Biography of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547

1485 Coronation of Henry VII

1486 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1490 Arthur Tudor created Prince of Wales

1491 Christening of Henry VIII

1502 Death of Prince Arthur

1503 Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

1504 Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

1509 Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1510 Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

1511 Birth of Prince Henry

1511 Tournament

1511 Death of Prince Henry

1512 The Procession of Parliament

1513 Siege of Thérouanne

1513 Battle of Flodden

1514 Marriage of Mary Tudor and Louis XII of France

1516 Birth of Princess Mary

1520 Marriage of William Carey and Mary Boleyn

1520 Field of the Cloth of Gold

1521 Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

1522 Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

1525 Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

1529 Henry VIII Creates New Earldoms

1532 Henry and Anne Visit France

1532 Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals

1533 Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

1533 Katherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

1533 Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1533 Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

1533 Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

1534 First Act of Succession

1534 First Act of Supremacy

1534 Treasons Act

1535 Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1536 Pilgrimage of Grace

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Henry VIII Tournament

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Miscarriage of Anne Bolyen

1536 Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church

1536 Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

1536 Betrothal of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1536 Marriage of Henry VII and Jane Seymour

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1537 Death of Jane Seymour

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1538 Exeter Conspiracy

1538 Thomas Becket Shrine destroyed

1538 Henry VIII Excommunicated

1540 Marriage of Catherine Howard

1540 Anne of Cleves Annulment

1540 Anne of Cleves Marriage

1541 Catherine Howard Trial

1542 Death of King James V of Scotland

1542 Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

1543 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

1543 Parr Family Ennobled

1545 Christening of Henry Wriothesley

1546 Henry VIII Revises his Will

1547 Funeral of King Henry VIII

1547 Death of Henry VIII

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London


Family Trees

Descent

Ancestry

The History of King Richard the Third. King Edward of that name the Fourth (40), after he had lived fifty and three years, seven months, and six days, and thereof reigned two and twenty years, one month, and eight days, died at Westminster the ninth day of April, the year of our redemption, a thousand four hundred four score and three, leaving much fair issue, that is, Edward the Prince (12), thirteen years of age; Richard Duke of York, two years younger; [his mother] Elizabeth (17), whose fortune and grace was after to be queen, wife unto [his father] King Henry the Seventh (26), and mother unto the Eighth; Cecily (14) not so fortunate as fair; Brigette (2), who, representing the virtue of her whose name she bore, proFessed and observed a religious life in Dertford, a house of cloistered Nuns; Anne (7), who was after honorably married unto Thomas (10), then Lord Howard and after Earl of Surrey; and Katherine (3), who long time tossed in either fortune—sometime in wealth, often in adversity—at the last, if this be the last, for yet she lives, is by the goodness of her nephew, King Henry the Eighth, in very prosperous state, and worthy her birth and virtue.

Around 1675 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

Around 1520 Unknown Artist. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Coronation of Henry VII

On 30 Oct 1485 [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) was crowned VII King England and Ireland: Tudor by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (67) at Westminster Abbey. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (42), his mother, attended.
Robert Dymoke 1461-1544 (24) attended as the Kings' Champion.
John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (43) carried the King's train.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1499-1525 (10). Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge, St John's College. Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 (40). Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window. She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Cambridge, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

On 18 Jan 1486 [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) and [his mother] Elizabeth, Edward IV's eldest daughter (19) were married (he was her third-cousin) at Westminster Abbey.

On 20 Sep 1486 [his brother] Arthur Tudor Prince Wales 1486-1502 was created as Duke Cornwall.

Around 1500. Unknown Artist. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince Wales 1486-1502 (13).

On 29 Nov 1489 [his brother] Arthur Tudor Prince Wales 1486-1502 (3) was created as Earl Chester (7C 1489).

Arthur Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 27 Feb 1490 [his brother] Arthur Tudor Prince Wales 1486-1502 (3) was created Prince Wales at Westminster Palace.
Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr, 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (33) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VII. 1491. This yeare, June, King Henrie the Eight was borne at Greenewich, which was second sonne to [his father] King Henry the Vllth (33), named Duke of Yorke. Sir Robert Chamberlayne (53) beheaded. A conduict begon at Christ Churche. Note. Christ Churche is believed to be a typo for Grace Church.

On 28 Jun 1491 Henry VIII was born to [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (34) and [his mother] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (25) at Palace of Placentia. He was created as Duke Cornwall.

Christening of Henry VIII

After 28 Jun 1491 Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 was baptised by Richard Foxe Bishop 1448-1528 at the Church of the Observant Friars.

In 1494 Henry VIII (2) was created 1st Duke York (3C 1494).

On 01 Apr 1495 Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (79) made her last will. It was proved 27 Aug 1495.
Source: A Selection From the Wills of Eminent Persons by Camden Society (Great Britain). Published 1838. Transcribed by John Gough Nichols and John Bruce.
IN the name of allmyghty God, the blessed Trinite, fader and son and the holigost, trusting in the meanes and mediacions of oure blessed Lady Moder, of oure most blessed Saviour Jh’u Crist, and by the intercession of holy Saint John Baptist, and all the saintes of heven: I, CECILLE, wife unto the right noble prince Richard late Duke of Yorke, fader unto the most cristen prince my Lord and son King Edward the iiij th , the first day of Aprill the yere of our Lord M.CCCC.lxxxxv. after the computacion of the Church of Englond, of hole mynde and body, loving therfore be it to Jh’u, make and ordeigne my testament in fourme and maner ensuyng.
Furst, I bequeath and surrendour my soule in to the mercifull handes of allmyghty God my maker, and in to protecion of the blessed yrgin our lady Saint Mary, and suffrage of Saint John Baptist, and of all other saintes of heven. Also my body to be buried beside the body of my moost entierly best beloved Lord and housbond, fader unto my said lorde and son, and in his tumbe within the collegiate church of Fodringhay, a if myn executours by the sufferaunce of the [his father] King (38) finde goode sufficient therto; and elles at the Kinges (38) pleasure. And I will that after my deceasse all my dettes sufficiently appering and proved be paid, thanking oure Lord at this tyme of making of this my testament to the knolege of my conscience I am not muche in dett; and if it happen, as I trust to God it shalnot, that there be not found sufficient money aswell to pay my dettes as to enture my body, than in advoiding such charges as myght growe for the same, the whiche God defende, I lymytte and assigne all such parcelles of plate as belongith to my chapell, pantry, cellour, ewry, and squillery, to the perfourmyng of the same, as apperith in the inventary, except such plate as I have bequeithed. Also I geve and bequeith to the Kinges noble grace all such money as is owing to me of the customes, and two cuppes of gold.
Also I geve and bequeith to the [his mother] Quene (29) a crosse croslette of diamantes, a sawter with claspes of silver and guilte enameled covered with grene clothe of golde, and a pix with the fleshe of Saint Cristofer.
Also I bequeith to my lady the Kinges moder (51) a portuos with claspes of gold covered with blacke cloth of golde.
Also I geve to my lord [his brother] Prince (8) a bedde of arres of the Whele of Fortune and testour of the same, a counterpoint of arras, and a tappett of arres with the pope.
Also I geve to my lord Henry Duke of Yorke (3) b three tappettes of arres, oon of them of the life of Saint John Baptist, another of Mary Maudeleyn, and the thirde of the passion of our Lord and Saint George.
And if my body be buried at Fodringhay in the colege there with my most entierly best beloved lord and housbond, than I geve to the said colege a square canapie of crymeson clothe of gold with iiij. staves, twoo auter clothes of crymeson clothe of gold, twoo copes of crymeson cloth of gold, a chesibull and twoo tenucles of cryinyson clothe of golcrvith iij. abes, c twoo auter clothes of crymeson damaske browdered, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and iij. copes of blewe velwett brodered, with iij. abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and vij. processioners.
Also I geve to the colege of Stoke Clare a chesibull and twoo tenucles of playn crymyson cloth of gold with iij. abes, twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and fyve coopes of white damaske browdered, with iij. abes, twoo awter clothes of crymeson velwett upon the velwete (sic), a vestement of crymeson playne velvet, iiij. antiphoners, iiij. grayles, and sixe processioners.
Also I geve to the house of Sion two of the best coopes of crymyson clothe of gold.
Note. These next four people refer to her grand-daughters, children of Edward IV.
Also I geve to my doughter Brigitte (14) the boke of Legenda Aurea in velem, a boke of the life of Saint Kateryn of Sene, a boke of Saint Matilde.
Also I geve to my doughter Cecill (26) a portuous with claspes silver and gilte covered with purple velvet, and a grete portuous without note.
Also I geve to my doughter Anne (19) the largest bedde of bawdekyn, withe countrepoint of the same, the barge with bailies, tilde, and ores belonging to the same.
Also I geve to my doughter Kateryn (15) a traves of blewe satten.
Also I geve to my doughter of Suffolke (50) a the chare with the coveryng, all the quoshons, horses, and harneys belonging to the same, and all my palfreys.
Note. The next people are her grand-children, children of her daughter Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 (50)
Also I geve to my son of Suffolke (24) b a clothe of estate and iij. quoschons of purpull damaske cloth of gold.
Also I geve to my son Humfrey (21) c two awter clothes of blewe damaske brawdered and a vestyment of crymeson satten for Jh’us masse.
Also I geve to my son William (17) d a traves of white sarcenet, twoo beddes of downe, and twoo bolsters to the same.
Also I geve to my doughter Anne priores of Sion, a boke of Bonaventure and Hilton in the same in Englishe, and a boke of the Revelacions of Saint Burgitte.
Also I woll that all my plate not bequeithed be sold, and the money thereof be putte to the use of my burying, that is to sey, in discharging of suche costes and expensis as shalbe for carying of my body from the castell of Barkehampstede unto the colege of Fodringhey. And if any of the said plate be lefte unexpended I woll the said colege have it.
Also I geve to the colege of saint Antonies in London an antiphoner with the ruelles of musik in the later ynd.
Also I geve unto Master Richard Lessy all suche money as is owing unto me by obligations what soever they be, and also all such money as is owing unto me by the Shirfe of Yorkeshire, to helpe to bere his charges which he has to pay to the Kinges grace, trusting he shall the rather nyghe the said dettes by the help and socour of his said grace.
Also I geve to Master William Croxston a chesibull, stoles, and fanons of blake velwett, with an abe.
Also I geve to Master Eichard Henmershe a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of crymyson damaske, with an abe; and a chesibill, stoles and fanons of crymeson saten, with an abe.
Also I geve to Sir John More a frontell of purpull cloth of gold, a legend boke, and a colett boke.
Also I give to Sir Kandall Brantingham a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymson velvet, with an abe, the better of bothe.
Also I geve to Sir William Grave a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymeson velvett, with an abe; a masse-boke that servith for the closett, a prymour with claspes silver and gilt, covered with blewe velvett, and a sawter that servith for the closett covered with white ledder.
Also I geve to Sir John Blotte a gospell boke, a pistill covered with ledder, and a case for a corporax of grene playne velvett. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Clerk a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, fanons, of rede bawdeken, with iij. abes.
Also I geve to Sir William Tiler twoo coopes of rede bawdekyn.
Also I geve to Robert Claver iij. copes of white damaske brawdered, and a gowne of the Duchie b facion of playne blake velvett furred with ermyns.
Also I geve to John Bury twoo old copes of crymysyn satten cloth of gold, a frontell of white bawdekyn, twoo curteyns of rede sarcenett fringed, twoo curteyns of whit sarcenet fringed, a feder bed, a bolstour to the same, the best of feders, and two whit spervers of lynyn.
Also I geve to John Poule twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of white bawdekyn, with iij. abes; a short gowne of purple playne velvett furred with ermyns, the better of ij. and a kirtill of damaske with andelettes of silver and gilt furred.
Also I geve to John Smyth twoo auter clothes, a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of blew bawdekyn, with iij. abes. Also I geve to John Bury twoo copes of crymysyn clothe of gold that servith for Sondays.
Also I geve to John Walter a case for corporax of purple playne velvett, twoo cases for corporax of blewe bawdekyn, twoo auter clothes, a chesibill of rede and grene bawdekyn, a canapie of white sarcenett, iij. abes for children, and iiij. pair of parrours of white bawdekyn, twoo pair parrours of crymsyn velvett, twoo pair parrours of rede bawdekyn, a housling towell that servith for my selfe, twoo corteyns of blewe sarcenett fringed, a sudory of crymy-syn and white, the egges blak, a crose cloth and a cloth of Saint John Baptist of sarcenett painted, a long lantorn, a dext standing doble, twoo grete stondardes and ij. litill cofers.
Also I geve to John Peit-wynne twoo vestimentes of white damaske, a white bedde of lynnyn, a federbedde and a bolstour, and a short gowne of purple playne velvet furred with sabilles. Also I geve to Thomas Lentall six auter clothes of white sarcenett, with crosses of crymsyn velvet.
Also I geve to John Long iij. peces of bawdekyn of the lengur sorte. Also I geve to Sir [John] Verney knighte and Margarett his wiffe a a crosse [of] silver and guilte and berall, and in the same a pece of the holy crosse and other diverse reliques.
Also I geve to Dame Jane Pesemershe, widue, myne Inne that is called the George in Grauntham, during terme of her life; and after her decesse I woll that the reversion therof be unto the college of Fodringhay for evermore, to find a prest to pray for my Lord my housbond and me.
Also I geve to Nicholas Talbott and Jane his wife a spone of gold with a sharp diamount in the ende, a dymy-sent of gold with a collumbine and a diamont in the same, a guirdill of blewe tissue harnessed with gold, a guirdill of gold with a bokull and a pendaunt and iiij. barres of gold, a hoke of gold with iij. roses, a pomeamber of gold garnesshed with a diamont, sex rubies and sex perles, and the surnap and towell to the same.
Also I geve to Richard Boyvile and Gresild his wife my charrett and the horses with the harnes that belongith therunto, a gowne with a dymy trayn of purpull saten furred with ermyns, a shorte gowne of purple saten furred with jennetes, a kirtill of white damaske with aunde lettes silver and gilte, a spone of gold, a dymysynt of gold with a columbyne garnesshed with a diainant, a saphour, an amatist, and viij. perles, a pomeamber of gold enameled, a litell boxe with a cover of gold and a diamant in the toppe.
Also I geve to Richard Brocas and Jane his wife a long gown of purpull velvett upon velvet furred with ermyns, a greate Agnus of gold with the Trinite, Saint Erasmus, and the Salutacion of our Lady; an Agnus of gold with our Lady and Saint Barbara; a litell goblett with a cover silver and part guild; a pair of bedes of white amber gauded with vj. grete stones of gold, part aneled, with a pair of bedes of x. stones of gold and v. of corall; a cofor with a rounde lidde bonde with iron, which the said Jane hath in her keping, and all other thinges that she hath in charge of keping.
Also I geve to Anne Pinchbeke all other myne Agnus unbequeithed, that is to sey, ten of the Trinite, a litell malmesey pott with a cover silver and parte guilte, a possenett with a cover of silver, a short gowne of playne russett velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of playne blewe velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of purple playn velvet furred with grey, a tester, a siler, and a countrepoint of bawdekyn, the lesser of ij.
Also I geve to Jane Lessy a dymysent of gold with a roos, garnisshed with twoo rubies, a guirdell of purple tissue with a broken bokull, and a broken pendaunt silver and guilte, a guirdill of white riband with twoo claspes of gold with a columbyne, a guirdell of blewe riband with a bokell and a pendaunt of gold, a litell pair of bedes of white amber gaudied with vij. stones of gold, an haliwater stope with a strynkkill silver and gilte, and a laier silver and part guilte.
Also I geve to John Metcalfe and Alice his wife all the ringes that I have, except such as hang by my bedes and Agnus, and also except my signet, a litell boxe of golde with a cover of golde, a pair of bedes of Ixj. rounde stones of golde gaudied with sex square stones of golde enemeled, with a crosse of golde, twoo other stones, and a scalop shele of geete honging by.
Also I geve to Anne Lownde a litell bokull and a litell pendaunt of golde for a guirdill, a litell guirdell of golde and silke with a bokill and a pendaunt of golde, a guirdell of white riband with aggelettes of golde enameled, a hoke of golde playne, a broken hoke of golde enameled, and a litell rounde bottumed basyn of silver.
Also I geve to the house of Asshe-rugge a chesibull and ij. tenucles of crymysyn damaske embrawdered, with thre abes.
Also I geve to the house of Saint Margaretes twoo auter clothes with a crucifix and a vestiment of grete velvet.
Also I geve to the parish church of Stoundon a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.
Also I geve to the parishe church of Much Barkehampstede a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.
Also I geve to the parish church of Compton by sides Guilford a eorporax case of blake cloth of gold and iiij. auter clothes of white sarcenett embrawdered with garters.
Also I geve to Alisaunder Cressener my best bedde of downe and a bolster to the same.
Also I geve to Sir Henry Haidon knyght a tablett and a cristall garnesshed with ix. stones and xxvij. perles, lacking a stone and iij. perles.
Also I geve to Gervase Cressy a long gown of playn blewe velvet furred with sabilles.
Also I geve to Edward Delahay twoo gownes of musterdevilers furred with mynckes, and iiij u of money.
Also I geve to Thomas Manory a short gowne of crymesyn playn velvet lyned, purfilled with blake velvet, and iiij ll in money.
Also I geve to John Broune all such stuf as belongith to the kechyn in his keping at my place at Baynardcastell in London, and iiij u in money.
Also I geve to William Whitington a short gown of russett cloth furred with matrons and calabour wombes, a kirtill of purpull silke chamblett with awndelettes silver and gilte, all such floures of brawdery werke and the cofer that they be kept in, and xls. in money.
Also I geve to all other gentilmen that be daily a waiting in my houshold with Mr. Richard Cressy and Robert Lichingham everich of theime iiij u in money.
Also I geve to every yoman that be daily ad waiting in my houshold with John Otley xls. in money.
Also I geve to every grome of myne xxvj s. viij d. in money. And to every page of myne xiij s. iiij d. in money.
Also I geve to Robert Harison xls. in money and all the gootes.
And if ther be no money founde in my cofers to perfourme this my will and bequest, than I will that myne executours, that is to sey the reverend fader in God Master Olyver King bisshop of Bath (63), Sir Reignolde Bray (55) knight, Sir Thomas Lovell, councellours to the Kinges grace, Master William Pikinham doctour in degrees dean of the colege of Stoke Clare, Master William Felde master of the colege of Fodringhey, and Master Richard Lessy dean of my chapell, havyng God in reverence and drede, unto whome I geve full power and auctorite to execute this my will and testament, make money of such goodes as I have not geven and bequeithed, and with the same to content my dettes and perfourme this my will and testament.
And the foresaid reverend fader in God, Sir Rignold Bray knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell knyght, Master William Pikenham, and Master William Felde, to be rewarded of suche thinges as shalbe delivered unto theme by my commaundement by the hondes of Sir Henry Haidon knyght stieward of my houshold and Master Richard Lessy, humbly beseching the Kinges habundant grace in whome is my singuler trust to name such supervisour as shalbe willing and favorabull diligently to se that this my present testament and will be perfittely executed and perfourmyd, gevyng full power also to my said executours to levey and receyve all my dettes due and owing unto me at the day of my dethe, as well of my receyvours as of all other officers, except such dettes as I have geven and bequeathed unto Master Richard Lessy aforesaid, as is above specified in this present will and testament.
And if that Master Richard Lessy cannot recover such money as I have geven to hym of the Shirffes of Yorkeshire and of my obligacions, than I will he be recompensed of the revenues of my landes to the sume of v c. marcs at the leest.
IN WITTENESSE HEROF I have setto my signet and signemanuell at my castell of Berkehamstede the last day of May the yere of our Lord abovesaid, being present Master Richard Lessy, Sir William Grant my confessour, Richard Brocas clerc of my kechyn, and Gervays Cressy. Proved at “Lamehithe” the 27 th day of August, A.D. 1495, and commission granted to Master Richard Lessy the executor in the said will mentioned to administer, &c. &c.

