at this meeting of the Ambassadors three days before, having collected what I could, I drew up a Narrative in vindication of his Majesty (31), and the carriage of his officers and standers-by.
On Thursday his Majesty (31) sent one of the pages of the back stairs for me to wait on him with my papers, in his cabinet where was present only Sir Henry Bennett (43) (Privy-Purse), when beginning to read to his Majesty (31) what I had drawn up, by the time I had read half a page, came in Mr. Secretary Morice with a large paper, desiring to speak with his Majesty (31), who told him he was now very busy, and therefore ordered him to come again some other time; the Secretary replied that what he had in his hand was of extraordinary importance. So the King (31) rose up, and, commanding me to stay, went aside to a corner of the room with the Secretary; after a while, the Secretary being dispatched, his Majesty (31) returning to me at the table, a letter was brought him from Madame out of France;68 this he read and then bid me proceed from where I left off. This I did till I had ended all the narrative, to his Majesty's (31) great satisfaction; and, after I had inserted one or two more clauses, in which his Majesty (31) instructed me, commanded that it should that night be sent to the posthouse, directed to the Lord Ambassador at Paris (the Earl of St. Alban's), and then at leisure to prepare him a copy, which he would publish. This I did, and immediately sent my papers to the Secretary of State, with his Majesty's (31) express command of dispatching them that night for France. Before I went out of the King (31)'s closet, he called me back to show me some ivory statues, and other curiosities that I had not seen before.

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 December. 4th December, 1661. I had much discourse with the Duke of York (28), concerning strange cures he affirmed of a woman who swallowed a whole ear of barley, which worked out at her side. I told him of the KNIFE SWALLOWED and the pins.
I took leave of the Bishop of Cape Verd, now going in the fleet to bring over our new Queen (23).

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two Putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 December. 23d December, 1661. I heard an Italian play and sing to the guitar with extraordinary skill before the Duke (28).

John Evelyn's Diary 1662 January. 12th January 1662. At St. James's chapel preached, or rather harangued, the famous orator, Monsieur Morus, in French. There were present the [his brother] King (31), Duke (28), French Ambassador, Lord Aubigny (42), Earl of Bristol (49), and a world of Roman Catholics, drawn thither to hear this eloquent Protestant.

John Evelyn's Diary 1662 January. 16th January 1662. Having notice of the Duke of York's (28) intention to visit my poor habitation and garden this day, I returned, when he was pleased to do me that honor of his own accord, and to stay some time viewing such things as I had to entertain his curiosity. Afterward he caused me to dine with him at the Treasurer of the Navy's house, and to sit with him covered at the same table. There were his Highness (28), the Duke of Ormond (51), and several Lords. Then they viewed some of my grounds about a project for a receptacle for ships to be moored in, which was laid aside as a fancy of Sir Nicholas Crisp (63). After this, I accompanied the Duke (28) to an East India vessel that lay at Blackwall, where we had entertainment of several curiosities. Among other spirituous drinks, as punch, etc., they gave us Canary that had been carried to and brought from the Indies, which was indeed incomparably good. I returned to London with his Highness (28). This night was acted before his [his brother] Majesty (31) "The Widow," a lewd play.

On 30 Apr 1662 [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (28) and [his future wife] [his future wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (25) at St James's Palace.

Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

On 21 May 1662 [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) were married at Portsmouth. Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) by marriage Queen Consort England.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two Putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

John Evelyn's Diary 1663 January. 10th January 1663. I saw a ball again at Court, danced by the [his brother] King (32), the Duke (29), and ladies, in great pomp.

On 12 Jul 1663 [his son] James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1663-1667 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (29) and [his future wife] [his future wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (26) at St James's Palace.

In 1664 [his son] James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1663-1667 was created 1st Duke Cambridge (1C 1664).

Battle of Lowestoft

In 1665 Henry Brouncker 3rd Viscount Brounckner 1627-1688 (38) was elected MP New Romney which seat he held until 21 Apr 1668 when he was expelled from the House of Commons when charges were brought against him, for allowing the Dutch fleet to escape during the Battle of Lowestoft, and for ordering the sails of the English fleet to be slackened in the name of the Duke of York (31). This was essentially an act of treason. Such a military decision, taken without the Duke's (31) authority, was an incident seemingly without parallel, especially as his apparent motive was simply that he was fatigued with the stress and noise of the battle.

In 1665 John Denham Poet 1615-1669 (50) and Margaret Brooke Lady Denham 1640-1667 (25) were married. She, thereafter, conducted a very public affair with the future King James II (31). To her husband's mortification, she insisted on being acknowledged publicly as a Royal mistress, saying that she would not, unlike her predecessor Goditha Price "go up and down the back stairs".

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (45). Portrait of Margaret Brooke Lady Denham 1640-1667 (24). One of the Windsor Beauties.

Around 1665 Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (16) became the mistress of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31).

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and [his future wife] [his future wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27).

In 1665 Henry Savile 1642-1687 (23) was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber to the Duke of York (31).

On 06 Feb 1665 [his daughter] Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and [his future wife] [his future wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (27) at St James's Palace at 11:39pm being their fourth child and second daughter. She was baptised Anglican in the Chapel Royal with her elder sister [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (2) being Godparent as well as Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch 1651-1732 (13) and Gilbert Sheldon Archbishop of Canterbury 1598-1677 (66).

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 April. 20 Apr 1665. To Whitehall, to the [his brother] King (34), who called me into his bedchamber as he was dressing, to whom, I showed the letter written to me from the Duke of York (31) from the fleet, giving me notice of young Evertzen, and some considerable commanders newly taken in fight with the Dartmouth and Diamond frigates, whom he had sent me as prisoners at war; I went to know of his Majesty (34) how he would have me treat them, when he commanded me to bring the young captain to him, and to take the word of the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) for the other, that he should render himself to me whenever I called on him, and not stir without leave. Upon which I desired more guards, the prison being Chelsea House. I went also to Lord Arlington (47) (the Secretary Bennet lately made a Lord) about other business. Dined at my Lord Chancellor's (56); none with him but Sir Sackville Crowe (69), formerly Ambassador at Constantinople; we were very cheerful and merry.

Battle of Lowestoft

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 08 Jun 1665. I went again to his Grace, thence to the Council, and moved for another privy seal for £20,000, and that I might have the disposal of the Savoy Hospital for the sick and wounded; all which was granted. Hence to the Royal Society, to refresh among the philosophers.
Came news of his [his brother] highness's (35) victory, which indeed might have been a complete one, and at once ended the war, had it been pursued, but the cowardice of some, or treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had, however, bonfires, bells, and rejoicing in the city. Next day, the 9th, I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I got to Rochester this evening. Next day I lay at Deal, where I found all in readiness: but, the fleet being hindered by contrary winds, I came away on the 12th, and went to Dover, and returned to Deal; and on the 13th, hearing the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward, and lay at Chatham, and on the 14th, I got home. On the 15th, came the eldest son of the present Secretary of State to the French King, with much other company, to dine with me. After dinner, I went with him to London, to speak to my Lord General for more guards, and gave his Majesty (35) an account of my journey to the coasts under my inspection. I also waited on his Royal Highness (31), now come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. See the whole history of this conflict in my "History of the Dutch War.".

On 13 Jun 1665 at the Battle of Lowestoft an English fleet commanded by James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31), Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (45) and Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (39) defeated a Dutch Fleet.
Richard Boyle -1665 was killed.
Charles Maccarthy 2nd Earl Clancarty -1665 was killed. His son Callaghan Maccarthy 3rd Earl Clancarty -1676 succeeded 3rd Earl Clancarty (1C 1658).
Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth 1630-1665 (35) was killed by a cannonball aboard the HMS Royal Charles. His father Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (65) succeeded 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Penelope Godolphin Viscountess Fitzhardinge by marriage Viscountess Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Possibly the only occasion when a father has succeeded his son.
Charles Weston 3rd Earl of Portland 1639-1665 (26) was killed by a cannon shot. On 13 Jun 1665 His uncle Thomas Weston 4th Earl of Portland 1609-1688 (55) succeeded 4th Earl of Portland (1C 1633).
Thomas Allin 1st Baronet 1612-1685 (53) was present.
Admiral Jeremy Smith -1675 commanded the HMS Mary.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 20 Jun 1665. To London, and represented the state of the sick and wounded to [his brother] His Majesty (35) in Council, for want of money, he ordered I should apply to My Lord Treasurer (58) and Chancellor of the Exchequer (43), upon what funds to raise the money promised. We also presented to his Majesty (35) divers expedients for retrenchment of the charge.
This evening making my court to the Duke (31), I spake to Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, and his Highness (31) granted me six prisoners, Embdeners, who were desirous to go to the Barbadoes with a merchant.

