Biography of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709
On 27 Nov 1640 Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 was born to William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison 1614-1643 (26) and Mary Bayning Countess Anglesey at St Margaret's Church, Westminster.
On 20 Sep 1643 the First Battle of Newbury was fought at Newbury, Berkshire with Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (42) commanding the Royalist army and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex 1591-1646 (52) commanding the victorious Parliamentary army.For Charles I King England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (42) John Byron 1st Baron Byron 1599-1652 (44) fought with distinction. Henry Bertie -1643, Robert Dormer 1st Earl Carnarvon 1610-1643 (33) was killed.
William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison 1614-1643 (29) was killed. His brother John Villiers 3rd Viscount Grandison -1661 succeeded as 3rd Viscount Grandison.
Edward Villiers 1620-1689 (23) fought.
Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643 (33) was killed. His son Lucius Carey 3rd Viscount Falkland 1632-1649 (11) succeeded as 3rd Viscount Falkland.
Richard Neville 1615-1676 (28) served under the Earl Carnarvon (33). Carnarvon was killed and Neville took up the command as a Colonel of Horse.
Charles Fleetwood 1618-1692 (25) was wounded.
On 14 Apr 1659 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (25) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (18) were married.
On 25 Feb 1661 Anne Fitzroy Countess Sussex 1661-1722 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (20) at Westminster.
On 11 Dec 1661 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (27) was created 1st Earl Castlemaine, 1st Baron Limerick by Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) to Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (27) in gratitude for allowing his wife Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (21) to become the King's mistress.Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (21) by marriage Countess Castlemaine.
On 18 Jun 1662 Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton, 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (32) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (21).
On 28 Sep 1663 Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (33) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (22).
Around 1664 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (45). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (23) and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child.
On 05 Sep 1664 Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield 1664-1718 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (34) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (23).
On 28 Dec 1665 George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland 1665-1716 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (35) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (25) at Merton College, Oxford University, Oxford, Oxfordshire.
Around 1666 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (47). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (25).
In 1666 William Chiffinch 1602-1691 (64) assisted the Duchess of Cleveland (25) in her plan to cause King Charles II (35) to surprise his latest favourite, ‘La Belle Stuart’ (18) in company of the Duke of Richmond (26).
In 1670 Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (29) was created 1st Duke Cleveland (1C 1670).
Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (62). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (40).
Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely 1618-1680 (62). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (40).
John Evelyn's Diary 1684 Mar. 30 Mar 1684. Easter day. The Bp. of Rochester [Dr. Turner] (46) preach'd before, the King (53) after which his Ma*, accompanied with three of his natural sonns, the Dukes of Northumberland (18), Richmond, and St. Alban's (13) (sons of Portsmouth (34), Cleaveland (43), and Nelly (34)), went up to the Altar ; ye three boyes entering before the King within the railes, at the right hand, and three Bishops on the left, viz. London (52) (who officiated), Durham (51), and Rochester (46), with the Sub-dean Dr. Holder. The King kneeling before the Altar, zaking his offering, the Bishop first receiv'd, and then his Ma* after which he retir'd to a canopied seate on the right hand. Note, there was perfume burnt before the Office began. I had receiv'd ye Sacrament at Whitehall early with the Lords and Household, ye Bp. of London officiating. Then went to St. Martin's, where Dr. Tenison (47) preach'd (recover'd from yc small-pox); then went againe to Whitehall as above. In the afternoone went to St. Martin's againe.
John Evelyn's Diary 1685 Feb. 04 Feb 1685. I went to London, hearing his Ma* (54) had ben the Monday before (02 Feb 1685) surpriz'd in his bed-chamber with an apoplectic fit, so that if, by God's providence, Dr. King (that excellent chirurgeon as well as physitian) had not ben accidentally present to let him blood (having his lancet in his pocket) his Ma* had certainly died that moment, which might have ben of direful consequence, there being nobody else present with the King save this Doctor and one more, as I am assur'd. It was a mark of the extraordinary dexterity, resolution, and presence of mind in the Dr, to let him bloud in the very paroxysm, without staying the coming of other physitians, which regularly should have ben don, and for want of which he must have a regular pardon, as they tell me *. This rescu'd his Ma* for the instant, but it was only a short reprieve. He still complain'd, and was relapsing, often fainting, with sometimes epileptic symptoms, till Wednesday, for which he was cupp'd, let bloud in both jugulars, had both vomit and purges, which so rellev'd him that on Thursday hopes of recovery were signified in the publiq Gazette, but that day, about noone, the physitians thought him feaverish. This they seem'd glad of, as being more easily allay'd and methodically dealt with than his former fits; so as they prescrib'd the famous Jesuits powder : but it made him worse, and some very able Doctors who were present did not think it a fever, but the effect of his frequent bleeding and other sharp operations us'd by them about his head, so that probably the powder might stop the circulation, and renew his former fits, which now made him very weake. Thus he pass'd Thursday night with greate difficulty, when complaining of a paine in his side, they drew 12 ounces more of bloud from him; this was by 6 in the morning on Friday, and it gave him reliefe, but it did not continue, for being now in much paine, and strugling for breath, he lay dozing, and after some conflicts, the physitians despairing of him, he gave up the ghost at halfe an houre after eleven in the morning, being the 06 Feb 1685, in the 36th yeare of his reigne, and 54th of his age.
