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Biography of Edward IV King England 1442-1483

1459 Battle of Ludford Bridge

1459 Parliament of the Devils

Battle of Northampton 1460

1460 Act of Accord (39 Hen VI)

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1460 Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

1461 Battle of Mortimer's Cross

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

1461 Proclamation of Edward IV as King

1461 Battle of Towton

1461 Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot (possibly)

1461 Coronation of Edward IV

1461 Edward IV Rewards his Followers

1462 Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

1464 Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

1464 Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

1465 Coronation of Elizabeth Woodville

1467 Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

1468 Meeting at Salisbury

1468 Marriage of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York

1469 Capture of Edward IV

1469 Execution of the Neville Brothers

1469 Execution of Warwick's Supporters

1470 Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham)

1470 Edward IV escapes to Flanders

1470 Edward V born in Sanctuary

1471 Battle of Barnet

1471 Battle of Tewkesbury

1471 Edward IV lands at Ravenspur

1474 Anne Neville declared Legally Dead

1475 Treaty of Picquigny

1476 Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

1476 Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1483 Mowbray Succession Changed

1483 Death of Edward IV

1483 Funeral of Edward IV

1483 Robert Stillington Claims Edward IV's Marriage to Elizabeth Woodville to be Bigamous

1483 Execution of Hastings

1483 Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

1483 The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate

1483 Execution of the Woodvilles and their Affinity

1483 Richard III Rewards his Supporters

1484 Death of Richard's Heir

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1486 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1487 Battle of Stoke Field

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

1503 Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

1525 Battle of Pavia

1541 Exeter Conspiracy


Family Trees

Descent

Ancestry

On Oct 1429 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (18) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (14) were married (he was her Second-Cousin). Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (14) by marriage Countess Cambridge (3C 1414) Countess Ulster. She was the youngest sister of Richard's brother-in-arms Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (29).

In 1433 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (21) was appointed 148th Knight Garter: Henry VI.

On 28 Apr 1442 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 was born to Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (30) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (26) at Rouen.

In 1446 Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (2) was created 1st Earl Rutland (2C 1446).

Before 30 Jul 1447 Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 and Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 were married (he was her Half Second-Cousin).

On 30 Jul 1447 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (35) was appointed Lieutenant Ireland.

In Jun 1449 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (7) travelled to Ireland.

Around 1454 John Grey 1432-1461 (22) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (17) were married.

On 27 Mar 1454 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (42) was appointed Lord Protector.

After 25 May 1455 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 was appointed Constable England.

On Nov 1455 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (44) was appointed Lord Protector. He was buried at Pontefract Priory, Pontefract.

Before Feb 1458 John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 and Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 were married (he was her Half Third-Cousin). Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 by marriage Marchioness Suffolk (1C).

Parliament of the Devils

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (39) was elected Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry. . The primary purpose of the Parliament was to attaint the Yorkist leaders:
Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (48), his sons Edward Earl of March (17),Edmund Earl of Rutland (16) were attainted, as were ...
Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) and his sons Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31) and John Neville 1431-1471 (28).

After 21 Apr 1509 Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms -1534 made a drawing of the death of Henry VII (he wasn't present). The drawing shows those present and in some cases provides their arms by which they can be identified. From top left clockwise:

Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludford Bridge, Ludlow.In the event a large number of the Calais garrison refused to fight against Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (37) who was present.
The Yorkist Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (48), the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (17), Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (31), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (59) left overnight.
John Dinham 1st Baron Dinham 1433-1501 (26) and Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (52) were present.
The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (41).

Around Nov 1459 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (17) fled to Calais.

On Dec 1459 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (17) was attainted.

Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

On 26 Jun 1460 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32) landed at Sandwich. .

Battle of Northampton 1460

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (32), George Neville Archbishop York 1432-1476 (28), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (55), Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (43), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham 1415-1464 (45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the Battle of Northampton 1460.
Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (38) was captured.
Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke Buckingham 1402-1460 (57) was killed. His Grandson Henry Stafford 2nd Duke Buckingham 1454-1483 (5) succeeded 2nd Duke Buckingham (1C 1444), 7th Earl Stafford (1C 1351), 8th Baron Stafford (1C 1299).
John Talbot 2nd Earl Shrewsbury, 2nd Earl Waterford 1417-1460 (42) was killed. His Son John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (11) succeeded 3rd Earl Shrewsbury (2C 1442), 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall (1C 1295), 12th Baron Strange Blackmere (1C 1309), 9th Baron Talbot (1C 1331)
Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont 1422-1460 (37) was killed.
John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont 1409-1460 (50) was killed. His Son William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) succeeded 2nd Viscount Beaumont.
Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (40) fought.
William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and William Norreys 1441-1507 (19) were knighted.
Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460 was executed following the battle. .

Act of Accord (39 Hen VI)

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord (39 Hen VI) by which Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was declared heir to Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (7) at the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was appointed Prince Wales, Earl Chester, Duke Cornwall and Lord Protector.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (25) and William Gascoigne 1430-1463 (30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford 1435-1461 (25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33) and Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (20).
The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.
Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (49) was killed. His Son Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) succeeded 4th Duke York (1C 1385), 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge (3C 1414).
Thomas Neville 1430-1460 (29), Thomas Harrington 1400-1460 (60), William Bonville 6th Baron Harington 1442-1460 (18) and Edward Bourchier -1460 were killed.Following the battle Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460 (60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland -1460. William Bonville 1420-1460 (40) was executed. Thomas Parr 1407-1464 (53) fought in the Yorkist army.
Following the battle Edmund York 1st Earl Rutland 1443-1460 (17) was executed by John "Butcher" Clifford (25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher".

In 1461 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (8) was created 1st Duke Gloucester (3C 1461).

In 1461 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (11) was created 1st Duke Clarence (3C 1461).

In 1461 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (11) was appointed 185th Knight Garter: Edward IV.

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

On 02 Feb 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Wigmore the future Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) commanded the Yorkist forces including William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (35), John Savage 1444-1492 and Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51).In the Lancastrian army Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) (captured by Roger Vaughan 1410-1471 (51) ) and his son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (29) fought as well as James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40). Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth 1393-1461 (68) was killed.
Following the battle Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (61) was beheaded in the Market Place, Hereford. He was buried thereafter in Greyfriars Church, Hereford in a tomb paid for by his son David Owen 1459-1535 (2).

Second Battle of St Albans

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (39).The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland 1421-1461 (39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Grey 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (26) and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33). Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley 1427-1464 (33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41) were knighted.
The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (33), William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (30) was captured. Robert Poynings 1419-1461 (42) and James Luttrell Baron Dunster 1427-1461 (34) were killed.
John Grey 1432-1461 (29) was killed fighting for Lancaster.A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) subsequently married Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18).
During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461 and Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.
William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville 1392-1461. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 succeeded 7th Baron Harington, 2nd Baron Bonville
Thomas Kyriell 1396-1461 (65) was beheaded.

Around Mar 1461 Thomas Billing -1481 was knighted on the accession of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18).

Proclamation of Edward IV as King

On 04 Mar 1461 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) declared himself King of England. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) was present. .

On 04 Mar 1461 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) usurped IV King England: Plantagenet York.

Patent Rolls.Edward IV.1461. 12 Mar 1461. Westminster. Commission to the king's kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (33), to receive deserters from the party of Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (39) and to cause proclamations to be made to the effect, and to seize the possessions of all recusants. By K (18) by word of mouth.

Battle of Towton

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses.Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.
The Yorkist army was commanded by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke Norfolk 1415-1461 (45), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (30), William Neville 1st Earl Kent 1405-1463 (56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy 1416-1474 (45), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (57), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (23) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (61).
The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Richard Percy 1426-1461 (35), Ralph Bigod 1410-1461 (50), John Bigod -1461, Robert Cromwell 1390-1461 (71), Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland 1412-1461 (49), Ralph Eure 1412-1461 (49), John Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1410-1461 (51), John Beaumont 1428-1461 (33), Thomas Dethick 1400-1461 (61), Everard Simon Digby -1461, William Plumpton -1461 and William Welles 1410-1461 (51) who were killed.
Henry Percy 3rd Earl Northumberland 1421-1461 (39) was killed. His Son Henry Percy 4th Earl Northumberland 1449-1489 (12) succeeded 4th Earl Northumberland (1C 1377). Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland 1458-1485 (3) by marriage Countess Northumberland (1C 1377).
Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles 1406-1461 (55) was killed. His Son Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33) succeeded 7th Baron Welles.
Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme 1415-1464 (46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (60), William Norreys 1441-1507 (20), Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43), Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1431-1464 (30), John Talbot 3rd Earl Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford 1448-1473 (12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (33), Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469 (56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire, 5th Earl Ormonde 1420-1461 (40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde 1422-1476 (39), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (22) and Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 (41). Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (41) were captured.
On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon 1432-1461 (29) was beheaded at York. His Brother John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (26) succeeded 15th Earl Devon (2C Courtenay). Laura Bourchier Countess Devon 1440- by marriage as Earl Devon (2C Courtenay).
Robert Dethick 1375-1461 (86) was killed.
John Heron of Ford Castle Northumberland 1416-1461 (45) was killed.
Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey Richemont 1418-1461 (43) was executed.