Battle of Lowestoft

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 23 Jun 1665. I dined with Sir Robert Paston (34), since Earl of Yarmouth, and saw the Duke of Verneuille, base brother to the Queen-Mother (55), a handsome old man, a great hunter.
The Duke of York (31) told us that, when we were in fight, his dog sought out absolutely the very securest place in all the vessel. In the afternoon, I saw the pompous reception and audience of El Conde de Molino, the Spanish Ambassador, in the Banqueting-house, both their Majesties [Note. [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (35) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26)] sitting together under the canopy of state.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two Putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

John Evelyn's Diary 1665 June. 30 Jun 1665. To Chatham; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord Sandwich (39), now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace to the Buoy of the Nore, where the whole fleet rode at anchor; went on board the Prince, of ninety brass ordnance, haply the best ship in the world, both for building and sailing; she had 700 men. They made a great huzza, or shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined with many noblemen, gentlemen, and volunteers, served in plate and excellent meat of all sorts. After dinner, came his Majesty, the Duke (31), and Prince Rupert (45). Here I saw the [his brother] King (35) knight Captain Custance for behaving so bravely in the late fight. It was surprising to behold the good order, decency, and plenty of all things in a vessel so full of men. The ship received a hundred cannon shot in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to which after a gun was shot off, came all the flag officers to his Majesty (35), who there held a General Council, which determined that his Royal Highness (35) should adventure himself no more this summer. I came away late, having seen the most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We returned in his Majesty's (35) yacht with my Lord Sandwich (39) and Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham on Sunday morning.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

On 03 Sep 1665 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (31) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (28) were married.

Four Days' Battle

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 July. 04 Jul 1666. The solemn Fast-day. Dr. Meggot preached an excellent discourse before the [his brother] King (36) on the terrors of God's judgments. After sermon, I waited on my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (49) and Bishop of Winchester (47), where the Dean of Westminster (31) spoke to me about putting into my hands the disposal of fifty pounds, which the charitable people of Oxford had sent to be distributed among the sick and wounded seamen since the battle. Hence, I went to the Lord Chancellor's (57) to joy him of his Royal Highness's (32) second [his son] son, now born at St. James's; and to desire the use of the Star-chamber for our Commissioners to meet in, Painters' Hall, Queenhithe not being so convenient.

On 04 Jul 1666 [his son] Charles Stewart 1st Duke Kendal 1666-1667 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (32) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (29) at St James's Palace.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 06 Sep 1666. Thursday. I represented to his [his brother] Majesty (36) the case of the French prisoners at war in my custody, and besought him that there might be still the same care of watching at all places contiguous to unseized houses. It is not indeed imaginable how extraordinary the vigilance and activity of the King (36) and the Duke (32) was, even laboring in person, and being present to command, order, reward, or encourage workmen; by which he showed his affection to his people, and gained theirs. Having, then, disposed of some under cure at the Savoy, I returned to Whitehall, where I dined at Mr. Offley's [Note. Not clear who Mr Offley is? John Evelyn's (45) brother George Evelyn of Wotton 1617-1699 (49) was married to Mary Offley -1664], the groom-porter, who was my relation.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 13 Sep 1666. I presented his [his brother] Majesty (36) with a survey of the ruins, and a plot for a new city, with a discourse on it; whereupon, after dinner, his Majesty (36) sent for me into the Queen's (27) bed-chamber, her Majesty (27) and the Duke (32) only being present. They examined each particular, and discoursed on them for near an hour, seeming to be extremely pleased with what I had so early thought on. The Queen (27) was now in her cavalier riding-habit, hat and feather, and horseman's coat, going to take the air.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two Putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

In 1667 [his brother] King Chales II (36), his brother James (33), Prince Rupert (47) and James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 (17) dined with Richard Neville 1615-1676 (51) at Billingbear House, Waltham St Lawrence.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

In 1667 [his daughter] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle 1667-1730 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (33) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (29).

On 06 Jan 1667 Margaret Brooke Lady Denham 1640-1667 (27) died. She was rumoured to have been poisoned by her husband John Denham Poet 1615-1669 (52) by giving her a poisoned cup of chocolate. In any case rumour named several other possible poisoners, including her former lover James (33), his wife [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde (29) and his sister-in-law, Lady Rochester (21).

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (45). Portrait of Margaret Brooke Lady Denham 1640-1667 (24). One of the Windsor Beauties.

On 22 May 1667 [his son] Charles Stewart 1st Duke Kendal 1666-1667 died.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 June. 08 Jun 1667. To London, alarmed by the Dutch, who were fallen on our fleet at Chatham, by a most audacious enterprise, entering the very river with part of their fleet, doing us not only disgrace, but incredible mischief in burning several of our best men-of-war lying at anchor and moored there, and all this through our unaccountable negligence in not setting out our fleet in due time. This alarm caused me, fearing the enemy might venture up the Thames even to London (which they might have done with ease, and fired all the vessels in the river, too), to send away my best goods, plate, etc., from my house to another place. The alarm was so great that it put both country and city into fear, panic, and consternation, such as I hope I shall never see more; everybody was flying, none knew why or whither. Now, there were land forces dispatched with the Duke of Albemarle (58), Lord Middleton (59), Prince Rupert (47), and the Duke (33), to hinder the Dutch coming to Chatham, fortifying Upnor Castle, and laying chains and bombs; but the resolute enemy broke through all, and set fire on our ships, and retreated in spite, stopping up the Thames, the rest of the fleet lying before the mouth of it.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

On 20 Jun 1667 [his son] James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1663-1667 (3) died at Richmond Palace, Richmond. He was buried at Westminster Abbey.

On 15 Sep 1667 [his son] Edgar Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1667-1671 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (33) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (30).

On 07 Oct 1667 [his son] Edgar Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1667-1671 was created 1st Duke Cambridge (2C 1667).