Prayers were solemnly made in all the Churches, especialy in both ye Court Chapells, where the Chaplaines reliev'd one another every halfe quarter of an houre from the time he began to be in danger till he (54) expir'd, according to the forme prescrib'd in the Church Offices. Those who assisted his Majesty's (54) devotions were, the Abp. of Canterbury (68), the Bishops of London (53), Durham (52), and Ely (47), but more especialy Dr. Ken, the Bp. of Bath and Wells (47) receiving the Holy Sacrament, but his Ma* told them he would consider of it, which he did so long 'till it was too late. Others whisper'd that the Bishops and Lords, except the Earles of Bath (56) and Feversham (44), being order'd to withdraw the night before, Hurlston, the 'Priest, had presumed to administer the Popish Offices. He gave his breeches and keys to yc Duke (51), who was almost continually kneeling by his bed-side, and in teares. He (54) also recommended to him the care of his natural children, all except the Duke of Monmouth (35), now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He intreated the Queene (46) to pardon him (not without cause); who a little before had sent a Bishop to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in reguard of her excessive griefe, and withall, that his Ma* (54) would forgive it if at any time she had offended him. He spake to ye Duke (51) to be kind to the Dutchesse of Cleaveland (44), and especialy Portsmouth (35), and that Nelly (35) might not starve. Thus died King Charles II (54) of a vigorous and robust constitution, and in all appearance promising a long life. He was a Prince of many virtues, and many greate imperfections; debonaire, easy of accesse, not bloudy nor cruel; his countenance fierce, his voice greate, proper of person, every motion became him; a lover of the sea, and skilfull in shipping; not affecting other studies, yet he had a laboratory, and knew of many empyrical medicines, and the easier mechanical mathe matics; he lov'd planting and building, and brought in a politer way of living, which pass'd to luxury and intolerable expence. He had a particular talent in telling a story, and facetious passages, of which he had innumerable; this made some buffoons and vitious wretches too presumptuous and familiar, not worthy the favour they abus'd. He tooke delight in having a number of little spaniels follow him and lie in his bed-chamber, where he often suffer'd the bitches to puppy and give suck, which render'd it very offensive, and indeede made the whole Court nasty and stinking. He would doubtlesse have ben an excellent Prince, had he ben less addicted to women, who made him uneasy, 'and allways in want to supply their unmeasurable profusion, to ye detriment of many Indigent persons who had signaly serv'd both him and his father. He frequently and easily chang'd favorites, to his greate prejudice. As to other publiq transactions and unhappy miscarriages, .'tis not here I intend to number them; but certainly never had King more glorious opportunities to have made himselfe, his people, and all Europe happy, and prevented innumerable mischeifs, had not his too easy nature resign'd him to be manag'd by crafty men, and some abandon'd and profane wretches who corrupted his otherwise sufficient parts, disciplin'd as he had ben by many afflictions during his banishment, which gave him much experience and knowledge of men and things; but those wicked creatures took him off from all application becoming so greate a King. The history of his reigne will certainely be the most wonderfull for the variety of matter and accidents, above any extant in former ages : the sad tragical death of his father, his banishment and hardships, his miraculous restauration, conspiracies against him, parliaments, wars, plagues, fires, comets, revolutions abroad happening in his time, with a thousand other particulars. He was ever kind to me, and very gracious upon all occasions, and therefore I cannot, without ingratitude, but deplore his losse, which for many respects as well as duty I do with all my soul. His Majesty being dead, the Duke, now K. James II. went immediately to Council, and before entering into any businesse, passionately declaring his sorrow, told their Lordships that since the succession had fallen to him, he would endeavour to follow the example of his predecessor in his clemency and tendernesse to his people; that, however he had ben misrepresented as affecting arbitrary power, they should find the contrary, for that the Laws of England had made ye King as greate a monarch as he could desire; that he would endeavor to maintain the Government both in Church and State, as by Law established, its principles being so firme for monarchy, and the members of it shewing themselves so good and loyal subjects; and that as he would never depart from the just rights and