Twenty Trees

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History of Tower of London

Tower of London is in London

Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

1321 Siege of Leeds Castle

1346 Battle of Neville's Cross

1360 Release of King John II of France

1381 Peasant's Revolt

1397 Lords Appellant

1399 Richard II Abdication

1400 Epiphany Rising

1441 Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

1470 Execution of John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester

1471 Death of Henry VI

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1483 Robert Brackenbury appointed Constable of the Tower of London

1483 Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

1483 Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

1483 Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

1483 Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

1485 Coronation of Henry VII

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

1503 Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

1506 Malus Intercursus aka Evil Treaty

1521 Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

1536 Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

1536 Trial of Anne Boleyn and her brother George

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

1538 Exeter Conspiracy

1541 Executions

1542 Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

1549 Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

1552 Edward Seymour's Execution

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley

1572 Ridolphi Plot

1601 Essex Rebellion

1603 Main and Bye Plot

1605 Gunpowder Plot

1651 Battle of Worcester

1658 Royalist Conspiracy

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1666 Great Plague of London

1666 Great Fire of London

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

1671 Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

1678 Popish Plot

1683 Rye House Plot

1688 Seven Bishops Imprisoned

1690 Battle of the Boyne

1715 Battle of Preston

1760 Execution of Earl Ferrers

Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. Allso the 17th day of May, beinge Weddensday, the Lord of Rochforde, Mr. Norys, Mr. Bruton, Sir Francis Weston, and Markys, were all beheaded [Note. Smeaton was hanged] at the Tower-hill; and the Lord of Rocheforde, brother to Queene Anne, sayde these wordes followinge on the scaffolde to the people with a lowde voyce: Maisters all, I am come hither not to preach and make a sermon, but to dye, as the lawe hath fownde me, and to the lawe I submitt me, desiringe you all, and speciallie you my maisters of the Courte, that you will trust on God speciallie, and not on the vanities of the worlde, for if I had so done, I thincke I had bene alyve as yee be now; allso I desire you to helpe to the settinge forthe of the true worde of God; and whereas I am sclaundered by it, I have bene diligent to reade it and set it furth trulye; but if I had bene as diligent to observe it, and done and lyved thereafter, as I was to read it and sett it forthe, I had not come hereto, wherefore I beseche you all to be workers and lyve thereafter, and not to reade it and lyve not there after. As for myne offences, it can not prevayle you to heare them that I dye here for, but I beseche God that I may be an example to you all, and that all you may be wayre by me, and hartelye I require you all to pray for me, and to forgive me if I have offended you, and I forgive you all, and God save the Kinge. Their bodies with their heades were buried within the Tower of London; the Lord of Rochfordes bodie and head within the chappell of the Tower, Mr. Weston and Norys in the church yeard of the same in one grave, Mr. Bruton and Markes in another grave in the same churche yerde within the Tower of London. See Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused.

Thomas Stafford 1533-1557 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer Chirk 1256-1326 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Ingelram Percy 1506-1538 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Gruffudd ab Owain Glyndŵr Mathrafal 1375-1412 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Ordinance on bullion. 19. Be it remembered that it was ordained in this parliament, with the assent of the same parliament, that each and every merchant, as well denizens as aliens, who should wish to take out of England wool, hides or woolfells, should pay one ounce of gold in foreign coin for every sack of wool, and one such ounce for every half last of hides, and one such ounce for every two hundred and forty woolfells, to the king's bullion in the Tower of London, within half a year from the time of the custom and cocketing of the same wool, hides and woolfells, and in and under the name of him from whom they shall thus be customed and cocketed. And that the said merchants, if they do not pay one such ounce of foreign coin for every sack of wool and for every half last of hides, and for every two hundred and forty woolfells to the said bullion, in the aforesaid form, should pay the king for every sack of wool thirteen shillings and four pence, and on every last of hides thirteen shillings and four pence, and on every four hundred and eighty woolfells thirteen shillings and four pence, in addition to the customs and subsidies and other dues owed thereon. And that each and every such merchant, before they take the said wool, hides, and woolfells out of any ports of the kingdom of England, should find sufficient surety to the king's customs officers in the same ports to pay the said ounces of gold to the said bullion in the aforesaid form.
Whereupon writs of proclamation were directed to the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and towns where the staples are. Also, writs to the collectors of customs and subsidies in the ports where the staples are, to take surety from the said merchants, and to notify thereof the keeper and master of the mint in the said Tower of London, as appears from the tenor of the said writs transcribed below:
Writs made thereon.

The History of King Richard the Third. Richard, the third son, of whom we now treat, was in wit and courage equal with either of them, in body and prowess far under them both: little of stature, ill featured of limbs, crooked-backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favored in appearance, and such as is in the case of lords called warlike, in other men called otherwise. He was malicious, wrathful, envious, and from before his birth, ever perverse. It is for truth reported that the Duchess his mother had so much ado in her travail to birth him that she could not be delivered of him uncut, and he came into the world with the feet forward, as men be borne outward, and (as the story runs) also not untoothed. Either men of hatred reported the above for truth or else nature changed her course in his beginning—in the course of whose life many things were unnaturally committed. No unskilled captain was he in war, for which his disposition was more suited than for peace. Sundry victories had he, and sometimes overthrows, but never by fault of his own person, either of hardiness or political order. Free was he called when dispensing gifts, and somewhat above his power liberal; with large gifts he got for himself unsteadfast friendship, for which he was glad to pillage and spoil in other places, and get for himself steadfast hatred. He was close and secret, a deep dissembler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of heart, outwardly friendly where he inwardly hated, not omitting to kiss whom he thought to kill; pitiless and cruel, not for evil will always, but for ambition, and either for the surety or increase of his estate. Friend and foe was much the same; where his advantage grew, he spared no man death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with his own hands King Henry the Sixth, being prisoner in the Tower, as men constantly say, and that without commandment or knowledge of the King, who would, undoubtedly, if he had intended such a thing, have appointed that butcherly office to some other than his own born brother.

Geoffrey Mandeville -1100 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

William Mandeville -1129 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

John Seymour 1527-1552 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Around 1106 William Mortain Count Mortain, 2nd Earl Cornwall 1083-1140 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1220 Stephen Segrave 1171-1241 (49) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

In 1241 Gruffydd ap Llewellyn Aberffraw 1198-1244 (43) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 01 Mar 1244 Gruffydd ap Llewellyn Aberffraw 1198-1244 (46) died at Tower of London.

After 27 Apr 1296 John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland 1249-1314 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 27 Apr 1296 John Strathbogie 9th Earl Atholl 1266-1306 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 12 Oct 1297 William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas 1240-1298 (57) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1298 William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas 1240-1298 (58) died at Tower of London.

In 1321 Maud Badlesmere Countess Oxford 1310-1366 (11) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1321 Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros Helmsley 1308-1363 (13) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1321 Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 1313-1356 (8) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 05 Jul 1321 Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland 1321-1362 was born to King Edward II of England (37) and Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (26) at the Tower of London.

Siege of Leeds Castle

In Oct 1321 Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (26) was returning from Canterbury to London. She sought accommodation at Leeds Castle which was under the protection of Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34) the wife of Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere 1275-1322 (46). Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34) refused entry to the Queen killing around six of her retinue when they tried to force entry. King Edward II of England (37) commenced the Siege of Leeds Castle. Once King Edward II of England (37) gained possession of the castle, he had the garrison hanged from the battlements. His wife Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (34), her five children (Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros Helmsley 1308-1363 (13), Maud Badlesmere Countess Oxford 1310-1366 (11), Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 1313-1356 (8), Giles Badlesmere 2nd Baron Badlesmere 1314-1338 (6) and Margaret Badlesmere Baroness Tibetot 1315-), and Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh 1287-1355 (34), her nephew, were imprisoned in the Tower of London.

After Oct 1321 Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1322 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 03 Nov 1322 Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 1287-1333 (35) was released at Tower of London.

On Aug 1323 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 (36) escaped to France and to Isabella Capet Queen Consort England 1295-1358 (28) at Tower of London.

In 1326 Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer Chirk 1256-1326 (70) died at Tower of London.

After 19 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 1287-1330 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 19 Dec 1333 Joan Plantagenet 1333-1348 was born to King Edward III England (21) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369 (19) at Tower of London.

In 1345 John Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Knayth 1280-1347 (65) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Battle of Neville's Cross

On 17 Oct 1346 at the Battle of Neville's Cross near Durham the English inflicted a heavy defeat on the Scottish army that had invaded England in compliance with their treaty with the French for mutual support against England.
The English army included: William Deincourt 1st Baron Deincourt 1301-1364 (45), Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham 1312-1392 (34), Ralph Hastings 1291-1346 (55), Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville Raby 1291-1367 (55), William Zouche Archbishop of York -1352, Henry Percy 2nd Baron Percy 1299-1352 (47) and John Mowbray 3rd Baron Mowbray 1310-1361 (35).
Of the Scottish army David II King Scotland 1324-1371 (22), John Graham Earl Menteith -1347 and William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl 1300-1353 (46) were captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Neil Bruce -1346, John Randolph 3rd Earl Moray 1306-1346, David Hay 6th Baron Erroll 1318-1346 and Edward Keith of Sinton 1280-1346 were killed.

After 17 Oct 1346 David II King Scotland 1324-1371 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 17 Oct 1346 William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl 1300-1353 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Release of King John II of France

Around 30 June 1360 John "The Good" II King France 1319-1364 (41) left the Tower of London and proceeded to Eltham Palace where Queen Philippa (46) had prepared a great farewell entertainment. Passing the night at Dartford, he continued towards Dover, stopping at the Maison Dieu of St Mary at Ospringe, and paying homage at the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury on 04 July 1360. He dined with the Black Prince (30) at Dover Castle, and reached English-held Calais on 08 July 1360.

In 1361 Richard Vache -1366 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Peasant's Revolt

On 11 Jun 1381 Richard II King England 1367-1400 (14) held council with his mother Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales 1328-1385 (52), Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick 1338-1401 (43), William Montagu 2nd Earl Salisbury 1328-1397 (52), Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey, 11th Earl Arundel 1346-1397 (35), Simon Sudbury Archbishop of Canterbury 1316-1381 (65) and Robert Hales 1325-1390 (56) at the Tower of London.

Lords Appellant

In 1387 Richard Mitford Bishop -1407 was arrested by Lords Appellant and imprisoned in Bristol Castle, Bristol. He was then imprisoned in the Tower of London. Thereafter he was released without charge..

On 28 Jan 1388 Nicholas Brembre -1399 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Parliament Rolls Richard II Jan 1397: Ordinance on bullion. 20. The king (30) to the mayor and sheriffs of London, greeting. Whereas in our last parliament it was ordained, with the assent of the same parliament, that each and every merchant, as well denizen as alien, who shall wish to take any wool, hides, or woolfells out of our kingdom of England, should deliver and bring one ounce of gold in foreign coinage for each sack of wool, and a similar ounce for every last of hides, and a similar ounce for every two hundred and forty woolfells, to our bullion in our Tower of London, within half a year from the time of customing and cocketing the wool, hides and woolfells, in and under the name of him by whom they were thus customed and cocketed; and that the said merchants, if they did not pay one ounce of this kind of foreign coinage for each sack of wool and each half last of hides and every two hundred and forty woolfells to our aforesaid bullion in the above manner, should pay us for every sack of wool thirteen shillings and four pence; and for every last of hides thirteen shillings and four pence; and for every four hundred and eighty woolfells thirteen shillings and four pence; in addition to the customs and subsidies and other dues owed thereon. And that all and singular such merchants before exporting the aforesaid wool, hides, and woolfells from any port of the kingdom of England should find surety to our customs officers in the same ports to pay and deliver the ounces of gold to our aforesaid bullion in the aforesaid form. We order you publicly to proclaim all and singular the aforesaid things in the said city and suburbs of the same wheresoever shall seem best to you, and cause them to be firmly kept as best you can. Witnessed by the king (30) at Westminster on 20 February 1397.
Similar writs were sent to all the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and towns where the staples are.
Writs for taking surety
The king (30) to the collectors of customs and subsidies on wool, hides, and woolfells in the port of our city of London, greeting. Whereas in our last parliament, etc., as above, as far as to deliver and bring, and then thus - We order you that from every such merchant, before they take the aforesaid wool, hides, and woolfells from the said port of London, you take sufficient surety, for which you will answer to us at your peril, that they will deliver such ounces of gold to our aforesaid bullion in the aforesaid form, from time to time under your seal clearly and distinctly notifying the keeper and master of our mint in the aforesaid Tower of the surety thus taken, and of the names of the aforesaid merchants, and of the number of sacks of wool and hides and woolfells which are taken out of the said port. Witnessed as above.
Similar writs are sent to the king's collectors of customs and subsidies in the ports where the staples are under the same date.

Richard II Abdication

On 29 Sep 1399 Richard II King England 1367-1400 (32) abdicated II King England: Plantagenet Angevin at Tower of London. Thomas Grey 1359-1400 (40), William Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby Eresby 1370-1409 (29), Hugh Burnell 2nd Baron Burnell 1347-1420 (52) and Thomas Rempston -1406 were present.

On 07 Oct 1399 Thomas Rempston -1406 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

In 1400 Thomas Merke Bishop Carlisle -1409 was imprisoned in the Tower of London and deprived of his Bishopric.