Around 1574 George Gower Painter 1540-1596 (34). Portrait of Charles Somerset 1587-1665. Armorial top left quarterly 1&4 Beaufort Arms with a yellow band top and bottom 2 Unknown Arms 3 Woodville Arms his great x 4 grandfather Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers 1405-1469.

Patent Rolls.Edward IV.1461. 02 May 1461. Westminster.The like (Grant for life) to the king's (19) kinsman John Neville of Montagu (30), knight, from Easter last, of the king's mines in Decon and Cornwall in which gold and silver can be found or worked for, at a rent of 110l yearly, as the king's father used to pay, with power of demise the same for 10, 15 or 20 years, provided that after his death the holders pay a tithe of the pure silver or lead to the king or his farmer.By p.s.

Patent Rolls.Edward IV.1461. 04 May 1461. Westminster.Grant for life to the king's (19) kinsman George (29), bishop of Exeter, from Easter last of the custody of the king's manor manor or lordship of Chiltern Langley, with mills, rents, vert and other profits, excepting 250 rabbits yearly for the king's hosehold, at a yearly rent of 50 marks 20d as formerly and 6s 8d besides; with acquittance of repairs and alloanc for any annuity granted out of the manor.By K (19).

Patent Rolls.Edward IV.1461. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle, Middleham.Grant to the king's (19) kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (33), of the custody of all lordships, manors and lands with knight's fees and advowsons held by the king's uncle George Neville (54), knight, lord Latymer, within the county of York or elsewhere, during the idiotcy of the latter, even though no inquisition has been taken.By other letters patent.

Patent Rolls.Edward IV.1461. 08 May 1461. York.Commission to John Haryngton (47), esquire, John Kyrton, Thomas Banke and William Boleyn to arrest Thomas CLaymond, esquire, Robert Heryng, 'sowter' and John Hedale, carpenter, and bring them before the king (19) in Chancery.

Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot (possibly)

Around Jun 1461 , the record is very vague, Edward IV King England 1442-1483 and Eleanor Talbot 1436-1468 (25) were possibly secretly married by Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41).The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (41) provided the information to the future Richard III King England 1452-1485 (8) in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since Edward IV's (19) children with Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (24) were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and George Duke of Clarence's (11) children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder. .

Patent Rolls.Edward IV.1461. On 05 Jun 1461. Westminster. Grant for life to Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury (43), of the custody of the lordship, manor and park of Langle by Maidstone, rendering 5 marks yearly.By K (19).

Coronation of Edward IV

On 28 Jun 1461 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (19) was crowned IV King England: Plantagenet York by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (43) who was assisted by William Booth Archbishop York 1388-1464 at Westminster Abbey during the Coronation of Edward IV.

Around 1747. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. View across the River Thames to Westminster Abbey and Westminster Hall.

1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster Abbey with a procession of Knights of the Bath. St Margaret's Church adjacent with the flag.

Around 1750. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Westminster from near the Terrace of Somerset House, Strand In the distance the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Bridge.

Around 1801. Benjamin West Painter 1738-1820 (62). Milkmaids in St James' Park, St James' with Westminster Abbey Beyond.

Edward IV Rewards his Followers

On 26 Jul 1461 William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (30) was created 1st Baron Hastings (2C 1430) for supporting Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (19) in his claim to the throne.
Robert Ogle 1st Baron Ogle 1406-1469 (55) was created 1st Baron Ogle by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (19) for having been the principal Northumbrian gentleman to support the Yorkist cause. .

Patent Rolls.Edward IV.1461. 26 Nov 1461. Westminster. The like (Grant for life) to Margaret, duchess of Somerset (51), of 166l 13s 4d yearly from Michaelmas, 39 Henry VI, from the king's petty custom in the port of London and the same at the same at the receipt of the Exchequer, in lieu of a grant and confirmation to her of the same sums in pdwer by latters atent dated 9 July, surrendered. By K (19).

Patent Rolls.Edward IV.1461. 02 Dec 1461. Westminster. Grant for life to the king's (19) kinsman John, earl of Worcester (34), of the office of the constable of the Tower of London, with the accustomed fees.

Patent Rolls.Edward IV.1461. 03 Dec 1461. Westminster. Appointment of the king's (19) kinsman Richard, earl of Warwick (33), to execute the office of steward of England at the trial of Henry VI and other rebels who murdered the King's father Richard, duke of York, at Wakefield.

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

Before 20 Feb 1462 John Vere 12th Earl Oxford 1408-1462, his son Aubrey Vere -1462 and Thomas Tuddenham 1401-1462 were arrested for treason against King Edward IV. They were subsequently tried by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470.

Before Dec 1462 Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 was appointed Esquire to the Body to Edward IV King England 1442-1483, and to the Privy Council.

On 28 Feb 1463 John Lovell 8th Baron Lovel 5th Baron Holand 1433-1463 (30) died. On 28 Feb 1463 His Son Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (7) succeeded 9th Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh, 6th Baron Holand at around eight years of age. He became a ward of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (20) who gave his wardship to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (35) spending his childhood at Middleham Castle, Middleham with the young (future) Richard III King England 1452-1485 (10).

On 21 Aug 1463 Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby Eresby, 7th Baron Welles 1428-1470 (35) arrived at Dover with Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (21).

In 1464 Geoffrey Pole 1463-1464 died.

In 1464 Henry Pierrepoint -1463 rewarded by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (21) for his good and laudable services at his great cost and charges, and with manifold bodily dangers against the king's rebels levying war against him.

Around 1464 Elizabeth York 1464- was born illegitimately to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (21) and Elizabeth Waite.

Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

Around May 1464 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (22) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (27) were married at Grafton Regis. Jacquetta of Luxembourg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472 (49), Elizabeth's mother, being the only witness. .

On 01 May 1464 Arthur York 1st Viscount Lisle 1464-1542 was born illegitimately to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (22) and Elizabeth Waite.

Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

On Sep 1464 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (22) announced his recent marriage at Privy Council to the astonishment of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (36) who had until recently been actively seeking a French Princess as Edward's future wife. .

In 1465 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (12) was appointed 198th Knight Garter: Edward IV.

Coronation of Elizabeth Woodville

On 26 May 1465 Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (28) was crowned Queen Consort England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (47) at Westminster Abbey. Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (23) attended. John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (23), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (25) and Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (12) were appointed Knight of the Bath. .

On 11 Feb 1466 Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (23) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (29) at Westminster Palace.

Around 1675 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503. From a work of 1500.

On Oct 1466 Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (11) and Anne Holland 1461-1474 (5) were married at Greenwich.

In 1467 John Russell Bishop Rochester, Bishop Lincoln -1494 sent by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (24) on a diplomatic mission to Charles "Bold" Valois-Burgundy Duke Burgundy 1433-1477 (33) at Bruges.

On 13 May 1467 John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (5) was created 1st Earl Lincoln (6C 1467) by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25), his uncle. Margaret Fitzalan Countess Lincoln by marriage Countess Lincoln (6C 1467).

Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

On 29 May 1467 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) and Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" 1421-1504 (46) met at Chelsea. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (36), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu, 1st Earl Essex 1404-1483 (63), Henry Stafford 2nd Duke Buckingham 1454-1483 (12), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (27), James Douglas 9th Earl Douglas, 3rd Earl Avondale 1426-1488 (41) and Thomas Montgomery -1495 accompanied Edward. .

On 08 Jun 1467 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) and John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) went to Whitehall Palace to retrieve the Great Seal from George Neville Archbishop York 1432-1476 (35).Considered as a slight against the Neville family to whom Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) was increasingly distant. .

Around 1749. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Whitehall Palace and the Privy Garden from Richmond House.

On 11 Jun 1467 the fighting on horseback took place witnessed by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25). John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) was Master of Ceremonies accompanied by John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (42).The day ended with the Bastard's (46) horse having being accidentally fatally injured by Lord Scales' saddle. .

On 14 Jun 1467 the Tournament ended with a great banquet attended by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (30) at the Grocer's Hall. John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (40) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel 1417-1487 (49) were present. .

On 16 Jun 1467 a great banquet was hosted by the King's older sister Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (27) and, in the absence of her husband Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (36) who remained, her future husband Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (27). Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (30) attended as did Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" 1421-1504 (46). .

On 11 Aug 1467 Mary York 1467-1482 was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (25) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (30) at Windsor Castle.

Meeting at Salisbury

On 10 May 1468 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26), his brother Richard III King England 1452-1485 (15), John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (41) and John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (42) met in the Chapter House, Salisbury Cathedral. .

On 24 May 1468 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26) was admitted to the confraternity of the Chapter of Salisbury in the Chapter House, Salisbury Cathedral. .

Marriage of Charles the Bold and Margaret of York

Before 03 Jul 1468 Charles "Bold" Valois-Burgundy Duke Burgundy 1433-1477 and Margaret Duchess of Burgundy 1446-1503 were married (he was her Half Second-Cousin) at Bruges. John Paston 1444-1504 travelled with Margaret.The marriage re-enforced Edward's connection with the Low Countries.After Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 rebelled against Edward IV King England 1442-1483 escaped to the Low Countries. .

In 1469 William Norreys 1441-1507 (28) was appointed Esquire to the Body to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26).