prerogatives of y Crown, so would he never invade any man's property; but as he had often adventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would still proceede, and preserve it in all its lawful rights and liberties. This being the substance of what he said, the Lords desir'd it might be publish'd, as ontaining matter of greate satisfaction to a jealous people upon this change, which his Ma* consented to. Then were the Counsel sworn, and a Proclamation order'd to be publish'd, that all Officers should continue in their stations, that there might be no failure of public justice, till his further pleasure should be known. Then the King rose, the Lords accompanying him to his bed-chamber, where, whilst he repos'd himselfe, tired indeede as he was with griefe and watching, they return'd againe Into the Council-chamber to take order for the proclaiming his Ma*, which (after some debate) they consented should be in the very forme his grandfather K. James I. was, after ye death of Queene Elizabeth; as likewise that the Lords, &c. should proceede in their coaches thro' the Citty for the more solemnity of it. Upon this was I, and severall other Gentlemen waiting in the Privy-gallerie, admitted into ye Council-chamber to be witnesse of what was resolv'd on. Thence with the Lords, the Lord Marshall and Heraulds, and other Crowne Officers being ready, we first went to White-hall gate, where the Lords stood on foote bare-headed, whilst the Herauld proclaim'd his Majesty's title to the Imperial Crowne and Succession according to ye forme, the trumpets and kettle-drums having first sounded 3 times, which ended with the people's acclamations. Then a Herauld call'd the Lords' coaches according to rank, myselfe accompanying the solemnity in my Lord Cornwallis's (29) coach, first to Temple Barr, where the Lord Maior and his brethren met us on horseback, in all theire formalities, and proclaim'd the King; hence to the Exchange in Cornhlll, and so we return'd in the order we set forth. Being come to Whitehall, we all went and kiss'd the King (51) and Queenes (26) hands. He had ben on ye bed, but was now risen and in his undresse. The Queene (22) was in bed in her appartment, but put forth her hand, seeming to be much afflicted, as I believe she was, having deported herselfe so decently upon all occasions since she came into England, which made her universally belov'd. Thus concluded this sad and not joyfull day.
I can never forget the inexpressible luxury and prophanenesse, gaming and all dissoluteness, and as it were total forgetfullnesse of God (it being Sunday evening) which this day se'nnight I was wit nesse of, the King sitting and toying with his concubines, Portsmouth, Cleaveland, and Mazarine, &c a French boy singing love songs, in that glorious gallery, whilst about 20 of the greate courtiers and other dissolute persons were at Basset round a large table, a bank of at least 2000 in gold before them, upon which two gentlemen who were with me made reflexions with astonishment. Six days after was all in the dust ! It was enjoyn'd that those who put on mourning should wear it as for a father, in ye most solemn manner.
29 Mar 1686. John Evelyn's Diary 1686 Mar. The Duke of Northumberland (20) (a natural son of the late King by the Dutchess of Cleaveland (45)) marrying very meanly, with the helpe of his brother Grafton (22), attempted to spirit away his wife. A Briefe was read in all Churches for relieving the French Protestants who came here for protection from the unheard-of cruelties of their King (47).
Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans 1633-1696 (57). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (49).
Before 1694 John Michael Wright 1617-1694 (76). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (53).
Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar 1635-1701 (66). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (60).
On 25 Nov 1705 Robert "Beau, Handsome" Fielding 1650-1712 (55) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (64) were married bigamously.
On 04 Dec 1706 Robert "Beau, Handsome" Fielding 1650-1712 (56) was found guilty of bigamy.The marriage between him and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (66) was annulled.He escaped sentence by producing a letter from Anne I Queen England, Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714 (41) suspending his sentences.He lived out his days with Mary Wadsworth.
On 09 Oct 1709 Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess Cleveland 1640-1709 (68) died at Chiswick Mall, Chiswick, Middlesex. Her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton, 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 (47) succeeded as 2nd Duke Cleveland (1C 1670). Anne Pulteney Duchess Southampton, Duchess Cleveland 1663-1746 (45) by marriage Duchess Cleveland (1C 1670).