Epiphany Rising

On 04 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas 1354-1400 (46) was tried by Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey, 12th Earl Arundel 1381-1415 (18) at Tower of London.

In 1402 Philip Courtenay 1355-1406 (47) was imprisoned for clerical abuses at Tower of London.

In 1409 Catrin Mathrafal was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 24 Oct 1411 John Cockayne 1370-1438 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Around 1412 Gruffudd ab Owain Glyndŵr Mathrafal 1375-1412 (37) died at Tower of London.

In 1413 John Abrichecourt -1415 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

On 14 May 1414 Roger Cheney 1362-1414 (51) died at Tower of London.

In 1420 John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter 1395-1447 (24) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

In 1433 Richard Woodville 1385-1441 (48) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

In 1441 Eleanor Cobham 1400-1452 (41), wife of the heir presumptive Humphrey 1st Duke Gloucester (50), brother of the deceased Henry V King England 1386-1422, uncle of Henry VI King England, II King France 1421-1471 (19), was tried for predicting the future of the King; in reality a veiled attack on her husband who had over-reached himself. She had consulted two astrologers Thomas Southwell and Roger Bolingbroke. All three were arrested, tried and found guilty. Eleanor denied most of the charges but confessd to obtaining potions from Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" 1415-1441 (26). Thomas Southwell died whilst in the Tower of London.
Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" 1415-1441 (26) was burned at the stake.
Eleanor was sentenced to do public penance, divorce her husband and remain confined for the remainder of her life.

On 28 Jan 1450 William "Jackanapes" Pole 1st Duke Suffolk 1396-1450 (53) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Around 1453 Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon 1414-1458 (39) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On Oct 1453 Edmund Beaufort 2nd Duke Somerset 1406-1455 (47) was imprisoned by Richard 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 (42) at Tower of London.

On 25 Jul 1460 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales 1397-1460 (63) was murdered at Tower of London. On 25 Jul 1460 His daughter Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers -1473 succeeded 8th Baron Scales.

On Nov 1461 Humphrey Neville 1439-1469 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Patent Rolls Edward IV 1461. 02 Dec 1461. Westminster. Grant for life to the king's (19) kinsman John, earl of Worcester (34), of the office of the constable of the Tower of London, with the accustomed fees.

In 1468 Thomas Tresham 1420-1471 was imprisoned for having taken part in the plots of John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (25) at Tower of London.

After 14 Apr 1471 Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England 1430-1482 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1483 Walter Hungerford 1464-1516 (18) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

The History of King Richard the Third. 01 May 1483. And as soon as they came in his presence, they alighted down with all their company about them. To whom the Duke of Buckingham (28) said, "Go before, gentlemen and yeomen, keep your rooms." And thus in a goodly array, they came to the King (12) and, on their knees in very humble fashion, assuaged his Grace, who received them in very joyous and amiable manner, nothing earthly knowing nor mistrusting as yet. But even by and by, in his presence, they picked a quarrel with the Lord Richard Grey (26), the King’s other brother by his mother, saying that he, with the Lord Marquis (28) his brother and the Lord Rivers (43) his uncle, had planned to rule the King and the realm, and to set variance among the lords, and to subdue and destroy the noble blood of the realm. Toward the accomplishing whereof, they said that the Lord Marquis (28) had entered into the Tower of London, and thence taken out the King’s treasure, and sent men to the sea. All of which things, these dukes knew well, were done for good purposes and necessary ones by the whole council at London, except that they must say something.
Unto which words, the King (12) answered, "What my brother marquis (28) has done I cannot say. But in good faith I dare well answer for mine uncle Rivers (43) and my brother (26) here, that they be innocent of any such matters."
"Yea, my Liege," said the Duke of Buckingham (28), "they have kept their dealing in these matters far from the knowledge of your good Grace."
And forthwith they arrested the Lord Richard (26) and Sir Thomas Vaughan, knight, in the King’s (12) presence, and brought the King (12) and all back unto Northampton, where they took again further counsel. And there they sent away from the King (12) whomever it pleased them, and set new servants about him, such as liked them better than him. At which dealing he wept and was nothing content, but it remedied not. And at dinner the Duke of Gloucester (30) sent a dish from his own table to the Lord Rivers (43), praying him to be of good cheer, all should be well enough. And he thanked the Duke (30), and prayed the messenger to bear it to his nephew, the Lord Richard (26), with the same message for his comfort, who he thought had more need of comfort, as one to whom such adversity was foreign. But for himself, he had been all his days used to a life therewith, and therefore could bear it the better. But for all this comfortable courtesy of the Duke of Gloucester (30), he sent the Lord Rivers (43) and the Lord Richard (26) with Sir Thomas Vaughan into the north country to different places to prison and, afterwards, all to Pomfrait, where they were, in conclusion, beheaded..

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. 20 May 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30). Westminster. Grant for life to the king's servant William Hastings (52), knight, of the office of master and worker of the king's moneys and keeper of the exchange within the Tower of London, the realm of England and the town of Calais according to the form of certain indentures, receiving the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

On 13 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63), Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (46).
William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. He was buried in North Aisle, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle next to Edward IV King England 1442-1483. His son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings 1466-1506 (16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings (2C 1430). Mary Hungerford Baroness Hastings, 4th Baroness Hungerford 1466-1553 (17) by marriage Baroness Hastings (2C 1430).
Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) were arrested.

Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

On 16 Jun 1483 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (65) removed Edward IV's youngest son Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- from Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey to the Tower of London so that he could join his brother in preparation for his Coronation. . Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28) was present. .

Robert Brackenbury appointed Constable of the Tower of London

On 17 Jul 1483 Robert Brackenbury -1485 was appointed Constable of the Tower of London for life meaning he was in direct care of The Princes in the Tower: Edward V King England 1470- (12) and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-.

Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

Around Aug 1483 Edward V King England 1470- (12) and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473- disappeared, presumably killed, from the Tower of London. Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (5) reports, sometime after the event, that Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) requested Robert Brackenbury -1485 undertake the murder of the children. Upon Brackenbury's refusal Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) instructed Robert Brackenbury -1485 give the keys to the Tower to James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (28) who would then undertake the task. .

Close Rolls Edward IV Edward V Richard III 1476-1485. On 09 Mar 1484 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (31). Westminster. Grant for life to the king's servant Robert Brackenbury -1485 of the office of Constable of the Tower of London and 100l. yearly for his wages from the issues of the manors or lordships of Wrottell, Haveryng, Boyton, Hadlegh, Raylegh and Rocheford, co Essex, and Tunbrich, Penshurste, Middleton and Merdon and the hundred of Middleton, co Kent, with arrears from 17 July last, in lieu of a grant to him by letters patent of that date surrendered. By p.s.

After 22 Aug 1485 Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 16 Oct 1485 Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath -1486 was created 1st Earl Bath (1C 1486) at Tower of London by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) for having supported Henry' claim to the throne.

Coronation of Henry VII

On 29 Oct 1485 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) processed from Tower of London to Westminster Abbey. Ahead of him marched the heralds and serjeants-at-arms, the Esquire of the Body, the King's Secretary Richard Fox (37), almoner Christopher Urswick (37), the mayor of London and the . Also ahead of him were Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50), John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (23), John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (43) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (59). Following behind were the only two Dukes: Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53), created the day before, and John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (43).

On 17 Jun 1497 James Tuchet 7th Baron Audley Heighley 1463-1497 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 04 Oct 1497 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VII. 1499. This yeare, in June, deceased the third sonne of the Kinge (1) named Duke of Somersett and was buried at Westminster. Perkin Werbeck (25) putt to death at Tybume Note. 22 Nov 1499; and the Earle of Warwyke (23), Sonne to the Duke of Clarence, who had bene kept in the Tower from the age of 11 years unto the end of 14 yeares, was beheaded at the Tower Hill Note. See Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick. A great pestilence throughout all England.

Around Mar 1499 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 (25) recaptured at Tower of London.

Around Mar 1499 Perkin Warbreck 1474-1499 (25) escaped at Tower of London.

In 1502 William Pole 1478-1539 (24) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After 26 Dec 1502 Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 was imprisoned at Tower of London with his brother William Pole 1478-1539. he remained there for eleven years.

Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VII. 1503. This yeare, in Februarie, died Queene Elizabeth (36) at the Towre of London, lyeinge in childebedd of a daughter named Katherine (the 8th day after her birth), and was buried at Westminster; and on Passion Sundaye a peace made betwene the Emperoure (43) and the Kinge (45) duringe their lyves, solemnized upon a great oathe at the highe aulter in Paules queere. See Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort.

On 02 Feb 1503 Katherine Tudor 1503-1503 was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (46) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) at the Tower of London.
On 10 Feb 1503 Katherine Tudor 1503-1503 died.
On 11 Feb 1503 (her birthday) Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) died from childbirth. She was buried on 24 Feb 1503 in the Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey. Her sister Catherine York Countess Devon 1479-1527 (23) chief mourner.

In Feb 1504 William Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1475-1511 (29) was attainted and imprisoned at Tower of London for supposedly having supported Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 (33), a Yorkist claimant, in his claim to the throne; William's wife was Catherine York Countess Devon 1479-1527 (24).

Malus Intercursus aka Evil Treaty

Around Feb 1506 Philip "Handsome, Fair" King Castile 1478-1506 (27) was blown off course whilst travelling to Castile to claim his inheritance. He landed in England where he became the guest of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (49) who negociated the Malus Intercursus Treaty as part of the conditions of his release. The Treaty include favourable commercial terms by removing all duties on English exports, and the marriage of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (49) with Philip's sister Margaret Habsburg Princess Asturias 1480-1533 (26) (which didn't take place). Most importantly it secured the return of Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 (35) who was Philip's (27) prisoner. Edmund Pole was immediately imprisoned in the Tower of London and executed seven years later.

Around 1515. Bernard Van Orley Painter 1491-1541 (28). Portrait of Margaret Habsburg Princess Asturias 1480-1533 (35).

On 09 Nov 1506 Thomas Green 1461-1506 (45) died at the Tower of London.

In 1516 Robert Sheffield 1461-1518 (54) was imprisoned after complaining against Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 1473-1530 (42) at Tower of London.

On 10 Aug 1518 Robert Sheffield 1461-1518 (56) died at Tower of London.

Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

In Apr 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (43) was arrested and imprisoned at Tower of London. He was accused of listening to prophecies of the King's death and intending to kill the King. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (48) presided at his trial. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (43) and Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (32) acted as judges. Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham -1529, Anthony Poyntz 1480-1533 (41) and Edmund Walsingham 1480-1550 (41) as jurors. .

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (30). Portrait of Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (38) wearing the Garter and Inter-twined Knots Collar with St George Pendant. Standing three-quarter length, richly dressed in velvet, fur and cloth-of-gold. Holbein has meticulously shown the varied texture of his cloth-of-gold double which is woven into a pomegranate pattern with a variety of different weaves including loops of gold thread. Similarly, he has carefully articulated the band of black satin running down Guildford’s arm against the richer black of the velvet of his sleeve. A lavish use of both shell-gold paint and gold leaf (which has been used to emulate the highlights of the gold thread in the material) emphasises the luxuriousness of the sitter’s dress and his high status. In his right-hand he holds the Comptroller of the Household Staff of Office.

In 1527 Hans Holbein The Younger Painter 1497-1543 (30). Portrait of Mary Wotton 1499-1535 (28) when she was thirty-two commissioned with that of her husband Henry Guildford 1489-1532 (38) possibly to celebrate their marriage. Hung with gold chains and embellished with pearls, Baroness Guildford embodies worldly prosperity, and with her prayer book she is also the very image of propriety.

On 28 May 1524 William Kingston KG 1476-1540 (48) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

On 13 Apr 1534 Thomas More Chancellor Speaker 1478-1535 (56) was asked to appear before a commission and swear his allegiance Act of Succession. He refused to take the oath and was duly imprisoned in the Tower of London. Whilst there Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (49) made several visits in an attempt to persuade More to comply.

On Oct 1535 Thomas "Silken" Fitzgerald 10th Earl Kildare 1513-1537 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In May 1536 Thomas Wyatt 1503-1542 (33) was imprisoned in the Tower of London for allegedly committing adultery with Anne Boleyn 1475-1556 (60).

Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. And the secondo dale of Maie, Mr. Noris and my Lorde of Rochforde (33) were brought to the Towre of London as prisonners; Queen Anne (35) and the same dale, about five of the clocke at night, Anne Bolleine was brought to the Towre of London by my Lord Chauncelor (48), the Duke of Norfolke (63), Mr. Secretarie (51), and Sir William Kingston (60), Constable of the Tower; and when she came to the court gate, entring in, she fell downe on her knees before the said lordes, beseeching God to helpe her as she was not giltie of her aocusement, and also desired the said lordes to beseech the Kinges grace to be good unto her, and so they left her their prisoner. See Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. And the secondo dale of Maie, Mr. Noris and my Lorde of Rochforde (33) were brought to the Towre of London as prisonners; Queen Anne (35) and the same dale, about five of the clocke at night, Anne Bolleine was brought to the Towre of London by my Lord Chauncelor (48), the Duke of Norfolke (63), Mr. Secretarie (51), and Sir William Kingston (60), Constable of the Tower; and when she came to the court gate, entring in, she fell downe on her knees before the said lordes, beseeching God to helpe her as she was not giltie of her aocusement, and also desired the said lordes to beseech the Kinges grace to be good unto her, and so they left her their prisoner. See Arrest and Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused.