Execution of Warwick's Supporters

On 17 Jan 1469 Warwick's supporters were executed in Marketplace, Salisbury in the presence of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26):
Thomas Hungerford -1469 was beheaded. His Daughter Mary Hungerford 4th Baroness Hungerford 1468-1533 (1) succeeded 4th Baron Hungerford.
Henry Courtenay -1469 was beheaded.

On 20 Mar 1469 Cecily York Viscountess Welles 1469-1507 was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (26) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (32) at Westminster Palace.Named after her father's mother Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (53).

Capture of Edward IV

After 26 Jul 1469 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 was captured by his brother George at Olney after the Battle of Edgecote Moor. .

Around 05 Aug 1469 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) was imprisoned at Warwick Castle.

Around 1748. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Warwick Castle.

Around 1752. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Warwick Castle East Front from the Courtyard.

Around 15 Aug 1469 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) was imprisoned at Middleham Castle, Middleham.

On 10 Sep 1469 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) was released by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) afer Warwick realised he didn't have sufficient support for an alternative regime.

Execution of the Neville Brothers

On 29 Sep 1469 brothers Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (30) and Charles Neville of Brancepeth were beheaded at York in the presence of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 (41) bringing to an end the Neville-Neville fued that arose as a consequence of the senior line being dis-inherited.

Around Oct 1469 Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (38) rescued Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) from Middleham Castle, Middleham.

In 1470 John Hales Bishop Coventry and Lichfield 1400- (70) was appointed Lord Keeper of the Great Seal by Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (48) during his re-adeption but lost it again when Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) was restored in 1471.

Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham)

On 12 Mar 1470 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (27) fought at Empingham during the Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham). Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby Eresby -1470 was captured.

Around 14 Apr 1470 Anne York 1470-1470 died.

On 01 May 1470 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (28) fled at Flanders.

Edward IV escapes to Flanders

In Sep 1470 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (28) fled from King's Lynn to the court of Charles the Bold (36) who was married to his sister Margaret two years earlier. .

Edward V born in Sanctuary

On 02 Nov 1470 the future Edward V was born to Edward IV (28) and Elizabeth Woodville (33) in Sanctuary, Westminster Abbey.His father was abroad in Flanders.His Godparents included the Abbot and Prior of Westminster, and Elizabeth St John Baroness Scrope Bolton, Baroness Zouche Harringworth -1494. .

On 02 Nov 1470 Edward V King England 1470- was appointed Duke Cornwall.

In 1471 the wardship of Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (15) was awarded by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (28) to his sister Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 (26).

Edward IV lands at Ravenspur

On 14 Mar 1471 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (28) landed at Ravenspur, East Riding with William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (40). .

Battle of Barnet

On 14 Apr 1471 Edward IV (28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by hos brothers George (21) and Richard (18), John Babington 1423-1485 (48), Wiliam Hastings (40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings -1495, William Norreys 1441-1507 (30), William Parr KG 1434-1483 (37), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40) and Thomas Strickland -1494.
The Yorkists William Blount -1471, Humphrey Bourchier 1431-1471 (40), Humphrey Bourchier 1435-1471 (36) and Thomas Parr -1471 were killed. Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) was killed making his wife Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (27) a widow for the second time.
The Lancastrians Warwick the Kingmaker (43), John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (40) and William Tyrrell -1471 were killed.
William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1428-1471 (43) was killed. His Son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele 1446-1476 (25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.
Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (46) and John Paston 1444-1504 (27) were wounded, John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (28) commanded, and John Paston 1442-1479 (29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (33) fought. .
Robert Harleston 1435-1471 (36) was killed.
Thomas Hen Salusbury 1409-1471 (62) was killed.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck 1499-1525 (10). Portrait of Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 in the Masters Lodge, St John's College, Oxford University, Oxford.Commissioned by John Fisher Bishop Rochester 1469-1535 (40). Note the Beaufort Arms on the wall beneath which is the Beafort Portcullis. Repeated in the window.She is wearing widow's clothes, or possibly that of a convent; Gabled Headress with Lappets. On 29 Mar 2019, St John's College, Oxford University, Oxford, which she founded, announced the portrait was original work by Wewyck.

Battle of Tewkesbury

On 04 May 1471 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (29) was victorious at the Battle of Tewkesbury.
His brother Richard (18), Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick 1435-1503 (36), John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (46), George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (31), John Savage 1422-1495 (49), John Savage 1444-1492, Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh 1431-1496 (40) fought. William Brandon 1425-1491 (46), George Browne 1440-1483 (31), Ralph Hastings -1495, Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby Eresby 1433-1503 (38), James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (16), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (38) were knighted. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (40) commanded.
Margaret of Anjou (41) was captured. Her son Edward Lancaster Prince Wales 1453-1471 (17) was killed. He was the last of the Lancastrian line excluding the illegitmate Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (11) whose line continues to the present.
John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon 1435-1471 (36), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471 (71) and John Beaufort 1441-1471 (30) were killed. Edmund Beaufort 4th Duke Somerset 1439-1471 (32) and Hugh Courtenay 1427-1471 (44) were beheaded after the battle.
04 May 1471 William Vaux of Harrowden 1436-1471 (35) was killed.

On 09 May 1471 George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (31) was knighted by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (29).

In 1472 Dorothy Pole 1472-1472 died.

In 1472 George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (22) was created 1st Earl Salisbury (3C 1472).

On 10 Apr 1472 Margaret York 1472-1472 was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (29) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (35).

On 11 Dec 1472 Margaret York 1472-1472 died. She was buried at Westminster Abbey.

On 17 Aug 1473 Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- was created 1st Duke York (2C 1474).

On 17 Aug 1473 Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (31) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (36) at Westminster Palace.

Anne Neville declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick 1426-1492 (47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that Edward IV's (31) two younger brothers George (24) and the Richard (21), who had married Anne Beauchamp's (47) daughters, Isabel (22) and Anne (17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville 16th Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury 1428-1471 had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.
Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471, younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker, had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet.He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (31) and before Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) acceded to the throne.Curiously the Act of Parliament described Richard III King England 1452-1485 (21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male.Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford 1461-1483 (13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer Snape 1468-1530 (6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (56).

In 1474 Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (34) and Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (34) were married.

Before 06 Jun 1474 Anne Holland 1461-1474 died.

In 1475 Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (20) was created 1st Marquess Dorset (3C 1475). Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (14) by marriage Marchioness Dorset (3C 1475).

In 1475 Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- was appointed 215th Knight Garter: Edward IV.

In 1475 Edward V King England 1470- was appointed 214th Knight Garter: Edward IV.

Detail of the South Side of the Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (71). From left to right ...
1 Roet Arms impaled Chaucer Modern Arms. Alice's paternal grandparents
2 De La Pole Arms impaled Stafford Arms. Her third husbands parents Michael Pole 2nd Earl Suffolk 1361-1415 and Katherine Stafford Countess Suffolk 1376-1419
3 Montacute and Monthermer Arms impaled Francis? Possibly Alice's second husband's parents John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 and Maud Francis Countess Salisbury 1364-1424
4 De La Pole Arms quartered Chaucer Modern Arms
5 Roet Arms impaled Chaucer Modern Arms
6 Chaucer Modern Arms
7 De La Pole Arms
8 De La Pole Arms impaled England Henry IV Arms_Henry_IV signifying Alice's son John's (32) marriage to Elizabeth of York (30) sister of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (32).

Detail of the South Side of the Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (71). From left to right ...
1
Roet Arms impaled Chaucer Modern Arms. Alice's paternal grandparents
2 De La Pole Arms impaled Stafford Arms. Her third husbands parents Michael Pole 2nd Earl Suffolk 1361-1415 and Katherine Stafford Countess Suffolk 1376-1419
3 Montacute and Monthermer Arms impaled Francis? Possibly Alice's second husband's parents John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 and Maud Francis Countess Salisbury 1364-1424
4 De La Pole Arms quartered Chaucer Modern Arms
5 Roet Arms impaled Chaucer Modern Arms
6 Chaucer Modern Arms
7 De La Pole Arms
8 De La Pole Arms impaled England Henry IV Arms_Henry_IV signifying Alice's son John's (32) marriage to Elizabeth of York (30) sister of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (32).

Detail of the South Side of the Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk 1404-1475 (71). From left to right ...
1
Roet Arms impaled Chaucer Modern Arms. Alice's paternal grandparents
2 De La Pole Arms impaled Stafford Arms. Her third husbands parents Michael Pole 2nd Earl Suffolk 1361-1415 and Katherine Stafford Countess Suffolk 1376-1419
3 Montacute and Monthermer Arms impaled Francis? Possibly Alice's second husband's parents John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 1350-1400 and Maud Francis Countess Salisbury 1364-1424
4 De La Pole Arms quartered Chaucer Modern Arms
5 Roet Arms impaled Chaucer Modern Arms
6 Chaucer Modern Arms
7 De La Pole Arms
8 De La Pole Arms impaled England Henry IV Arms_Henry_IV signifying Alice's son John's (32) marriage to Elizabeth of York (30) sister of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (32).