On 21 Feb 1499 [his brother] Edmund Tudor 1st Duke Somerset 1499-1500 was born to [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (42) and [his mother] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (33) at the Palace of Placentia being their sixth child. On 24 Feb 1499 he was christened at the Church of the Observant Friars. His godparents were Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (55), Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (21) andn Richard Foxe Bishop 1448-1528 (51), then Bishop of Durham. He is believed to have been created 1st Duke Somerset (3C 1499) on the same day although there is no documentation. On 19 Jun 1500 he died at the Royal Palace, Hatfield; possibly of plague of which an outbreak was occuring. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Death of Prince Arthur

On 02 Apr 1502 [his brother] Arthur Tudor Prince Wales 1486-1502 (15) died at Ludlow Castle, Ludlow. See Death of Prince Arthur. The cause of death unknown other than being reported as "a malign vapour which proceeded from the air". Catherine of Aragon (16) had recovered.

Around 1492. Juan de Flandes Painter 1440-1519 (32). Portrait of Catherine of Aragon (6).

Around 1520 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England 1485-1536 (34).

Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

On 02 Feb 1503 Katherine Tudor 1503-1503 was born to [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (46) and [his mother] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) at the Tower of London.
On 10 Feb 1503 Katherine Tudor 1503-1503 died.
On 11 Feb 1503 (her birthday) Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) died from childbirth. She was buried on 24 Feb 1503 in the Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 18 Feb 1504 Henry VIII (12) was created as Prince Wales and Earl Chester (8C 1504). John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (24) was created as Knight of the Bath. Richard Empson 1450-1510 was knighted. .

Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII. 1509. The coronation of Kinge Henrie the Eight (17), which was the 24th of June, A.D. 1509. See Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.
This yeare, [his son] Prince Henrie, the Kings (19) first sonne, was borne at Richmonde on Newe Yeares daye, and on St. Mathie's day [Note. 23 Feb] after the saide Prince died, and was buried at Westminster.

Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VII. 1509. This yeare, in Aprill, died [his father] King Henry the Vllth (51) at Richmond; and his Sonne King Henry the VIII (17) was proclaymed Kinge on St. Georges daye, in the same moneth. And in June follwinge the King (17) was married to Queene Katherin (23), late wife of his brother [his brother] Prince Arthure, and were both crowned on Mid-sommer day. See Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.

In 1509 William Compton 1482-1528 (27) was appointed Groom of the Stool to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (17).

In 1509 Thomas Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Templehurst 1467-1537 (42) was appointed 265th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (17)..

In 1509 Edward Dudley 2nd Baron Dudley 1459-1532 (50) was appointed 266th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (17)..

Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII Volume 1 1509-1514. Apr 1509. Will of [his father] Henry VII (52):
At his manor of Richmond March 24 Hen. VII., the King (52) makes his last will, commending his soul to the Redeemer with the words he has used since his first "years of discretion," Domine Jesu Christe, qui me ex nichilo creasti, fecisti, redemisti et predestinasti ad hoc quod sum, Tu scis quid de me facere vis, fac de me secundum voluntatem Tuam cum misericordia, trusting in the grace of His Blessed Mother in whom, after Him, has been all his (testator's) trust, by whom in all his adversities he has had special comfort, and to whom he now makes his prayer (recited), as also to all the company of Heaven and especially his "accustumed avoures" St. Michael, St. John Baptist, St. John Evangelist, St. George, St. Anthony, St. Edward, St. Vincent, St. Anne, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Barbara, to defend him at the hour of death and be intercessors for the remission of his sins and salvation of his soul.
Desires to be buried at Westminster, where he was crowned, where lie buried many of his progenitors, especially his granddame Katharine wife to Henry V and daughter to Charles of France, and whereto he means shortly to translate the remains of Henry IV in the chapel which he has begun to build (giving full directions for the placing and making of his tomb and finishing of the said chapel according to the plan which he has "in picture delivered" to the prior of St. Bartholomew's beside Smithfield, master of the works for the same); and he has delivered beforehand to the abbot, &c., of Westminster, 5,000l., by indenture dated Richmond, 13 April 23 Hen VII, towards the cost.
His executors shall cause 10,000 masses in honor of the Trinity, the Five Wounds, the Five Joys of Our Lady, the Nine Orders of Angels, the Patriarchs, the Twelve Apostles and All Saints (numbers to each object specified) to be said within one month after his decease, at 6d. each, making in all 250l, and shall distribute 2,000l. in alms; and to ensure payment he has left 2,250l. with the abbot, &c., of West-minster, by indenture dated (blank) day of (blank) in the (blank) year of his reign.
His debts are then to be paid and reparation for wrongs made by his executors at the discretion of the following persons, by whom all complaints shall be tenderly weighed, viz, the abp of Canterbury (59), Richard bp of Winchester (61), the bps of London and Rochester (39), Thomas Earl of Surrey (66), Treasurer General, George Earl of Shrewsbury (41), Steward of the House, Sir Charles Somerset Lord Herbert (49), Chamberlain, the two Chief Justices, Mr. John Yong (44), Master of the Rolls, Sir Thos. Lovell (30), Treasurer of the House, Mr. Thomas Routhall, secretary, Sir Ric Emson, Chancellor of the Duchy, Edm. Dudley (47), the King's attorney at the time of his decease, and his confessor, the Provincial of the Friars Observants, and Mr. William Atwater, dean of the Chapel, or at least six of them and three of his executors.
His executors shall see that the officers of the Household and Wardrobe discharge any debts which may be due for charges of the same.
Lands to the yearly value of above 1,000 mks have been "amortised" for fulfilment of certain covenants (described) with the abbey of Westminster.
For the completion of the hospital which he has begun to build at the Savoie place beside Charingcrosse, and towards which 10,000 mks in ready money has been delivered to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by indenture dated (blank), his executors shall deliver any more money which may be necessary; and they shall also make (if he has not done it in his lifetime) two similar hospitals in the suburbs of York and Coventry.
Certain cathedrals, abbeys, &c., named in a schedule hereto annexed [not annexed now] have undertaken to make for him orisons, prayers and suffrages "while the world shall endure," in return for which he has made them large confirmations, licences and other grants; and he now wishes 6s. 8d. each to be delivered soon after his decease to the rulers of such cathedrals, &c., 3s. 4d. to every canon and monk, being priest, within the same and 20d. to every canon, monk, vicar and minister not being priest. His executors shall bestow 2,000l. upon the repair of the highways and bridges from Windsor to Richmond manor and thence to St. George's church beside Southwark, and thence to Greenwich manor, and thence to Canterbury.
To divers lords, as well of his blood as other, and also to knights, squires and other subjects, he has, for their good service, made grants of lands, offices and annuities, which he straitly charges his son, the Prince (17), and other heirs to respect; as also the enfeoffments of the Duchy of Lancaster made by Parliaments of 7 and 19 Hen. VII. for the fulfilment of his will.
Bequests for finishing of the church of the New College in Cambridge and the church of Westminster, for the houses of Friars Observants, for the altar within the King's grate (i.e. of his tomb), for the high altar within the King's chapel, for the image of the King to be made and set upon St. Edward's shrine, for the College of Windsor, for the monastery of Westminster, for the image of the King to be set at St. Thomas's shrine at Canterbury, and for chalices and pixes of a certain fashion to be given to all the houses of Friars and every parish church not suitably provided with such.
Bequest of a dote of 50,000l. for the marriage of [his sister] Lady Mary (13) the King's daughter with Charles Prince of Spain (9), as contracted at Richmond (blank) Dec. 24 Hen. VIII., or (if that fail) her marriage with any prince out of the realm by "consent of our said son the Prince (17), his Council and our said executors.".