John Evelyn's Diary 1668 May. 13 May 1668. Invited by that expert commander, Captain Cox, master of the lately built "Charles II" now the best vessel of the fleet, designed for the Duke of York (34), I went to Erith, where we had a great dinner.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 02 May 1669. Lord’s Day. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there visit my Lord Sandwich (43), who, after about two months’ absence at Hinchingbroke, come to town last night. I saw him, and very kind; and I am glad he is so, I having not wrote to him all the time, my eyes indeed not letting me. Here with Sir Charles Herbert [Harbord] (29), and my Lord Hinchingbroke (21), and Sidney, we looked upon the picture of Tangier, designed by Charles Herbert [Harbord] (29), and drawn by Dancre, which my Lord Sandwich admires, as being the truest picture that ever he’s saw in his life: and it is indeed very pretty, and I will be at the cost of having one of them. Thence with them to White Hall, and there walked out the sermon, with one or other; and then saw the Duke of York (35) after sermon, and he talked to me a little; and so away back by water home, and after dinner got my wife (28) to read, and then by coach, she and I, to the Park, and there spent the evening with much pleasure, it proving clear after a little shower, and we mighty fine as yesterday, and people mightily pleased with our coach, as I perceived; but I had not on my fine suit, being really afeard to wear it, it being so fine with the gold lace, though not gay. So home and to supper, and my wife (28) to read, and Tom, my Nepotisme, and then to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 03 May 1669. Up, and by coach to my Lord Brouncker’s (49), where Sir G. Carteret (59) did meet Sir J. Minnes (70) and me, to discourse upon Mr. Deering’s (43) business, who was directed, in the time of the war, to provide provisions at Hamburgh, by Sir G. Carteret’s (59) direction; and now G. Carteret (59) is afeard to own it, it being done without written order. But by our meeting we do all begin to recollect enough to preserve Mr. Deering (43), I think, which, poor silly man! I shall be glad of, it being too much he should suffer for endeavouring to serve us. Thence to St. James’s, where the Duke of York (35) was playing in the Pell Mell; and so he called me to him most part of the time that he played, which was an hour, and talked alone to me; and, among other things, tells me how the [his brother] King (38) will not yet be got to name anybody in the room of Pen (48), but puts it off for three or four days; from whence he do collect that they are brewing something for the Navy, but what he knows not; but I perceive is vexed that things should go so, and he hath reason; for he told me that it is likely they will do in this as in other things — resolve first, and consider it and the fitness of it afterward. Thence to White Hall, and met with Creed, and I took him to the Harp and Balls, and there drank a cup of ale, he and I alone, and discoursed of matters; and I perceive by him that he makes no doubt but that all will turn to the old religion, for these people cannot hold things in their hands, nor prevent its coming to that; and by his discourse fits himself for it, and would have my Lord Sandwich (43) do so, too, and me. After a little talk with him, and particularly about the ruinous condition of Tangier, which I have a great mind to lay before the Duke of York (35), before it be too late, but dare not, because of his great kindness to Lord Middleton (61), we parted, and I homeward; but called at Povy’s (55), and there he stopped me to dinner, there being Mr. Williamson (35), the Lieutenant of the Tower, Mr. Childe (38), and several others. And after dinner, Povy (55) and I together to talk of Tangier; and he would have me move the Duke of York (35) in it, for it concerns him particularly, more than any, as being the head of us; and I do think to do it. Thence home, and at the office busy all the afternoon, and so to supper and to bed.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Wednesday 05 May 1669. Up, and thought to have gone with Lord Brouncker (49) to Mr. Hooke (33) this morning betimes; but my Lord is taken ill of the gout, and says his new lodgings have infected him, he never having had any symptoms of it till now. So walked to Gresham College, to tell Hooke (33) that my Lord could not come; and so left word, he being abroad, and I to St. James’s, and thence, with the Duke of York (35), to White Hall, where the Board waited on him all the morning: and so at noon with Sir Thomas Allen (57), and Sir Edward Scott (91), and Lord Carlingford (66), to the Spanish Embassador’s (49), where I dined the first time. The Olio not so good as Sheres’s. There was at the table himself (49) and a Spanish Countess, a good, comely, and witty lady — three Fathers and us. Discourse good and pleasant. And here was an Oxford scholar in a Doctor of Law’s gowne, sent from the College where the Embassador lay, when the Court was there, to salute him before his return to Spain: This man, though a gentle sort of scholar, yet sat like a fool for want of French or Spanish, but [knew] only Latin, which he spoke like an Englishman to one of the Fathers. And by and by he and I to talk, and the company very merry at my defending Cambridge against Oxford: and I made much use of my French and Spanish here, to my great content. But the dinner not extraordinary at all, either for quantity or quality. Thence home, where my wife (28) ill of those upon the maid’s bed, and troubled at my being abroad. So I to the office, and there till night, and then to her (28), and she read to me the Epistle of Cassandra, which is very good indeed; and the better to her, because recommended by Sheres. So to supper, and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 07 May 1669. Up, and by coach to W. Coventry’s (41); and there to talk with him a great deal with great content; and so to the Duke of York (35), having a great mind to speak to him about Tangier; but, when I come to it, his interest for my Lord Middleton (61)Excise Office, having by private vows last night in prayer to God Almighty cleared my mind for the present of the thoughts of going to Deb. (18) at Greenwich, which I did long after. I passed by Guildhall, which is almost finished, and saw a poor labourer carried by, I think, dead with a fall, as many there are, I hear. So home to dinner, and then to the office a little, and so to see my Lord Brouncker (49), who is a little ill of the gout; and there Madam Williams told me that she heard that my wife (28) was going into France this year, which I did not deny, if I can get time, and I pray God I may. But I wondering how she come to know it, she tells me a woman that my wife (28) spoke to for a maid, did tell her so, and that a lady that desires to go thither would be glad to go in her company. Thence with my wife (28) abroad, with our coach, most pleasant weather; and to Hackney, and into the marshes, where I never was before, and thence round about to Old Ford and Bow; and coming through the latter home, there being some young gentlewomen at a door, and I seeming not to know who they were, my wife’s (28) jealousy told me presently that I knew well enough it was that damned place where Deb. (18) dwelt, which made me swear very angrily that it was false, as it was, and I carried [her] back again to see the place, and it proved not so, so I continued out of humour a good while at it, she being willing to be friends, so I was by and by, saying no more of it. So home, and there met with a letter from Captain Silas Taylor (44), and, with it, his written copy of a play that he hath wrote, and intends to have acted. — It is called "The Serenade or Disappointment," which I will read, not believing he can make any good of that kind. He did once offer to show Harris (35) it, but Harris (35) told him that he would judge by one Act whether it were good or no, which is indeed a foolish saying, and we see them out themselves in the choice of a play after they have read the whole, it being sometimes found not fit to act above three times; nay, and some that have been refused at one house is found a good one at the other. This made Taylor (44) say he would not shew it him, but is angry, and hath carried it to the other house, and he thinks it will be acted there, though he tells me they are not yet agreed upon it. But I will find time to get it read to me, and I did get my wife (28) to begin a little to-night in the garden, but not so much as I could make any judgment of it. So home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Saturday 08 May 1669. Up, and to the Office, and there comes Lead to me, and at last my vizards are done, and glasses got to put in and out, as I will; and I think I have brought it to the utmost, both for easiness of using and benefit, that I can; and so I paid him 15s. for what he hath done now last, in the finishing them, and they, I hope, will do me a great deal of ease. At the Office all the morning, and this day, the first time, did alter my side of the table, after above eight years sitting on that next the fire. But now I am not able to bear the light of the windows in my eyes, I do begin there, and I did sit with much more content than I had done on the other side for a great while, and in winter the fire will not trouble my back. At noon home to dinner, and after dinner all the afternoon within, with Mr. Hater, Gibson, and W. Hewer (27), reading over and drawing up new things in the Instructions of Commanders, which will be good, and I hope to get them confirmed by the Duke of York (35), though I perceive nothing will effectually perfect them but to look over the whole body of the Instructions, of all the Officers of a ship, and make them all perfect together. This being done, comes my bookseller, and brings me home bound my collection of papers, about my Addresse to the Duke of York (35) in August, which makes me glad, it being that which shall do me more right many years hence than, perhaps, all I ever did in my life: and therefore I do, both for my own and the [his brother] King (38)’s sake, value it much. By and by also comes Browne, the mathematical instrument maker, and brings me home my instrument for perspective, made according to the description of Dr. Wren’s in the late Transactions; and he hath made it, I think, very well, and that, that I believe will do the thing, and therein gives me great content; but have I fear all the content that must be received by my eyes is almost lost. So to the office, and there late at business, and then home to supper and to bed.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715 (47).