Treaty of Picquigny

On 29 Aug 1475 Edward IV (33) signed the Treaty of Picquigny; in effect a non-aggression pact or, possiblY, a protection racket. France would pay Edward a pension of 50,000 crowns per year as long as he didn't invade France. Cardinal Bourchier (57) arbitrated on behalf of Edward. William Hastings (44) received a pension of 2000 crowns per year, John Howard and Thomas Montgomery 1200 each, Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York (52) 1000, Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (55) 600.
Edward's youngest brother Richard (22) opposed the Treaty considering it dishonourable. Roger Cheney 1442-1499 (33) was present at the signing, and remained as a hostage until Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (33) returned to England.

In Sep 1475 Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter 1430-1475 (45) drowned on his return from France having probably been thrown over-board on the orders of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (33).

On 02 Nov 1475 Anne York 1475-1511 was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (33) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (38) at Westminster Palace.

In 1476 Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (21) was appointed 216th Knight Garter: Edward IV.

On 14 Jan 1476 Anne St Leger Baroness Ros Helmsley 1476-1526 was born to Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (36) and Anne York Duchess Exeter 1439-1476 (36). Her mother (36) died in childbirth. She (36) was buried at St Leger Chantry, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

On 12 Jun 1476 Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- was created 1st Earl Nottingham (3C 1476).

Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father Edward of York, his father Richard of York and and his younger brother Edmund were reburied at St Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay in a ceremony attended by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (34), George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (26), Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (21), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (45), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (36).

Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

On 22 Dec 1476 Isabel Neville 1451-1476 (25) died in childbirth. George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (27) believed she had been murdered by Ankarette Twynyho -1477. Her Son Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (1) succeeded 17th Earl Warwick (1C 1088).
On 12 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 was arrested at Keyford and taken to Bath.
On 13 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 taken to Cirencester.
On 15 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 was hanged at Myton Gallows, Warwick. John Thursby -1477 was executed at Myton Gallows, Warwick.
In 1478 Ankarette Twynyho -1477 was pardoned by Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (34).

On 01 Jan 1477 Richard York 1476-1477 died at Warwick Castle. He was buried at Warwick Castle.

On 07 Feb 1477 Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- was created 1st Duke Norfolk (2C 1481).

On Mar 1477 George York 1st Duke Bedford 1477-1479 was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (34) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (40) at Windsor Castle.

In 1478 Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (58) was imprisoned as a result of an unknown association with George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) but speculated to be about Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (35) 's pre-contract with Eleanor Butler.

In 1478 George York 1st Duke Bedford 1477-1479 was created 1st Duke Bedford (4C 1478).

On 15 Feb 1478 Edward York Prince Wales 1473-1484 (4) was created 1st Earl Salisbury (4C 1478).

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

On 18 Feb 1478 Edward's brother George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) was executed; drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine (allegedly) in the Bowyer Tower, Tower of London. William Hussey 1443-1495 (35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

In 1479 Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (24) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon (6C 1479). Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (18) by marriage Countess Huntingdon (6C 1479).

On Mar 1479 George York 1st Duke Bedford 1477-1479 (2) died of plague at Windsor Castle.

On 14 Aug 1479 Catherine York 1479-1527 was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (37) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (42).

On 10 Nov 1480 Bridget York 1480-1517 was born to Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (38) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (43) at Eltham Palace, Eltham, Greenwich.

In 1482 Richard Grey 1457-1483 (25) was appointed Constable Wallingford Castle.

On 23 May 1482 Mary York 1467-1482 (14) died at Palace of Placentia, Greenwich. She was buried at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

Mowbray Succession Changed

In Jan 1483 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (40) had Parliament re-enact earlier legislation regarding the Mowbray succession so that his son, Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473-, who had married Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 (who had died in 1481), would continue to benefit from them effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death.

Death of Edward IV

On 25 Mar 1483 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (40) returned to Westminster from Windsor.A few days later he became sufficiently unwell to add codicils to his will, and to have urged reconciliation between William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28); it isn't clear what the cause of the friction between the two men was although it appears well known that Hastings resented the Woodville family.

On 09 Apr 1483 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 (40) died at Westminster. His Son Edward V King England 1470- succeeded V King England: Plantagenet York. Those present included Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28).

The History of King Richard the Third. 1.1 King Edward of that name the Fourth (40), after he had lived fifty and three years, seven months, and six days, and thereof reigned two and twenty years, one month, and eight days, died at Westminster the ninth day of April, the year of our redemption, a thousand four hundred four score and three, leaving much fair issue, that is, Edward the Prince, thirteen years of age; Richard Duke of York, two years younger; Elizabeth (17), whose fortune and grace was after to be queen, wife unto King Henry the Seventh (26), and mother unto the Eighth; Cecily (14) not so fortunate as fair; Brigette (2), who, representing the virtue of her whose name she bore, proFessed and observed a religious life in Dartford Priory, Dartford, a house of cloistered Nuns; Anne (7), who was after honorably married unto Thomas (10), then Lord Howard and after Earl of Surrey; and Katherine (3), who long time tossed in either fortune—sometime in wealth, often in adversity—at the last, if this be the last, for yet she lives, is by the goodness of her nephew, King Henry the Eighth, in very prosperous state, and worthy her birth and virtue.

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck 1499-1525 (10) is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Around 1520 Unknown Artist.Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (39). Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (44).

1540 Hans Holbein The Younger 1497-1543 (43).Miniature portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (48).

Around 1525 Unknown Artist.Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VIII King England and Ireland 1491-1547 (33).

After 09 Apr 1483 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 lay in state at St Stephen's Chapel.

Funeral of Edward IV

On 10 Apr 1483, in the morning, the coffin of Edward IV King England 1442-1483 was moved to St Stephen's Chapel. Edward Story Bishop Chichester -1503 sang the masses. Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1415-1483 (68), Chamberlain to Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46), offered on the Queen's behalf.

On 17 Apr 1483 the coffin of Edward IV was carried to Westminster Abbey by Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (21), John Savage 1444-1492, Thomas Wortley 1433-1514 (50), Thomas Molyneux 1445-1483 (38), probably John Welles 1st Viscount Welles 1450-1498 (33) who had married Edward's daughter Cecily), John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (41), Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (18), Guy Wolston 1433-1490 (50), John Sapcote 1448-1501 (35), Thomas Tyrrell 1453-1512 (30), John Risley, Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (15), John Norreys, Louis de Bretelles and John Comyn 4th Lord Baddenoch 1294-1314.
Those in the procession included:
Thomas St Leger 1440-1483 (43), widow of Edward's sister Anne
William Parr KG 1434-1483
John Astley 1373-1488
William Stonor 1450-1494 (33)
Henry Ferrers 1443-1500 (40)
James Radclyffe 1440-1484 (43)
George Browne 1440-1483 (43)
Gilbert Debenham
John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) walked in front of the coffin with Edward's personal arms.
John Marlow Abbot Bermondsey followed by:
Thomas Kempe Bishop London 1390-1489 (93)
John Hales Bishop Coventry and Lichfield 1400- (83) (Bishop of Chester?)
Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63)
Edward Story Bishop Chichester -1503
Richard Bell Bishop Carlisle -1496
James Goldwell Bishop Norwich -1499
William Dudley Bishop of Durham 1425-1483 (58)
John Russell Bishop Rochester, Bishop Lincoln -1494
Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) (as Bishop Ely)
Edmund Tuchet Bishop Rochester, Bishop Hereford, Bishop Salisbury 1443-1524 (40) (as Bishop Rochester)
Peter Courtenay Bishop Exeter, Bishop Winchester -1492, and
Lionel Woodville Bishop Salisbury 1447-1484 (36)
Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York 1423-1500 (59) brought up the rear.
Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (65), then Archbishop of Canterbury, took no part due to infirmity.
John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (21) ; the King's nephew,
William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52)
Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28)
William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1451-1491 (32) (some sources say Earl of Huntingindon?)
William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57)
Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (48)
Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1415-1483 (68)
John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 1400-1487 (82)
George Neville 4th Baron Bergavenny 1440-1492 (43)
John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley Heighley, 3rd Baron Tuchet 1426-1490 (57)
Walter Devereux 7th Baron Ferrers Chartley 1432-1485
Edward Grey 1st Viscount Lisle 1432-1492 (51)
Henry Lovell 9th Baron Marshal, 8th Baron Morley 1476-1489 (7)
Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30)
John Brooke 7th Baron Cobham 1447-1512 (35)
Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby Eresby 1433-1503 (50)
John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers Groby 1438-1495 (45)
Thomas Bourchier -1492
Thomas Bourchier -1533.

On 20 Apr 1483 Edward IV King England 1442-1483 was buried at Altar, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York 1423-1500 (59) celebrated the mass. John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) attended. John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (21) was chief mourner. John Savage 1444-1492 and Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle 1462-1524 (21) were pall-bearers. .

Robert Stillington Claims Edward IV's Marriage to Elizabeth Woodville to be Bigamous

Around 09 Jun 1483 Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63) informed a Council meeting that the coronation of Edward V King England 1470- could not proceed since he was illegitimate since his father's marriage to his mother Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (46) had been bigamous since Edward IV King England 1442-1483 had previously married Eleanor Talbot 1436-1468 at which Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63) presided. The only witness being Robert Stillington Bishop Bath and Wells 1420-1491 (63).