On 02 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (35) was charged with treason and accused of 'despising her marriage and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust' !She was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Five ladies were appointed to serve Anne whilst in prison including her aunt by marriage Elizabeth Wood aka Wode, wife of her uncle James Boleyn 1463-1561 and her aunt Anne Boleyn 1475-1556 (60), and Elizabeth Chamber Baroness St John Bletso -1602.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. Item, on Munday, the 15th of May, 1536, there was arreigned within the Tower of London Queene Anne (35), for treason againste the Kinges owne person, and there was a great scaffold made in the Kinges Hall within the Tower of London, and there were made benches and seates for the lordes, my Lord of Northfolke (63) sittinge under the clothe of estate, representinge there the Kinges person as Highe Steward of Englande and uncle to the Queene, he holdinge a longe white staffe in his hande, and the Earle of Surrey (20) his sonne and heire, sittinge at his feete before him holdinge the golden staffe for the Earle Marshall of Englande, which sayde office the saide duke had in his handes ; the Lord Awdley Chauncellour of England (48), sittinge on his right hande, and the Duke of Suffolke on his lefl hande, with other marqueses, earles, and lordes, everie one after their degrees. See Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused.

In 1546 Unknown Painter. Italian. Portrait of Henry Howard 1516-1547 (30) wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. His right , his left .

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. 15 May 1536. After this, immediatliei the Lord of Rocheforde (33), her brother, was arreigned for treason, which was for knowinge the Queene, his sister, carnallie, moste detestable against the la we of God and nature allso, and treason to his Prince, and allso for conspiracie of the Kinges death: Whereunto he made aunswere so prudentlie and wiselie to all articles layde against him, that manreil it was to heare, and never would confesse anye thinge, but made himselfe as cleare as though he had never offended. Howbeit he was there condemned by 26 lordes and barons of treason, and then my Lord of Northfolke (63) gave him this judgment: That he should goo agayne to prison in the Tower from whence he came, and to be drawne from the saide Towre of London thorowe the Cittie of London to the place of execution called Tybume, and there to be hanged, beinge alyve cutt downe, and then his members cutt of and his bowells taken owt of his bodie and brent before him, and then his head cutt of and his bodie to be divided in 4 peeces, and his head and bodie to be sett at suche places as the King should assigne; and after this the court brake up for that tyme. The Major of London with certeyne Aldermen were present at this arreignment of the Queene and her brother, with the wardeins and 4 persons more of 12 of the principall craftes of London. See Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused.

In 1538 Ingelram Percy 1506-1538 (32) died at Tower of London.

Exeter Conspiracy

In Nov 1538 Margaret Pole Countess Salsbury (65), her son Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu 1492-1539 (46), his son Henry Pole 1520-1542 (18), and other Pole family members, and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538, his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness Exeter 1503-1558 (34), their son Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1527-1556 (11) and Edward Neville 1471-1538 (67) wre arrested and imprisoned on charges of treason. Cromwell had previously written that they had "little offended save that he [Reginald Pole] is of their kin". They were committed to the Tower of London.

Around 1535 Unknown Painter. Portrait of unknown woman formerly thought to be Margaret York Countess Salisbury 1473-1541 (61).

In 1540 John Gage Lord Chamberlain 1479-1556 (60) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

In 1540 Arthur York 1st Viscount Lisle 1464-1542 (75) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

1541 Executions

29 May 1541. 868. Marillac to Francis I.
What has here happened since he wrote last, on the 22nd, gives matter to write. To begin with, a case more worthy of compassion than of long letters, the countess of Saalberi, mother of Cardinal Pol (41) and the late lord Montaigue, was yesterday morning, about 7 o'clock, beheaded in a corner of the Tower, in presence of so few people that until evening the truth was still doubted. It was the more difficult to believe as she had been long prisoner, was of noble lineage, above 80 years old, and had been punished by the loss of one son and banishment of the other, and the total ruin of her house. Further reflections upon this. The manner of proceeding in her case and that of a lord who was executed at the same time (who is not yet named, but is presumed to be lord Leonard de Clidas (62), formerly the King's lieutenant in Ireland) seems to argue that those here are afraid to put to death publicly those whom they execute in secret. It may be added that yesterday all the heads which were fixed upon the bridge of the river which passes by this town were taken down; in order that the people may forget those whose heads kept their memory fresh, if it were not that this will people the place with new, for Marillac hears from a good place that, before St. John's tide, they reckon to empty the Tower of the prisoners now there for treason.
The talk of going to the North continues, and provisions are already being sent; which are the greater as the company will be 4,000 or 5,000 horse, as well because the King (49) wishes to go with more magnificence (as he has not yet been there) as to be secure against any seditious designs. They will be gentlemen of these quarters of King (Kent), whom he trusts most. The 50 gentlemen of the house will each have tent and war equipment, as also will several other young lords; so that it will be rather like following a camp than going to the chase.
As instructed in last packet of the 20th, will write to no one of affairs here. Would not have done it in the past had he known Francis's pleasure, but was only written to to address all he wrote to Francis, not that he should not write to others. Will write affairs concerning war or peace to Mons. de Vendosme, as long as he is in Picardy, and in his absence a word to M. du Bies, to prevent them thinking better or worse in the absence of news. Is not spoken to about the Cauchoide nor about the conversation he wrote last in cipher.

Around 1535 Unknown Painter. Portrait of unknown woman formerly thought to be Margaret York Countess Salisbury 1473-1541 (61).

10 Jun 1541. 897. Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
If the affair is mentioned, will follow her instructions in her letter of the 28th ult. Expects to be summoned before the King (49) two days hence. Is vexed at not having received the copy of her answer to the King, referred to in his despatch of 26 May. The news since that date is that on the 27th three of the chief conspirators in the North — an abbot and two gentlemen — were hung and quartered. About the same time took place the lamentable execution of the countess of Salisbury at the Tower in presence of the Lord Mayor and about 150 persons. When informed of her sentence she found it very strange, not knowing her crime; but she walked to the space in front of the Tower, where there was no scaffold but only a small block. She there commended her soul to God, and desired those present to pray for the King, Queen, Prince, and Princess. The ordinary executioner being absent, a blundering “garçonneau” was chosen, who hacked her head and shoulders to pieces. A most virtuous lady nearly 90 years of age. When her death was resolved on her nephew (grandson) (21), the son of lord Montague, who had been allowed occasionally to go about within the Tower, was more strictly guarded. It is to be supposed he will soon follow his father and grandmother. London, 10 June 1541. Original at Vienna.

Around 1535 Unknown Painter. Portrait of unknown woman formerly thought to be Margaret York Countess Salisbury 1473-1541 (61).

On 28 Jun 1541 Leonard Grey 1st Viscount Grane 1479-1541 (62) was executed for having allowed Gerald "Wizard Earl" Fitzgerald 11th Earl Kildare 1525-1585 (16), his sister's son, to escape capture at Tower of London.

02 Jul 1541. 954. Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
Almost immediately after Chapuys's return the King (50) gave the people of Dunkirk permission to buy here a quantity of wood for their own use for curing herrings, and he has frequently reminded Chapuys of the favor, saying he was surprised that the town had not sent a deputation to say how much wood they required. The deputation has arrived, and now, after being kept 13 days without an answer, they have been told that it is mere loss of time to solicit such things till the Queen has promised to release the harness, copper, and war ammunition purchased by the King some time ago at Antwerp. On St. Peter's eve lord Leonard, uncle of the Marquis of Osceter (24) (Dorset) and of the Chancellor's (53) wife, was beheaded in front of the Tower. Hears he was accused of letting his nephew (16), the young earl of Kildare, escape to France and thence to Liege. That afternoon two gentlemen were hung, one of whom had an income of over 12,000 ducats a year, and was the handsomest and best bred man in England, only 25 years old and married to a niece of the Duke of Norfolk. He was sentenced for having belonged to a set of eight rakish youths, one of whom had killed a poor old man in an unpremeditated fray. For the same cause lord Dacres also, son of the Duke of Norfolk's sister, and cousin of this Queen (18), 23 years old and possessing a property of about 5,000 ducats a year, was hung from the most ignominious gibbet, and for greater shame dragged through the streets to the place of execution, to the great pity of many people, and even of his very judges, who wept when they sentenced him, and in a body asked his pardon of the King. But the thing which astonished people most was, that, the same day lord Dacres was hung, another young man (28), son of the Treasurer of the Royal household (56), who was one of those present at the old man's death, was freely pardoned, though he had been already tried for some like misdemeanour. At the same time in the North, Sir John Neville and about 60 more, among whom at least 25 were ecclesiastics, were executed for the conspiracy of which Chapuys wrote some time ago. Has just heard of the arrival of a Polish gentleman with eight or ten servants. Will endeavour to discover who he is and what he comes for. London, 2 July 1541. Original at Vienna.

On 03 Mar 1542 Arthur York 1st Viscount Lisle 1464-1542 (77) died at Tower of London.

On 12 Dec 1546 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (73) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

On 16 Jan 1549 Thomas Seymour (41), the King's uncle, was caught trying to break in to the King's apartments at Hampton Court Palace. He entered the privy garden and awoke one of the King's pet spaniels. In response to the dog's barking, he shot and killed it. He was arrested and taken to the Tower of London.

On 13 Oct 1549 John Thynne 1515-1580 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On Nov 1549 William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (29) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1551 Edward Seymour 1529-1593 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On Sep 1551 Edward Waldegrave -1561 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 16 Oct 1551 John Thynne 1515-1580 (36) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 19 Dec 1552 John Seymour 1527-1552 (25) died at Tower of London.

After 10 Jul 1553 Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon 1514-1561 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 25 Jul 1553 Henry Dudley 1531-1557 (22) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 25 Jul 1553 Andrew Dudley 1507-1559 (46) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

On 03 Aug 1553 Mary Tudor I Queen England and Ireland 1516-1558 (37) made her formal entrance into London.
The Diary of Henry Machyn, Citizen and Merchant-Taylor of London, 1550-1563, describes the event:
The third day of August, the Queen came riding to London and so to the Tower. She made her entrance at Aldgate, which was hanged with a great number of streamers hanging about the said gate; and all the streets into Leadenhall and unto the Tower were laid with gravel, and all the crafts of London stood in a row, with their banners and streamers hanging over their heads. Her Grace came, preceded by the Mayor of London carrying the mace and the Earl of Arundel carrying the sword, and all the trumpets blowing. After the Queen came the Lady Elizabeth (19), and after her the Duchess of Norfolk (56), and after her the Marchioness of Exeter and other ladies. And after them the aldermen, and then the guard with bows and javelins, and all the rest who departed from Aldgate in green and white, and red and white, and blue and green, to the number of three thousand horses and spears and javelins.
Strype’s Complete History of England describes Mary's entrance to the Tower:
There met her as humble supplicants the Duke of Norfolk (80), who had been a prisoner ever since his son the Earl of Surrey (80) was put to death by King Henry the ; Edward Courtenay (26), son of the Marquis of Exeter who was executed in the year 1538; Gardiner (70), deprived of his Bishopric of Winchester about two years before; and the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (56). They presented themselves on their knees, and Gardiner in the name of them all, made a congratulatory speech to the Queen, who kindly raised them one after another, saluted them, saying they were her own proper prisoners and ordered their immediate discharge. The next day she restored Courtenay (26) to the honor of his family. Gardiner (70) not only obtained his bishopric again but on the 23rd of August following was made Lord Chancellor, even though he had formerly subscribed to the Sentence of Divorce against the Queen’s mother and had written in defense of King Henry’s proceedings.

Wyatt's Rebellion

On 18 Mar 1554 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (20) was imprisoned in the Tower of London. .

After 25 Dec 1560 Catherine Grey Countess Hertford 1540-1568 was imprisoned in the Tower of London for having married Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621.

In 1561 Edward Waldegrave -1561 died at Tower of London.

In 1561 Thomas Wharton 2nd Baron Wharton 1520-1572 (41) was imprisoned for celebrating the Catholic mass at Tower of London.

On 21 Sep 1561 Edward Seymour 1561-1612 was born to Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621 (22) and Catherine Grey Countess Hertford 1540-1568 (21) at Tower of London.

In 1562 Thomas Seymour 1562-1600 was born to Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford 1539-1621 (22) and Catherine Grey Countess Hertford 1540-1568 (21) at Tower of London.

Ridolphi Plot

On 07 Sep 1571 Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (35) was imprisoned at Tower of London for his involvement in the Ridolphi Plot.

On Nov 1575 Egremont Radclyffe -1578 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 23 Mar 1581 Edward Vere 1581- was born illegitimately to Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (30) and Anne Vavasour 1560-1650 (21). Both parents were imprisoned in Tower of London the by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (47) as a consequence. Edward Vere 17th Earl Oxford 1550-1604 (30) was released several months later but banished from court until 1583.

In Dec 1584 Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland 1532-1585 (52) was imrpisong in the Tower of London for a third time.

In Apr 1585 William Dix -1596 was imprisoned for a short time when Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (27) was sent to the Tower of London. Following his release William Dix -1596 continued to visit Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (27), sometimes in the presence of the lieutenant of the Tower, Owen Hopton 1519-1595 (66).