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 10 May 1669. Troubled, about three in the morning, with my wife’s (28) calling her maid up, and rising herself, to go with her coach abroad, to gather May-dew, which she did, and I troubled for it, for fear of any hurt, going abroad so betimes, happening to her; but I to sleep again, and she come home about six, and to bed again all well, and I up and with Mr. Gibson by coach to St. James’s, and thence to White Hall, where the Duke of York met the Office, and there discoursed of several things, particularly the Instructions of Commanders of ships. But here happened by chance a discourse of the Council of Trade, against which the Duke of York (35) is mightily displeased, and particularly Mr. Child (38), against whom he speaking hardly, Captain Cox did second the Duke of York (35), by saying that he was talked of for an unfayre dealer with masters of ships, about freight: to which Sir T. Littleton (48) very hotly and foolishly replied presently, that he never heard any honest man speak ill of Child (38); to which the Duke of York (35) did make a smart reply, and was angry; so as I was sorry to hear it come so far, and that I, by seeming to assent to Cox, might be observed too much by Littleton (48), though I said nothing aloud, for this must breed great heart-burnings. After this meeting done, the Duke of York (35) took the Treasurers into his closet to chide them, as Mr. Wren (45) tells me; for that my Lord Keeper (63) did last night at the Council say, when nobody was ready to say any thing against the constitution of the Navy, that he did believe the Treasurers of the Navy had something to say, which was very foul on their part, to be parties against us.
They being gone, Mr. Wren (45) [and I] took boat, thinking to dine with my Lord of Canterbury (70); but, when we come to Lambeth, the gate was shut, which is strictly done at twelve o’clock, and nobody comes in afterwards: so we lost our labour, and therefore back to White Hall, and thence walked my boy Jacke with me, to my Lord Crew (71), whom I have not seen since he was sick, which is eight months ago, I think and there dined with him: he is mightily broke. A stranger a country gentleman, was with him: and he pleased with my discourse accidentally about the decay of gentlemen’s families in the country, telling us that the old rule was, that a family might remain fifty miles from London one hundred years, one hundred miles from London two hundred years, and so farther, or nearer London more or less years. He also told us that he hath heard his father say, that in his time it was so rare for a country gentleman to come to London, that, when he did come, he used to make his will before he set out.
Thence: to St. James’s, and there met the Duke of York (35), who told me, with great content, that he did now think he should master our adversaries, for that the [his brother] King (38) did tell him that he was; satisfied in the constitution of the Navy, but that it was well to give these people leave to object against it, which they having not done, he did give order to give warrant to the Duke of York (35) to direct Sir Jeremy Smith to be a Commissioner of the Navy in the room of Pen (48); which, though he be an impertinent fellow, yet I am glad of it, it showing that the other side is not so strong as it was: and so, in plain terms, the Duke of York (35) did tell me, that they were every day losing ground; and particularly that he would take care to keep out Child (38): at all which I am glad, though yet I dare not think myself secure, as the King (38) may yet be wrought upon by these people to bring changes in our Office, and remove us, ere it be long. Thence I to White Hall, and there took boat to Westminster, and to Mrs. Martin’s, who is not come to town from her husband at Portsmouth. So drank only at Cragg’s with Doll, and so to the Swan, and there baiser a new maid that is there, and so to White Hall again, to a Committee of Tangier, where I see all things going to rack in the business of the Corporation, and consequently in the place, by Middleton’s (61) going. Thence walked a little with Creed, who tells me he hears how fine my horses and coach are, and advises me to avoid being noted for it, which I was vexed to hear taken notice of, it being what I feared and Povy (55) told me of my gold-lace sleeves in the Park yesterday, which vexed me also, so as to resolve never to appear in Court with them, but presently to have them taken off, as it is fit I should, and so to my wife (28) at Unthanke’s, and coach, and so called at my tailor’s to that purpose, and so home, and after a little walk in the garden, home to supper and to bed.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 14 May 1669. Up, and to St. James’s to the Duke of York (35), and thence to White Hall, where we met about office business, and then at noon with Mr. Wren (45) to Lambeth, to dinner with the Archbishop of Canterbury (70); the first time I was ever there and I have long longed for it; where a noble house, and well furnished with good pictures and furniture, and noble attendance in good order, and great deal of company, though an ordinary day; and exceeding great cheer, no where better, or so much, that ever I think I saw, for an ordinary table: and the Bishop (70) mighty kind to me, particularly desiring my company another time, when less company there. Most of the company gone, and I going, I heard by a gentleman of a sermon that was to be there; and so I staid to hear it, thinking it serious, till by and by the gentleman told me it was a mockery, by one Cornet Bolton, a very gentleman-like man, that behind a chair did pray and preach like a Presbyter Scot that ever I heard in my life, with all the possible imitation in grimaces and voice. And his text about the hanging up their harps upon the willows: and a serious good sermon too, exclaiming against Bishops, and crying up of my good Lord Eglinton, a till it made us all burst; but I did wonder to have the Bishop (70) at this time to make himself sport with things of this kind, but I perceive it was shewn him as a rarity; and he took care to have the room-door shut, but there were about twenty gentlemen there, and myself, infinitely pleased with the novelty. So over to White Hall, to a little Committee of Tangier; and thence walking in the Gallery, I met Sir Thomas Osborne (37), who, to my great content, did of his own accord fall into discourse with me, with so much proFessions of value and respect, placing the whole virtue of the Office of the Navy upon me, and that for the Comptroller’s place, no man in England was fit for it but me, when Sir J. Minnes (70), as he says it is necessary, is removed: but then he knows not what to do for a man in my place; and in discourse, though I have no mind to the other, I did bring in Tom Hater to be the fittest man in the world for it, which he took good notice of. But in the whole I was mightily pleased, reckoning myself now fifty per cent. securer in my place than I did before think myself to be. Thence to Unthanke’s, and there find my wife (28), but not dressed, which vexed me, because going to the Park, it being a most pleasant day after yesterday’s rain, which lays all the dust, and most people going out thither, which vexed me. So home, sullen; but then my wife (28) and I by water, with my brother, as high as Fulham, talking and singing, and playing the rogue with the Western barge-men, about the women of Woolwich, which mads them, an so back home to supper and to bed.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 16 May 1669. Lord’s Day. My wife (28) and I at church, our pew filled with Mrs. Backewell, and six more that she brought with her, which vexed me at her confidence. Dined at home and W. Batelier with us, and I all the afternoon drawing up a foul draught of my petition to the Duke of York (35), about my eyes, for leave to spend three or four months out of the Office, drawing it so as to give occasion to a voyage abroad which I did, to my pretty good liking; and then with my wife (28) to Hyde Park, where a good deal of company, and good weather, and so home to supper and to bed.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 17 May 1669. Up, and to several places doing business, and then home to dinner, and then my wife (28) and I and brother John by coach to the King’s playhouse, and saw "The Spanish Curate" revived, which is a pretty good play, but my eyes troubled with seeing it, mightily. Thence carried them and Mr. Gibson, who met me at my Lord Brouncker’s (49) with a fair copy of my petition, which I thought to shew the Duke of York (35) this night, but could not, and therefore carried them to the Park, where they had never been, and so home to supper and to bed. Great the news now of the French taking St. Domingo, in Spaniola, from the Spaniards, which troubles us, that they should have it, and have the honour of taking it, when we could not.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Wednesday 19 May 1669. With my coach to St. James’s; and there finding the Duke of York (35) gone to muster his men, in Hyde Park, I alone with my boy thither, and there saw more, walking out of my coach as other gentlemen did, of a soldier’s trade, than ever I did in my life: the men being mighty fine, and their Commanders, particularly the Duke of Monmouth (20); but me-thought their trade but very easy as to the mustering of their men, and the men but indifferently ready to perform what was commanded, in the handling of their arms. Here the news was first talked of Harry Killigrew’s being wounded in nine places last night, by footmen, in the highway, going from the Park in a hackney-coach towards Hammersmith, to his house at Turnham Greene: they being supposed to be my Lady Shrewsbury’s (27) men, she being by, in her (27) coach with six horses; upon an old grudge of his saying openly that he had lain with her. Thence by and by to White Hall, and there I waited upon the [his brother] King (38) and Queen (59) all dinner-time, in the Queen’s lodgings, she being in her white pinner and apron, like a woman with child; and she seemed handsomer plain so, than dressed. And by and by, dinner done, I out, and to walk in the Gallery, for the Duke of York’s (35) coming out; and there, meeting Mr. May (47), he took me down about four o’clock to Mr. Chevins’s (67) lodgings, and all alone did get me a dish of cold chickens, and good wine; and I dined like a prince, being before very hungry and empty. By and by the Duke of York (35) comes, and readily took me to his closet, and received my petition, and discoursed about my eyes, and pitied me, and with much kindness did give me his consent to be absent, and approved of my proposition to go into Holland to observe things there, of the Navy; but would first ask the King’s (38) leave, which he anon did, and did tell me that the King (38) would be a good master to me, these were his words, about my eyes, and do like of my going into Holland, but do advise that nobody should know of my going thither, but pretend that I did go into the country somewhere, which I liked well. Glad of this, I home, and thence took out my wife (34), and to Mr. Holliard’s (60) about a swelling in her cheek, but he not at home, and so round by Islington and eat and drink, and so home, and after supper to bed. In discourse this afternoon, the Duke of York (35) did tell me that he was the most amazed at one thing just now, that ever he was in his life, which was, that the Duke of Buckingham (41) did just now come into the Queen’s (59) bed-chamber, where the King (38) was, and much mixed company, and among others, Tom Killigrew (57), the father of Harry, who was last night wounded so as to be in danger of death, and his man is quite dead; and [Buckingham (41)] there in discourse did say that he had spoke with some one that was by (which all the world must know that it must be his whore, my Lady Shrewsbury (27)), who says that they did not mean to hurt, but beat him, and that he did run first at them with his sword; so that he do hereby clearly discover that he knows who did it, and is of conspiracy with them, being of known conspiracy with her, which the Duke of York (35) did seem to be pleased with, and said it might, perhaps, cost him his life in the House of Lords; and I find was mightily pleased with it, saying it was the most impudent thing, as well as the most foolish, that ever he knew man do in all his life.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (25) and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677 (27).