On 12 May 1712 Robert "Beau, Handsome" Fielding 1650-1712 (62) died.
Andrew Marvell Letter to a friend 1671. The King having, upon pretence of the great preparations of his neighbours, demanded three hundred thousand pounds for his navy, (though in conclusion he hath not sent out any) and that the Parliament should pay his debts, which the ministers would never particularize to the House of Commons, our house gave several bills. You see how far things were stretched beyond reason, there being no satisfaction how these debts were contracted, and all men foreseeing that what was given would not be applied to discharge the debts, which I hear are at this day risen to four millions.
Nevertheless, such was the number of the constant courtiers, increased by the apostate patriots, who were bought off for that turn, some at six, others at ten, one at fifteen thousand pounds, in money; besides which, offices, lands, and reversions to others, that it is a mercy they gave not away the whole land and liberty of England. The Duke of Buckingham is again one hundred and forty thousand pounds in debt, and, by this prorogation, his creditors have time to tear all his lands in pieces. The House of Commons have run almost to the end of their time, and are grown extremely chargeable to the King, and odious to the people. They have signed and sealed ten thousand pounds a-year more to the Duchess of Cleveland, who has likewise ten thousand pounds out of the excise of beer and ale; five thousand pounds a year out of the post-office; and, they say, the reversion of all the king's leases, the reversion of all the places in the Customhouse, and, indeed, what not? All promotions, spiritual and temporal, pass under her cognizance.
Paternal Family Tree: Villiers
Maternal Family Tree: Cicely Baker Countess Dorset 1535-1615
Kings Wessex: Great x 24 Grand Daughter of Aethelwulf King Wessex -858
Kings Gwynedd: Great x 16 Grand Daughter of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd 1100-1170
Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 22 Grand Daughter of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg, King Deheubarth 880-950
Kings Powys: Great x 17 Grand Daughter of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys 1047-1132
Kings England: Great x 11 Grand Daughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
Kings Scotland: Great x 14 Grand Daughter of William "Lion" I King Scotland 1143-1214
Kings Franks: Great x 16 Grand Daughter of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180
Kings France: Great x 12 Grand Daughter of Philip "Bold" III King France 1245-1285
Father: William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison 1614-1643 10 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
GrandFather: Edward Villiers 1585-1626
Great GrandFather: George Villiers of Brokesby 1544-1606
Great x 2 GrandFather: William Villiers of Brooksby Leicestershire 1492-1558
Great x 3 GrandFather: John Villiers 1456-1506
Great GrandMother: Audrey Saunders 1551-1588
Great x 2 GrandFather: William Saunders of Harrington Northamptonshire -1582
GrandMother: Barbara St John -1672 9 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
Great GrandFather: John St John 1552-1594 8 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
Great x 2 GrandFather: Nicholas St John 1525-1589 7 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
Great x 3 GrandFather: John St John 1505-1576 8 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
Great x 3 GrandMother: Margaret Carew 1508-1635 6 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
Great x 2 GrandMother: Elizabeth Blount 1540-1597 14 x Great Granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087
Great x 3 GrandFather: Richard Blount 1510-1564 13 x Great Grandson of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087
Great GrandMother: Lucy Hungerford 11 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272
Great x 2 GrandFather: Walter Hungerford -1596 10 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272
Great x 3 GrandFather: Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford Heytesbury 1503-1540 9 x Great Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272
Great x 2 GrandMother: Anne Dormer 1525-1603
Great x 3 GrandFather: William Dormer 1513-1575
Great x 3 GrandMother: Mary Sidney -1542
Mother: Mary Bayning Countess Anglesey 11 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
GrandFather: Paul Bayning 1st Viscount Bayning 1588-1629
GrandMother: Anne Glemham Viscountess Bayning 10 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
Great GrandFather: Henry Glemham -1632
Great GrandMother: Anne Sackville 1564- 9 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
Great x 2 GrandFather: Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset 1536-1608 8 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
Great x 3 GrandFather: Richard Sackville 1507-1566 7 x Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307
Great x 3 GrandMother: Winifred Brydges Marchioness Winchester -1586
Great x 2 GrandMother: Cicely Baker Countess Dorset 1535-1615
Great x 3 GrandFather: John Baker 1488-1558