On 25 Apr 1585 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (27) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 21 Jun 1585 Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland 1532-1585 (53) committed suicide at Tower of London. He was found dead in his bed in his cell, having been shot through the heart. A jury was at once summoned, and returned a verdict of suicide. He was buried in St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. His son Henry "Wizard Earl" Percy 9th Earl of Northumberland 1564-1632 (21) succeeded 9th Earl of Northumberland (1C 1377). Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland 1564-1619 (21) by marriage Countess of Northumberland (1C 1377).

On 27 Feb 1587 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet Hanwell 1548-1614 (39) was imprisoned for presenting the Speaker of the House of Commons with a Puritan revision of the Book of Common Prayer and a bill abrogating existing ecclesiastical law at Tower of London.

On 01 Mar 1587 John Puckering 1544-1596 (43) was asked by Peter Wentworth 1529-1596 (58) to answer some questions regarding the liberties of the House. Puckering refused, but showed one of the questions to Thomas Heneage 1532-1595 (55). Wentworth (58), and four other members of parliament who seconded his motion were imprisoned in the Tower of London.

In 1591 Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (37) and Elizabeth Throckmorton 1565-1647 (25) were married in secret she probably being pregnant with their first child. When Queen Eizabeth (57) found out they had married without permission she placed them underhouse arrest then sent them to Tower of London.

On 02 Oct 1591 Thomas Fitzherbert 1514-1591 (77) died at Tower of London.

In Aug 1592 Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (38) was released from the Tower of London.

On 03 Nov 1592 John Perrot 1528-1592 (63) died at Tower of London whilst awaiting execution.

In 1593 Edward Seymour 1529-1593 (64) died at Tower of London.

In 1593 Peter Wentworth 1529-1596 (64) was imprisoned for presenting a petition on the subject of the royal succession at Tower of London.

On 19 Oct 1595 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (38) died of dysentery at Tower of London. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London, reburied at Arundel Cathedral, Arundel and then reburied in the Fitzalan Chapel, Arundel Castle, Arundel. His son Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 (10) succeeded 21st Earl Arundel (Sussex), 4th Earl Surrey (3C 1483), 11th Baron Maltravers (1C 1330), 11th Baron Arundel (1C 1377).

On 10 Nov 1596 Peter Wentworth 1529-1596 (67) died at Tower of London.

Essex Rebellion

On 08 Feb 1601 Thomas Smythe 1558-1625 (43) was visited by Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (35) at his house Gracechurch Street. Smythe was later accused of complicity in the Essex Rebellion, he was examined before the Privy Council. He was fired from his office of Sheriff of and committed to the Tower of London.

Main and Bye Plot

In Jul 1603 the Main and Bye Plot led by Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham 1564-1618 (38) and Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (27) sought to replace James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (37) with Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (28)
Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (27) was sentenced to death, attainted, and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

On 15 Mar 1604 John Acland 1552-1620 (52) was knighted by James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (37) at the Tower of London.

In 1605 Carew Raleigh 1605-1666 was born to Walter Raleigh 1554-1618 (51) and Elizabeth Throckmorton 1565-1647 (39) in the Tower of London.

In 1605 Anthony-Maria Browne 2nd Viscount Montague 1574-1629 (30) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

Gunpowder Plot

Around Oct 1605 Edward Stourton 10th Baron Stourton 1555-1633 (50) was imprisoned in the Tower of London for having received a letter from his cousin and brother-in-law Francis Tresham -1605 telling him not to attend Parliament. Nothing was proved against Edward and it emerged that several other Catholic peers had received similar warnings. He was released without charge.

My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824-1915 Chapter IX: Deene and its History. Sir Thomas, who was a hospitable and generous man, died in 1549, and Deene passed to his son Edmund, who married Agnes Bussey, a member of the great Lincohishire family. Sir Edmund Brudenell carried out extensive building operations at Deene, and the numerous initials of E. and A. and the many shields with the Brudenell and Bussey arms show that he considered his alliance with their family an important one. Camden mentions that Sir Edmund had literary and antiquarian tastes, which were also possessed by his nephew Thomas (23), who succeeded to the estates in 1606. He also built largely, but the great Tower was not finished until about 1628. Sir Thomas (23) was a staunch cavalier, who raised soldiers for the King's (5) garrisons, and he was made a Baron by Charles I. After the Royal cause was lost he suffered the penalty of his loyalty and was imprisoned in the Tower for twenty years. The brave old cavalier kept a most interesting diary during his imprisonment, which is still preserved in the library at Deene ; it consists of about 30 or 40 volumes of MS., which give interesting details of his confinement and the principal events of the time.

On 22 Jun 1610 William Seymour 2nd Duke Somerset 1588-1660 (22) and Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) were married (he was her third-cousin once-removed) in secret at Palace of Placentia. For having married without permission James I King England and Ireland VI King Scotland 1566-1625 (44) had Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) imprisoned in Sir Thomas Perry's House, Lambeth and he in the Tower of London.

In May 1613 Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (1) was caught talking to Thomas Overbury, a prisoner in the Tower of London, and sent to the Fleet Prison for a short time. He was later accused of involvement in Overbury's murder, because he had supplied white powder to his patron, the Earl of Somerset (26), but exonerated.

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (38). Portrait of Thomas Killigrew 1612-1683 (25) and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677 (27).

On 09 Jul 1614 Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (38) died at Tower of London.

On 25 Sep 1615 Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (40) died at Tower of London from illnesses exacerbated by her refusal to eat.

On 30 Dec 1617 Gervase Clifton 1st Baron Clifton 1570-1618 (47) was imprisoned in the Tower of London for having threatened Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (56) when Francis ordered a survey of Gervase's lands.

On 02 Mar 1629 Miles Hobart 1595-1632 (33) locked the door of the House of Commons, against the King's Messenger and was accordingly imprisoned in the Tower of London.

After 18 Dec 1640 William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1643 November. 12th November, 1643. After dinner we took horse with the Messagere, hoping to have arrived at Boulogne that night; but there fell so great a snow, accompanied with hail, rain, and sudden darkness, that we had much ado to gain the next village; and in this passage, being to cross a valley by a causeway, and a bridge built over a small river, the rain that had fallen making it an impetuous stream for near a quarter of a mile, my horse slipping had almost been the occasion of my perishing. We none of us went to bed; for the soldiers in those parts leaving little in the villages, we had enough to do to get ourselves dry, by morning, between the fire and the fresh straw. The next day early, we arrived at Boulogne.
This is a double town, one part of it situate on a high rock, or downs; the other, called the lower town, is yet with a great declivity toward the sea; both of them defended by a strong castle, which stands on a notable eminence. Under the town runs the river, which is yet but an inconsiderable brook. Henry VIII, in the siege of this place is said to have used those great leathern guns which I have since beheld in the Tower of London, inscribed, "Non Marte opus est cui non deficit Mercurius"; if at least the history be true, which my Lord Herbert doubts.
The next morning, in some danger of parties [Spanish] surprising us, we came to Montreuil, built on the summit of a most conspicuous hill, environed with fair and ample meadows; but all the suburbs had been from time to time ruined, and were now lately burnt by the Spanish inroads. This town is fortified with two very deep dry ditches; the walls about the bastions and citadel are a noble piece of masonry. The church is more glorious without than within; the market place large; but the inhabitants are miserably poor. The next day, we came to Abbeville, having passed all this way in continual expectation of the volunteers, as they call them. This town affords a good aspect toward the hill from whence we descended: nor does it deceive us; for it is handsomely built, and has many pleasant and useful streams passing through it, the main river being the Somme, which discharges itself into the sea at St. Valery, almost in view of the town. The principal church is a very handsome piece of Gothic architecture, and the ports and ramparts sweetly planted for defense and ornament. In the morning, they brought us choice of guns and pistols to sell at reasonable rates, and neatly made, being here a merchandise of great account, the town abounding in gunsmiths.
Hence we advanced to Beauvais, another town of good note, and having the first vineyards we had seen. The next day to Beaumont, and the morrow to Paris, having taken our repast at St Denis, two leagues from that great city. St. Denis is considerable only for its stately cathedral, and the dormitory of the French kings, there inhumed as ours at Westminster Abbey. The treasury is esteemed one of the richest in Europe. The church was built by King Dagobert, but since much enlarged, being now 390 feet long, 100 in breadth, and 80 in height, without comprehending the cover: it has also a very high shaft of stone, and the gates are of brass. Here, while the monks conducted us, we were showed the ancient and modern sepulchers of their kings, beginning with the founder to Louis his son, with Charles Martel and Pepin, son and father of Charlemagne. These lie in the choir, and without it are many more: among the rest that of Bertrand du Guesclin, Constable of France; in the chapel of Charles V., all his posterity; and near him the magnificent sepulcher of Francis I., with his children, wars, victories, and triumphs engraven in marble. In the nave of the church lies the catafalque, or hearse, of Louis XIII., Henry II., a noble tomb of Francis II., and Charles IX. Above are bodies of several Saints; below, under a state of black velvet, the late Louis XIII., father of this present monarch. Every one of the ten chapels, or oratories, had some Saints in them; among the rest, one of the Holy Innocents. The treasury is kept in the sacristy above, in which are crosses of massy gold and silver, studded with precious stones, one of gold three feet high, set with sapphires, rubies, and great oriental pearls. Another given by Charles the Great, having a noble amethyst in the middle of it, stones and pearls of inestimable value. Among the still more valuable relics are, a nail from our Savior's Cross, in a box of gold full of precious stones; a crucifix of the true wood of the Cross, carved by Pope Clement III., enchased in a crystal covered with gold; a box in which is some of the Virgin's hair; some of the linen in which our blessed Savior was wrapped at his nativity; in a huge reliquary, modeled like a church, some of our Savior's blood, hair, clothes, linen with which he wiped the Apostles' feet; with many other equally authentic toys, which the friar who conducted us would have us believe were authentic relics. Among the treasures is the crown of Charlemagne, his seven-foot high scepter and hand of justice, the agraffe of his royal mantle, beset with diamonds and rubies, his sword, belt, and spurs of gold; the crown of St. Louis, covered with precious stones, among which is one vast ruby, uncut, of inestimable value, weighing 300 carats (under which is set one of the thorns of our blessed Savior's crown), his sword, seal, and hand of justice. The two crowns of Henry IV., his scepter, hand of justice, and spurs. The two crowns of his son Louis. In the cloak-royal of Anne of Bretagne is a very great and rare ruby. Divers books covered with solid plates of gold, and studded with precious stones. Two vases of beryl, two of agate, whereof one is esteemed for its bigness, color, and embossed carving, the best now to be seen: by a special favor I was permitted to take the measure and dimensions of it; the story is a Bacchanalia and sacrifice to Priapus; a very holy thing truly, and fit for a cloister! It is really antique, and the noblest jewel there. There is also a large gondola of chrysolite, a huge urn of porphyry, another of calcedon, a vase of onyx, the largest I had ever seen of that stone; two of crystal; a morsel of one of the waterpots in which our Savior did his first miracle; the effigies of the Queen of Saba, of Julius, Augustus, Mark Antony, Cleopatra, and others, upon sapphires, topazes, agates, and cornelians: that of the queen of Saba16 has a Moorish face; those of Julius and Nero on agates are rarely colored and cut. A cup in which Solomon was used to drink, and an Apollo on a great amethyst. There lay in a window a mirror of a kind of stone said to have belonged to the poet Virgil. Charlemagne's chessmen, full of Arabic characters. In the press next the door, the brass lantern full of crystals, said to have conducted Judas and his company to apprehend our blessed Savior. A fair unicorn's horn, sent by a king of Persia, about seven feet long. In another press (over which stands the picture in oil of their Orleans Amazon with her sword), the effigies of the late French kings in wax, like ours in Westminster, covered with their robes; with a world of other rarities. PARISHaving rewarded our courteous friar, we took horse for Paris, where we arrived about five in the afternoon. In the way were fair crosses of stone carved with fleur-de-lis at every furlong's end, where they affirm St. Denis rested and laid down his head after martyrdom, carrying it from the place where this monastery is builded. We lay at Paris at the Ville de Venice; where, after I had something refreshed, I went to visit Sir Richard Browne (38), his Majesty's Resident with the French king.

Around Oct 1921. Philip de László Painter 1869-1937 (52). Portrait of Mercedes Santamarina Gastañaga 1896-1972 (25). Painted in Paris.

On 05 Dec 1643 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet Carew 1609-1644 (34) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1644 Anthony Hungerford 1608-1657 (36) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

After Aug 1644 Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 was imprisoned at Tower of London.

In 1645 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (59) was imprisoned although his son Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (29) remained as a hostage until his fine was paid at Tower of London.

In 1648 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (62) was released at Tower of London.

Battle of Worcester

On 03 Sep 1651 at the Battle of Worcester Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (52) commanded the Parliamentary army with Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle 1629-1685 (22). In the Royalist army Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury, 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (28), Thomas Blagge 1613-1660 (38) and Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (22) fought. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland 1591-1667 (60) was captured. Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (36) provided 300 gold pieces to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) following his defeat.
Henry Lyttelton 2nd Baronet 1624-1693 (27) fought for the Royalists, was captured and spent 17 months imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet Musgrave of Eden Hall 1607-1678 (44) fought for th Royalists.