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 21 May 1669. I waited with the Office upon the Duke of York (35) in the morning. Dined at home, where Lewis Phillips the friend of his, dined with me. In the afternoon at the Office. In the evening visited by Roger Pepys (52) and Philip Packer (50) and so home.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 23 May 1669. Lord's Day. Called up by Roger Pepys (52) and his son (23) who to church with me, and then home to dinner. In the afternoon carried them to Westminster, and myself to James’s, where, not finding the Duke of York (35), back home, and with my wife (28) spent the evening taking the ayre about Hackney, with great pleasure, and places we had never seen before.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 24 May 1669. To White Hall, and there all the morning, and thence home, and giving order for some business and setting my brother to making a catalogue of my books, I back again to W. Hewer (27) to White Hall, where I attended the Duke of York (35) and was by him led to [the [his brother] King (38)], who expressed great sense of my misfortune in my eyes, and concernment for their recovery; and accordingly signified, not only his assent to desire therein, but commanded me to give them rest summer, according to my late petition to the Duke of York (35). W. Hewer (27) and I dined alone at the Swan; and thence having thus waited on the King (38), spent till four o’clock in St. James’s Park, when I met my wife (28) at Unthanke’s, and so home.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715 (47).

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Friday 28 May 1669. To St. James’s, where the [his brother] King’s (38) being with the Duke of York (35) prevented a meeting of the Tangier Commission. But, Lord! what a deal of sorry discourse did I hear between the King (38) and several Lords about him here! but very mean methought. So with Creed to the Excise Office, and back to White Hall, where, in the Park, Sir G. Carteret (59) did give me an account of his discourse lately, with the Commissioners of Accounts, who except against many things, but none that I find considerable; among others, that of the Officers of the Navy selling of the King’s (38) goods, and particularly my providing him with calico flags, which having been by order, and but once, when necessity, and the King’s (38) apparent profit, justified it, as conformable to my particular duty, it will prove to my advantage that it be enquired into. Nevertheless, having this morning received from them a demand of an account of all monies within their cognizance, received and issued by me, I was willing, upon this hint, to give myself rest, by knowing whether their meaning therein might reach only to my Treasurership for Tangier, or the monies employed on this occasion. I went, therefore, to them this afternoon, to understand what monies they meant, where they answered me, by saying, "The eleven months’ tax, customs, and prizemoney," without mentioning, any more than I demanding, the service they respected therein; and so, without further discourse, we parted, upon very good terms of respect, and with few words, but my mind not fully satisfied about the monies they mean. At noon Mr. Gibson and I dined at the Swan, and thence doing this at Brook house, and thence calling at the Excise Office for an account of payment of my tallies for Tangier, I home, and thence with my wife (28) and brother spent the evening on the water, carrying our supper with us, as high as Chelsea; so home, making sport with the Westerne bargees, and my wife (28) and I singing, to my great content.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Sunday 30 May 1669. Whitsunday. By water to White Hall, and thence to Sir W. Coventry (41), where all the morning by his bed-side, he being indisposed. Our discourse was upon the notes I have lately prepared for Commanders’ Instructions; but concluded that nothing will render them effectual, without an amendment in the choice of them, that they be seamen, and not gentleman above the command of the Admiral, by the greatness of their relations at Court. Thence to White Hall, and dined alone with Mr. Chevin's (67) sister: whither by and by come in Mr. Progers (47) and Sir Thomas Allen (57), and by and by fine Mrs. Wells, who is a great beauty; and there I had my full gaze upon her, to my great content, she being a woman of pretty conversation. Thence to the Duke of York (35), who, with the officers of the Navy, made a good entrance on my draught of my new Instructions to Commanders, as well expressing general of a reformation among them, as liking of my humble offers towards it. Thence being called by my wife (28), Mr. Gibson and I, we to the Park, whence the rain suddenly home.

Samuel Pepy's Diary 1669 May. Monday 31 May 1669. Up very betimes, and so continued all the morning with W. Hewer (27), upon examining and stating my accounts, in order to the fitting myself to go abroad beyond sea, which the ill condition of my eyes, and my neglect for a year or two, hath kept me behindhand in, and so as to render it very difficult now, and troublesome to my mind to do it; but I this day made a satisfactory entrance therein. Dined at home, and in the afternoon by water to White Hall, calling by the way at Michell’s, where I have not been many a day till just the other day, and now I met her mother there and knew her husband to be out of town. And here je did baiser elle, but had not opportunity para hazer some with her as I would have offered if je had had it. And thence had another meeting with the Duke of York (35), at White Hall, on yesterday’s work, and made a good advance: and so, being called by my wife (28), we to the Park, Mary Batelier, and a Dutch gentleman, a friend of hers, being with us. Thence to "The World’s End," a drinking-house by the Park; and there merry, and so home late.
And thus ends all that I doubt I shall ever be able to do with my own eyes in the keeping of my journal, I being not able to do it any longer, having done now so long as to undo my eyes almost every time that I take a pen in my hand; and, therefore, whatever comes of it, I must forbear: and, therefore, resolve, from this time forward, to have it kept by my people in long-hand, and must therefore be contented to set down no more than is fit for them and all the world to know; or, if there be any thing, which cannot be much, now my amours to Deb (18). are past, and my eyes hindering me in almost all other pleasures, I must endeavour to keep a margin in my book open, to add, here and there, a note in short-hand with my own hand.
And so I betake myself to that course, which is almost as much as to see myself go into my grave: for which, and all the discomforts that will accompany my being blind, the good God prepare me!.

On 10 Sep 1669 [his mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (59) died.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (15).

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

On 21 Aug 1670 [his illegitimate son] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick 1670-1734 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (36) and Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (22).

John Evelyn's Diary 1670 August. 28 Aug 1670. One of the Canons preached; then followed the offering of the Knights of the Order, according to custom; first the poor Knights, in procession, then, the Canons in their formalities, the Dean and Chancellor, then his [his brother] Majesty (40) (the Sovereign), the Duke of York (36), Prince Rupert (50); and, lastly, the Earl of Oxford (43), being all the Knights that were then at Court.
I dined with the Treasurer (40), and consulted with him what pieces I was to add; in the afternoon the King (40) took me aside into the balcony over the terrace, extremely pleased with what had been told him I had begun, in order to his commands, and enjoining me to proceed vigorously in it. He told me he had ordered the Secretaries of State to give me all necessary assistance of papers and particulars relating to it and enjoining me to make it a LITTLE KEEN, for that the Hollanders had very unhandsomely abused him in their pictures, books, and libels.
Windsor was now going to be repaired, being exceedingly ragged and ruinous. Prince Rupert (50), the Constable, had begun to trim up the keep or high round Tower, and handsomely adorned his hall with furniture of arms, which was very singular, by so disposing the pikes, muskets, pistols, bandoleers, holsters, drums, back, breast, and headpieces, as was very extraordinary. Thus, those huge steep stairs ascending to it had the walls invested with this martial furniture, all new and bright, so disposing the bandoleers, holsters, and drums, as to represent festoons, and that without any confusion, trophy-like. From the hall we went into his bedchamber, and ample rooms hung with tapestry, curious and effeminate pictures, so extremely different from the other, which presented nothing but war and horror.
The King (40) passed most of his time in hunting the stag, and walking in the park, which he was now planting with rows of trees.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

On 09 Feb 1671 [his daughter] Catherine Stewart 1671-1671 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (37) and [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (33).

On 31 Mar 1671 [his wife] [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (34) died.

On 08 Jun 1671 [his son] Edgar Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge 1667-1671 (3) died.