Execution of Hastings

On 13 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63), Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York 1423-1500 (59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke Buckingham 1454-1483 (28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York 1423-1500 (59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (46).
William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. He was buried in North Aisle, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle next to Edward IV King England 1442-1483. His Son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings 1466-1506 (16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings (2C 1430). Mary Hungerford Baroness Hastings, 4th Baroness Hungerford 1466-1553 (17) by marriage Baroness Hastings (2C 1430).
Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop York 1423-1500 (59) were arrested.

Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

On 16 Jun 1483 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (65) Removed Edward IV's youngest son Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- from Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey to the Tower of London so that he could join his brother in preparation for his Coronation. . Henry Stafford 2nd Duke Buckingham 1454-1483 (28) was present. .

The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate

On 22 Jun 1483 Ralph Shaa -1484 preached the bastardy of Edward IV's children by Elizabeth Woodville, including Edward V, and were therefore ineligible to be King, at St Paul's Cross, Castle Baynard. .

Execution of the Woodvilles and their Affinity

On 25 Jun 1483 supporters of the Woodviles were executed at Pontefract Castle ...
Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers 1440-1483 (43) was beheaded. His Brother Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30) succeeded 3rd Earl Rivers (1C 1466).
Richard Grey 1457-1483 (26) and Thomas Vaughan (73) were beheaded.

Richard III Rewards his Supporters

On 28 Jun 1483 John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) was created 1st Duke Norfolk (3C 1483) by Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57) was created 1st Earl Nottingham (4C 1483).Significant insofar as both men were heirs to the vast Mowbray estates that had been inherited by Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk 1472-1481 who had then been married to Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473-. Richard York 1st Duke York, 1st Duke Norfolk 1473- 's father Edward IV King England 1442-1483 had attempted by very flawed legal process to legislate so that even in the event of Anne's death his son Richard would continue to benefit from the inheritance. Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) was restoring John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (58) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (57) to their rightful inheritance. .

Death of Richard's Heir

On 09 Apr 1484 Edward York Prince Wales 1473-1484 (10) died at Middleham Castle, Middleham leaving his father Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31) without an heir.

In 1485 Edward Pole Archdeacon Richmond 1466-1485 (19) died.

Battle of Bosworth

On 22 Aug 1485 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. His Second-Cousin Once-Removed Henry Tudor (28) succeeded VII King England and Ireland: Tudor.
Those supporting Henry Tudor included:
John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy 1450-1485 (35)
John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (43)
Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (35)
Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (20)
Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50)
John Wingfield -1509
Edward Woodville Lord Scales -1488
Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon -1509
Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth 1449-1525 (36)
Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53)
William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont 1438-1507 (47)
Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (34)
William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495 (50)
Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (52)
Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney 1447-1523 (38)
William Brandon 1456-1485 (29) was killed
James Harrington 1430-1485 (55) was killed
John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (60) was killed. His Son Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (42) succeeded 13th Baron Mowbray (1C 1283), 14th Baron Segrave (1C 1295). Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 (40) by marriage Baroness Mowbray (1C 1283), Baron Segrave (1C 1295).
John Sacheverell 1400-1485 (85) was killed
Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath -1486,
William Norreys 1441-1507 (44), Gilbert Talbot 1452-1517 (33), John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (42) and John Savage 1444-1492 commanded,
Robert Poyntz 1450-1520 (35) was knighted.
Those who fought for Richard III included:
John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers Groby 1438-1495 (47)
John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire 1411-1490 (74)
Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland 1467-1525 (17)
William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (59)
Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh 1457-1487 (28)
John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope Bolton 1437-1498 (48)
Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham 1459-1493 (26)
Henry Grey 7th Baron Grey Codnor 1435-1496 (50)
Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent 1416-1490 (68)
Ralph Neville 3rd Earl Westmoreland 1456-1499 (29)
John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (23)
Humphrey Stafford 1426-1486 (59)
George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury, 4th Earl Waterford 1468-1538 (17)
Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (42) was wounded.
Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (29) fought and escaped.
John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth 1459-1526 (26) was captured.
John Babington 1423-1485 (62), William Alington 1420-1485 (65), Robert Mortimer 1442-1485 (43), Robert Brackenbury -1485, Richard Ratclyffe 1430-1485 (55) and Richard Bagot 1412-1485 (73) were killed.

Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

Vatican Regesta Vol. DCLXXXV Secretarum Tomus IV 2 Innocent VIII. 10 Kal. Aug. Decree, at the petition of king Henry (29) and queen Elizabeth (20), that a notarial copy of the process before James, bishop of Imola (7), Apostolic Nuncio with the power of a legate de latere, in regard to the dispensation granted by him to them to contract marriage, notwithstanding the imPediment arising from their being related in the double fourth degree of kindred, shall have the same credence as the original letters of the said bishop (7). The Pope (54) exemplifies the said letters and process as follows:
Public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation 1486, after the computation of the English church, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII [16 Jan 1486], in the chapel of St. Mary [the Virgin] on the east side of the Old St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard, Old St Paul's Cathedral, before James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, in presence of the below-written notaries public, appointed by the said bishop as scribes in the below-written matter of dispensation, and witnesses below-named, there appeared in person Master Robert Morton (51), Archdeacon of Winchester, and John de Giglis, I.U.D., as proctors of king Henry (29), and Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the household of the said king, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, as proctors of the lady Elizabeth (20), eldest daughter of the late king Edward IV, who produced their mandates of procuration and presented to the said legate a schedule of petition on behalf of the said king and lady, praying him to dispense them to marry, notwithstanding the imPediment of their relationship in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, as was specified by the said Master Robert Morton (51).
The said instrument exemplifies the said procurations and schedule, as follows:
(i) A public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation, etc., 1486, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII, January 14, in a certain great chamber within the palace royal at Westminster, before Thomas, archbishop of York (62) and legate of the apostolic see, John, bishop of Worcester (56), chancellor of England, and Jasper duke of Bedford (54), and many other nobles and magnates, in the presence of me, Richard Spencer, notary public below-written, the said king (29), present in person, appointed Masters John de Giglis, I.U.D., and Robert Morton (51), master or keeper of the rolls of the chancery of the said king, as his proctors to appear before the said bishop and legate (who, as is said, has faculty from the apostolic see to dispense a certain number of persons related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred and affinity to contract marriage), and to request him to exhibit, etc., the said letters, and execute them in accordance with the desire of the said king, etc. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the above-named witnesses and of Richard Spencer, clerk, of the diocese of Lincoln, notary public by apostolic and imperial authorities, registrar-principal of the court of Canterbury, and keeper of the registers of the same court, the said notary has made the present public instrument, and, being otherwise engaged, has caused it to be written by another, and has published and drawn it up in this public form, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;

(ii) A like public instrument, setting forth that on the same date as in the preceding, and in a certain chamber within the royal palace of Westminster, before John, bishop of Worcester, chancellor of England (56), John lord de Wellys (36), Master William Smyth, dean of the chapel royal of Wymbourn in the diocese of Salisbury, and other witnesses, in the presence of the above notary, Richard Spencer, the above lady Elizabeth (20), present in person, appointed Masters Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the king's household, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, and commissary-general of the official of the court of Canterbury and president of the said court, in the absence of the said official, as her proctors to appear, etc., as in the preceding. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the abovenamed witnesses and of … Richard Spencer, clerk, etc., as above, the said notary has made, written, subscribed, published, and drawn up in this public form the present public instrument, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;

(iii) The petition to James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, on behalf of the most serene prince and lord, the lord Henry (29), by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the one part, and of the most illustrious (clarissime) lady, the lady Elizabeth (20), eldest legitimate and natural daughter of the late Edward, sometime king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the other part, setting forth that whereas the said king Henry has by God's providence won his realm of England, and is in peaceful possession thereof, and has been asked by all the lords of his realm, both spiritual and temporal, and also by the general council of the said realm, called Parliament, to take the said lady Elizabeth to wife, he, wishing to accede to the just petitions of his subjects, desires to take the said lady to wife, but cannot do so without dispensation, inasmuch as they are related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, wherefore petition is made on their behalf to the said legate to grant them dispensation by his apostolic authority to contract marriage and remain therein, notwithstanding the said imPediment of kindred, and to decree the offspring to be born thereof legitimate.
.

Battle of Stoke Field

On 16 Jun 1487 a Lancastrian army defeated a Yorkist army at the Battle of Stoke Field; considered by many to be the last battle of the Wars of the Roses.
The Lancastrian army of Henry Tudor comprised:
John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (44)
Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (55)
George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury, 4th Earl Waterford 1468-1538 (19)
Henry Willoughby 1451-1528 (36)
John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (45)
John Mordaunt 1455-1504 (31)
Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer Snape 1468-1530 (19)
William Norreys 1441-1507 (46)
Edward Norreys 1464-1487 (23) wounded
John Paston 1444-1504 (43)
George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin, 5th Baron Mohun Dunster 1460-1504 (27)
Edward Woodville Lord Scales -1488
Thomas Lovell 1478-1524 (8), knighted.
Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney 1447-1523 (40).
The Yorksists John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (25),Thomas Fitzgerald 1458-1487 (29) and Martin Schwartz -1487 were killed. Lambert Simnel 1477- fought and was captured. Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (31) fought and escaped.

Before Nov 1487 Katherine York Countess Pembroke 1471-1487 died.