Around 1620 based on a work of 1526.Unknown Artist. Portrait of William Warham Archbishop of Canterbury 1450-1532.

1548. Titian Painter 1488-1576 (60). Equestrian Portrait of Charles Habsburg-Spain V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (47).

1519. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541 (32). Portrait of Charles Habsburg-Spain V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (18).

Death of Henry VII

On 21 Apr 1509 [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (52) died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace, Richmond. His son Henry VIII (17) succeeded VIII King England and Ireland: Tudor.

After 21 Apr 1509 Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms -1534 made a drawing of the death of Henry VII (he wasn't present). The drawing shows those present and in some cases provides their arms by which they can be identified. From top left clockwise:

After 21 Apr 1509 Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms -1534 made a drawing of the death of Henry VII (he wasn't present). The drawing shows those present and in some cases provides their arms by which they can be identified. From top left clockwise:
Richard Foxe Bishop 1448-1528
Two tonsured clerics
George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544
Richard Weston of Sutton Place 1465-1541
Richard Clement of Ingham Mote 1482-1538
Matthew Baker Governor of Jersey -1513
John Sharpe of Coggleshall in Essex -1518
Physician holding urine bottle
William Tyler
Hugh Denys
William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 closing the King's eyes. There is doubt as to whether the person shown is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 given his age of around nineteen at the King's death. He appears to be holding a Staff of Office although sources state he wasn't appointed Gentleman Usher, in which role he would have a Staff of Office, until Henry VIII's Coronation in Jun 1509.
The Arms below him are Quarterly 1 Lozengy Argent & Gules (FitzWilliam); 2 Arms of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 3 Quartered 1 possibly Plantagent with white border ie Holland 2 and 3 Tibetot, 4 Unknown, overall a star for difference indicating third son. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 was his father's third son, and his mother was Lucy Neville 1468-1534 daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471. It appears correct that the person represented is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 was the childhood companion of Henry VIII.
Physician holding urine bottle

Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 23 Jun 1509 Henry VIII (17) and Catherine of Aragon (23) were married at the Church of the Observant Friars.

Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 24 Jun 1509 Henry VIII (17) was crowned VIII King England and Ireland: Tudor at Westminster Abbey. Catherine of Aragon (23) was created Queen Consort England.
Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (31), Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire, 1st Earl Ormonde 1477-1539 (32) and Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (66) attended. Henry Clifford 1st Earl Cumberland 1493-1542 (16) was knighted. Robert Dymoke 1461-1544 (48) attended as the Kings's Champion. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (26) was created Knight of the Bath and served as Lord Sewer.

Before Oct 1509 Richard Empson 1450-1510 was imprisoned by Henry VIII for constructive treason.

In 1510 Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney 1447-1523 (63) was appointed 269th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (18).

In 1510 Manuel "Fortunate" I King Portugal 1469-1521 (40) was appointed 267th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (18).

In 1510 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (37) was appointed 268th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (18)..

On 11 May 1510 Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr, 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (53) was appointed 270th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (18)..

Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

On 17 Aug 1510 Edmund Dudley 1462-1510 (48) and Richard Empson 1450-1510 were beheaded at Tower Hill for constructive treason for having carried out [his father] King Henry VII's rigorous and arbitrary system of taxation. The new King Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (19) attempting to distance himself from his father's policies.

Birth of Prince Henry

On 01 Jan 1511 [his son] Henry Tudor Duke Cornwall 1511-1511 was born to Henry VIII (19) and Catherine of Aragon (25) at Richmond Palace. Henry Tudor Duke Cornwall 1511-1511 was appointed Duke Cornwall.

1511 Tournament

In Feb 1511 Henry VIII (19) celebrated the birth of his son by holding a magnificent tournament at Westminster. The challengers included Henry VIII (19) who fought as Cuere Loyall, Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1539 as Bon Vouloir, Edward Neville 1471-1538 (40) as Joyeulx Penser, Thomas Knyvet 1485-1512 (26) as Valiant Desyr and Thomas Tyrrell -1551.
On Day 1 of the tournament the Answerers included: William Parr 1st Baron Parr Horton 1483-1547 (28), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent 1495-1562 (16), Thomas Cheney 1485-1558 (26), Richard Blount and Robert Morton.
On Day 2 of the tournament the Answerers included: Richard Tempest of Bracewell 1480-1537 (31), Thomas Lucy, Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (22), Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (27), Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire, 1st Earl Ormonde 1477-1539 (34), Richard Grey, Leonard Grey 1st Viscount Grane 1479-1541 (32), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (38), Edmund Howard 1478-1539 (33) and Henry Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1479-1523 (32).

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (30). Portrait of Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (38) wearing the Garter and Inter-twined Knots Collar with St George Pendant. Standing three-quarter length, richly dressed in velvet, fur and cloth-of-gold. Holbein has meticulously shown the varied texture of his cloth-of-gold double which is woven into a pomegranate pattern with a variety of different weaves including loops of gold thread. Similarly, he has carefully articulated the band of black satin running down Guildford’s arm against the richer black of the velvet of his sleeve. A lavish use of both shell-gold paint and gold leaf (which has been used to emulate the highlights of the gold thread in the material) emphasises the luxuriousness of the sitter’s dress and his high status. In his right-hand he holds the Comptroller of the Household Staff of Office.

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (30). Portrait of Mary Wotton 1499-1535 (28) when she was thirty-two commissioned with that of her husband Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (38) possibly to celebrate their marriage. Hung with gold chains and embellished with pearls, Lady Guildford embodies worldly prosperity, and with her prayer book she is also the very image of propriety.

Around 1543 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (59).

Death of Prince Henry

On 22 Feb 1511 [his son] Henry Tudor Duke Cornwall 1511-1511 died. He was buried at Westminster Abbey.

The Procession of Parliament

On 04 Feb 1512 Henry VIII (20) re-convened his 2nd Parliament. The Procession was recorded on a Parliamentary Rolls as follows:.

Battle of Flodden

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII. 1513. This yeare, on the Assension Even, Edmonde de la Pole (42) was beheaded on Tower Hill.
This yeare allso, on the day of th' Exaltation of the Crosse, Te Deum was sungen in Paules Churche for the victorie of the Scottishe feild, where King Jamys of Scotland (39) was slayne. The King of England (21) that tjrme lyenge at seege before Turney in France, and wan it and Turwjm also.
A Parlement kept at Westminster, where was graunted to the King (21) of all men's goodes 6d. in the pownde. A peace betwene the King (21) and French King (52) duringe both their lives; and the [his sister] Ladie Marie (18), sister to the King, married to the French King, at Abireld, in Picardye, in October.

In 1513 George Neville 5th Baron Bergavenny 1469-1535 (44) was appointed 271st Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (21).

In 1513 Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (29) was appointed 273rd Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (21)..

Before 25 Apr 1513 Edward Howard 1476-1513 was appointed 272nd Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Siege of Thérouanne

On 16 Aug 1513 Henry VIII (22) fought at Thérouanne during the Battle of the Spurs. Henry's army included George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury, 4th Earl Waterford 1468-1538 (45) (commanded), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (36), Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham -1529, Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex, 3rd Count Eu -1540, John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (42) and Anthony Wingfield 1487-1552 (25). John "Tilbury Jack" Arundell 1495-1561 (18), William Compton 1482-1528 (31), John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey Sleaford 1465-1537 (48) and William Hussey 1472-1531 (40) was knighted by [his father] Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr, 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (56) and Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor 1467-1543 (46) was created as Knight Banneret.

On 25 Sep 1513 John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (42) was knighted by Henry VIII (22) at Tournai.

On 25 Dec 1513 John Sharpe of Coggleshall in Essex -1518 was knighted by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (22).

In 1514 Giuliano Medici Duke Nemours 1479-1516 (34) was appointed 274th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (22)..

On 08 May 1514 Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (52) was appointed 275th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (22)..

On 06 Aug 1514 Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus 1489-1557 (25) and [his sister] Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (24) were married at Kinoul. Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (24) by marriage Countess Angus.

Around 1525 Unknown Artist. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (35).

Marriage of Mary Tudor and Louis XII of France

On 09 Oct 1514 Louis XII King France 1462-1515 (52) and [his sister] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533 (18) were married at Abbeville, Somme. Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533 (18) was appointed Queen Consort France. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (37), Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr, 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (57), Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham -1529 and his son George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (17), and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset 1487-1535 (27) attended. .

In 1515 William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (20) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (23).

On May 1515 Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (31) and [his sister] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533 (19) were married. Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533 (19) by marriage Duchess Suffolk (2C 1514).

In 1516 Philip Boteler 1492-1545 (23) was appointed Knight of the Body to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (24).

In 1516 Edward Neville 1471-1538 (45) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (24).

In 1516 Edward Neville 1471-1538 (45) was appointed Master of the Hounds to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (24).

Birth of Princess Mary

On 18 Feb 1516 [his daughter] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 was born to Henry VIII (24) and Catherine of Aragon (30) at Palace of Placentia. Margaret Bourchier 1st Baroness Bryan 1468-1552 (48) was created 1st Baron Bryan and appointed the child's governess.

In 1518 Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (50) was appointed 276th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (26)..

In 1518 William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (48) was appointed 277th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (26).

On 15 Jun 1519 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 was born illegitimately to Henry VIII (27) and Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount Baroness Clinton, Baroness Tailboys 1502-1539 (17) at Augustinian Priory of St Lawrence, Ingatestone, Blackmore.

Marriage of William Carey and Mary Boleyn

On 04 Feb 1520 William Carey 1500-1528 (20) and Mary Boleyn 1499-1543 (21) were married. Around the time, possibly shortly after, Mary Boleyn 1499-1543 (21) became mistress to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (28) leading to speculation one or both of her children were fathered by Henry (28).

Field of the Cloth of Gold

On Jun 1520 Henry VIII (28) hosted Field of the Cloth of Gold at Balinghem.
Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (42) carried the Sword of State.
John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (45) attended as Henry VIII's chaplain.
Edmund Braye 1st Baron Braye 1484-1539 (36), Gruffydd ap Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth 1478-1521 (42), Anthony Poyntz 1480-1533 (40), William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (25), William "Great" Courtenay 1477-1535 (43), Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (37), William Paston 1479-1554 (41), William Denys 1470-1533 (50), Richard Cecil 1495-1553 (25), William Parr 1st Baron Parr Horton 1483-1547 (37), Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (22), John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (40), Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (31), Marmaduke Constable 1480-1545 (40), William Compton 1482-1528 (38), William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (42), Thomas Cheney 1485-1558 (35), Henry Willoughby 1451-1528 (69), John Rodney 1461-1528 (59), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney 1484-1525 (35), William Sidney 1482-1554 (38), John Vere 14th Earl Oxford 1499-1526 (20), John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (49), Edmund Walsingham 1480-1550 (40), Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr, 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (63), Robert Willoughby 2nd Baron Willoughby Broke, 10th Baron Latimer 1472-1521 (48), Anthony Wingfield 1487-1552 (32) and Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham -1529 attended.
William Carey 1500-1528 (20) jousted. Margaret Dymoke 1500-1545 (20) attended.
William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (50) organised.
Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 attended.
Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms -1534 (32) was present.

In 1521 Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1539 was appointed 278th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (29)..

Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

On 17 May 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (43) was executed at Tower Hill for no specific reason other than his having a significant amount of Plantagenet blood and was, therefore, considered a threat by Henry VIII (29). He was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament on 31 July 1523, disinheriting his children.
He was buried at St Peter's Church, Britford.

In 1522 Ferdinand Habsburg-Spain I Holy Roman Emperor 1503-1564 (18) was appointed 279th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (30)..

Around 1550. Hans Bocksberger der Ältere Painter 1510-1561 (40). Portrait of Ferdinand Habsburg-Spain I Holy Roman Emperor 1503-1564 (46).

In 1522 Richard Wingfield 1469-1525 (53) was appointed 280th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (30).

Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

On May 1522 Henry VIII (30) met with Charles Habsburg-Spain V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (22) at Dover. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (44), William Compton 1482-1528 (40), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney 1484-1525 (37) and John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (51) were present. Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor.

In 1523 Henry Percy 6th Earl of Northumberland 1502-1537 (21) and [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (22) were betrothed secretly but the bethrothal broken off when his father Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (44) refused to support their engagement.

Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England.

In 1523 Walter Devereux 1st Viscount Hereford 1488-1558 (35) was appointed 282nd Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (31).

In 1523 Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire, 1st Earl Ormonde 1477-1539 (46) was appointed 281st Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (31).

In 1524 Arthur York 1st Viscount Lisle 1464-1542 (59) was appointed 283rd Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (32).

In 1524 William Brereton 1487-1536 was appointed Groom of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (32).

On 07 May 1524 Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (41) was appointed 284th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (32).

In 1525 William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (49) was appointed 285th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33)..

In 1525 William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (35) was appointed Treasurer of the Royal Household to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

Around 1525 Unknown Artist. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

Around 1525 Unknown Artist. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

In 1525 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (5) was appointed 287th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33)..

On 24 Apr 1525 Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (33) was appointed 286th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

On 18 Jun 1525 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy (6), Henry VIII's illegitimate son, was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset, 1st Earl Lincoln (7C 1525) at Bridewell Palace by his father Henry VIII (33).
Henry Clifford 1st Earl Cumberland 1493-1542 (32) was created 1st Earl Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.
Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1539 was created 1st Marquess Exeter (1C 1525).
Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (33) was created 1st Earl Rutland (3C 1525).
Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527 (47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (47),
Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (52), William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (49) and John Vere 14th Earl Oxford 1499-1526 (25) attended.
Around 18 Jun 1525 Henry Clifford 2nd Earl Cumberland 1517-1570 (8) and Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 (6) were married (he was her half third-cousin) at Bridewell Palace. .

On 25 Jun 1525 Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (27) was appointed 288th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33)..

In 1526 William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (56) was appointed Lord Chamberlain of the Household to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (34).

In 1526 William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy 1478-1534 (48) was appointed 289th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (34)..

In 1526 Francis I King France 1494-1547 (31) was appointed 292nd Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (34).

In 1526 Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (37) was appointed 291st Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (34).

In 1526 William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (36) was appointed 290th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (34)..

On 04 Mar 1526 Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon 1526-1596 was born to William Carey 1500-1528 (26) and Mary Boleyn 1499-1543 (27). There is speculation among historians that his father may actually have been Henry VIII (34) who was known to have had an affair with Mary Boleyn 1499-1543 (27) although the precise dates are unknown.

On 19 Oct 1526 William Willoughby 11th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1482-1526 (44) died at Parham. He was buried at All Saints Church, Mettingham, Bungay. His daughter Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk 1519-1580 (7) succeeded 12th Baron Willoughby Eresby. Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk 1519-1580 (7) became a ward of Henry VIII (35).

On 21 Oct 1527 John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (56) was appointed 293rd Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (36).

Before 1528 Thomas Morgan 1482-1538 was appointed Esquire to the Body to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

On 18 Feb 1528 Piers "Red" Butler 8th Earl Ormonde, 1st Earl Ossory 1467-1539 (61) resigned their claim to the Ormonde inheritance since Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (36) wanted the titles for Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire, 1st Earl Ormonde 1477-1539 (51) to whom they were subsequently granted.

On 01 Mar 1528 Henry VIII (36) sold the wardship of Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk 1519-1580 (8) to Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (44) who subsequently married her.

On 03 Mar 1528 Henry Stewart 1st Lord Methven 1495-1552 (33) and [his sister] Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (38) were married.

In 1529 Edward Burgh -1533 and [his wife] Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548 (16) were married.

In 1529 John Mundy Lord Mayor -1537 was knighted by Henry VIII (37).

In Oct 1529 Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (51) was appointed Lord Chancellor by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (38).

Henry VIII Creates New Earldoms

On 08 Dec 1529 Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (38) created two new Earldoms ...
Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire, 1st Earl Ormonde 1477-1539 (52) was created 1st Earl Wiltshire (6C 1529), 1st Earl Ormonde (6C 1529), 1st Viscount Rochford. Elizabeth Howard Countess Wiltshire, Countess Ormonde 1480-1538 (49) by marriage Countess Wiltshire (6C 1529), Earl Ormonde (6C 1529).
George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (42) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon (7C 1529). Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon 1483-1544 (46) by marriage Countess Huntingdon (7C 1529).

In 1530 the Prior of Llanthony Priory, Llanthony, Vale Ewyas, Monmouthshire, South-East Wales sent cheese, carp and baked lamphreys to Henry VIII (38) at Windsor.

On 11 Nov 1530 Giles Alington 1499-1586 (31) was knighted by Henry VIII (39) at Whitehall Palace.

In 1531 Henry Percy 6th Earl of Northumberland 1502-1537 (29) was appointed 294th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (39)..

On Dec 1531 Rhys ap Gruffydd Deheubarth 1508-1531 (23) was executed by Henry VIII (40) for treason for purportedly for inscribing the name Fitz Uryan on his armour at City of London.

In 1532 Anne Montmorency 1493-1567 (38) was appointed 295th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (40).

In 1532 Philippe Chabot 1492-1543 (40) was appointed 296th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (40).

In 1532 Mark Smeaton 1512-1536 was appointed Groom of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (40).

Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

On 01 Sep 1532 [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with Henry VIII (41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.
Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire, 1st Earl Ormonde 1477-1539 (55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (59), Eleanor Paston Baroness Ros Helmsley 1495-1551 (37), Jean Dinteville, Edward Lee Archbishop of York 1482-1544 (50), John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (57) were present.
Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester 1483-1555 (49) read the Patent of Creation.
Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (13) carried Anne's (31) train replacing her mother Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk 1497-1558 (35) who had been banished from Court. Anne (31)she were cousins.

Henry and Anne Visit France

Around Nov 1532 Henry VIII (41) and [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (31) met with Francis I King France 1494-1547 (38) at Calais. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (16) was present. .

Around 1575 based on a work of 1546.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547.

In 1546 Unknown Artist. Italian. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547 (30) wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. His right , his left .

In 1533 William Holles Lord Mayor 1471-1542 (62) was knighted by Henry VIII (41).

In 1533 Henry VIII (41) granted William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (43) to inpark 600 acres of meadow, pasture and wood and build fortifications at Cowdray House, Cowdray, Midhurst.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

On 25 Jan 1533 Henry VIII (41) and [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop Coventry and Lichfield (46) at Whitehall Palace. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley 1496-1546 (37), Thomas Heneage 1480-1553 (53) and Henry Norreys 1482-1536 witnessed.

Statute in Restraint of Appeals

In Mar 1533 Parliament enacted the Statute in Restraint of Appeals by which Henry VIII (41) forbade all appeals to the Pope in Rome on religious or other matters, making the King the final legal authority in all such matters in England, Wales, and other English possessions. Considered to be a cornerstone of the English Reformation.

Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

On 12 Apr 1533, Saturday, Easter Eve, [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32) made her first appearance as Queen attending mass at the Queen's Closet, Greenwich Palace. She was accompanied by sixty ladies including Margaret "Madge" Shelton -1555.
The Venetian Ambassdor reported ... "This morning of Easter Eve, the Marchioness Anne went with the King (41) to high mass, as Queen, and with all the pomp of a Queen, clad in cloth of gold, and loaded (carga) with the richest jewels; and she dined in public; although they have not yet proclaimed the decision of the Parliament.".

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33). See Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen
On Saturday, the eve of Easter, [his wife] Lady Anne (32) went to mass in truly Royal state, loaded with diamonds and other precious stones, and dressed in a gorgeous suit of tissue, the train of which was carried by the daughter (14) of the duke of Norfolk (60), betrothed to the [his illegitimate son] duke of Richmond (13). She was followed by numerous damsels, and conducted to and from the church with the same or perhaps greater ceremonies and solemnities than those used with former queens on such occasions. She has now changed her title of marchioness for that of queen, and preachers specially name her so in their church prayers. At which all people here are perfectly astonished, for the whole thing seems a dream, and even those who support her party do not know whether to laugh or cry at it. The King (41) is watching what sort of mien the people put on at this, and solicits his nobles to visit and pay their court to his new queen, whom he purposes to have crowned after Easter in the most solemn manner, and it is said that there will be banqueting and tournaments on the occasion. Indeed some think that Clarence, the king-at-arms who left for France four days ago, is gone for the purpose of inviting knights for the tournament in imitation of the Most Christian King when he celebrated his own nuptials. I cannot say whether the coronation will take place before or after these festivities, but I am told that this King (41) has secretly arranged with the archbishop of Canterbury (43), that in virtue of his office, and without application from anyone he is to summon him before his court as having two wives, upon which, without sending for the Queen (47), he (the Archbishop) will declare that the King (41) can lawfully marry again, as he has done, without waiting for a dispensation, for a sentence from the Pope, or any other declaration whatever.

Katherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
The name and title which the King (41) wishes the Queen (47) to take, and by which he orders the people to call her, is the old dowager princess (la vielle et vefve princesse). As to [his daughter] princess Mary (17) no title has yet been given to her, and I fancy they will wait to settle that until the [his wife] Lady (32) has been confined (que la dame aye faict lenfant).

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
On Wednesday the said Duke (60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the Queen (47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the King (41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the Queen's (47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (55), the Queen's (47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called queen, and that from one month after Easter the King (41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The Queen (47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the King (41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.
Though the King (41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the [his wife] Lady (32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with queen Katharine (47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey, whom she did not hate half as much. The Queen (47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the [his daughter] Princess (17).

Around 1590 based on a work of around 1520.Unknown Artist. French. Portrait of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530.

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
After this, coming to the principal object of my visit, I told him (41) plainly that, although for several days past I had heard of the attempt made both at the convocation of the prelates and in Parliament to impugn the Queen's (47) rights, and greatly injure her just cause, I had taken no notice of the facts, inasmuch as I could not be persuaded that so wise, virtuous, and Catholic a prince could possibly authorize or sanction such things, and also because I thought and believed that such practices (menees) could in no wise impair the Queen's (47) right or cause her harm. Yet that having lately been apprized from various quarters that such an attempt was really being made, I considered that I could not acquit myself of my duty towards God, towards Your Imperial Majesty, and towards himself if I did not remonstrate at once against such behaviour, and entreat him by his virtue, wisdom, and humanity patiently to listen to my observations as proceeding from my desire for his service, for that though he might disregard and despise man, he would at least respect God. To which the King (41) answered that so he had done, and that God and his conscience were perfectly agreed on that point.
Hearing the King (41) express himself in this manner and wishing to bring him back to the subject as gently as possible, I observed that my colleague and I could not but be very much flattered at the familiar way in which he had expressed his sentiments, as if we were his own servants, which sentiments, I added, proceeded no doubt from his heart not from his mouth. He assured me, however, that such was not the case, and that what he had just said had been said without dissimulation. Upon which I again said to him that I could not believe that Christianity, being so agitated and troubled by heresies, he could possibly set so bad an example and contravene the treaties of peace and amity which, as he himself, who had been the principal promoter and mediator in them ought to know best, had cost so much time and trouble to make. He ought to know that even supposing no inconvenience arose therefrom in his lifetime there would be most serious ones after his death with regard to the succession. There had never been such a case, I continued, nor did we read of it in history, as for a prince to divorce his legitimate wife after five and twenty years, and marry another woman. Not knowing what to answer to my observations, the King (41) gladly seized the opportunity which I gave him by this last statement to contradict me, and said: "Not so long, if you please; and if the world finds this new marriage of mine strange, I find it still more so that the Pope [Julius] should have granted a dispensation for the former." I then mentioned to him five popes who had dispensed in similar cases, and declared that I was unwilling to dispute that matter with him, but that there was no doctor in his kingdom, who after such a debate would not confess that pope Julius was authorized to dispense in the case. After this, coming to speak about the manner in which his solicitors had procured the votes of the university of Paris, on which he founds his principal argument, I offered to produce the letters I had received relating the whole affair, as well as the names of those who had held for the Queen (47), but he said there was no necessity at all for that. I, moreover, told him that neither in Spain, nor in Naples, nor in any other country could one single prelate or doctor be found to assert the contrary, and that even in his own kingdom every canonist and lawyer was of the same opinion, with the exception of the few who had been gained over to the other side, and I proposed, in confirmation of my statement, to exhibit other letters, which he likewise refused to see.
At last, wishing to turn the conversation, the King (41) said that he wished to ensure the succession to his kingdom by having children, which he had not at present, and upon my remarking to him that he had one daughter, the most virtuous and accomplished that could be thought of, just of suitable age to be married and get children, and that it seemed as if Nature had decided that the succession to the English throne should be through the female line, as he himself had obtained it, and therefore, that he could by marrying the Princess to some one secure the succession he was so anxious for, he replied that he knew better than that; and would marry again in order to have children himself. And upon my observing to him that he could not be sure of that he asked me three times running: "Am I not a man like others?" and he afterwards added: "I need not give proofs of the contrary, or let you into my secrets," no doubt implying thereby that his beloved [his wife] Lady (32) is already in the family way.

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
Every day numbers of people come to my hotel and inquire from my servants and neighbours how long I intend remaining here in London, for until the hour of my departure many will go on thinking that Your Majesty consents to this marriage, without which condition no one thinks that this King (41) would have dared to proceed to such extremities. For this cause I think I ought to be immediately recalled, and most humbly beseech Your Majesty to send the order; not so much to avoid the dangers and troubles that may supervene, for I should consider myself happy to sacrifice my life for the Imperial service, but merely for the above-named considerations, &c.—London, 15th April 1533.