Woodcock and Flatfoot Race at Newmarket

09 Oct 1671 - Use of the Term Miss. 09 Oct 1671 and 10 Oct 1671. I went, after evening service, to London, in order to a journey of refreshment with Mr. Treasurer (41), to Newmarket, where the [his brother] King (41) then was, in his coach with six brave horses, which we changed thrice, first, at Bishop-Stortford, and last, at Chesterford; so, by night, we got to Newmarket, where Mr. Henry Jermain (35) (nephew to the Earl of St. Alban (66)) lodged me very civilly. We proceeded immediately to Court, the King (41) and all the English gallants being there at their autumnal sports. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's; and, the next day, after dinner, I was on the heath, where I saw the great match run between Woodcock and Flatfoot, belonging to the King (41), and to Mr. Eliot, of the bedchamber, many thousands being spectators; a more signal race had not been run for many years.
This over, I went that night with Mr. Treasurer (41) to Euston, a palace of Lord Arlington's (53), where we found Monsieur Colbert (46) (the French Ambassador), and the famous new French Maid of Honor, Mademoiselle Querouaille (22), now coming to be in great favor with the King (41). Here was also the Countess of Sunderland (25), and several lords and ladies, who lodged in the house.
During my stay here with Lord Arlington (53), near a fortnight, his Majesty (41) came almost every second day with the Duke (37), who commonly returned to Newmarket, but the King (41) often lay here, during which time I had twice the honor to sit at dinner with him (41), with all freedom. It was universally reported that the fair lady —— [Note. Probably Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (22)], was bedded one of these nights, and the stocking flung, after the manner of a married bride; I acknowledge she was for the most part in her undress all day, and that there was fondness and toying with that young wanton; nay, it was said, I was at the former ceremony; but it is utterly false; I neither saw nor heard of any such thing while I was there, though I had been in her chamber, and all over that apartment late enough, and was myself observing all passages with much curiosity. However, it was with confidence believed she was first made a Miss, as they called these unhappy creatures, with solemnity at this time.
On Sunday, a young Cambridge divine preached an excellent sermon in the chapel, the King (41) and the Duke of York (37) being present.

Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

In 1670 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (35). Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (20).

In 1673 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (38). Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734 (23).

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

On 05 Dec 1671 [his daughter] Catherine Stewart 1671-1671 died.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701 (37). Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (38).

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 May. 10 May 1672. I was ordered, by letter from the Council, to repair forthwith to his [his brother] Majesty (41), whom I found in the Pall-Mall, in St. James's Park, where his Majesty (41) coming to me from the company, commanded me to go immediately to the seacoast, and to observe the motion of the Dutch fleet and ours, the Duke (38) and so many of the flower of our nation being now under sail, coming from Portsmouth, through the Downs, where it was believed there might be an encounter.

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 May. 14 May 1672. To Dover; but the fleet did not appear till the 16th, when the Duke of York (38) with his and the French squadron, in all 170 ships (of which above 100 were men-of-war), sailed by, after the Dutch, who were newly withdrawn. Such a gallant and formidable navy never, I think, spread sail upon the seas. It was a goodly yet terrible sight, to behold them as I did, passing eastward by the straits between Dover and Calais in a glorious day. The wind was yet so high, that I could not well go aboard, and they were soon got out of sight. The next day, having visited our prisoners and the Castle, and saluted the Governor, I took horse for Margate. Here, from the North Foreland Lighthouse top (which is a pharos, built of brick, and having on the top a cradle of iron, in which a man attends a great sea-coal fire all the year long, when the nights are dark, for the safeguard of sailors), we could see our fleet as they lay at anchor. The next morning, they weighed, and sailed out of sight to the N. E.

1672 Battle of Solebay

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 June. 02 Jun 1672. Trinity Sunday, I passed at Rochester; and, on the 5th, there was buried in the Cathedral Monsieur Rabiniére, Rear Admiral of the French squadron, a gallant person, who died of the wounds he received in the fight. This ceremony lay on me, which I performed with all the decency I could, inviting the Mayor and Aldermen to come in their formalities. Sir Jonas Atkins was there with his guards; and the Dean and Prebendaries: one of his countrymen pronouncing a funeral oration at the brink of his grave, which I caused to be dug in the choir. This is more at large described in the "Gazette" of that day; Colonel Reymes (58), my colleague in commission, assisting, who was so kind as to accompany me from London, though it was not his district; for indeed the stress of both these wars lay more on me by far than on any of my brethren, who had little to do in theirs. I went to see Upnor Castle, which I found pretty well defended, but of no great moment.
Next day I sailed to the fleet, now riding at the buoy of the "Nore," where I met his [his brother] Majesty (42), the Duke (38), Lord Arlington (54), and all the great men, in the "Charles," lying miserably shattered; but the miss of Lord Sandwich redoubled the loss to me, and showed the folly of hazarding so brave a fleet, and losing so many good men, for no provocation but that the Hollanders exceeded us in industry, and in all things but envy.
At Sheerness, I gave his Majesty (42) and his Royal Highness (38) an account of my charge, and returned to Queenborough; next day dined at Major Dorel's, Governor of Sheerness; thence, to Rochester; and the following day, home.

John Evelyn's Diary 1672 August. 18 Aug 1672. Sir James Hayes (35), Secretary to Prince Rupert (52), dined with me; after dinner I was sent to Gravesend to dispose of no fewer than 800 sick men. That night I got to the fleet at the Buoy of the Nore, where I spoke with the [his brother] King (42) and the Duke (38); and, after dinner next day, returned to Gravesend.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 March. 30 Mar 1673. Easter day. Myself and son received the blessed Communion, it being his first time, and with that whole week's more extraordinary preparation. I beseech God to make him a sincere and good Christian, while I endeavor to instill into him the fear and love of God, and discharge the duty of a father.
At the sermon coram Rege, preached by Dr. Sparrow (61), Bishop of Exeter, to a most crowded auditory; I stayed to see whether, according to custom, the Duke of York (39) received the Communion with the [his brother] King (42); but he did not, to the amazement of everybody. This being the second year he had forborne, and put it off, and within a day of the Parliament sitting, who had lately made so severe an Act against the increase of Popery, gave exceeding grief and scandal to the whole nation, that the heir of it, and the son of a martyr for the Protestant religion, should apostatize. What the consequence of this will be, God only knows, and wise men dread.

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 May. 25 May 1673. My son (18) was made a younger brother of the Trinity House. The new master was Sir J. Smith, one of the Commissioners of the Navy, a stout seaman, who had interposed and saved the Duke (39) from perishing by a fire ship in the late war.

1673 Test Act

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 July. 25 Jul 1673. I went to Tunbridge Wells, to visit my Lord Clifford (42), late Lord Treasurer, who was there to divert his mind more than his body; it was believed that he had so engaged himself to the Duke (39), that rather than take the Test, without which he was not capable of holding any office, he would resign that great and honorable station. This, I am confident, grieved him to the heart, and at last broke it; for, though he carried with him music, and people to divert him, and, when I came to see him, lodged me in his own apartment, and would not let me go from him, I found he was struggling in his mind; and being of a rough and ambitious nature, he could not long brook the necessity he had brought on himself, of submission to this conjuncture. Besides, he saw the Dutch war, which was made much by his advice, as well as the shutting up of the Exchequer, very unprosperous. These things his high spirit could not support. Having stayed here two or three days, I obtained leave of my Lord to return.
In my way, I saw my Lord of Dorset's (50) house at Knowle, near Sevenoaks, a great old-fashioned house.

On Aug 1673 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzjames 1st Duke Albemarle 1673-1702 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (39) and Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (25) at St James' Square.