On 24 Dec 1489 Elizabeth Pole Baroness Marshal, Baroness Morley 1468-1489 (21) died in Hallingbury, Morley.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491 - Jul 1492. This yere was borne at Palace of Placentia, Greenwich lord Henry, seconde sonne to y kyng (34), whiche was created duke of Yorke, and after prynce of Wales, and in conclusion succeded his father in eroune and dignitee. Nowe let vs returne to the newe founde sonne of kynge Edwarde, coniured by mennespollicies from death to lyfe.
And first to declare hys lignage and beginning, yon must vnderstad that the duches of Burgoyne (45) so norished and brought vp in the sedicious andscelerate faccions of false contryuers & founders of discorde coulde never cease nor be in quyet (lyke a vyper that is ready to burste with superfluyte of poyson) except he should infest and vnguyet y king of England, for no desert or displeasure by hym to her committed, but onely because he was propagate ant! deseeded of the house of Lacastre, euer beyng aduerse & enemy to her lyne & lynage. For which only cause she compassed, ymagenedand inuented how to cast a scorpio in his bosome, and to infect his whole reahne with, a pestiferous discorde. To thentent that he beyng vanquyshed and brought to confusion, both the boylynge heate of her malicious harte mighte be fully saciated with hys innocent bloude, and also auauce and preferre some darlyng of her faccion to his Empire rule and dignitee. And principally remembring that the erie of Lyncoln, which was by her set foorth and al his copany had small fortune & worsse successe in their progression and enterprice, contrary to her hope and expectacion, she lyke a dogge reuertynge to her olde vomyte, beganne to deuyse & spynne a new w ebbe, lyke a spyder that dayly weaueth when hys calle is torne. And as the deuell prouydeth venemous sauce to corrupt banckettes, so for her purpose she espyed a certayne younge man of visage beutiful, of countenaunce demure, of wit subtile crafty and pregnant, called Peter Watbecke. And for his dastard cowardnes of the Englishmen, in derision called Perkyn Warbeck (17), accordyng to the duche phrase, whiche chauge the name of Peter to Perfcyn, to yogelinges of no strength nor courage for their timerous hartes and pusillanimitee : Whiehe yonge man traueyiyng many coun treys, coulde speake English and many other languages, & for his basenes of stocke and birthe was knowen of none almoost, and only for the gayne of hys liuyng from his childehoode was of necessitee, compelled to seke and frequet dyuerse realmes and regions. Therfore the duches (45) thinkyng to haue gotten God by the foote, whe she had the deuell by the tayle, & adjudging this youg man to be a mete organe to conuey her purpose, and one not vnlike to be'f duke of Yorke, sonne to her brother kyng Edward, whiche was called Richard, kept hym a certayne space with her preuely, and hym with such diligece instructed, bothe of the secretes and common affaires of the realrne of England, & of the lignage, dissent and ordre of the house of Yorke, that he like a good scholer not forgettyng his lesson coulde tell all that was taught him promptly without any difficultie or signe of any subornacion: and besides, he kept suche a princely countenaunce, and so countrefeate a maiestie royall, that all men in maner did fermely beleue that he was extracted of the noble house and familie of the dukes of Yorke. For surely it was a gift geuen to that noble progeny as of nature in the rootc plated that all the sequele of that lyne and stock did study and deuyse how to be equyualent in honoure and fame with their forefathers and noble predecessors.

On 08 Jun 1492 Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 1437-1492 (55) died at Bermondsey, Southwark. She was buried at the Altar, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

In 1495 Anne Pole 1476-1495 (19) died.

On 31 May 1495 Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (80) died. She was buried at St Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay.

In 1499 John York 1471-1499 (27) died.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

On 28 Nov 1499 Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (24) was executed at Tower Hill.
Documentation held in Spain apparently describes Catherine of Aragon's (13) parents Ferdinand II King Aragon 1452-1516 (47) and Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (48) expressing concern that Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (24) was a potential claimant to throne, and being reluctant for their daughter to marry Arthur Prince of Wales (13) whilst there was a threat to his (13) accession causing Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (42) to use Perkin Warbreck's attempted escape with Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (24) as a means to an end. .

Around 1492. Juan de Flandes 1440-1519 (32). Portrait of Catherine of Aragon (6).

Around 1520 Unknown Artist. Portrait of Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England 1485-1536 (34).

Around 1490. Possibly Juan de Flandes 1440-1519 (30). Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (38).

Around 1502. Possibly Juan de Flandes 1440-1519 (42). Portrait of Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (50).

On 20 Sep 1501 Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (46) died. On 20 Sep 1501 His Son Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (24) succeeded 2nd Marquess Dorset (3C 1475), 2nd Earl Huntingdon (6C 1479), 8th Baron Ferrers Groby. Eleanor St John Marchioness Dorset by marriage Marchioness Dorset (3C 1475).

After Jan 1503 Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 died at Wingfield.

Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

On 02 Feb 1503 Katherine Tudor 1503-1503 was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (46) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) at the Tower of London.
On 10 Feb 1503 Katherine Tudor 1503-1503 died.
On 11 Feb 1503 (her birthday) Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) died from childbirth. She was buried on 24 Feb 1503 in the Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

Around 1735. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. The Interior of the Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

On 23 Nov 1503 Margaret Duchess of Burgundy 1446-1503 (57) died at Mechlin.

On 24 Aug 1507 Cecily York Viscountess Welles 1469-1507 (38) died.

On 23 Nov 1511 Anne York 1475-1511 (36) died.

In 1513 Catherine Pole 1477-1513 (36) died.

In 1513 Humphrey Pole 1474-1513 (39) died.

On 30 Apr 1513 Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 (42) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

In 1517 Bridget York 1480-1517 (36) died at Dartford Priory, Dartford.

Battle of Pavia

On 24 Feb 1525 Richard Pole "White Rose" 1480-1525 (45) was killed during the Battle of Pavia. Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny 1470-1544 (55) fought.
Louis II de la Tremoille 1460-1525 (64) was killed.

After 24 Feb 1525. Unknown Artist. Battle of Pavia with the fallen Richard Pole "White Rose" 1480-1525 bottom left corner indicated by "Le Duc de Susfoc dit Blance Rose".

On 21 Apr 1526 Anne St Leger Baroness Ros Helmsley 1476-1526 (50) died. She was buried at St Leger Chantry, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

On 15 Nov 1527 Catherine York 1479-1527 (48) died at Tiverton Castle, Tiverton.

Around Oct 1539 William Pole 1478-1539 (61) died.

Exeter Conspiracy

On 27 May 1541, after some two and a half years of imprisonment, Margaret Pole Countess Salsbury (67) was executed at Tower Green, Tower of London.

Around 1535 Unknown Artist. Portrait of unknown woman formerly thought to be Margaret York Countess Salisbury 1473-1541 (61).

On 03 Mar 1542 Arthur York 1st Viscount Lisle 1464-1542 (77) died at Tower of London.

The History of King Richard the Third. 1.2 This noble prince died at his palace of Westminster Palace and, with great funeral honor and heaviness of his people from thence conveyed, was interred at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was a king of such governance and behavior in time of peace (for in war each part must needs be another’s enemy) that there was never any prince of this land attaining the crown by battle so heartily beloved by the substance of the people, nor he himself so specially in any part of his life as at the time of his death.

The History of King Richard the Third. 2.1 Even after his death, this favor and affection toward him because of the cruelty, mischief, and trouble of the tempestuous world that followed afterwards—increased more highly. At such time as he died, the displeasure of those that bore him grudge for King Henry’s sake, the Sixth, whom he deposed, was well assuaged, and in effect quenched, in that many of them were dead in the more than twenty years of his reign—a great part of a long life. And many of them in the meantime had grown into his favor, of which he was never sparing.

The History of King Richard the Third. 2.2 He was a goodly personage, and very princely to behold: of heart, courageous; politic in counsel; in adversity nothing abashed; in prosperity, rather joyful than proud; in peace, just and merciful; in war, sharp and fierce; in the field, bold and hardy, and nevertheless, no further than wisdom would, adventurous. Whose wars whosoever would well consider, he shall no less commend his wisdom when he withdrew than his manhood when he vanquished. He was of visage lovely, of body mighty, strong, and clean made; however, in his latter days with over-liberal diet, he became somewhat corpulent and burly, and nonetheless not uncomely; he was of youth greatly given to fleshly wantonness, from which health of body in great prosperity and fortune, without a special grace, hardly refrains. This fault not greatly grieved the people, for one man’s pleasure could not stretch and extend to the displeasure of very many, and the fault was without violence, and besides that, in his latter days, it lessened and well left.