In 1656 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland 1591-1667 (65) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 06 Nov 1656 Robert Shirley 4th Baronet Staunton Harold 1623-1656 (33) died from poisoning, probably, in the Tower of London. His son Seymour Shirley 5th Baronet 1647-1667 (9) succeeded 5th Baronet Staunton Harold in Leicestershire.

John Evelyn's Diary 1657 January. 7th January 1657. Came Mr. Matthew Wren (28) (since secretary to the Duke (23)), slain in the Dutch war, eldest son to the Bishop of Ely (71), now a prisoner in the Tower; a most worthy and honored gentleman.

In 1658 Philip Stanhope 2nd Earl Chesterfield 1634-1714 (24) was imprisoned for wounding Captain John Whalley in a duel at Tower of London.

Royalist Conspiracy

John Evelyn's Diary 1658 May. 31st May 1658. I went to visit my Lady Peterborough (55), whose son, Mr. Mordaunt (31), prisoner in the Tower, was now on his trial, and acquitted but by one voice; but that holy martyr, Dr. Hewer, was condemned to die without law, jury, or justice, but by a mock Council of State, as they called it. A dangerous, treacherous time!.

Coronation of Charles II

On 22 Apr 1661 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) rode from the Tower of London to Whitehall Palace. At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".
Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street, that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.
At the Conduit in Cornhill a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.
The procession included the Duke of York (27), the Lord High Constable (58) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (53)
The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond, 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660.

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 April. 23d April 1661. Was the coronation of his Majesty (30) Charles II in the Abbey-Church of Westminster; at all which ceremony I was present. the King (30) and his Nobility went to the Tower, I accompanying my Lord Viscount Mordaunt (34) part of the way; this was on Sunday, the 22d; but indeed his Majesty (30) went not till early this morning, and proceeded from thence to Westminster in this order:
First went the Duke of York's Horse Guards. Messengers of the Chamber. 136 Esquires to the Knights of the Bath, each of whom had two, most richly habited. The Knight Harbinger. Sergeant Porter. Sewers of the Chamber. Quarter Waiters. Six Clerks of Chancery. Clerk of the Signet. Clerk of the Privy Seal. Clerks of the Council, of the Parliament, and of the Crown. Chaplains in ordinary having dignities, 10. King's Advocates and Remembrancer. Council at Law. Masters of the Chancery. Puisne Sergeants. King's Attorney and Solicitor. King's eldest Sergeant. Secretaries of the French and Latin tongue. Gentlemen Ushers. Daily Waiters, Sewers, Carvers, and Cupbearers in ordinary. Esquires of the body, 4. Masters of standing offices, being no Counsellors, viz, of the Tents, Revels, Ceremonies, Armory, Wardrobe, Ordnance, Requests. Chamberlain of the Exchequer. Barons of the Exchequer. Judges. Lord Chief-Baron. Lord Chief-Justice of the Common Pleas. Master of the Rolls. Lord Chief-Justice of England. Trumpets. Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. Knights of the Bath, 68, in crimson robes, exceeding rich, and the noblest show of the whole cavalcade, his Majesty (30) excepted. Knight Marshal. Treasurer of the Chamber. Master of the Jewels. Lords of the Privy Council. Comptroller of the Household. Treasurer of the Household. Trumpets. Sergeant Trumpet. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Barons. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Viscounts. Two Heralds. Earls. Lord Chamberlain of the Household (59). Two Heralds. Marquises. Dukes. Heralds Clarencieux and Norroy. Lord Chancellor (52). Lord High Steward of England. Two persons representing the Dukes of Normandy and Acquitaine, viz, Sir Richard Fanshawe and Sir Herbert Price, in fantastic habits of the time. Gentlemen Ushers. Garter. Lord Mayor of London. The Duke of York alone (the rest by twos). Lord High Constable of England. Lord Great Chamberlain of England. The sword borne by the Earl Marshal of England. the King (30), in royal robes and equipage. Afterward, followed equerries, footmen, gentlemen pensioners. Master of the Horse, leading a horse richly caparisoned. Vice-Chamberlain. Captain of the Pensioners. Captain of the Guard. The Guard. The Horse Guard. The troop of Volunteers, with many other officers and gentlemen.
This magnificent train on horseback, as rich as embroidery, velvet, cloth of gold and silver, and jewels, could make them and their prancing horses, proceeded through the streets strewed with flowers, houses hung with rich tapestry, windows and balconies full of ladies; the London militia lining the ways, and the several companies, with their banners and loud music, ranked in their orders; the fountains running wine, bells ringing, with speeches made at the several triumphal arches; at that of the Temple Bar (near which I stood) the Lord Mayor was received by the Bailiff of Westminster, who, in a scarlet robe, made a speech. Thence, with joyful acclamations, his Majesty (30) passed to Whitehall. Bonfires at night.
The next day, being St. George's, he went by water to Westminster Abbey. When his Majesty (30) was entered, the Dean and Prebendaries brought all the regalia, and delivered them to several noblemen to bear before the King (30), who met them at the west door of the church, singing an anthem, to the choir. Then, came the Peers, in their robes, and coronets in their hands, till his Majesty (30) was placed on a throne elevated before the altar. Afterward, the Bishop of London (the Archbishop of Canterbury (79) being sick) went to every side of the throne to present the King (30) to the people, asking if they would have him for their King, and do him homage; at this, they shouted four times "God save King Charles II!" Then, an anthem was sung. His Majesty (30), attended by three Bishops, went up to the altar, and he offered a pall and a pound of gold. Afterward, he sat down in another chair during the sermon, which was preached by Dr. Morley (63), Bishop of Worcester.
After sermon, the King (30) took his oath before the altar to maintain the religion, Magna Charta, and laws of the land. The hymn Véni S. Sp. followed, and then the Litany by two Bishops. Then the Archbishop of Canterbury (79), present, but much indisposed and weak, said "Lift up your hearts"; at which, the King (30) rose up, and put off his robes and upper garments, and was in a waistcoat so opened in divers places, that the Archbishop (79) might commodiously anoint him, first in the palms of his hands, when an anthem was sung, and a prayer read; then, his breast and between the shoulders, bending of both arms; and, lastly, on the crown of the head, with apposite hymns and prayers at each anointing; this done, the Dean closed and buttoned up the waistcoat. After which, was a coif put on, and the cobbium, sindon or dalmatic, and over this a super-tunic of cloth of gold, with buskins and sandals of the same, spurs, and the sword; a prayer being first said over it by the Archbishop (79) on the altar, before it was girt on by the Lord Chamberlain (59). Then, the armill, mantle, etc. Then, the Archbishop placed the crown imperial on the altar, prayed over it, and set it on his Majesty's (30) head, at which all the Peers put on their coronets. Anthems, and rare music, with lutes, viols, trumpets, organs, and voices, were then heard, and the Archbishop put a ring on his Majesty's (30) finger. the King (30) next offered his sword on the altar, which being redeemed, was drawn, and borne before him. Then, the Archbishop delivered him the sceptre, with the dove in one hand, and, in the other, the sceptre with the globe. the King (30) kneeling, the Archbishop (79) pronounced the blessing. His Majesty (30) then ascending again his royal throne, while Te Deum was singing, all the Peers did their homage, by every one touching his crown. The Archbishop (79), and the rest of the Bishops, first kissing the King (30); who received the Holy Sacrament, and so disrobed, yet with the crown imperial on his head, and accompanied with all the nobility in the former order, he went on foot upon blue cloth, which was spread and reached from the west door of the Abbey to Westminster stairs, when he took water in a triumphal barge to Whitehall where was extraordinary feasting.

On 01 Jul 1661 Henry Mildmay 1593-1668 (68) was sentenced and degraded from his honours and titles and to be drawn every year on the anniversary of the king's sentence (27 Jan) upon a sledge through the streets to and under the gallows at Tyburn, with a rope about his neck, and so back to the Tower of London, there to remain a prisoner during his life.

John Evelyn's Diary 1661 October. 1st October, 1661. I sailed this morning with his Majesty (31) in one of his yachts (or pleasure boats), vessels not known among us till the Dutch East India Company presented that curious piece to the King (31); being very excellent sailing vessels. It was on a wager between his other new pleasure boat, built frigate-like, and one of the Duke of York's (27); the wager £100; the race from Greenwich to Gravesend and back. The King (31) lost it going, the wind being contrary, but saved stakes in returning. There were divers noble persons and lords on board, his Majesty (31) sometimes steering himself. His barge and kitchen boat attended. I brake fast this morning with the King (31) at return in his smaller vessel, he being pleased to take me and only four more, who were noblemen, with him; but dined in his yacht, where we all ate together with his Majesty (31). In this passage he was pleased to discourse to me about my book inveighing against the nuisance of the smoke of London, and proposing expedients how, by removing those particulars I mentioned, it might be reformed; commanding me to prepare a Bill against the next session of Parliament, being, as he said, resolved to have something done in it. Then he discoursed to me of the improvement of gardens and buildings, now very rare in England comparatively to other countries. He then commanded me to draw up the matter of fact happening at the bloody encounter which then had newly happened between the French and Spanish Ambassadors near the Tower, contending for precedency, at the reception of the Swedish Ambassador; giving me orders to consult Sir William Compton (36), Master of the Ordnance, to inform me of what he knew of it, and with his favorite, Sir Charles Berkeley (31), captain of the Duke's life guard, then present with his troop and three foot companies; with some other reflections and instructions, to be prepared with a declaration to take off the reports which went about of his Majesty's (31) partiality in the affairs, and of his officers' and spectators' rudeness while the conflict lasted. So I came home that night, and went next morning to London, where from the officers of the Tower, Sir William Compton (36), Sir Charles Berkeley (31), and others who were attending at this meeting of the Ambassadors three days before, having collected what I could, I drew up a Narrative in vindication of his Majesty (31), and the carriage of his officers and standers-by.
On Thursday his Majesty (31) sent one of the pages of the back stairs for me to wait on him with my papers, in his cabinet where was present only Sir Henry Bennett (43) (Privy-Purse), when beginning to read to his Majesty (31) what I had drawn up, by the time I had read half a page, came in Mr. Secretary Morice with a large paper, desiring to speak with his Majesty (31), who told him he was now very busy, and therefore ordered him to come again some other time; the Secretary replied that what he had in his hand was of extraordinary importance. So the King (31) rose up, and, commanding me to stay, went aside to a corner of the room with the Secretary; after a while, the Secretary being dispatched, his Majesty (31) returning to me at the table, a letter was brought him from Madame out of France;68 this he read and then bid me proceed from where I left off. This I did till I had ended all the narrative, to his Majesty's (31) great satisfaction; and, after I had inserted one or two more clauses, in which his Majesty (31) instructed me, commanded that it should that night be sent to the posthouse, directed to the Lord Ambassador at Paris (the Earl of St. Alban's), and then at leisure to prepare him a copy, which he would publish. This I did, and immediately sent my papers to the Secretary of State, with his Majesty's (31) express command of dispatching them that night for France. Before I went out of the King (31)'s closet, he called me back to show me some ivory statues, and other curiosities that I had not seen before.

John Evelyn's Diary 1662 January. 15th January 1662. There was a general fast through the whole nation, and now celebrated in London, to avert God's heavy judgments on this land. Great rain had fallen without any frost, or seasonable cold, not only in England, but in Sweden, and the most northern parts, being here near as warm as at midsummer in some years.
This solemn fast was held for the House of Commons at St. Margaret's. Dr. Reeves, Dean of Windsor, preached on Joshua vii. 12, showing how the neglect of exacting justice on offenders (by which he insinuated such of the old King's murderers as were yet reprieved and in the Tower) was a main cause of God's punishing a land. He brought in that of the Gibeonites, as well as Achan and others, concluding with an eulogy of the Parliament for their loyalty in restoring the Bishops and Clergy, and vindicating the Church from sacrilege.

John Evelyn's Diary 1663 August. 20th August 1663. I dined at the Comptroller's [of the Household] with the Earl of Oxford (36) and Mr. Ashburnham; it was said it should be the last of the public diets, or tables, at Court, it being determined to put down the old hospitality, at which was great murmuring, considering his Majesty's (33) vast revenue and the plenty of the nation. Hence, I went to sit in a Committee, to consider about the regulation of the Mint at the Tower; in which some small progress was made.

John Evelyn's Diary 1664 March. 9th March 1664. I went to the Tower, to sit in commission about regulating the Mint; and now it was that the fine new-milled coin, both of white money and guineas, was established.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 July. 02 Jul 1666. Came Sir John Duncomb (44) and Mr. Thomas Chicheley (52), both Privy Councillors and Commissioners of His Majesty's (36) Ordnance, to visit me, and let me know that his Majesty (36) had in Council, nominated me to be one of the Commissioners for regulating the farming and making of saltpetre through the whole kingdom, and that we were to sit in the Tower the next day. When they were gone, came to see me Sir John Cotton (45), heir to the famous antiquary, Sir Robert Cotton: a pretended great Grecian, but had by no means the parts, or genius of his grandfather.

In 1629 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661 (35). Portrait of Robert Bruce Cotton 1st Baronet Cotton 1571-1631 (57).