1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 August. 18 Aug 1673. My Lord Clifford (43), being about this time returned from Tunbridge, and preparing for Devonshire, I went to take my leave of him at Wallingford House; he was packing up pictures, most of which were of hunting wild beasts and vast pieces of bull-baiting, bear-baiting, etc. I found him in his study, and restored to him several papers of state, and others of importance, which he had furnished me with, on engaging me to write the "History of the Holland War," with other private letters of his acknowledgments to my Lord Arlington (55), who from a private gentleman of a very noble family, but inconsiderable fortune, had advanced him from almost nothing. The first thing was his being in Parliament, then knighted, then made one of the Commissioners of sick and wounded, on which occasion we sat long together; then, on the death of Hugh Pollard, he was made Comptroller of the Household and Privy Councillor, yet still my brother Commissioner; after the death of Lord Fitz-Harding, Treasurer of the Household, he, by letters to Lord Arlington (55), which that Lord showed me, begged of his Lordship to obtain it for him as the very height of his ambition. These were written with such submissions and professions of his patronage, as I had never seen any more acknowledging. The Earl of Southampton then dying, he was made one of the Commissioners of the Treasury. His [his brother] Majesty (43) inclining to put it into one hand, my Lord Clifford (43), under pretense of making all his interest for his patron, my Lord Arlington (55), cut the grass under his feet, and procured it for himself, assuring the King (43) that Lord Arlington (55) did not desire it. Indeed, my Lord Arlington (55) protested to me that his confidence in Lord Clifford (43) made him so remiss and his affection to him was so particular, that he was absolutely minded to devolve it on Lord Clifford (43), all the world knowing how he himself affected ease and quiet, now growing into years, yet little thinking of this go-by. This was the great ingratitude Lord Clifford (43) showed, keeping my Lord Arlington (55) in ignorance, continually assuring him he was pursuing his interest, which was the Duke's (39) into whose great favor Lord Clifford (43) was now gotten; but which certainly cost him the loss of all, namely, his going so irrevocably far in his interest.
For the rest, my Lord Clifford (43) was a valiant, incorrupt gentleman, ambitious, not covetous; generous, passionate, a most constant, sincere friend, to me in particular, so as when he laid down his office, I was at the end of all my hopes and endeavors. These were not for high matters, but to obtain what his Majesty (43) was really indebted to my father-in-law, which was the utmost of my ambition, and which I had undoubtedly obtained, if this friend had stood. Sir Thomas Osborn (41), who succeeded him, though much more obliged to my father-in-law and his family, and my long and old acquaintance, being of a more haughty and far less obliging nature, I could hope for little; a man of excellent natural parts; but nothing of generous or grateful.
Taking leave of my Lord Clifford (43), he wrung me by the hand, and, looking earnestly on me, bid me God-b'ye, adding, "Mr. Evelyn, I shall never see thee more." "No!" said I, "my Lord, what's the meaning of this? I hope I shall see you often, and as great a person again." "No, Mr. Evelyn, do not expect it, I will never see this place, this city, or Court again," or words of this sound. In this manner, not without almost mutual tears, I parted from him; nor was it long after, but the news was that he was dead, and I have heard from some who I believe knew, he made himself away, after an extraordinary melancholy. This is not confidently affirmed, but a servant who lived in the house, and afterward with Sir Robert Clayton (44), Lord Mayor, did, as well as others, report it, and when I hinted some such thing to Mr. Prideaux, one of his trustees, he was not willing to enter into that discourse.
It was reported with these particulars, that, causing his servant to leave him unusually one morning, locking himself in, he strangled himself with his cravat upon the bed-tester; his servant, not liking the manner of dismissing him, and looking through the keyhole (as I remember), and seeing his master hanging, broke in before he was quite dead, and taking him down, vomiting a great deal of blood, he was heard to utter these words: "Well; let men say what they will, there is a God, a just God above"; after which he spoke no more. This, if true, is dismal. Really, he was the chief occasion of the Dutch war, and of all that blood which was lost at Bergen in attacking the Smyrna fleet, and that whole quarrel.
This leads me to call to mind what my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury (52) affirmed, not to me only, but to all my brethren the Council of Foreign Plantations, when not long after, this accident being mentioned as we were one day sitting in Council, his Lordship told us this remarkable passage: that, being one day discoursing with him when he was only Sir Thomas Clifford, speaking of men's advancement to great charges in the nation, "Well," says he, "my Lord, I shall be one of the greatest men in England. Don't impute what I say either to fancy, or vanity; I am certain that I shall be a mighty man; but it will not last long; I shall not hold it, but die a bloody death." "What," says my Lord, "your horoscope tells you so?" "No matter for that, it will be as I tell you." "Well," says my Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury (52), "if I were of that opinion, I either would not be a great man, but decline preferment, or prevent my danger."
This my Lord affirmed in my hearing before several gentlemen and noblemen sitting in council at Whitehall. And I the rather am confident of it, remembering what Sir Edward Walker (62) (Garter King at Arms) had likewise affirmed to me a long time before, even when he was first made a Lord; that carrying his pedigree to Lord Clifford on his being created a peer, and, finding him busy, he bade him go into his study and divert himself there till he was at leisure to discourse with him about some things relating to his family; there lay, said Sir Edward, on his table, his horoscope and nativity calculated, with some writing under it, where he read that he should be advanced to the highest degree in the state that could be conferred upon him, but that he should not long enjoy it, but should die, or expressions to that sense; and I think, (but cannot confidently say) a bloody death. This Sir Edward affirmed both to me and Sir Richard Browne; nor could I forbear to note this extraordinary passage in these memoirs..

On 20 Sep 1673 James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (39) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (14) were married.

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

John Evelyn's Diary 1673 November. 05 Nov 1673. This night the youths of the city burned the Pope in effigy, after they had made procession with it in great triumph, they being displeased at the Duke (40) for altering his religion and marrying an Italian lady (15).

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

In 1674 [his illegitimate daughter] Arabella Fitzjames 1674-1704 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (40) and Arabella Churchill 1648-1730 (25).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 wearing his Garter Robes.

John Evelyn's Diary 1674 July. 22 Jul 1674. I went to Windsor with my wife (39) and son (19) to see my daughter Mary (9), who was there with my Lady Tuke and to do my duty to his [his brother] Majesty (44). Next day, to a great entertainment at Sir Robert Holmes's (52) at Cranbourne Lodge, in the Forest; there were his Majesty (44), the Queen (35), Duke (40), Duchess (15), and all the Court. I returned in the evening with Sir Joseph Williamson (40), now declared Secretary of State. He was son of a poor clergyman somewhere in Cumberland, brought up at Queen's College, Oxford, of which he came to be a fellow; then traveled with ... and returning when the King (44) was restored, was received as a clerk under Mr. Secretary Nicholas. Sir Henry Bennett (56) (now Lord Arlington) succeeding, Williamson is transferred to him, who loving his ease more than business (though sufficiently able had he applied himself to it) remitted all to his man Williamson; and, in a short time, let him so into the secret of affairs, that (as his Lordship himself told me) there was a kind of necessity to advance him; and so, by his subtlety, dexterity, and insinuation, he got now to be principal Secretary; absolutely Lord Arlington's creature, and ungrateful enough. It has been the fate of this obliging favorite to advance those who soon forgot their original. Sir Joseph was a musician, could play at Jeu de Goblets, exceedingly formal, a severe master to his servants, but so inward with my Lord O'Brien (32), that after a few months of that gentleman's death, he married his widow (34), who, being sister and heir of the Duke of Richmond, brought him a noble fortune. It was thought they lived not so kindly after marriage as they did before. She was much censured for marrying so meanly, being herself allied to the Royal family.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two Putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

John Evelyn's Diary 1674 August. 21 Aug 1674. In one of the meadows at the foot of the long Terrace below the Windsor Castle, works were thrown up to show the [his brother] King (44) a representation of the city of Maestricht, newly taken by the French. Bastians, bulwarks, ramparts, palisadoes, graffs, horn-works, counter-scarps, etc., were constructed. It was attacked by the Duke of Monmouth (25) (newly come from the real siege) and the Duke of York (40), with a little army, to show their skill in tactics. On Saturday night they made their approaches, opened trenches, raised batteries, took the counter-scarp and ravelin, after a stout defense; great guns fired on both sides, grenadoes shot, mines sprung, parties sent out, attempts of raising the siege, prisoners taken, parleys; and, in short, all the circumstances of a formal siege, to appearance, and, what is most strange all without disorder, or ill accident, to the great satisfaction of a thousand spectators. Being night, it made a formidable show. The siege being over, I went with Mr. Pepys (41) back to London, where we arrived about three in the morning.

John Evelyn's Diary 1674 December. 22 Dec 1674. Was at the repetition of the "Pastoral," on which occasion Mrs. Blagg (22) had about her near £20,000 worth of jewels, of which she lost one worth about £80, borrowed of the Countess of Suffolk (52). The press was so great, that it is a wonder she lost no more. The Duke (41) made it good.

On 10 Jan 1675 [his daughter] Catherine Laura Stewart 1675-1675 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (41) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (16).

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

John Evelyn's Diary 1675 July. 11 Jul 1675. We heard the speeches, and saw the ceremony of creating doctors in Divinity, Law and Physic. I had, early in the morning, heard Dr. Morison, Botanic Professor, read on divers plants in the Physic Garden; and saw that rare collection of natural curiosities of Dr. Plot's, of Magdalen Hall, author of "The Natural History of Oxfordshire," all of them collected in that shire, and indeed extraordinary, that in one county there should be found such variety of plants, shells, stones, minerals, marcasites, fowls, insects, models of works, crystals, agates, and marbles. He was now intending to visit Staffordshire, and, as he had of Oxfordshire, to give us the natural, topical, political, and mechanical history. Pity it is that more of this industrious man's genius were not employed so to describe every county of England; it would be one of the most useful and illustrious works that was ever produced in any age or nation.
I visited also the Bodleian Library and my old friend, the learned Obadiah Walker (59), head of University College, which he had now almost rebuilt, or repaired. We then proceeded to Northampton, where we arrived the next day.
In this journey, went part of the way Mr. James Graham (26) (since Privy Purse to the Duke (41)), a young gentleman exceedingly in love with Mrs. Dorothy Howard (24), one of the maids of honor in our company. I could not but pity them both, the mother not much favoring it. This lady was not only a great beauty, but a most virtuous and excellent creature, and worthy to have been wife to the best of men. My advice was required, and I spoke to the advantage of the young gentleman, more out of pity than that she deserved no better match; for, though he was a gentleman of good family, yet there was great inequality.