The History of King Richard the Third. 3 In which time of his latter days, this realm was in quiet and prosperous estate: no fear of outward enemies, no war in hand, nor none toward, but such as no man looked for; the people toward the Prince, not in a constrained fear, but in a willing and loving obedience; among themselves, the commons in good peace. The lords whom he knew at variance, he himself in his deathbed appeased. He had left all gathering of money (which is the only thing that withdraws the hearts of Englishmen from the prince), nor anything he intended to take in hand by which he should be driven thereunto, for his tribute out of France he had obtained before, and the year foregoing his death he had obtained Berwick Castle, Berwick on Tweed. And although throughout his reign he was with his people so benign, courteous and so familiar that no part of his virtues was more esteemed, yet that condition in the end of his days (in which many princes by a long continued sovereignty decline into a proud port from their debonair behavior at the beginning) marvelously in him grew and increased so far forth that, in the summer, the last that ever he saw, his Highness, being at Windsor hunting, sent for the Mayor and Aldermen of London to him—for no other errand but to have them hunt and be merry with him. Here he treated them not so stately but so friendly and of so familiar cheer, and sent venison from there so freely into the city, that no one thing in many days before got him either more hearts or more hearty favor among the common people, who oftentimes more esteem and take for greater kindness a little courtesy than a great benefit.

The History of King Richard the Third. 4.1 So died (as I have said) this noble king in that time during which his life was most desired. The love of his people and their entire affection toward him would have been to his noble children a marvelous fortress and sure armor (having in themselves also as many gifts of nature, as many princely virtues, as much goodly ability as their age could receive), if division and dissention of their friends had not unarmed them and left them destitute, and the execrable desire of sovereignty provoked their uncle to their destruction, who, if either kind or kindness had held place, must needs have been their chief defense. For Richard, the Duke of Gloucester, by nature their uncle, by office their protector, to their father beholden, to themselves by oath and allegiance bound, all the bands broken that bind man and man together, without any respect of God or the world, unnaturally contrived to bereave them, not only their dignity, but also their lives. But because this Duke’s demeanor ministers in effect all the whole matter whereof this book shall treat, it is therefore appropriate to show you somewhat, before we further go, what manner of man this was who could find in his heart so much mischief to conceive.

The History of King Richard the Third. 4.2 Richard, Duke of York, a noble man and a mighty, had begun not by war but by law to challenge the crown, Putting his claim into the Parliament. There his cause was either for right or favor so far forth advanced that King Henry (although he had a goodly prince utterly rejected his own blood; the crown was by authority of Parliament entailed unto the Duke of York, and his male issue in remainder, immediately after the death of King Henry. But the Duke, not enduring so long to tarry, but intending under pretext of dissension and debate arising in the realm, to reign before his time and to take upon him the rule in King Henry’s life, was with many nobles of the realm at Wakefield slain, leaving three sons — Edward, George, and Richard.
All three, as they were great states of birth, so were they great and stately of stomach, greedy and ambitious of authority, and impatient of partners. Edward, revenging his father’s death, deprived King Henry and attained the crown.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

The History of King Richard the Third. 4.3 George, Duke of Clarence, was a goodly noble prince, and at all points fortunate, if either his own ambition had not set him against his brother, or the envy of his enemies had not set his brother against him. For were it by the Queen and the lords of her blood, who highly maligned the King’s kindred (as women commonly, not of malice but of nature, hate them whom their husbands love), or were it a proud appetite of the Duke himself intending to be king, in any case, heinous treason was there laid to his charge, and, finally, were he faulty or were he faultless, attainted was he by Parliament and judged to the death, and thereupon hastily drowned in a butt of malmesey, whose death, King Edward (although he commanded it), when he knew it was done, piteously bewailed and sorrowfully repented. See Execution of George Duke of Clarence.

The History of King Richard the Third. 5 Richard, the third son, of whom we now treat, was in wit and courage equal with either of them, in body and prowess far under them both: little of stature, ill featured of limbs, crooked-backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favored in appearance, and such as is in the case of lords called warlike, in other men called otherwise. He was malicious, wrathful, envious, and from before his birth, ever perverse. It is for truth reported that the Duchess his mother had so much ado in her travail to birth him that she could not be delivered of him uncut, and he came into the world with the feet forward, as men be borne outward, and (as the story runs) also not untoothed. Either men of hatred reported the above for truth or else nature changed her course in his beginning—in the course of whose life many things were unnaturally committed. No unskilled captain was he in war, for which his disposition was more suited than for peace. Sundry victories had he, and sometimes overthrows, but never by fault of his own person, either of hardiness or political order. Free was he called when dispensing gifts, and somewhat above his power liberal; with large gifts he got for himself unsteadfast friendship, for which he was glad to pillage and spoil in other places, and get for himself steadfast hatred. He was close and secret, a deep dissembler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of heart, outwardly friendly where he inwardly hated, not omitting to kiss whom he thought to kill; pitiless and cruel, not for evil will always, but for ambition, and either for the surety or increase of his estate. Friend and foe was much the same; where his advantage grew, he spared no man death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with his own hands King Henry the Sixth, being prisoner in the Tower of London, as men constantly say, and that without commandment or knowledge of the King, who would, undoubtedly, if he had intended such a thing, have appointed that butcherly office to some other than his own born brother.

The History of King Richard the Third. 6.1 Some wise men also think that his plan—covertly conveyed—lacked not in helping his brother Clarence to his death, which he resisted openly, although somewhat (as men judged) more faintly than one who was heartily concerned for his welfare. And they who thus judged, they think he for a long time during King Edward’s life forethought to be king in case the King his brother (whose life he looked to, so that evil diet should shorten it) should happen to die (as indeed he did) while his children were young. And they judged that for this reason: he was glad of his brother’s death, that Duke of Clarence, whose life must needs have hindered his plans, whether the same Duke of Clarence had kept himself true to his nephew the young King, or enterprised to be king himself. But of all this point, is there no certainty, and whosoever divines upon conjectures may as well shoot too far as too short. However, this have I by credible information learned, that the same night in which King Edward died, one Mistlebrook, long before morning, came in great haste to the house of one Potter, dwelling in Redcross Street, Cripplegate Ward, and when he was with hasty rapping quickly let in, he revealed unto Potter that King Edward was departed. “By my truth man,” said Potter, “then will my master the Duke of Gloucester be king.” What cause he had so to think it is hard to say: whether he, being well disposed toward him, knew anything about such a thing the Duke had purposed, or otherwise he had any inkling thereof, for he was not ever likely to speak of it.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491 - Jul 1492. The duches thinkynge euery houre from his departure a whole yere, vntill suche tyme she. heard from hym, and efiecteously desiring to knowe whiche waye lady Fortune turned her whele, herynge hym to be repudiate and abiected oute of the Frenche courte, was in a greate agony and muche amased and more appalled: But when she was asserteyned of hys arryuall in Flaunders, she nolesse reuiued, then he that bathe in steade of the sworde of execucion, a perdon and restauracion of hys lyfe and degree to hym delyuered and shewed. And at hys commynge to her presence, she receaued hym wyth suche gladnes, with suche reioysyng and suche comforte (as in dede she coulde dissemble alone aboue all other) as though she had neuer sene nor knowe him before, or as he were newly cropen oute of hys mothers lappe agayne, that what in trust to preferre hyrn to the prehemynence by her ymagened, and what for the hope that she had to destroye kynge Henry, she fell into suche an vnmeasurable ioye, that she had almost lost her wytte and senses. And that thys her gladnes mighte be notified and made apparauntto euery man, she first reioyced of her nephewes health and welfare: And secondarely she much thrusted and sore longed, not once, but dyuerse and sundry tymes in open audience, and in solempne presence to here hym declare and shewe by what meanes he was preserued from deathe and destruction, and in what countreys he had wandered and'soughte frendshippe: And finallly, by what chaunce of fortune he came to her courte and presence. To the entent that by the open declaracion of these feyned phantasies, the people myghte be persuaded to geue credite and belefe, that he was the true begotten sonne of her brother kynge Edwarde. And after thys she assigned hym a garde of thirty persones in Murrey. and blewe, and highly honoured hym as a greate estate and called i hym the whyte Rose, prynce of Englande.

Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491 - Jul 1492. By reason whereof, the nobilite of Flaunders were to hym diligent, & with dewereuerence dyd him all the pleasure that laye in their powre or officies. And to be shorte, the more that, thys poeticall and feyned inuencion was shadowed with the pretence of sincere veritie, the more faythe and vndubitate credence was adhibited to it. In so muche that many one thought hym to be preserued, onely by the will and mightie powre of almightie God, and to to be conueyghed at the f'yrste daungier by some faythfull frende of kyng Edward his father into some straiige country, and so escaped the violet tyranny of his vncle kyng Rychard, whiche vndubitately, hereafter should recouer his fathers possessions & kingdome. The fame & bruyte of thys iuggled myracle was almoost in one momet blowe ouer all the coutrey of Flanders, & the territories therabouts. But in England it was biased in euery place soner then a man could thiivke or deuise it: In which coutrey more than in other places it was receaued for an infallible veritie & moost sure truthe, and that not onely of the comon people, but also of diuerse noble & worshipfull men of no small estimacio, w hichesw are affirmed it to be true, and no conaent or fable phantastically ymagened. After this deuulgacio y Rychard sonne to kyng Edward was yet liuyng, had in great honour emongest the Fleminges, there began sedicion to springe on euery syde, none otherwise tiien in y pleasant time of vere, trees are wote to budde or blossome. For not onely they y were in sanctuaryes, for great & hey nous offences by them committed, but also many other that were falle in debte, and doubtyng 10 be brought to captiuitie & bondage, assembled together in a copany, and were passed ouer the sea into Flaunders, to their coutrefeate Richard sonne to kynge Edwarde, otherwise named Perkyn Warbeke. After this many of the noble me conspired together some through rashnes & temerite induced therunto, some beyng so earnestly perswaded in their awn coceipt, as though they knew perfightly that this Perkyn was f vndubitate sonne of king Edward the. iiij. solicited, slurred & allured to their opinion all such as were fredes & fautoures of the house of Yorke. Other through indignacio, enuye & auarice, euer grudginge & thinkynge they were not condignly rewarded for their paynes and partes taken in the kyngc-s behalfe and quarell. Other whorne it greued and vexed to see the worlde stande still in one staye, and all men to lyue in peace and tranquilitie, desyrous of some chaunge, ranne hedlinge into that fury, madnes and sedicious coiuracion.