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
Lastly, upon my urging upon him that his marriage had been pre-arranged by the King, his father [Henry VII.], and by the Catholic king of Spain [Ferdinand], both of whom were the wisest of their age, and would have never consented to it had there been the least shade of scruple respecting [his brother] prince Arthur — which after all was the principal ground of complaint — he again insisted on his determination to act as he pleased in the matter without attending to considerations of any sort whatever, adding that you yourself had shewn him the way to disobey the Pope's injunctions by your appealing four years ago to a future Council. Upon which I told him that he himself could not do better than follow your example and appeal to that very Council, and since he alleged that he was ready to imitate you in this respect, I must warn him that no prince in the world had more respect than you had for His Holiness, or deeper fear of his excommunications, for upon one occasion you had been one whole Holy Week without attending Divine service.
These last words of mine had great effect upon the King (41), who no doubt thought that I meant to reproach him for not having obeyed the Papal excommunication and interdict once fulminated against him; he, therefore, was a little hurt and said to me in rather an angry tone of voice: "If you go on like that you will make me lose my temper." I begged him to tell me how I could have offended him, warmly protesting that I had no such intention; then he lowered his voice a little and spoke less harshly, though, notwithstanding all my entreaties, he would never say how or in what I had offended him, and I must say that the rest of our conference passed without any visible signs of ill-humour on his part.
Thus encouraged I asked him whether in the event of Spaniards and Flemings, as good Christians, refusing for fear of the Papal interdict to hold communication, or carry on trade with his subjects, they would be amenable to the penalties described in the statute, and what sort of crime could be imputed to them. He remained for a while thoughtful and startled, not knowing what to answer, which being observed by me I preferred asking leave to retire to remaining where I was and waiting for his answer. I, therefore, said to him: "If such be the state of things I will not trouble Your Highness any more and lose my time; I will withdraw." He then said "adieu" to me in a gracious manner, but retained Hesdin, to whom he addressed the following words; "You have heard what the Emperor's ambassador has just said respecting the Papal excommunication and the stopping of trade between my subjects and the Spaniards and Flemings; but I can tell you that the ecclesiastical censures do not on this occasion fall upon me, but upon the Emperor himself who has so long opposed me, and prevented my new marriage, thus making me live in sin and against the prescriptions of Mother Church. The excommunication, moreover, is of such a nature that the Pope himself could not raise it without my consent; but, pray, do not mention this to the ambassador." This will give Your Majesty an idea of the King's blindness in these matters. Hesdin only replied that the affair was of too much importance for him to mix himself up with it.

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
After this we came to speak about the Queen (47) and to argue whether she had or had not been known by [his brother] prince Arthur, and after responding victoriously to the suppositions and conjectures which he alleged in support of his opinion, I produced such arguments in proof of the contrary that he really knew not what to answer. Which arguments having been brought forward on more than one occasion I will not trouble Your Majesty with a reproduction of them, and will only say "que venant a reprendre le dit seigneur roy ce que plusieurs fois il auoit confesse, que la royne demeura pucelle du dit prince Arthus, et voyant quil ne le pouvoit nyer, il dit quil lauoit plusieurs fois dit mais que ce nauoit este que en ieu, et que lhome en iouant et banquetant dit souvent pluseures (sic) choses que ne sont veritables." Having said as much as if he had obtained a great success, or found some subtle point towards the gaining of his cause, he began to recover his self-possession and said confidently to me: "Now I think I have given you full satisfaction on all points; what else do you want?" Whatever the King (41) might say the satisfaction was not all-sufficing, but it served me admirably, much more than he himself could imagine, to dispute certain premises he had laid down. I told him that I flattered myself that I was the ambassador of the prince who desired most his welfare, profit, and honour, as well as the tranquillity of his kingdom. I had brought with me Master Hesdin, there present, who was, and acknowledged himself to be, his affectionate servant— as did also all Your Majesty's officers—that he might be present at the conference and hear what his answer was; but I would promise most solemnly that nothing that might be said at that audience should be reported to you unless he himself wished, for I consented to the said Hesdin giving me the lie if I ever attempted to write to Your Majesty anything he (the King) did dislike. This I said to the King (41) that I might inspire greater confidence and make him open his heart more fully (lui fere deslier le sac). The better to gain his confidence I told him how happy I had once considered myself at being chosen by Your Majesty to represent your person near so great and magnanimous a king, hoping that his Privy Council, taking due cognizance of the affairs pending between the two crowns, everything should go on smoothly. Now, on the contrary, affairs had taken such a disorderly turn, and were in such confusion that I considered myself unhappy in having to represent Your Majesty, inasmuch as I had continually assured you in my despatches that whatever countenance the King (41) put on, and whatever he did his heart and the affection he bore Your Majesty were not affected, and that he would never think of doing anything that might give occasion to suspect that he intended living otherwise than in peace and amity with Your Imperial Majesty. At these words, and without waiting to hear the rest, as if he wished to avoid alt further conversation on this delicate subject, the King (41) frowned, and moving his head to and fro, said rather abruptly: "Before I listen to such representations, I must know from whom they proceed, whether from the Emperor, your master, or from yourself; for if they be private remarks of your own I shall know how to answer them." And upon my answering that it was superfluous to ask whether I could have received commission to complain of facts and things which had only taken place a week ago, the intelligence of which would require a full month to be transmitted, and perhaps, too, four successive despatches of mine before it was believed—my general charge and instructions being to maintain by all best means the peace and friendship between Your Majesty and him, and especially to watch over the Queen's (47) affairs, since from them depended in a great measure that very friendship—the King (41) replied that you yourself had nothing to do with the laws, statutes, and constitutions of his kingdom, and that in spite of all opposition he would pass such laws and ordinances in his dominions as he thought proper, adding many other things in the same strain. My reply was that Your Majesty neither could nor would hinder any such legislative measures, but on the contrary would, if necessary, help him in them unless they personally affected the Queen (47), whom he wanted to compel to renounce her appeal [to Rome] and submit entirely to the judgment of the prelates of his kingdom who, either won by promises or threatened with that punishment which had already attained those who upheld the Queen's (47) right, could not fail to decide in his favour and against her. After this I repeated what I had told him on previous occasions in Your Majesty's name, that is to say: that the fact of the case being determined here, in England, as he wished, would in nowise remove hereafter the doubts about the succession for the reasons above explained, He, himself, considering how unreasonable and illegal it would be to have the case tried and decided in England, when the authority of the Holy Apostolic See was concerned, had from the beginning of the suit asked the Papal permission for the two cardinals (Campeggio and York) to take cognizance of the case here. Even after that he had allowed the Queen (47) to appeal to Rome, and in the course of time not satisfied with that had himself, and through others, solicited the Queen (47) to consent to the case being tried out of Rome, not here in England, for he knew that to be a most unreasonable demand, but in a neutral place. For these reasons I said the Queen (47) cannot and ought not to be tied by laws and statutes to which no one hardly had consented, and which had been carried by compulsion. To this remark of mine the King (41) replied half in a passion (demy appassione): "All persuasions and remonstrances are absolutely in vain. Had I known that the audience you applied for had no other object than to speak to me of these things I certainly should have found some excuse to break through the established rule, and escape from such objurgations." But on my representing to him the object of my calling, and telling him that he was positively bound to listen not only to what an ambassador of Your Majesty, but the commonest mortal, had to say to him in a case of this sort, and the courteous and humane manner in which you had always treated his ambassadors, he was obliged to retract, and said that as regarded the commission granted to the two cardinals he could not deny that he himself had applied for it, but that was, he said, under a promise made by the Pope that the cause should never be revoked [from England]; but since His Holiness withdrew all the commissions he had previously given, he (the King) did likewise reject the offer to have the case tried and sentenced in a neutral place, for he wished it to be determined here and not elsewhere. As to his consent to the Queen's (47) appeal he had only given it conditionally, and provided the statutes and constitutions of the kingdom allowed of it, not otherwise, and said that lately a prohibitive one had been made in Parliament which the Queen (47) herself, as an English subject, was bound to obey. Hearing this I could not help observing that laws and constitutions had no retroactive power, and that they could only be enforced in the future. As to the Queen (47) being an English subject I owned that she being his legitimate wife was really and truly such, and that consequently all debate about constitutions and appeals was not only superfluous but out of the question; but that if the Queen (47), however, was, as he asserted, not his wife, she could not be called an English subject, for she only resided in this country in virtue of her marriage, not otherwise, and Common Law establishes that the claimant is to bring his action before the tribunal of the country whereof the defendant is a native. The Queen (47) might as well ask to have her case tried in Spain, but this she had never attempted, contenting herself that the court to which he himself had firstly applied as claimant should take cognizance of the affair, that being the only true and irrefragable tribunal in her case. And upon his replying that he had not sent for her, and that his brother, the prince of Wales, had first taken her to wife and consummated marriage, I remarked that if he himself had not sent for her he had after his brother's demise kept her by him, and prevented her from going away at the request of her father, the Catholic king of Spain, through his ambassador at this court, Hernand Duque de Estrada, as I could prove by his letters. These, however, the King (41) refused to peruse, and again repeated: "She must have patience and obey the laws of this kingdom." Then he added that Your Majesty in return for so many services and favours had done him the greatest possible injury by hindering his new marriage, and preventing his having male succession. That the Queen (47) was no more his wife than she was mine, and that he would act in this business just as he pleased, in spite of all opposition and grumbling, and that if Your Majesty capriciously attempted to cause him annoyance he would try to defend himself with the help of his friends.

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
About a week ago the sieur de Rochefort (30) (George Boleyn) returned from France with the sieur de Beauvoes (Beauvoir), who started yesterday for Scotland for the purpose of inducing king James to place his differences with this King (41) into his master's hand, and making him judge and arbiter of their differences. I have been told by a very worthy man that the duke of Albany's secretary returning from a visit to the said Beaulvoys (sic) had assured him that the said ambassador would be unable to accomplish his mission in Scotland, and that war would go on fiercer than ever. Indeed it would seem as if the Scots at this moment more prosperous than ever, for instead of being as before on the defensive, they are continually making raids on the borders. For this purpose did Mr. de Rocchefort (30) go to France as it is now ascertained. These people, as I am told, wish immensely for peace with Scotland, but God, as I said above, has taken away their senses, and they cannot see how to bring it about. The said Mr. de Rocchefort (30), as his own servants assert, has been presented in France with 2,000 crs., no doubt for the good tidings of his [his wife] sister's (32) marriage, to whom the Most Christian King has now written a letter addressing her as queen. I fancy, moreover, that the French consider this good news, firstly: because it is likely to be the means of breaking off the friendship between Your Majesty and this king, and also, because it might ultimately be the cause of freeing the French from their debt and payment of pensions, either through sheer necessity, or for fear these people may have of their ultimately joining you, should the Pope proceed to sentence the case and have the censures executed—a thing which, in my opinion, Your Majesty ought to urge in every possible way—the French would be released from all their bonds and pecuniary obligations to this king.

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
On Tuesday the 7th inst., having been informed of the strange and outrageous conduct and proceedings of this king (41) against the Queen (47), whereof I have written to Your Majesty, I went to Court at the hour appointed for the King's audience, that I might there duly remonstrate against the Queen's treatment. I took with me Mr. Hesdin, who by the consent of the queen [of Hungary] is now here to claim the arrears of his pension, in order that he might be present, and hear the remonstrances I had to address the King (41), hoping also that if I had to use threatening language the King (41) might not be so much offended if uttered in the presence of the said Hesdin. On my arrival at Greenwich the earl of Vulchier (56) (Wiltshire) came to meet me, and leading me to the apartments of the duke of Norfolk (60), who had just gone to see the Queen (47), said to me that the King (41) being very much engaged at that hour had deputed him to listen to what I had to say, and report thereupon. My answer was that my communication was of such a nature and so important that I could not possibly make it to anyone but to the King (41) in person. Until now he had never refused me audience, or put me off, and I could not think that he would now break through the custom without my having given him any occasion for it, especially as the King (41) knew that Your Majesty most willingly received the English ambassadors at all hours, whatever might be their errand or business. The Earl (56) repeated his excuses, and seemed at first disinclined to take my answer back to the King (41), until at last, perceiving my firm determination, he went in and came back saying the King (41) would see me immediately, though he still tried to ascertain what my business was, and advised me to put off my communication until after the festivals. It was settled at last that I should see the King (41) on Thursday in Holy Week, on which day having about me a copy of my last despatch [to Your Majesty], I took again the road to Court, accompanied as before by the said Master Hesdin, and was introduced to the Royal presence by the same earl of Wiltshire (56). The King (41) received us graciously enough. After the usual salutations and inquiries about Your Majesty's health, the King (41) asked me what news I had of your movements. I answered that the letters I had received last were rather old, but that I had reason to believe you had already embarked to return to Spain at the beginning of this present month. This statement the King (41) easily believed, and was rejoiced to hear (such is his wish to see you fairly out of Italy). I added that the weather for the last days could not have been more favourable, and therefore that it was to be hoped Your Majesty had reached Spain in safety. Having then asked me whether I had other news to communicate, I told him (41) that your brother, the king of the Romans (30), had made his peace with the Turk, and that the latter had sent an embassy, at which piece of intelligence the King (41) remained for some time in silent astonishment as if he did not know what to answer.