On 03 Oct 1675 [his daughter] Catherine Laura Stewart 1675-1675 died of convulsions.

Before 1676 Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore 1657-1717 became the mistress of James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701.

John Evelyn's Diary 1676 March. 30 Mar 1676. Dining with my Lady Sunderland (30), I saw a fellow swallow a knife, and divers great pebble stones, which would make a plain rattling one against another. The knife was in a sheath of horn.
Dr. North (30), son of my Lord North (74), preached before the [his brother] King (45), on Isaiah liii. 57, a very young but learned and excellent person. Note. This was the first time the Duke (42) appeared no more in chapel, to the infinite grief and threatened ruin of this poor nation.

Treaty of Nimeguen

John Evelyn's Diary 1676 May. 07 May 1676. I spoke to the Duke of York (42) about my Lord Berkeley's (74) going to Nimeguen. Thence, to the Queen's Council at Somerset House, about Mrs. Godolphin's (23) lease of Spalding, in Lincolnshire.

John Evelyn's Diary 1676 August. 01 Aug 1676. In the afternoon, after prayers at St. James's Chapel, was christened a daughter of Dr. Leake's (34), the Duke's (42) Chaplain: godmothers were [his daughter] Lady Mary (14), daughter of the Duke of York (42), and the Duchess of Monmouth (25): godfather, the Earl of Bath (47).

On 28 Aug 1676 [his daughter] Isabel Stewart 1676-1681 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (42) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (17).

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

John Evelyn's Diary 1677 October. 23d October, 1677. Saw again the Prince of Orange (26); his marriage with the [his daughter] Lady Mary (15), eldest daughter to the Duke of York (44), by [his wife] [his wife] Mrs. Hyde, the late Duchess, was now declared.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

On 04 Nov 1677 [his nephew] William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (27) and [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (15) were married (he was her first-cousin). Mary Stewart II Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694 (15) by marriage Prince Orange.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

On 07 Nov 1677 [his son] Charles Stewart 1677-1677 was born to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (44) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (19).

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

On 12 Dec 1677 [his son] Charles Stewart 1677-1677 died of smallpox.

In 1679 John Robartes 1st Earl Radnor 1606-1685 (73) was created 1st Earl Radnor (1C 1679), 1st Viscount Bodmin by [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (48) in reward for having supported Charles' brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (45) 's future accession. Letitia Isabella Smythe Countess Radnor 1630-1714 (49) by marriage Countess Radnor (1C 1679).

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 April. 24th April 1679. The Duke of York (45), voted against by the Commons for his recusancy, went over to Flanders; which made much discourse.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 July. 6th July 1679. Now were there papers, speeches, and libels, publicly cried in the streets against the Dukes of York (45) and Lauderdale (63), etc., obnoxious to the Parliament, with too much and indeed too shameful a liberty; but the people and Parliament had gotten head by reason of the vices of the great ones.
There was now brought up to London a child, son of one Mr. Wotton, formerly amanuensis to Dr. Andrews, Bishop of Winton, who both read and perfectly understood Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Arabic, Syriac, and most of the modern languages; disputed in divinity, law, and all the sciences; was skillful in history, both ecclesiastical and profane; in politics; in a word, so universally and solidly learned at eleven years of age, that he was looked on as a miracle. Dr. Lloyd (42), one of the most deeply learned divines of this nation in all sorts of literature, with Dr. Burnet (35), who had severely examined him, came away astonished, and they told me they did not believe there had the like appeared in the world. He had only been instructed by his father, who being himself a learned person, confessed that his son knew all that he himself knew. But, what was more admirable than his vast memory, was his judgment and invention, he being tried with divers hard questions, which required maturity of thought and experience. He was also dexterous in chronology, antiquities, mathematics. In sum, an intellectus universalis, beyond all that we read of Picus Mirandula, and other precocious wits, and yet withal a very humble child.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 September. 13th September 1679. To Windsor, to congratulate his [his brother] Majesty (49) on his recovery; I kissed the Duke's (45) hand, now lately returned from Flanders to visit his brother the King (49), on which there were various bold and foolish discourses, the Duke of Monmouth (30) being sent away.

On Nov 1679 Charles "Bewitched" II King Spain 1661-1700 (17) and [his niece] Marie Louise Bourbon Queen Consort Spain 1662-1689 (17) were married (he was her first-cousin once-removed). Marie Louise Bourbon Queen Consort Spain 1662-1689 (17) by marriage Queen Consort Spain.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 November. 28th November, 1679. Came over the Duke of Monmouth (30) from Holland unexpectedly to his [his brother] Majesty (49); while the Duke of York (46) was on his journey to Scotland, whither the King (49) sent him to reside and govern. The bells and bonfires of the city at this arrival of the Duke of Monmouth (30) publishing their joy, to the no small regret of some at Court. This Duke (30), whom for distinction they called the Protestant Duke (though the son of an abandoned woman), the people made their idol.

In 1680 [his illegitimate daughter] Catherine Darnley Duchess Buckingham and Normandby 1680-1743 was born illegitimately to James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (46) and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore 1657-1717 (22).

John Evelyn's Diary 1680 November. 22d December, 1680. A solemn public Fast that God would prevent all Popish plots, avert his judgments, and give a blessing to the proceedings of Parliament now assembled, and which struck at the succession of the Duke of York (47).

On 04 Mar 1681 [his daughter] Isabel Stewart 1676-1681 (4) died.

Sinking of HMS Gloucester

On 06 May 1682 Richard Hill -1682 drowned off Great Yarmouth during the Sinking of HMS Gloucester when it struck a sandbank. The future James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) and John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 (31) were rescued in the ship's boat.
John Hope of Hopetoun 1651-1682 drowned. He gave up his seat in a lifeboat to the future James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) for which his son was rewarded with an Earldom twenty-one years later when he came of age.
Robert Ker 3rd Earl Roxburghe 1658-1682 (24) drowned. His son Robert Ker 4th Earl Roxburghe 1677-1696 (5) succeeded 4th Earl Roxburghe.

Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough 1650-1722 known as The Triumph of the John, 1st Duke of Marlborough.

John Evelyn's Diary 1682 May. 25 May 1682. I was desired by Sir Stephen Fox (55) and Sir Christopher Wren (58) to accompany them to Lambeth, with the plot and design of the college to be built at Chelsea, to have the Archbishop's approbation. It was a quadrangle of 200 feet square, after the dimensions of the larger quadrangle at Christ church, Oxford, for the accommodation of 440 persons, with Governor of and officers. This was agreed on.
The Duke (48) and James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 (48) and Duchess of York (23) were just now come to London, after his escape and shipwreck, as he went by sea for Scotland. See Sinking of HMS Gloucester.

In 1687 Studio of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (28).

In 1698. Francois de Troy Painter 1645-1730 (52). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (39).

Around 1685 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (29). Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (26).

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Mary of Modena Queen Consort England, Scotland and Ireland 1658-1718 (21).

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 February. 02 Feb 1683. I made my court at St. James's, when I saw the sea charts of Captain Collins (40), which that industrious man now brought to show the Duke (49), having taken all the coasting from the mouth of the Thames, as far as Wales, and exactly measuring every creek, island, rock, soundings, harbors, sands, and tides, intending next spring to proceed till he had finished the whole island, and that measured by chains and other instruments: a most exact and useful undertaking. He affirmed, that of all the maps put out since, there are none extant so true as those of Joseph Norden, who gave us the first in Queen Elizabeth's time; all since him are erroneous.

Rye House Plot

Before 21 Mar 1683 the Rye House Plot was an attempt to assassinate [his brother] Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 and his brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 as they passed Rye House, Hoddesdon when were returning from the races at Newmarket on 01 Apr 1683. In the event a fire at Newmarket on the 22 Mar 1683 the races were cancelled.