Ralph Hastings -1495 was appointed Knight of the Body to Edward IV King England 1442-1483.

Family Trees

Paternal Family Tree: Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward III England

Edward IV King England 1442-1483

Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Descent

Kings Wessex: Great x 17 Grand Son of Aethelwulf King Wessex -858

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 9 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd 1100-1170

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg, King Deheubarth 880-950

Kings Powys: Great x 10 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys 1047-1132

Kings England: Great x 2 Grand Son of King Edward III England

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland 1031-1093

Kings Franks: Great x 8 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks 1120-1180

Kings France: Great x 4 Grand Son of Philip "Fair" IV King France 1268-1314

Ancestry

Father: Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 Great Grandson of King Edward III England York Arms

GrandFather: Richard York 1st Earl Cambridge 1385-1415 Grandson of King Edward III England York Arms

Great GrandFather: Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York 1341-1402 Son of King Edward III England York Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: King Edward III England Son of King Edward II of England Plantagenet Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: King Edward II of England Son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Plantagenet Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Son of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Plantagenet Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Capet Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Philip "Fair" IV King France 1268-1314 3 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Capet Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 1273-1305 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Blois Arms

Great x 2 GrandMother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 5 x Great Granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154 Hainault Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Hainault I Count Hainault, III Count Avesnes, III Count Holland, II Count Zeeland 1286-1337 4 x Great Grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154 Hainault Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Hainault II Count Hainault, II Count Holland 1247-1304 3 x Great Grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154 Hainault Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Philippa Luxembourg Count Hainault, Count Holland 1252-1311 5 x Great Granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joan Valois Count Zeeland, Count Holland, Count Avesnes, Count Hainault 1294-1342 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Valois Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 1270-1325 3 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Valois Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Capet Count Valois 1273-1299 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Capet Arms

Great GrandMother: Isabella of Castile Duchess York 1355-1392 6 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Ivrea Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: Peter "Cruel" I King Castile 1334-1369 5 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Ivrea Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Alfonso "Avenger" XI King Castile 1311-1350 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Ivrea Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Ferdinand IV King Castile, IV King Leon 1285-1312 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Ivrea Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Constance Burgundy Queen Consort Castile, Queen Consort Leon 1290-1313 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Constanza Manuel Queen Consort Castile

Great x 2 GrandMother: Maria Padilla 1344-1361

Great x 3 GrandFather: Juan García Padilla 1st Lord Villagera -1350

Great x 4 GrandFather: Garcia Padilla

Great x 3 GrandMother: María González Henestrosa Lady Villagera -1356

Great x 4 GrandFather: Fernán González Henestrosa

GrandMother: Anne Mortimer Countess Cambridge 1390-1411 2 x Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England Mortimer Arms

Great GrandFather: Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March, 6th Earl Ulster 1374-1398 Great Grandson of King Edward III England Mortimer Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March, 5th Earl Ulster 1352-1381 6 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Mortimer Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March 1328-1360 5 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Mortimer Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edmund Mortimer 1303-1331 4 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Mortimer Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 1313-1356 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Badlesmere Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Philippa Montagu Countess March 1332-1381 Montagu Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury 1301-1349 Montagu Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Catherine Grandison Countess Salisbury 1304-1349

Great x 2 GrandMother: Philippa Plantagenet Countess March, 5th Countess Ulster 1355-1382 Granddaughter of King Edward III England Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 Son of King Edward III England Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke Clarence 1338-1368 Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: King Edward III England Son of King Edward II of England Plantagenet Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 5 x Great Granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154 Hainault Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Elizabeth Burgh 4th Countess Ulster 1332-1363 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Burgh Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: William Donn Burgh 3rd Earl Ulster 1312-1333 Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Burgh Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Maud Plantagenet Countess Ulster 1310-1377 Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 Arms

Great GrandMother: Eleanor Holland Countess March, Countess Ulster 1370-1405 2 x Great Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Holland Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397 1350-1397 Great Grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Holland Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent 1314-1360 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Holland Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Robert Holland 1st Baron Holand 1283-1328 Holland Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Maud Zouche Baroness Holand 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Zouche Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Plantagenet Princess Wales 1328-1385 Granddaughter of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Plantagenet Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edmund Plantagenet 1st Earl Kent 1301-1330 Son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Plantagenet Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Wake Countess Kent 1297-1349 3 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Wake Arms

Great x 2 GrandMother: Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent 1350-1416 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Fitzalan Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel, 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376 5 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Fitzalan Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel 1285-1326 4 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Fitzalan Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Alice Warenne Countess Arundel Warenne Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel, Countess Surrey 1318-1372 Great Granddaughter of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 Grandson of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster 1281-1345 Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Maud Chaworth 1282-1322 Chaworth Arms

Mother: Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 Great Granddaughter of King Edward III England Neville Arms

GrandFather: Ralph Neville 1st Earl Westmoreland 1364-1425 5 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Neville Arms

Great GrandFather: John Neville 3rd Baron Neville Raby 1337-1388 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Neville Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville Raby 1291-1367 4 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Neville Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville Raby 1262-1331 Neville Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Robert Neville 1237-1271 Neville Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Euphemia Clavering Baroness Neville Raby 1267-1329 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Clavering Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Robert Fitzroger 5th Baron Warkworth 1240-1310

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Zouche Baroness Warkworth 1251-1329 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Zouche Arms

Great x 2 GrandMother: Alice Audley Baroness Greystoke, Baroness Neville Raby 1304-1374 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Audley Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Hugh Audley 1st Baron Audley Stratton Audley 1267-1347 2 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Audley Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: James Audley 1225-1272 Audley Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Ela Longespée 1217-1298 Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isolde Mortimer 1269-1328 3 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Mortimer Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edmund Mortimer 2nd Baron Mortimer Wigmore 1251-1304 2 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Mortimer Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Fiennes 1269- 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Fiennes Arms

Great GrandMother: Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby 5 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Percy Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: Henry Percy 2nd Baron Percy 1299-1352 5 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Percy Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Henry Percy 1st Baron Percy 1273-1314 Percy Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Henry Percy 7th Baron Percy Topcliffe -1272 Percy Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Eleanor Warenne Baroness Percy Topcliffe Warenne Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Eleanor Fitzalan Baroness Percy 4 x Great Granddaughter of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Fitzalan Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl Arundel 1267-1302 3 x Great Grandson of John "Lackland" I King England 1166-1216 Fitzalan Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Alice Saluzzo Countess Arundel -1292 6 x Great Granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087 Saluzzo Arms

Great x 2 GrandMother: Idonia Clifford Baroness Percy 1303-1365 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Clifford Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 1274-1314 6 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England Clifford Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Roger Clifford 1243-1282 Clifford Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Isabella Vipont 1254-1292 5 x Great Granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 GrandMother: Maud Clare Baroness Clifford, Baroness Welles 1276-1327 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Clare Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Thomas Clare 1245-1287 4 x Great Grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England Clare Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Juliana Fitzgerald 1266-1300 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189

GrandMother: Joan Beaufort Countess Westmoreland 1379-1440 Granddaughter of King Edward III England John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 Arms

Great GrandFather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 Son of King Edward III England John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399 Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: King Edward III England Son of King Edward II of England Plantagenet Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: King Edward II of England Son of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Plantagenet Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307 Son of Henry III King England 1207-1272 Plantagenet Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 2 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 1241-1290 Arms

Great x 3 GrandMother: Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Capet Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Philip "Fair" IV King France 1268-1314 3 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Capet Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 1273-1305 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Blois Arms

Great x 2 GrandMother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 5 x Great Granddaughter of Stephen I King England 1094-1154 Hainault Arms

Great x 3 GrandFather: William Hainault I Count Hainault, III Count Avesnes, III Count Holland, II Count Zeeland 1286-1337 4 x Great Grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154 Hainault Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: John Hainault II Count Hainault, II Count Holland 1247-1304 3 x Great Grandson of Stephen I King England 1094-1154 Hainault Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Philippa Luxembourg Count Hainault, Count Holland 1252-1311 5 x Great Granddaughter of William "Conqueror" I King England 1028-1087

Great x 3 GrandMother: Joan Valois Count Zeeland, Count Holland, Count Avesnes, Count Hainault 1294-1342 4 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Valois Arms

Great x 4 GrandFather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 1270-1325 3 x Great Grandson of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Valois Arms

Great x 4 GrandMother: Margaret Capet Count Valois 1273-1299 3 x Great Granddaughter of Henry "Curtmantle" II King England 1133-1189 Capet Arms

Great GrandMother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403 Roet Arms

Great x 2 GrandFather: Giles "Payne" Roet 1310-1380 Roet Arms