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 July. 03 Jul 1666. I went to sit with the Commissioners at the Tower, where our commission being read, we made some progress in business, our Secretary being Sir George Wharton (49), that famous mathematician who wrote the yearly Almanac during his Majesty's (36) troubles. Thence, to Painters' Hall, Queenhithe, to our other commission, and dined at my Lord Mayor's.

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 July. 14 Jul 1666. Sat at the Tower with J. Duncomb and Lord Berkeley (38), to sign deputations for undertakers to furnish their proportions of saltpetre.

Great Fire of London

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 05 September 1666. It crossed toward Whitehall; but oh! the confusion there was then at that Court! It pleased his Majesty (36) to command me, among the rest, to look after the quenching of Fetter-lane end, to preserve (if possible) that part of Holborn, while the rest of the gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, and some at another (for now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across), and began to consider that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing up of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any had yet been made by the ordinary method of pulling them down with engines. This some stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved near the whole city, but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, etc., would not permit, because their houses must have been of the first. It was, therefore, now commended to be practiced; and my concern being particularly for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, where I had many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent to promote it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It now pleased God, by abating the wind, and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began sensibly to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield, north: but continued all this day and night so impetuous toward Cripplegate and the Tower, as made us all despair. It also broke out again in the Temple; but the courage of the multitude persisting, and many houses being blown up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, as, with the former three days' consumption, the back fire did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near a furlong's space.
The coal and wood wharfs, and magazines of oil, rosin, etc., did infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little before I had dedicated to his Majesty (36) and published, giving warning what probably might be the issue of suffering those shops to be in the city was looked upon as a prophecy.
The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's Fields, and Moorfields, as far as Highgate, and several miles in circle, some under tents, some under miserable huts and hovels, many without a rag, or any necessary utensils, bed or board, who from delicateness, riches, and easy accommodations in stately and well-furnished houses, were now reduced to extreme misery and poverty.
In this calamitous condition, I returned with a sad heart to my house, blessing and adoring the distinguishing mercy of God to me and mine, who, in the midst of all this ruin, was like Lot, in my little Zoar, safe and sound.

Great Plague of London

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far as London Bridge, through the late Fleet street, Ludgate hill by St. Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishops-gate, Aldersgate, and out to Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (36) got to the Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.
At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's — now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's, which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange, the august fabric of Christ Church, all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.
The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange, remained entire, when all those of the King (36)s since the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard in Cornhill, and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pinnacle remaining.
I then went towards Islington and Highgate, where one might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees dispersed, and lying along by their heaps of what they could save from the fire, deploring their loss; and, though ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger sight than any I had yet beheld. His Majesty (36) and Council indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by proclamation for the country to come in, and refresh them with provisions.
In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but even entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some of those nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamor and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the present to which his Majesty's (36) proclamation also invited them.
Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, without danger, adventure to our church.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 March. 06 Mar 1667. I proposed to my Lord Chancellor (58), Monsieur Kiviet's (40) undertaking to wharf the whole river of Thames, or quay, from the Temple to the Tower, as far as the fire destroyed, with brick, without piles, both lasting and ornamental.—Great frosts, snow and winds, prodigious at the vernal equinox; indeed it had been a year of prodigies in this nation, plague, war, fire, rain, tempest and comet.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 April. 23 Apr 1667. In the morning, his Majesty (36) went to chapel with the Knights of the Garter, all in their habits and robes, ushered by the heralds; after the first service, they went in procession, the youngest first, the Sovereign last, with the Prelate of the Order and Dean, who had about his neck the book of the Statutes of the Order; and then the Chancellor of the Order (old Sir Henry de Vic (68)), who wore the purse about his neck; then the Heralds and Garter King-at-Arms, Clarencieux, Black Rod. But before the Prelate and Dean of Windsor went the gentlemen of the chapel and choristers, singing as they marched; behind them two doctors of music in damask robes; this procession was about the courts at Whitehall. Then, returning to their stalls and seats in the chapel, placed under each knight's coat-armor and titles, the second service began. Then, the King (36) offered at the altar, an anthem was sung; then, the rest of the Knights offered, and lastly proceeded to the banqueting-house to a great feast. The King (36) sat on an elevated throne at the upper end at a table alone; the Knights at a table on the right hand, reaching all the length of the room; over against them a cupboard of rich gilded plate; at the lower end, the music; on the balusters above, wind music, trumpets, and kettle-drums. the King (36) was served by the lords and pensioners who brought up the dishes. About the middle of the dinner, the Knights drank the King (36)'s health, then the King (36), theirs, when the trumpets and music played and sounded, the guns going off at the Tower. At the Banquet, came in the Queen (28), and stood by the King (36)'s left hand, but did not sit. Then was the banqueting-stuff flung about the room profusely. In truth, the crowd was so great, that though I stayed all the supper the day before, I now stayed no longer than this sport began, for fear of disorder. The cheer was extraordinary, each Knight having forty dishes to his mess, piled up five or six high; the room hung with the richest tapestry.

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two Putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 June. 17 Jun 1667. This night, about two o'clock, some chips and combustible matter prepared for some fire-ships, taking flame in Deptford-yard, made such a blaze, and caused such an uproar in the Tower (it being given out that the Dutch fleet was come up, and had landed their men and fired the Tower), as had liked to have done more mischief before people would be persuaded to the contrary and believe the accident. Everybody went to their arms. These were sad and troublesome times..

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 August. 08 Aug 1667. Visited Mr. Oldenburg (48), a close prisoner in the Tower, being suspected of writing intelligence. I had an order from Lord Arlington (49), Secretary of State, which caused me to be admitted. This gentleman was secretary to our Society, and I am confident will prove an innocent person.

John Evelyn's Diary 1667 December. 09 Dec 1667. To visit the late Lord Chancellor. I found him in his garden at his new-built palace, sitting in his gout wheel-chair, and seeing the gates setting up toward the north and the fields. He looked and spake very disconsolately. After some while deploring his condition to me, I took my leave. Next morning, I heard he was gone; though I am persuaded that, had he gone sooner, though but to Cornbury, and there lain quiet, it would have satisfied the Parliament. That which exasperated them was his presuming to stay and contest the accusation as long as it was possible: and they were on the point of sending him to the Tower.
Note. There is some confusion over the dating of this entry since Lord Clarendon is supposed to have left London on 28 Nov 1667. Possible case of Evelyn writing his diary retrospectively.

John Evelyn's Diary 1668 September. 17 Sep 1668. I entertained Signor Muccinigo, the Venetian Ambassador, of one of the noblest families of the State, this being the day of making his public entry, setting forth from my house with several gentlemen of Venice and others in a very glorious train. He staid with me till the Earl of Anglesea (54) and Sir Charles Cotterell (53) (Master of the Ceremonies) came with the King (38)'s barge to carry him to the Tower, where the guns were fired at his landing; he then entered his Majesty's (38) coach, followed by many others of the nobility. I accompanied him to his house, where there was a most noble supper to all the company, of course. After the extraordinary compliments to me and my wife (33), for the civilities he received at my house, I took leave and returned. He is a very accomplished person. He is since Ambassador at Rome.

In 1669 Henry Savile 1642-1687 (27) was sent to the Tower of London for a few days for having carried Thomas Coventry's (40) challenge to the Duke of Buckingham (40).

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

John Evelyn's Diary 1670 May. 26 May 1670. Receiving a letter from Mr. Philip Howard (41), Lord Almoner to the Queen, that Monsieur Evelin, first physician to Madame (who was now come to Dover to visit the King (39) her brother), was come to town, greatly desirous to see me; but his stay so short, that he could not come to me, I went with my brother (52) to meet him at the Tower, where he was seeing the magazines and other curiosities, having never before been in England: we renewed our alliance and friendship, with much regret on both sides that, he being to return toward Dover that evening, we could not enjoy one another any longer. How this French family, Ivelin, of Evelin, Normandy, a very ancient and noble house is grafted into our pedigree, see in the collection brought from Paris, 1650.

Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

On 09 May 1671 Colonel Thomas Blood 1618-1680 (53) attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. He was captured whilst trying to escape the Tower of London with the Crown. Following his capture he (53) refused to to answer to anyone but the King (40). He was questioned by the King (40) and Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (51). For unknown reasons he (53) was pardoned by the Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (40) and rewarded with land in Ireland worth £500 per year much to the irritation of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 (60), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whom Blood had attempted to kidnap twice before.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (22), Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 (22) and Colonel William Murray.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682.

Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert Palatinate-Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland 1619-1682 (60).

John Evelyn's Diary 1671 May. 10 May 1671. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's (40), in company with Monsieur De Grammont (50) and several French noblemen, and one Blood (53), that impudent, bold fellow who had not long before attempted to steal the imperial crown itself out of the Tower of London, pretending only curiosity of seeing the regalia there, when, stabbing the keeper, though not mortally, he boldly went away with it through all the guards, taken only by the accident of his horse falling down. How he came to be pardoned, and even received into favor, not only after this, but several other exploits almost as daring both in Ireland and here, I could never come to understand. Some believed he became a spy of several parties, being well with the sectaries and enthusiasts, and did his Majesty (40) services that way, which none alive could do so well as he; but it was certainly the boldest attempt, so the only treason of this sort that was ever pardoned. This man had not only a daring but a villanous, unmerciful look, a false countenance, but very well-spoken and dangerously insinuating.

On 02 Feb 1675 John Flamsteed Astronomer 1646-1719 (28) arrived in London. He stayed at the Tower of London with Jonas Moore. He was taken by Silius Titus (52) to meet Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (44).

Around 1678 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (44) was imprisoned being under suspiscion of supporting a Popish Plot at Tower of London.

On 28 Jan 1678 Philip "Infamous Earl" Herbert 7th Earl Pembroke, 4th Earl Montgomery 1652-1683 (26) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

John Evelyn's Diary 1678 July. 20th July 1678. I went to the Tower to try a metal at the Assay-master's, which only proved sulphur; then saw Monsieur Rotière (47), that excellent graver belonging to the Mint, who emulates even the ancients, in both metal and stone; he was now molding a horse for the King (48)'s statue, to be cast in silver, of a yard high. I dined with Mr. Slingsby (57), Master of the Mint.

Popish Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 1678 November. 15th November, 1678. The Queen's (39) birthday. I never saw the Court more brave, nor the nation in more apprehension and consternation. Coleman (42) and one Staly had now been tried, condemned, and executed. On this, Oates grew so presumptuous as to accuse the Queen (39) of intending to poison the King (48); which certainly that pious and virtuous lady abhorred the thoughts of, and Oates's circumstances made it utterly unlikely in my opinion. He probably thought to gratify some who would have been glad his Majesty (48) should have married a fruitful lady; but the King (48) was too kind a husband to let any of these make impression on him. However, divers of the Popish peers were sent to the Tower of London, accused by Oates; and all the Roman Catholic lords were by a new Act forever excluded the Parliament; which was a mighty blow. the King (48)'s, Queen's, and Duke's servants, were banished, and a test to be taken by everybody who pretended to enjoy any office of public trust, and who would not be suspected of Popery. I went with Sir William Godolphin (38), a member of the Commons' House, to the Bishop of Ely (Dr. Peter Gunning (64)), to be resolved whether masses were idolatry, as the text expressed it, which was so worded, that several good Protestants scrupled, and Sir William, though a learned man and excellent divine himself, had some doubts about it. The Bishop's opinion was that he might take it, though he wished it had been otherwise worded in the text..

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (44). Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 (36) depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza (24). Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two Putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (46). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (26).

Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (37). Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (31).

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

John Evelyn's Diary 1679 June. 4th June 1679. I dined with Mr. Pepys (46) in the Tower of London, he having been committed by the House of Commons for misdemeanors in the Admiralty when he was secretary; I believe he was unjustly charged. Here I saluted my Lords Stafford (64) and Petre (53), who were committed for the Popish plot.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 June. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the King (53) and the Duke (49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower, the Lord Russell (43), eldest son of the Earl of Bedford (66), the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney (60), son to the old Earl of Leicester, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth (34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King (53), others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Essex (60) and Russell (43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the King (53), or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!
Was born my granddaughter at Sayes Court, and christened by the name of Martha Maria, our Vicar officiating. I pray God bless her, and may she choose the better part!.

Rye House Plot

Before Jul 1683 Ford Grey 1st Earl Tankerville 1655-1701 was arrested for his involvement in the Rye House Plot. He ecasped from the Tower of London in Jul 1683.

On 08 Jul 1683 John Hampden of Great Hampden 1653-1696 (30) was sent to the Tower of London on the discovery of the Rye House Plot.