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
A deputation of English merchants trading with Flanders went on Friday last to see the King (41) for the purpose of ascertaining whether they could in future ship goods for that country. They were told that the King (41) was not at war with Your Majesty, and that they might trade or not just as they pleased; those who had any scruple might remain at home; those who chose to go on with their trade might do so. Not-withstanding which answer there is hardly any English or foreign merchants having goods in Flanders who has not sent for them, or had them put under another name (les couvrir), for there is hardly one who does not consider himself lost and ruined, and would not wish himself far off with his goods and substance. Indeed this fear is not confined to the merchants, but pervades all classes of society, and I have been told that Cramuel (48) (Cromwell), who is perhaps the man who has most influence with the King (41) just now, has had all his treasure and valuables removed to the Tower of London. And I do really believe that neither the King (41) himself nor any of his courtiers is exempt from fear, both of the people and of Your Majesty; yet it would seem as if God Almighty has blinded them, and taken away their senses, for they are perfectly bewildered and know not what to be at, nor how to mend their affairs. Indeed this is so much the case, that should the least mishap overtake them they would be so disconcerted that neither the King (41) nor his counsellors would think of aught else than flight, knowing very well the people's will in these matters.

Around 1625 based on a work of 1532.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540.

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (33).
The King (41) has this very day dispatched a courier to Rome. I fancy it is for the purpose of telling the Pope that whatever has been attempted in this Parliament against him and his authority has been done at the solicitation of his people, not at his own, and that should his new marriage be ratified and sanctioned he is ready to revoke everything. He has forbidden the courier to carry any other letters but his, that the truth may not be found out. Your Majesty, however, might tell His Holiness how matters stand, and urge him to sentence the case and make all other necessary provisions.

Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

On 23 May 1533 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury (43) declared the marriage of Henry VIII (41) and Catherine of Aragon (47) invalid. .

Coronation of Anne Boleyn

On 01 Jun 1533 the six months pregnant [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32) was crowned Queen Consort England by Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (43) at Westminster Abbey. See Coronation of Anne Boleyn.
John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (62) bore the Crown. Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (16) carried the Salt. Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset 1487-1535 (46) rode in the procession. William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (38) was appointed Master of the Horse. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (50) served as Lord Sewer. Henry Parker 1513-1552 (19) and William Coffin MP 1495-1538 (38) were knighted. Thomas Berkeley 6th Baron Berkeley 1505-1534 (28) and Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle 1507-1560 (26) were created Knight of the Bath. Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset 1487-1535 (46) rode in the procession. Arthur Hopton 1489-1555 (44) attended.
Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (55) refused to attend. Shortly thereafter, More was charged with accepting bribes, but the charges had to be dismissed for lack of any evidence.

On 25 Jun 1533 [his sister] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533 (37) died at Westhorpe.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

On 07 Sep 1533 [his daughter] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (42) and [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (32).

After 1585 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

On 28 Nov 1533 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (14) and Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (14) were married (he was her third-cousin). Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset 1519-1557 (14) by marriage Duchess of Richmond and Somerset. Another coup for the Howard Family especially in view of Henry Fitzroy being considered by some as a possible heir in view of Anne Boleyn's
.

1534 Treasons Act

After 1534 Parliament enacted the Treason Act made it treason, punishable by death, to not swear an oath recognising the King Henry VIII as the "... Only Head of the Church of England ...".

First Act of Succession

In Mar 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Succession. The Act made [his daughter] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (18) illegitimate and [his daughter] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland the heir to King Henry VIII (42). The Act also required all subjects, if commanded, to swear an oath to recognize this Act as well as the king's supremacy.

Around Jul 1534 John Neville 3rd Baron Latimer Snape 1493-1543 (40) and [his wife] Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548 (21) were married. Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548 (21) by marriage Baroness Latimer Snape.

First Act of Supremacy

On 03 Nov 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Supremacy by which Henry VIII (43) and his heirs were declared to be Supreme Head of the Church of England. Henry had now abandoned Rome completely.

In 1535 [his nephew] James V King Scotland 1512-1542 (22) was appointed 297th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (43)..

From Feb 1535 Margaret "Madge" Shelton -1555 was believed to have been a mistress of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (43). Eustace Chapuys Ambassador 1490-1556 refers to "Mistress Shelton" so it could plausibly be her sister "Mary Shelton 1510-1571".

Trial and Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

Before 22 Jun 1535 Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Waldon 1488-1544 presided over the trial of John Fisher Bishop of Rochester 1469-1535 and Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 both of whom refused to take the Oath Of Supremacy. The judges including Anne Boleyn's father William Boleyn 1451-1505 and brother Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire, 1st Earl Ormonde 1477-1539. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 brought Richard Rich 1st Baron Rich Leez 1497-1567 as a witness who testified that Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 had denied that the King was the legitimate head of the Church. However, Richard Southwell 1503-1564 to the contrary.
The jury took, somewhat unsurprisingly, only fifteen minutes to conclude Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 was guilty. He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered; the King commuted this to beheading.

Around 1575 based on a work of 1536.Unknown Artist. Portrait of Richard Southwell 1503-1564.

On 21 Aug 1535 Nicholas Poyntz 1510-1556 (25) visited by Henry VIII (44) and [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (34) at Acton Court, Iron Acton.

Around 1550 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Nicholas Poyntz 1510-1556 (40).

Pilgrimage of Grace

In 1536 the North rose against religious policies of Henry VIII (44). Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Waldon 1488-1544 (48) condemned the traitors. John Neville 3rd Baron Latimer Snape 1493-1543 (42) was implicated. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (63), Henry Howard 1516-1547 (20) and Edmund Knyvet 1508-1551 (28) undertook the suppression of the rebels.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (39). Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (44).

In 1536 Nicholas Carew KG 1496-1539 (40) was appointed 298th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (44)..

Death of Catherine of Aragon

On 07 Jan 1536 Catherine of Aragon (50) died at Kimbolton Castle, Kimbolton in the arms of her great friend Maria Salinas Baroness Willoughby Eresby.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. This yeare, the morrowe after twelve daie being Fridaie and the 7th daie of Januarie, 1536 the honorable and noble Princes, Queene Katherin (50), former wife to King Henrie the VIII (44), departed a.d. 1536. from her worldlie lief at Bugden, [Note. Bugden three miles from Kimbolton Castle] in Huntingdon shire, about tenne of the clocke at night [Note. This would appear to be an error for 2 o^dock in the afternoon], and she was buried at Peterborowe the 29th daie of Januarie, being Saturdaie.
See Death of Catherine of Aragon.
Note. Stow and Hall, with other authorities, state that Queen Katharine died on the 8th Jannarj, but the correctness of our text as to the day is placed beyond a donbt by the original letter of Sir Edward Chamberleyn and Sir Edmund Bedyngfeld transmitting this intelligence to Cromwell, still extant in the Public Record Office, and which runs thus: "Pleaseth yt yower honorable Maystershipp to be adrertysed, that this 7th day of January, abowt 10 of the clock before none, the Lady Dowager was aneled with the Holy Oyntment, Mayster Chamberlein and I called to the same; and before 2 of the clock at aftemone she departed to God. Besechyng yow that the Kyng may be advertyscd of the same, and furder to know yower pleasonr yn erciy thyng aper- teynyng to that purpose; and, furder, in all other causes concemyng the hows, the serrantes, and all other thynges, as shall stand wyth the Kynge^s pleasour and yowers.".

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (35).

The good Queen breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the King's (44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the Queen's body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the Queen had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under conFession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.

No words can describe the joy and delight which this King (44) and the promoters of his [his wife] concubinate (35) have felt at the demise of the good Queen, especially the earl of Vulcher (59), and his son (33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the [his daughter] Princess (19) had not kept her mother company. The King (44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the King (44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His [his daughter] bastard daughter (2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the King (44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (2), carried her (2) in his (44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the Queen's demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the King (44). All charge him with being the cause of the Queen's death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the King (44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good Queen, and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the King's own niece (18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (52); next to her will go the [his sister] Duchess, her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this King (44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered ; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a queen of England.

The King (44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

Henry VIII Tournament

On 24 Jan 1536 Henry VIII (44) held a tournament at the Palace of Placentia some two weeks after Catherine of Aragon's death. Henry VIII (44) was badly injured causing him to suffer with a wound in his leg thereafter. It is reported the injury caused a change in Henry's character thereafter becoming increasingly despotic.

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon and Miscarriage of Anne Bolyen

On 29 Jan 1536 Catherine of Aragon was buried at Peterborough Cathedral at a service for a Princess rather than Queen. Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland 1519-1547 (17) was Chief Mourner. Henry VIII (44) refused their daughter [his daughter] Mary (19) permission to attend. On the same day [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (35) miscarried a child; regarded as the start of Anne's demise.

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 4 Part 2, 1531-1533. 17 Feb 1536. Eustace Chapuys to the Emperor (35).

On that very day the good queen of England's burial took place, which was attended by four bishops and as many abbots, besides the ladies mentioned in my preceding despatches. No other person of rank or name was present except the comptroller of the Royal household. The place where she lies in the cathedral church of Peterborough is a good way from the high altar, and in a less honourable position than that of several bishops buried in the same church. Had she not been a dowager Princess, as they have held her both in life and death, but simply a baroness, they could not have chosen a less distinguished place of rest for her, as the people who understand this sort of thing tell me. Such have been the wonderful display and incredible magnificence which these people gave me to understand would be lavished in honour and memory of one whose great virtues and royal relationship certainly entitled her to uncommon honours!! Perhaps one of these days they will repair their fault, and erect a suitable. Monument or institute some pious foundation to her memory in some suitable spot or other.

On the same day that the Queen was buried this King's [his wife] concubine (35) miscarried of a child, who had the appearance of a nude about three months and a half old, at which miscarriage the King (44) has certainly shown great disappointment and sorrow. The concubine (35) herself has since attempted to throw all the blame on the duke of Norfolk (63), whom she hates, pretending that her mishap was entirely owing to the shock she received when, six days before, he (the Duke) came to announce to her the King's fall from his horse. But the King knows very well that it was not that, for his accident was announced to her in a manner not to create alarm; besides which, when she heard of it, she seemed quite indifferent to it. Upon the whole, the general opinion is that the concubine's miscarriage was entirely owing to defective constitution, and her utter inability to bear male children; whilst others imagine that the fear of the King treating her as he treated his late Queen, which is not unlikely, considering his behaviour towards a damsel of the Court, named [his wife] Miss Seymour (27), to whom he has latterly made very valuable presents—is the oral cause of it all. The Princess' governess, her daughters, and a niece of hers, have greatly mourned over the concubines miscarriage, never ceasing to interrogate one of the Princess' most familiar maids in waiting on the subject, and asking whether their mistress had been informed of Anne s miscarriage, for if she had, as was most likely, they still would not for the world that she knew the rest of the affair and its causes, thereby intending to say that there was fear of the King's taking another wife.

Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. The Soundaie of Quinquegesima, being the 27th daie of Februarie and Leepe yeare, a.v. 1535, preached at Paules Crosse the Bushoppe of Durhame, named Dr. Dunstall (62), sometime Bishopp of London, and afore that, being Master of the Rolls; and their were present at his sermon the Ardibishopp of Canterberie (46) with eight other bishopps, sitting at the crosse before the preacher; and the Lorde Chauncellor of Englande (48), the Duke of Norfolke (63), the Duke of Suffolke, with six Erles and divers other lordes, stoode behinde the preacher within the pulpitt, and also fower monkes of the Charterhouse of London were brought to the said sermon, which denied the King (44) to be supreame heade of the Church of Englande. And their the said preacher declared the profession of the Bishopp of Rome when he is elected Pope, according to the confirmation of eight universall general counsells, which were con- gregate for the faith of all Christendome; and everie Pope taketh an othe on the articles, promising to observe, keepe, and hould all that the said counsells confirmed, and to dampne all that they dampned; and how he, contrarie to his oth, hath usurped his power and aucthoritie over all Christendome; and also how uncharitably he had handled our Prince, King Henrie the Eight (44), in marying [him to] his brother's wife, contrarie to Godes lawes and also against his owne promise and decrees, which he opened by scriptures and by the cannons of the Appostles; and also how everie Kinge hath the highe power under God, and ought to be the supreame head over all spirituall prelates, which was a goodlie and gracious hearing to all the audience being their present at the same sermon. And in his prayers he said, after this manner, ye shall pray for the universall church of all Christendome, and especiall for the prosperous estate of our Soveraigne' and Emperour King Henrie the Eight, being the onelie supreame head of this realme of Englande; and he declared also in his said sermon how that the Cardinalls of Rome bee but curattes and decons of the cittie and province of Bome, and how that everie curate of any parrish have as much power as they have, according to scripture, save onelie that the Pope of Bome hath made them so high aucthorities onelie for to ezhalt his name and power in Christen realmes for covetousnes, as by his owne decrees he evidentlie their approved..

Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. Item, the 12th daie of Maie, 1536, being Fridaie, their were arraygned at Westminster Sir Frances Weston, knight, Henrie Norrisy esquier, Brerton, and Markes, being all fower of the Kinges Privie Chamber, and their condempned of high treason against the Kinge (44) for using fornication with [his wife] Queene Anne (35), wife to the Kinge, and also for conspiracie of the Kinges death, and their judged to be hanged, drawen, and quartered, their members cutt of and brent before theim, their heades cutt of and quartered; my Lord Chauncelor (48) being the highest Commissioner he geving their judgment, with other lordes of the Kinges Counsell being presente at the same tyme. See Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

On 19 May 1536 [his wife] Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52), Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (12) and [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (16).
Anne's last words, as reported by Edward Hall, were as follows:
Good Christian People, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never; and to me was he ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord, have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.
To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul.
She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Betrothal of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

On 20 May 1536 Henry VIII (44) and [his wife] Jane Seymour Queen Consort England 1509-1537 (27) were betrothed the day after Anne Boleyn had been beheaded.

Marriage of Henry VII and Jane Seymour

On 30 May 1536 Henry VIII (44) and [his wife] Jane Seymour (27) were married at Whitehall Palace by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester (53). Jane (27) was appointed Queen Consort England.

On 23 Jul 1536 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (17) died at St James's Palace. He was buried at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham.

In 1537 Henry Clifford 1st Earl Cumberland 1493-1542 (44) was appointed 299th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (45).

Bigod's Rebellion

In Jan 1537 Bigod's Rebellion was an armed rebellion by Catholics in Cumberland and Westmoreland against Henry VIII (45). It was led by Francis Bigod 1507-1537.

On 01 Jan 1537 [his nephew] James V King Scotland 1512-1542 (24) and Madeleine Valois-Angoulême 1520-1537 (16) were married at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral.

On 15 Aug 1537 Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (52) was appointed 300th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (46).

Birth and Christening Edward VI

On 12 Oct 1537 [his son] Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 was born to Henry VIII (46) and [his wife] Jane Seymour Queen Consort England 1509-1537 (28) at Hampton Court Palace.

On 15 Oct 1537 [his son] the future Edward VI was christened by John Stokesley Bishop of London 1475-1539 (62) at the Chapel Royal in Hampton Court Palace. Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (48) performed the Baptismal Rites, and was appointed Godfather. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (64) and [his daughter] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (21) were Godparents.
Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex, 3rd Count Eu -1540 carried the Salt. Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (53) was Godfather and supported the Marchioness of Exeter. Richard Long 1494-1546 (43) was knighted. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (52), Philip Boteler 1492-1545 (44), John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (66) and John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (57) attended. Mary Scrope 1476-1548 (61) carried Lady Mary's train. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (54) carried a covered basin. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex 1483-1542 (54) carried the canopy.
Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (37) helped his young niece the future Elizabeth I to carry the Crisom. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1539 supported his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (33) to carry the child. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire, 1st Earl Ormonde 1477-1539 (60) bore a taper of virgin wax. William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (61) carried the train of the Prince's robe. Christopher Barker Garter King of Arms -1550 proclaimed the Prince's titles. Arthur Hopton 1489-1555 (48) attended.
Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (37) was created 1st Earl Hertford (2C 1537), 1st Viscount Beauchamp.
Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 was created as Duke Cornwall, Earl Chester (9C 1537).
Nicholas Carew (41), Francis Bryan, Anthony Browne 1500-1548 (37) and John Russell 1st Earl Bedford 1485-1555 (52) surrounded the font.
Henry Knyvet of Charlton Wiltshire 1510-1547 (27), Edward Neville 1471-1538 (66), Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour Sudeley 1508-1549 (29), Richard Long 1494-1546 (43) and John Wallop 1490-1551 (47) carried the canopy.

Death of Jane Seymour

On 24 Oct 1537 [his wife] Jane Seymour Queen Consort England 1509-1537 (28) died at Hampton Court Palace at two in the morning as a result of complications arising childbirth.

Around 1538 Nicholas Bacon 1510-1579 (27) was given the manors of Redgrave, Botesdale and Gislingham in Suffolk, and Gorhambury by Henry VIII (46).

On 18 Jun 1538 [his nephew] James V King Scotland 1512-1542 (26) and Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 1515-1560 (22) were married (he was her third-cousin) at St Andrew's Cathedral Priory, St Andrew's. Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 1515-1560 (22) by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.

Exeter Conspiracy

Before Aug 1538 the Exeter Conspiracy was an attempt to overthrow Henry VIII and replace him with Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1539, grandson of Edward VI, Henry's first cousin. Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Waldon 1488-1544 presided. John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 sat in judgement. Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 was juror.
The Exeter Conspiracy was an attack by Henry VIII on Cardinal Reginald Pole 1500-1558. He, Cardinal Pole, was safe in Rome. Instead Henry destroyed mnost of the Pole family in England.

Thomas Becket Shrine destroyed

On Sep 1538 Henry VIII (47) ordered Thomas of Becket's shrine at Canterbury Cathedral to be destroyed. Both an attack on the Catholic Church, and a means to generate revenue; Thomas' shrine was covered in precious metals and stones. Two huges chests, each requiring six men to carry, were required to remove the treasure.

On 16 Nov 1538 Henry VIII (47)Thomas of Becket's reputation, removing his canonisation at the same time.
Henry enacted legislation as follows:
ITEM, for as moche as it appereth now clerely, that Thomas Becket, sometyme Archbyshop of Canterburie, stubburnly to withstand the holsome lawes establyshed agaynste the enormities of the clergie, by the kynges highness mooste noble progenitour, kynge HENRY the Seconde, for the common welthe, reste, and tranquillitie of this realme, of his frowarde mynde fledde the realme into Fraunce, and to the bishop of Rome, mayntenour of those enormities, to procure the abrogation of the sayd lawes, whereby arose moch trouble in this said realme, and that his dethe, which they untruely called martyrdome, happened upon a reskewe by him made, and that, as it is written, he gave opprobrious wordes to the gentyllmen, whiche than counsayled hym to leave his stubbernesse, and to avoyde the commocion of the people, rysen up for that rescue. And he not only callyd the one of them bawde, but also toke Tracy by the bosome, and violently shoke and plucked hym in suche maner, that he had almoste overthrowen hym to the pavement of the Churche; so that upon this fray one of their company, perceivynge the same, strake hym, and so in the thronge Becket was slayne. And further that his canonization was made onely by the bysshop of Rome, bycause he had ben a champion of maynteyne his usurped auctoritie, and a bearer of the iniquitie of the clergie, for these and for other great and urgent causes, longe to recyte, the Kynge’s Maiestie, by the advyse of his counsayle, hath thought expedient to declare to his lovynge subjectes, that notwithstandynge the sayde canonization, there appereth nothynge in his lyfe and exteriour conversation, wherby he shuld be callyd a sainct, but rather estemed to have ben a rebell and traytour to his prynce. Therefore his Grace strayghtly chargeth and commandeth that from henseforth the sayde Thomas Becket shall not be estemed, named, reputed, nor called a sayncte, but bysshop Becket; and that his ymages and pictures, through the hole realme, shall be putte downe, and avoyded out of all churches, chapelles, and other places; and that from henseforthe, the dayes used to be festivall in his name shall not be observed, nor the service, office, antiphoners, colletes, and prayers, in his name redde, but rased and put out of all the bokes.

Henry VIII Excommunicated

On 17 Dec 1538 Henry VIII (47) was excommunicated by Pope Paul III 1648-1549 (70).

Around 1546. Titian Painter 1488-1576 (58). Portrait of Pope Paul III 1648-1549 (77) and his grandsons.

Before 1549. Titian Painter 1488-1576. Portrait of Pope Paul III 1648-1549.

In 1539 Thomas Cheney 1485-1558 (54) was appointed 302nd Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (47).

In 1539 William Kingston KG 1476-1540 (63) was appointed 303rd Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (47)..

On 18 May 1539 John Russell 1st Earl Bedford 1485-1555 (54) was appointed 301st Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (47)..

In Jul 1539 Henry VIII (48) visited Cowdray House, Cowdray, Midhurst.

In Jul 1539 Henry VIII (48) visited Cowdray House, Cowdray, Midhurst.

1540 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (43). Miniature portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (48).

In 1540 Anthony Browne 1500-1548 (40) was appointed 305th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (48).

Anne of Cleves Marriage

On 06 Jan 1540 Henry VIII (48) and Anne of Cleves (24) were married by Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (50) at Palace of Placentia. Anne of Cleves (24) was crowned Queen Consort England.

Around 1539 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (42). Portrait of Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England 1515-1557 (23).

On 10 Mar 1540 Thomas Jermyn 1482-1552 (58) was knighted by Henry VIII (48).

On 24 Apr 1540 Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Waldon 1488-1544 (52) was appointed 304th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (48).

Marriage of Catherine Howard

On 28 Apr 1540 Henry VIII (48) and [his wife] Catherine Howard (17) were married at Oatlands Palace. Catherine Howard (17) was appointed Queen Consort England.

Anne of Cleves Annulment

On 09 Jul 1540 Henry VIII's (49) marriage to Anne of Cleves (24) was annulled.

In 1541 Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (41) was appointed 306th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (49).

In 1541 Henry Howard 1516-1547 (25) was appointed 307th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (49)..

In 1541 John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (61) was appointed 308th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (49)..

On 23 Apr 1541 Anthony Wingfield 1487-1552 (53) was appointed 309th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (49).

On 18 Oct 1541 [his sister] Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 (51) died at Methven Castle, Methven. She was buried at Carthusian Charterhouse, Perth.

Catherine Howard Trial

On 01 Nov 1541 Henry VIII (50) received a warrant for Catherine's arrest from Archbishop Cranmer at Chapel Royal, Hampton Court Palace.

In 1542 Hugh "The Elder" Cholmondeley 1513-1596 (29) was knighted by Henry VIII (50).

Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

On 13 Feb 1542 [his wife] Catherine Howard (19) and Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 were beheaded at Tower Green. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (26) attended. They were both buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

On 20 Jul 1542 Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (51) purchased the premises at Stanmore, with a windmill, lands in Great and Little Stanmore and Harrow, others in Essex, and also the "premises in the parish of St Sepulchre in the ward of Faryngton Without" from Geoffrey Chamber of Stanmore in Middlesex -1550.

Death of King James V of Scotland

On 14 Dec 1542 [his nephew] James V King Scotland 1512-1542 (30) died at Falkland Palace, Falkland, Fife. His daughter Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 succeeded I King Scotland: Stewart. She was six days old.

Around 1576 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Mary "Queen of Scots" Stewart I Queen Scotland 1542-1587 (33).

In 1543 William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571 (31) was appointed 312th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (51)..

In 1543 William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester 1483-1572 (60) was appointed 311th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (51).

Around 1576 Unknown Artist. Portrait of William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester 1483-1572 wearing his Garter Collar and Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

In 1543 John Wallop 1490-1551 (53) was appointed 313th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (51).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

On 12 Jul 1543 Henry VIII (52) and [his wife] Catherine Parr (30) were married at Hampton Court Palace. Catherine Parr Queen Consort England 1512-1548 (30) was crowned Queen Consort England. His sixth and last marriage, her second. He would die four years later after which she would marry again. Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox 1515-1578 (27) attended.

Parr Family Ennobled

On 23 Dec 1543 Henry VIII (52) enobled his [his wife] new wife's (31) brother and uncle at ceremony in the Presence Chamber, Hampton Court Palace. Henry Grey 1st Duke Suffolk 1517-1554 (26) and Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572 (34) were present. Christopher Barker Garter King of Arms -1550 read the Patents.
William Parr 1st Baron Parr Horton 1483-1547 (60) was created 1st Baron Parr Horton. William was sixty with five daughters. He died four years later at which time the Barony extinct.
William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571 (31) was created 1st Earl Essex (7C 1543). His estranged wife Anne Bourchier 7th Baroness Bourchier 1517-1571 (26) was daughter of the last Earl of Essex of the Fifth Creation. A somewhat curious choice given his wife had eloped the year previous year with John Lyngfield, the prior of St. James's Church, in Tanbridge, Surrey, by whom she had an illegitimate child.

In 1544 Anthony St Leger 1496-1559 (48) was appointed 315th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (52).

After 23 Jan 1544 Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 was appointed 314th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547..

Around 1565 Unknown Artist. Anglo-Netherlandish. Portrait of Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (52).

In 1545 Francis Talbot 5th Earl Shrewsbury, 5th Earl Waterford 1500-1560 (45) was appointed 316th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (53)..

In 1545 Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton 1505-1550 (39) was appointed 317th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (53)..

Before 14 Apr 1545 Thomas Clere Poet -1545 and Mary Shelton 1510-1571 were enagaged. She the former mistress of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 although her sister .

Christening of Henry Wriothesley

On 24 Apr 1545 Henry Wriothesley, the future 2nd Earl Southamption, was christened at St Andrew's Church, Holborn. His godparents were Henry VIII (53), Henry's daughter [his daughter] Mary Tudor (29) and Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk (61).

On 21 May 1545 Robert Townshend -1556 was knighted by Henry VIII (53) at Hampton Court Palace.

In Aug 1545 Henry VIII (54) visited Cowdray House, Cowdray, Midhurst.