John Evelyn's Diary 1683 July. 13 Jul 1683. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yarborough and his Lady, in Covent Garden, the astonishing news was brought to us of the Earl of Essex (52) having cut his throat, having been but three days a prisoner in the Tower, and this happened on the very day and instant that Lord Russell (43) was on his trial, and had sentence of death [See Rye House Plot.]. This accident exceedingly amazed me, my Lord Essex (52) being so well known by me to be a person of such sober and religious deportment, so well at his ease, and so much obliged to the King (53). It is certain the King (53) and Duke (49) were at the Tower, and passed by his window about the same time this morning, when my Lord (52) asking for a razor, shut himself into a closet, and perpetrated the horrid act. Yet it was wondered by some how it was possible he should do it in the manner he was found, for the wound was so deep and wide, that being cut through the gullet, windpipe, and both the jugulars, it reached to the very vertebræ of the neck, so that the head held to it by a very little skin as it were; the gapping too of the razor, and cutting his own fingers, was a little strange; but more, that having passed the jugulars he should have strength to proceed so far, that an executioner could hardly have done more with an ax. There were odd reflections upon it.
The fatal news coming to Hicks's Hall upon the article of my Lord Russell's (43) trial, was said to have had no little influence on the Jury and all the Bench to his prejudice. Others said that he had himself on some occasions hinted that in case he should be in danger of having his life taken from him by any public misfortune, those who thirsted for his estate should miss of their aim; and that he should speak favorably of that Earl of Northumberland, and some others, who made away with themselves; but these are discourses so unlike his sober and prudent conversation that I have no inclination to credit them. What might instigate him to this devilish act, I am not able to conjecture. My Lord Clarendon, his brother-in-law, who was with him but the day before, assured me he was then very cheerful, and declared it to be the effect of his innocence and loyalty; and most believe that his Majesty (53) had no severe intentions against him, though he was altogether inexorable as to Lord Russell (43) and some of the rest. For my part, I believe the crafty and ambitious Earl of Shaftesbury had brought them into some dislike of the present carriage of matters at Court, not with any design of destroying the monarchy (which Shaftesbury had in confidence and for unanswerable reasons told me he would support to his last breath, as having seen and felt the misery of being under mechanic tyranny), but perhaps of setting up some other whom he might govern, and frame to his own platonic fancy, without much regard to the religion established under the hierarchy, for which he had no esteem; but when he perceived those whom he had engaged to rise, fail of his expectations, and the day past, reproaching his accomplices that a second day for an exploit of this nature was never successful, he gave them the slip, and got into Holland, where the fox died, three months before these unhappy Lords and others were discovered or suspected. Every one deplored Essex (52) and Russell (43), especially the last, as being thought to have been drawn in on pretense only of endeavoring to rescue the King (53) from his present councilors, and secure religion from Popery, and the nation from arbitrary government, now so much apprehended; while the rest of those who were fled, especially Ferguson and his gang, had doubtless some bloody design to get up a Commonwealth, and turn all things topsy-turvy. Of the same tragical principles is Sydney.
I had this day much discourse with Monsieur Pontaq, son to the famous and wise prime President of Bordeaux. This gentleman was owner of that excellent vignoble of Pontaq and O'Brien, from whence come the choicest of our Bordeaux wines; and I think I may truly say of him, what was not so truly said of St. Paul, that much learning had made him mad. He had studied well in philosophy, but chiefly the Rabbins, and was exceedingly addicted to cabalistical fancies, an eternal hablador [romancer], and half distracted by reading abundance of the extravagant Eastern Jews. He spoke all languages, was very rich, had a handsome person, and was well bred, about forty-five years of age.

Popish Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 1684 February. 12 Feb 1684. The Earle of Danby (51), late Lord Treasurer, together with the Roman Catholic Lords impeach'd of High Treason in the Popish Plot, had now their Habeas Corpus, and came out upon baile, after five yeares imprisonment in the Tower. Then were also tried and deeply fin'd Mr. Hampden and others for being suppos'd of the late Plot, for which Lord Russell and Col. Sidney suffer'd; as also the person who went about to prove that the Earle of Essex had his throat cut in the Tower by others; likewise Mr. Johnson, the author of that famous piece called Julian.

In 1685 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (38) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Popish Plot

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 January. 28 Jan 1685. I was invited to my Lord Arundel of Wardour (52), (now newly released of his 6 yeares confinement in ye Tower on suspicion of the Plot call'd Oates's Plot), where after dinner the same Mr. Pordage entertain'd us with his voice, that excellent and stupendous artist Sign' Jo. Baptist playing to it on the harpsichord. My daughter Mary (20) being with us, she also sung to the greate satisfaction of both the masters, and a world of people of quality present. She (20) did so also at my Lord Rochester's (42) the evening following, where we had the French Boy so fam'd for his singing, and indeede he had a delicate voice, and had ben well taught. I also heard Mrs. Packer (daughter to my old friend) sing before his Ma* and the Duke, privately, that stupendous basse Gosling accompanying her, but hers was so loud as tooke away much of the sweetnesse. Certainly never woman had a stronger or better eare, could she possibly have govern'd it. She would do rarely in a large church among the nunns.

John Evelyn's Diary 1685 July. 15 Jul 1685. I went to see Dr. Tenison's (48) Library [in St. Martin's.].
Monmouth (36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the King (51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower, had an interview with his late Dutchesse (34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he proFess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell, and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the late King, his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (47) and Bath and Wells (48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.
Thus ended this quondam Duke, darling of his father and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the King being of another religion, to ga ther a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General of the King his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July. His mother, whose name was Barlow, daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the King had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney, who was familiar with his mother) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.
Ross, tutor to the Duke of Monmouth, proposed to Bishop Cozens to sign a certificate of the King's marriage to Mrs. Barlow, though her own name was Walters: this the Bishop refused. She was born of a gentleman's family in Wales, but having little means and less grace, came to London to make her fortune. Algernon Sidney, then a Colonel in Cromwell's army, had agreed to give her 50 broad pieces (as he told the Duke of York) but being ordered hastily away with his regiment, he missed his bargain. She went into Holland, where she fell into the hands of his brother Colonel Robert Sidney, who kept her for some time, till the King hearing of her, got her from him. On which the Colonel was heard to say, Let who will have her she is already sped and after being with the King she was so soon with child that the world had no cause to doubt whose child it was, and the rather that when he grew to be a man, he very much resembled the Colonel both in stature and countenance, even to a wort on his face. However the King owned the child. In the King's absence she behaved so loosely, that on his return from his escape at Worcester, he would have no further commerce with her, and she became a common prostitute at Paris. Life of King James II. Vol I.
Had it not pleas'd God to dissipate this attempt in ye beginning, there would in all appearance have gather'd an irresistable force which would have desperately proceeded to ye ruine of ye Church and Govern ment, so general was the discontent and expectation of the opportunity. For my owne part I look'd upon this deliverance as most signal. Such an Inundation of phanatics and men of impious principles must needs have caus'd universal disorder, cruelty, injustice, rapine, sacrilege, and confusion, an unavoidable civil war and misery without end. Blessed be God the knot was happily broken, and a faire prospect of tranquil lity for the future if we reforme, be thankful!, and make a right use of this mercy.

Seven Bishops Imprisoned

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 June. 08 Jun 1688. This day, the Archbishop of Canterbury (71), with the Bishops of Ely (50), Chichester (64), St. Asaph (60), Bristol (38), Peterborough (60), and Bath and Wells (50), were sent from the Privy Council prisoners to the Tower, for refusing to give bail for their appearance, on their not reading the Declaration for liberty of conscience; they refused to give bail, as it would have prejudiced their peerage. The concern of the people for them was wonderful, infinite crowds on their knees begging their blessing, and praying for them, as they passed out of the barge along the Tower wharf..

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 June. 10 Jun 1688. A YOUNG PRINCE born, which will cause disputes.
About two o'clock, we heard the Tower ordnance discharged, and the bells ring for the birth of a Prince of Wales. This was very surprising, it having been universally given out that her Majesty did not look till the next month..

John Evelyn's Diary 1688 June. 13 Jun 1688. I went to the Tower to see the Bishops, visited the Archbishop (71) and the Bishops of Ely (50), St. Asaph (60), and Bath and Wells (50)..

John Evelyn's Diary 1689 June. 20 Jun 1689. News of A PLOT discovered, on which divers were sent to the Tower and secured.

Battle of the Boyne

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 June. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower, on suspicion of being affected to King James (56); among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's (28) uncle. King William (39) having vanquished King James (56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's (56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (74) was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (60), was taken. It is reported that King James (56) is gone back to France. Drogheda and Dublin surrendered, and if King William (39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici." But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 June. 27 Jun 1690. I went to visit some friends in the Tower, when asking for Lord Clarendon, they by mistake directed me to the Earl of Torrington (42), who about three days before had been sent for from the fleet, and put into the Tower for cowardice and not fighting the French fleet, which having beaten a squadron of the Hollanders, while Torrington (42) did nothing, did now ride masters of the sea, threatening a descent.

Battle of the Boyne

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 August. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower, with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (57), etc. The troops from Blackheath march to Portsmouth. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife (55) is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (56).
The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

On 09 Oct 1690 Richard Power 1st Earl Tyrone 1630-1690 (60) was sent to the Tower of London having accussed of treason.

On 14 Oct 1690 Richard Power 1st Earl Tyrone 1630-1690 (60) died in the Tower of London. His son John Power 2nd Earl Tyrone 1665-1693 (25) succeeded 2nd Earl Tyrone (2C 1673).

John Evelyn's Diary 1690 November. 03 Nov 1690. Went to the Countess of Clancarty (48), to condole with her concerning her debauched and dissolute son (22), who had done so much mischief in Ireland, now taken and brought prisoner to the Tower.

John Evelyn's Diary 1691 January. 04 Jan 1691. This week a PLOT was discovered for a general rising against the new Government, for which (Henry) Lord Clarendon and others were sent to the Tower. The next day, I went to see Lord Clarendon. The Bishop of Ely (53) searched for. Trial of Lord Preston (41), as not being an English Peer, hastened at the Old Bailey.

John Ashton, Edmund Elliot, Richard Graham 1691. On Fryday, the 2d day of this Sessions, my Lord Preston (41), John Ashton and Edmund Elliot, were all Arrained for High Treason, my Lord Preston (41) was Tryed on Saturday by the name of Sir Richard Graham , Mr. Ashton on Monday. The Indictments against them consisted of Two Parts, the First of which set forth, That they had a Treasonable Design carrying on to Depose the King and Queen, and to Subvert and Alter the Government of the Kingdom of England, and to raise War and Rebellion in the same; which said Traiterous and Wicked Designs and Purposes to bring to pass, they did, on the 29th of December last, Meet and Conspire together, with several other Traitors not yet discovered, and did Compose several Treasonable Letters, Notes and Memorandums in writing, which set forth the most effectual way and means how they might Dethrone and Depose our Most Gracious Sovereign Lord and Lady the King (40) and Queen (28), and further describing therein how the Affairs of this Kingdom stood, and of what Strength and Force our Shipping was; as also the Fortifications of several Sea-Port-Towns within this Kingdom. The Second Part was their adhering to the Kings's Enemies: And to that end, that they might Acquaint Lewis the French King of the same, they did hire a Boat and Embarque themselves in order to Transport themselves and Pacquet of Treasonable Letters into France , agreeing to pay for their said Passages the Sum of One hundred Pound; and, in order to their Treasonable Voyage, they had made their Passage as far as below Gravesend, but were then Taken by Captain Billop, who Cruised abroad to search for them.
After this the Evidence for the King (40) being called, gave an Account particularly from Step to Step, how cunningly and subtilly they managed this horrid Conspiracy, by hiring the Smack called the Thomas and Elizabeth, to convey them secretly into France; in order to which they took Water in a Skuller at Surrey-Stairs, and went on Board the aforesaid Vessel, which lay in the River of Thames over against the Tower: From thence they set Sail down the River, till coming within the View of the George Frigate, lying in Long-reach, they desired the Master of the Smack to hide them under the Quarter-Hatches; which was done, they having some Fear of being discovered: There they remained till past that Danger, and then came up; but when they were within Sight of Gravesend they hid again, and a little below it Captain Billop came aboard them, under Pretence of Pressing the Masters two Men, who were assistants to him; but indeed his Design and real Intention was to find out those Traytors, which, upon Search, he found lying along under the Hatches; and after their being haled up he search'd them, and found a Pacquet of Treasonable Papers in Mr. Ashton's Bosom: which he with the Prisoners carried before my Lord Nottingham; who examined the Papers, and after being examined by the Cabinet Council they were committed to the Tower. The Evidence was very full and plain against them both, much to the same effect and purport: The Letters being also Read against them in Court, were adjudged to be of no less Import than High-Treason. Upon the whole they had nothing material to offer in their Defence; so after a very long hearing, they were both found Guilty of High Treason. Edmond Elliot was ordered to remain till further order.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687 (24). Portrait of William III King England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (29) wearing his Garter Collar.

John Evelyn's Diary 1691 April. 22 Apr 1691. I dined with Lord Clarendon in the Tower.

On Jul 1691 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (44) was imprisoned at Tower of London.

On 25 Oct 1691 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth 1647-1691 (44) died at Tower of London. He was buried at Holy Trinity, Minories.

On Mar 1694 Anthony Carey 5th Viscount Falkland 1656-1694 (38) was imprisoned on charges of peculation at Tower of London.

In 1703 John Roettiers Engraver 1631-1703 (71) died and was buried in the Tower of London.

On 10 Nov 1710 Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin 1650-1710 (59) died having been imprisoned for being a Jacobite at Tower of London. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.His son James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin 1667-1715 (42) succeeded 2nd Baron Griffin of Braybrooke.

Before 1710 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman Painter 1694-1744. Portrait of Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin 1650-1710.

Before 31 Oct 1715 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman Painter 1694-1744. Portrait of James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin 1667-1715.