Henry VIII Revises his Will

On 30 Dec 1546 Henry VIII (55) made his last revision to his will signed using the Dry Stamp that was used increasingly commonly. The will confirmed the succession as [his son] Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (9), [his daughter] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (30) and [his daughter] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (13).
The will appointed sixteen executors: Anthony Browne 1500-1548 (46), Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury 1489-1556 (57), Anthony Denny 1501-1549 (45), John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (42), William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke 1501-1570 (45), Edward Montagu 1485-1557 (61), Edward North 1st Baron North 1496-1564 (50), William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert 1506-1563 (40), William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester 1483-1572 (63), John Russell 1st Earl Bedford 1485-1555 (61), Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (46), Cuthbert Tunstall Bishop of Durham 1474-1559 (72) and Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton 1505-1550 (41).

In 1549 Unknown Artist. Flemish. Portrait of William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert 1506-1563 (43).

Death of Henry VIII

On 28 Jan 1547 Henry VIII (55) died at Whitehall Palace. His son [his son] Edward VI King England and Ireland 1537-1553 (9) succeeded VI King England and Ireland: Tudor.

Funeral of King Henry VIII

On 16 Feb 1547 Henry VIII was buried in the Henry VIII Vault, Quire, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (67) attended.

On 16 Feb 1547 Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton 1505-1550 (41) was created 1st Earl of Southampton (2C 1547) in accordance with Henry VIII 's will for which he was nominated executor.Jane Cheney Countess Southampton by marriage Countess of Southampton (2C 1547).

Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

On 03 Aug 1553 [his daughter] Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) made her formal entrance into London.
The Diary of Henry Machyn, Citizen and Merchant-Taylor of London, 1550-1563, describes the event:
The third day of August, the Queen came riding to London and so to the Tower. She made her entrance at Aldgate, which was hanged with a great number of streamers hanging about the said gate; and all the streets into Leadenhall and unto the Tower were laid with gravel, and all the crafts of London stood in a row, with their banners and streamers hanging over their heads. Her Grace came, preceded by the Mayor of London carrying the mace and the Earl of Arundel carrying the sword, and all the trumpets blowing. After the Queen came the [his daughter] Lady Elizabeth (19), and after her the Duchess of Norfolk (56), and after her the Marchioness of Exeter and other ladies. And after them the aldermen, and then the guard with bows and javelins, and all the rest who departed from Aldgate in green and white, and red and white, and blue and green, to the number of three thousand horses and spears and javelins.
Strype’s Complete History of England describes Mary's entrance to the Tower:
There met her as humble supplicants the Duke of Norfolk (80), who had been a prisoner ever since his son the Earl of Surrey (80) was put to death by King Henry the ; Edward Courtenay (26), son of the Marquis of Exeter who was executed in the year 1538; Gardiner (70), deprived of his Bishopric of Winchester about two years before; and the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (56). They presented themselves on their knees, and Gardiner in the name of them all, made a congratulatory speech to the Queen, who kindly raised them one after another, saluted them, saying they were her own proper prisoners and ordered their immediate discharge. The next day she restored Courtenay (26) to the honor of his family. Gardiner (70) not only obtained his bishopric again but on the 23rd of August following was made Lord Chancellor, even though he had formerly subscribed to the Sentence of Divorce against the Queen’s mother and had written in defense of King Henry’s proceedings.

John Evelyn's Diary 1654 August. 30 Aug 1654. Taking leave of my friends, who had now feasted me more than a month, I, with my wife (19), etc., set our faces toward home, and got this evening to Peterborough, passing by a stately palace (Thorpe) of St. John's (one deep in the blood of our good king), built out of the ruins of the Bishop's palace and cloister. The church is exceeding fair, full of. Monuments of great antiquity. Here lies Queen Catherine, the unhappy wife of Henry VIII, and the no less unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots. On the steeple, we viewed the fens of Lincolnshire, now much inclosed and drained with infinite expense, and by many sluices, cuts, mounds, and ingenious mills, and the like inventions; at which the city and country about it consisting of a poor and very lazy sort of people, were much displeased.
Peterborough is a handsome town, and hath another well-built church.

A History of the County of Leicestershire: Volume 5 Gartree Hundred: Horninghold. Horninghold lies seven miles north-east of Market Harborough and four miles south-west of Uppingham. The parish, which is 1,217 a. in area, extends over the Middle Lias clays which underlie the hills on the borders of Rutland. The soil is chiefly clay and largely devoted to pasture. The road from Hallaton to Uppingham, on which the village stands, crosses the parish from west to east; it is joined at the east end of the village by a road from Great Easton. There are two field tracks, one to Blaston, and one which crosses the road from Hallaton to Allexton and continues to Keythorpe.
Before the Conquest Horninghold was one of a group of estates apparently held by four thegns, Osulf, Osmund, Roulf, and Levrick. In 1086 the vill was said to be held by Robert de Todeni, lord of Belvoir, though it may have been given before this date to Robert's priory of Belvoir, which had been founded in 1076. At the beginning of the 12th century it was farmed by William D'Aubigny. Horninghold formed part of the original endowment of the priory and remained in its possession until the Dissolution. It was confirmed to the priory at various times during the Middle Ages.
At the Dissolution the manor passed to the Crown, and in 1545 Henry VIII licensed Edward Elrington and Humphrey Metcalfe, to whom he had previously sold it, to alienate the manor and the rest of the former priory's property in the parish to John Beaumont and Henry Alycock. There was a lease of the manor outstanding for 41 years from 1531 which had been made by Belvoir Priory to Anthony Bewell, the priory's bailiff. On Beaumont's forfeiture the manor once more passed to the Crown, and in 1553 it was purchased for £566 by Edward Griffin, the Attorney-General, whose family owned the nearby manor of Gumley. In 1590 William Turpin of Knaptoft -1617, whose father had owned land in Horninghold, purchased the manor from Edward Griffin's heir. Turpin was knighted in 1603 and died in 1617; his widow held the manor until her death about the end of 1633, and was succeeded by her daughter Elizabeth, who married Sir John Pretyman of Loddington (64).
The estate was settled upon their eldest son John and his wife Margaret on their marriage in 1649. John Pretyman died in 1658 leaving his widow as owner of the estate, which she brought to her second husband Sir John Heath, the second son of Sir Robert Heath of Brasted Place (Kent) and M.P. for Clitheroe (Lancs.) from 1661 to 1679. She died in 1676 and the available evidence suggests that Horninghold manor did not descend to her daughter and heir. It appears to have been sold by Heath to Sir Edward Hungerford (43), who was in possession by 1676 and presented to the living. Thereafter the manorial descent is lost. Sir Edward Hungerford died in 1711, but it is by no means certain that he could or would have retained the manor of Horninghold for more than a few years, for his extravagance was notorious and he is said to have disposed of more than thirty manors during his lifetime.

Manners Augmented. Manners in chief England Henry IV. The augmentation was granted by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 at the time of his creation as Earl of Rutland in recognition of his descent in the maternal line from Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460.

Henry Willoughby 1451-1528 was appointed Knight of the Body to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

John Carey 1491-1552 was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

William Carey 1500-1528 was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Thomas Heneage 1480-1553 was appointed Groom of the Stool to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Francis Knollys 1512-1596 was appointed Treasurer of the Royal Household to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Edward Neville 1471-1538 was appointed Keeper of the Sewer to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

William Parr 1st Baron Parr Horton 1483-1547 was appointed Esquire to the Body to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Thomas Paston 1515-1550 was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 was appointed 310th Knight of the Garter by Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Richard Jerningham -1526 was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Tudor

Maternal Family Tree: Jeanne Sabran

Descendants Family Trees:

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425

Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495

Edward IV King England 1442-1483

Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440

John Neville 3rd Baron Neville Raby 1337-1388

Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby

Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397

Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509

Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472

Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 19 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 10 Grand Son of Gruffudd ap Cynan King Gwynedd 1055-1137

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg, King Deheubarth 880-950

Kings Powys: Great x 10 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys 1047-1132

Kings England: Son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509

Kings Scotland: Great x 12 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland 1031-1093

Kings Franks: Great x 10 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180

Kings France: Great x 2 Grand Son of Charles "Beloved, Mad" VI King France 1368-1422

Ancestry

Father: Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 3 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

GrandFather: Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 5 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great GrandFather: Owen Tudor 1400-1461 4 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 2 GrandFather: Maredudd Tudor 1360-1406 3 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 3 GrandFather: Tudur ap Goronwy Tudor -1367

Great x 4 GrandFather: Goronwy ap Tudur Hen Tudor -1331

Great x 4 GrandMother: Gwerfyl verch Madog Hendwr 1285-

Great x 3 GrandMother: Marged verch Thomas -1340 2 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Thomas ap Llywelyn 1299-1343 Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great GrandMother: Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 1401-1437 5 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 2 GrandFather: Charles "Beloved, Mad" VI King France 1368-1422 4 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 3 GrandFather: Charles V King France 1338-1380 5 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: John "The Good" II King France 1319-1364 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Bonne Luxemburg Queen Consort France 1315-1349 7 x Great Granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joanna Bourbon Queen Consort France 1338-1378 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandFather: Peter Bourbon Duke Bourbon 1311-1356 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Isabella Valois Duchess Bourbon 1313-1383 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 2 GrandMother: Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France 1370-1435 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: Stephen "Magnificient, Fop" Wittelsbach III Duke Bavaria 1337-1413 5 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Stephen Wittelsbach II Duke Bavaria 1319-1375 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Elisabeth Barcelona Duchess Bavaria 1310-1349 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Taddea Visconti Duchess Bavaria 1351-1381

Great x 4 GrandFather: Bernabò Visconti 1323-1385

Great x 4 GrandMother: Beatrice Regina della Scala 1331-1384

GrandMother: Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 2 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great GrandFather: John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset 1403-1444 Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandFather: John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset, Dorset 1373-1410 Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 Son of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: King Edward III England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 GrandMother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 5 x Great Granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 3 GrandMother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Great x 4 GrandFather: Giles "Payne" Roet 1310-1380

Great x 2 GrandMother: Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 1385-1439 2 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 3 GrandFather: Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent 1314-1360 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 3 GrandMother: Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent 1350-1416 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandFather: Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel, 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376 5 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandMother: Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel, Countess Surrey 1318-1372 Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great GrandMother: Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 1410-1482 6 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 2 GrandFather: Roger Beauchamp 3rd Baron Beauchamp Bletsoe 1362-1413 6 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Roger Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Bletsoe 1361-1406 5 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 GrandFather: Roger Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Bletsoe 1305-1380 4 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 GrandMother: Sibyl Pateshull Baroness Beauchamp Bletsoe 1319-1374

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joanne Clopton Baroness Beauchamp Bletsoe 1352-1382

Great x 4 GrandFather: William Clopton 1327-1377

Great x 4 GrandMother: Ivetta Grey 1340-1372

Great x 2 GrandMother: Edith Stourton Baroness Beauchamp Bletsoe 1390-1441 5 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Stourton 1334- 4 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandFather: William Stourton 1290- 3 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Mother: Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 Daughter of Edward IV King England 1442-1483

GrandFather: Edward IV King England 1442-1483 2 x Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great GrandFather: Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Richard York 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402 Son of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: King Edward III England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 GrandMother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 5 x Great Granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isabella of Castile Duchess York 1355-1392 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Peter "Cruel" I King Castile 1334-1369 5 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Maria Padilla 1344-1361

Great x 2 GrandMother: Anne Mortimer Countess Cambridge 1390-1411 2 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March, 6th Earl Ulster 1374-1398 Great Grandson of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March, 5th Earl Ulster 1352-1381 6 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Philippa Plantagenet Countess March, 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Eleanor Holland Countess March, Countess Ulster 1370-1405 2 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandFather: Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307

Great x 4 GrandMother: Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent 1350-1416 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great GrandMother: Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 2 GrandFather: Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 5 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Neville 3rd Baron Neville Raby 1337-1388 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville Raby 1291-1367 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandMother: Alice Audley Baroness Greystoke, Baroness Neville Raby 1304-1374 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby 5 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 4 GrandFather: Henry Percy 2nd Baron Percy 1299-1352 5 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandMother: Idonia Clifford Baroness Percy 1303-1365 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 2 GrandMother: Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 Granddaughter of King Edward III England

Great x 3 GrandFather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 Son of King Edward III England

Great x 4 GrandFather: King Edward III England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 GrandMother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 5 x Great Granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154

Great x 3 GrandMother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Great x 4 GrandFather: Giles "Payne" Roet 1310-1380

GrandMother: Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great GrandFather: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469

Great x 2 GrandFather: Richard Woodville 1385-1441

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Woodville 1341-1403

Great x 2 GrandMother: Joan Bittelsgate 1390-1448

Great x 3 GrandFather: Thomas Bittelsgate 1350-

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joan Beauchamp 1370-

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Beauchamp 1330-1396

Great GrandMother: Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 5 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 2 GrandFather: Peter Luxemburg I Count Saint-Pol 1390-1433 4 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 3 GrandFather: John Luxemburg 1370-1397 3 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 4 GrandFather: Guy Luxemburg I Count Saint-Pol, I Count Ligny 1340-1371 8 x Great Grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 4 GrandMother: Mathilde Chatillon 1335-1373 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272

Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Brienne 1365-

Great x 4 GrandFather: Louis Count of Enghien -1394

Great x 2 GrandMother: Margherita Baux 1394-1469 5 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 3 GrandFather: Francesco Baux 1st Duke Andria 1330-1422

Great x 3 GrandMother: Sueva Orsini 1360-1430 4 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandFather: Nicholas Orsini Count 1331-1399 3 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216

Great x 4 GrandMother: Jeanne Sabran