1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:
George Seton 5th Earl of Winton 1678-1749. The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.
On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure 1672-1716 was beheaded on Tower Hill.
William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale 1676-1744. On 09 Feb 1716 he was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (35) effected his escape from the Tower of London by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart 1688-1766 (26) was.
James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater 1692-1723 (23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave 1695-1719 (20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond 1671-1722 (44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 appealed to George I King Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727 (54) in person without success. On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater 1689-1716 (25) was beheaded on Tower Hill.
William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne 1665-1726 was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.
On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh -1716 was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.
The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper 1665-1723 (50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 (45). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (23) and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child.

Before 1727. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of George I King Great Britain and Ireland 1660-1727.

Before 1723 Johnathan "The Elder" Richardson Painter 1667-1745. Portrait of William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper 1665-1723.

On 29 Oct 1722 Thomas Howard 8th Duke Norfolk 1683-1732 (38) was arrested under suspicion of involvement in a Jacobite plot, and was imprisoned in the Tower of London.

In 1725 Thomas Parker 1st Earl Macclesfield 1666-1732 (58) was imprisoned until payment of his £30,000 fine was received at Tower of London.

Execution of Earl Ferrers

Diary of Caroline Girle 1736-1817 1760 May. 06 May 1760. Earl Ferrers was carried from the Tower to Tyburn executed by a party of Horse and Foot Guards, a Clergyman and the two Sherifs were in the Coach with him he poor unhappy man was drest in his wedding suit, dating as he himself said his whole unhappy conduct from a forced marriage He observed that the apparatus, and being made a spectacle of to so vast a multitude was greatly worse than death itself the procession was two hours & 3/4 from setting out, the Landau & six in which he was ye Sheriffs each in their Chariots one mourning Coach and a Hearse attended, and return’d thro’ Lincoln's Inn Fields about one, I think I never shall forget a procession so moving, to know a man an hour before in perfect health then a Lifeless course, yet a just victim to his Country, for the abuse of of that power his rank in Life had given him a Title too, his rank indeed caused his punishment, as the good Old King, in answer to numerous petitions of his greatly to be pitied Family made this memorable speech, “ That for the last years of his Life, he had been beyond his most Sanguine hopes successful, for which he should ever return thanks to God, and on his part he had and always would endeavor to Administer justice as he ought, as Events had shown by the punishment of his most exalted Subjects.” This was a noble answer. yet none could help pitying this unhappy Lord, his intellects most probably was rather more in fault than his heart in the murder for which he Suffer’d, and had he been low born his majesty would have shewn more Mercy without such strict Justice..

Bloody Tower, Tower of London

Bowyer Tower, Tower of London

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

On 18 Feb 1478 Edward's brother George York 1st Duke Clarence 1449-1478 (28) was drowned in a butt of wine; Malmsey wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London This story may be an invention. William Hussey 1443-1495 (35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason. The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland -534 (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb.

Beauchamp Tower, Tower of London

Lords Appellant

In 1397 Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick 1338-1401 (58) was imprisoned at Beauchamp Tower, Tower of London during the Lords Appellant.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 25 Jul 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (49), John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick 1527-1554 (26), Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 (21), Guildford Dudley 1535-1554 (18), Henry Manners 2nd Earl Rutland 1526-1563 (26) and Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon 1514-1561 (39) were imprisoned for supporting Lady Jane Grey at Beauchamp Tower, Tower of London.

King's Hall, Tower of London

Trial of Anne Boleyn and her brother George

On 15 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (35) tried at the King's Hall in the Tower of London.
Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk 1473-1554 (63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu 1492-1539 (44) was one of the judges. Elizabeth Browne Countess Worcester 1502-1565 (34) was the principal witness.
The jurors were:
Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52)
Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln 1512-1585 (24)
Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1515-1541 (21)
George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon 1487-1544 (49)
Thomas Manners 1st Earl Rutland 1492-1543 (44)
John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (56)
Ralph Neville 4th Earl Westmoreland 1498-1549 (38)
Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal, 10th Baron Morley 1481-1556 (55)
Edward Stanley 3rd Earl Derby 1509-1572 (27)
Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle 1507-1560 (28)
John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (65)
Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth 1501-1551 (35)
Henry Somerset 2nd Earl Worcester 1496-1549 (40)
Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 1478-1527
Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham Sternborough, 5th Baron Strabolgi, 1st Baron Burgh 1488-1550 (48)
Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter 1496-1538
William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel 1476-1544 (60)
Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel 1512-1580 (24)
Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Waldon 1488-1544 (48)
Edward Powers Lord Powers
William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne 1470-1540 (66)
Thomas Ware
Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor 1467-1543 (69)
George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham 1497-1558 (39).
She was found guilty and sentenced to be beheaded. John Spelman Judge 1480-1546 (56) signed the death warrant.

After Anne's trial her brother George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (33) was also tried and found guilty.

Ordnance Office, Tower of London

In 1664 Samuel Martin worded at the Ordnance Office, Tower of London.

St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London

Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. Allso the 17th day of May, beinge Weddensday, the Lord of Rochforde, Mr. Norys, Mr. Bruton, Sir Francis Weston, and Markys, were all beheaded [Note. Smeaton was hanged] at the Tower-hill; and the Lord of Rocheforde, brother to Queene Anne, sayde these wordes followinge on the scaffolde to the people with a lowde voyce: Maisters all, I am come hither not to preach and make a sermon, but to dye, as the lawe hath fownde me, and to the lawe I submitt me, desiringe you all, and speciallie you my maisters of the Courte, that you will trust on God speciallie, and not on the vanities of the worlde, for if I had so done, I thincke I had bene alyve as yee be now; allso I desire you to helpe to the settinge forthe of the true worde of God; and whereas I am sclaundered by it, I have bene diligent to reade it and set it furth trulye; but if I had bene as diligent to observe it, and done and lyved thereafter, as I was to read it and sett it forthe, I had not come hereto, wherefore I beseche you all to be workers and lyve thereafter, and not to reade it and lyve not there after. As for myne offences, it can not prevayle you to heare them that I dye here for, but I beseche God that I may be an example to you all, and that all you may be wayre by me, and hartelye I require you all to pray for me, and to forgive me if I have offended you, and I forgive you all, and God save the Kinge. Their bodies with their heades were buried within the Tower of London; the Lord of Rochfordes bodie and head within the chappell of the Tower, Mr. Weston and Norys in the church yeard of the same in one grave, Mr. Bruton and Markes in another grave in the same churche yerde within the Tower of London. See Execution of Anne Boleyn's Co-accused.

On 17 May 1536 George Boleyn 2nd Viscount Rochford 1503-1536 (33), Henry Norreys 1482-1536, Francis Weston 1511-1536, William Brereton 1487-1536 and Mark Smeaton 1512-1536 were beheaded at Tower Hill. They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

On 19 May 1536 Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52), Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (12) and Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (16).
Anne's last words, as reported by Edward Hall, were as follows:
Good Christian People, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never; and to me was he ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord, have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.
To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul.
She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

On 28 Jul 1540 Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex 1485-1540 (55) forfeit 1st Earl Essex (6C 1540). He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

On 13 Feb 1542 Catherine Howard (19) and Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 were beheaded at Tower Green. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (26) attended. They were both buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

On 20 Mar 1549 Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour Sudeley 1508-1549 (41) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Edward Seymour's Execution

On 22 Jan 1552 Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (52) was beheaded at Tower Hill. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. King Edward VI (14) noted in his diary ... "the duke of Somerset had his head cut off upon Tower Hill between eight and nine o'clock in the morning".
On 26 Feb 1552 Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) and Michael Stanhope 1507-1552 were beheaded at Tower Hill for plotting to assassinate John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 (48). Both men protested their innocence to the end.
Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle 1502-1552 (50) was was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

After 22 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley

On 12 Feb 1554 Lady Jane Grey (18) was beheaded at Tower Green by order of Queen Elizabeth I (20). She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. Guildford Dudley (19) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

After 12 Feb 1554 Guildford Dudley 1535-1554 was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Ridolphi Plot

On 02 Jun 1572 Thomas Howard 4th Duke Norfolk 1536-1572 (36) was executed for his involvement in the Ridolphi Plot. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

On 21 Jun 1585 Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland 1532-1585 (53) committed suicide at Tower of London. He was found dead in his bed in his cell, having been shot through the heart. A jury was at once summoned, and returned a verdict of suicide. He was buried in St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. His son Henry "Wizard Earl" Percy 9th Earl of Northumberland 1564-1632 (21) succeeded 9th Earl of Northumberland (1C 1377). Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland 1564-1619 (21) by marriage Countess of Northumberland (1C 1377).

On 19 Oct 1595 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel 1557-1595 (38) died of dysentery at Tower of London. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London, reburied at Arundel Cathedral, Arundel and then reburied in the Fitzalan Chapel, Arundel Castle, Arundel. His son Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel, 4th Earl Surrey, 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 (10) succeeded 21st Earl Arundel (Sussex), 4th Earl Surrey (3C 1483), 11th Baron Maltravers (1C 1330), 11th Baron Arundel (1C 1377).

On 10 Nov 1710 Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin 1650-1710 (59) died having been imprisoned for being a Jacobite at Tower of London. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.His son James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin 1667-1715 (42) succeeded 2nd Baron Griffin of Braybrooke.

Before 1710 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman Painter 1694-1744. Portrait of Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin 1650-1710.

Before 31 Oct 1715 Enoch "The Younger" Seeman Painter 1694-1744. Portrait of James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin 1667-1715.

On 18 Aug 1746 William Boyd 4th Earl Kilmarnock 1705-1746 (41) was executed at Tower Hill. He was was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Tower Green, Tower of London

Execution of John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester

On 18 Oct 1470 John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester 1427-1470 (43) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. On 14 Apr 1471 His son Edward Tiptoft 2nd Earl Worcester 1470-1485 succeeded 2nd Earl Worcester (4C 1449), 3rd Baron Tiptoft.

Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

On 13 Jun 1483 Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63), Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52), Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (46).
William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings 1431-1483 (52) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. He was buried in North Aisle, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle next to Edward IV King England 1442-1483. His son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings 1466-1506 (16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings (2C 1430). Mary Hungerford Baroness Hastings, 4th Baroness Hungerford 1466-1553 (17) by marriage Baroness Hastings (2C 1430).
Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (63) and Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York 1423-1500 (59) were arrested.

Wriothesley's Chronicle Volume 1 Henry VIII 1536. 15 May 1536. And first the Kinges commission was redd, and then the Constable of the Tower (60) and the Lieutenant (56) brought forthe the Queene (35) to the barre, where was made a chaire for her to sitt downe in, and then her indictment was redd afore her, whereunto she made so wise and discreet aunsweres to all thinges layde against her, excusinge herselfe with her wordes so clearlie, as thoughe she had never bene faultie to the same, and at length putt her to the triall of the Peeres of the Realme, and then were 26 of the greatest peeres there present chosen to passe on her, the Duke of Suffolke beinge highest, and, after thei had communed together, the yongest lorde of the saide inquest was called first to give verdict, who sayde guiltie, and so everie lorde and earle after their degrees sayde guiltie to the last and so condemned her. And then the Duke of Northfolke (63) gave this sentence on her, sayinge : Because thou haste offended our Sovereigne the Kinges grace, in committinge treason against his person, and here attaynted of the same,' the lawe of the realme is this, that thou haste deserved death, and thy judgment is this: That thow shalt be brent here within the Tower of London on the Greene, els to have thy head smitten of as the Kinges pleasure shal be further knowne of the same; and so she was brought to warde agayne, and two ladies wayted on her, which came in with her at the first, and wayted still on her, whose names were the Ladie Kingstone (60) and the Ladie Boleyn (56), her aunte. See Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

On 19 May 1536 Anne Boleyn Queen Consort England (35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk 1484-1545 (52), Catherine Carey 1524-1569 (12) and Henry Fitzroy Tudor 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset 1519-1536 (16).
Anne's last words, as reported by Edward Hall, were as follows:
Good Christian People, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak any thing of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never; and to me was he ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord, have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.
To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul.
She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

1541 Executions

On 27 May 1541, after some two and a half years of imprisonment, Margaret Pole Countess Salsbury (67) was executed at Tower Green, Tower of London for her role in the Exeter Conspiracy.

Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

On 13 Feb 1542 Catherine Howard (19) and Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford 1505-1542 were beheaded at Tower Green. Henry Howard 1516-1547 (26) attended. They were both buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London.

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and Guildford Dudley

On 12 Feb 1554 Lady Jane Grey (18) was beheaded at Tower Green by order of Queen Elizabeth I (20). She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London. Guildford Dudley (19) was beheaded at Tower Hill.

Essex Rebellion

On 25 Feb 1601 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex 1565-1601 (35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London during the Essex Rebellion.

Wakefield Tower, Tower of London

Death of Henry VI

On 21 May 1471 Henry VI (49) died (possibly murdered) in the Wakefield Tower in the Tower of London.

White Tower, Tower of London

Great Plague of London

John Evelyn's Diary 1666 September. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall as far as London Bridge, through the late Fleet street, Ludgate hill by St. Paul's, Cheapside, Exchange, Bishops-gate, Aldersgate, and out to Moorfields, thence through Cornhill, etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (36) got to the Tower by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower, where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.
At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's — now a sad