Biography of Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon -1076
Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon.
In 1055 Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon succeeded 2nd Earldorman Northumbria.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1069. This year died Aldred, Archbishop of York; and he is there buried, at his see [Map]. He died on the day of Protus and Hyacinthus, having held the see with much dignity ten years wanting only fifteen weeks. Soon after this came from Denmark three of the sons of King Sweyne (age 50) with two hundred and forty ships, together with Earl Esborn and Earl Thurkill, into the Humber; where they were met by the child Edgar (age 18), and Earl Waltheof, and Merle-Sweyne, and Earl Gospatric with the Northumbrians, and all the landsmen; riding and marching full merrily with an immense army: and so all unanimously advanced to York; where they stormed and demolished the castle, and won innumerable treasures therein; slew there many hundreds of Frenchmen, and led many with them to the ships; but, ere that the shipmen came thither, the Frenchmen had burned the city, and also the holy minster of St. Peter [Map] had they entirely plundered, and destroyed with fire. When the king heard this, then went he northward with all the force that he could collect, despoiling and laying waste the shire withal; whilst the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber, where the king could not come at them. The king was in York on Christmas Day, and so all the winter on land, and came to Winchester at Easter. Bishop Egelric, who was at Peterborough, was this year betrayed, and led to Westminster; and his brother Egelwine was outlawed. This year also died Brand, Abbot of Peterborough, on the fifth before the calends of December.
In 1070 Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon and Judith Flanders Countess Huntingdon (age 16) were married. She by marriage Earldorman Northumbria, Countess Huntingdon. She, Judith, a niece of King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 42). She the daughter of Lambert Flanders II Count Lens and Adelaide Normandy Countess Troyes and Meaux Champagne Aumale Ponthieu (age 40).
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1070. This year Earl Waltheof agreed with the king (age 42); but in the Lent of the same year the king (age 42) ordered all the monasteries in England to be plundered. In the same year came King Sweyne (age 51) from Denmark into the Humber; and the landsmen came to meet him, and made a treaty with him; thinking that he would overrun the land. Then came into Ely Christien, the Danish bishop, and Earl Osbern, and the Danish domestics with them; and the English people from all the fen-lands came to them; supposing that they should win all that land. Then the monks of Peterborough heard say, that their own men would plunder the minster; namely Hereward (age 35) and his gang: because they understood that the king had given the abbacy to a French abbot, whose name was Thorold;-that he was a very stern man, and was then come into Stamford with all his Frenchmen. Now there was a churchwarden, whose name was Yware; who took away by night all that he could, testaments, mass-hackles, cantel-copes, and reefs, and such other small things, whatsoever he could; and went early, before day, to the Abbot Thorold (age 40); telling him that he sought his protection, and informing him how the outlaws were coming to Peterborough, and that he did all by advice of the monks. Early in the morning came all the outlaws with many ships, resolving to enter the minster; but the monks withstood, so that they could not come in. Then they laid on fire, and burned all the houses of the monks, and all the town except one house. Then came they in through fire at the Bull-hithe gate; where the monks met them, and besought peace of them. But they regarded nothing. They went into the minster [Map], climbed up to the holy rood, took away the diadem from our Lord's head, all of pure gold, and seized the bracket that was underneath his feet, which was all of red gold. They climbed up to the steeple, brought down the table that was hid there, which was all of gold and silver, seized two golden shrines, and nine of silver, and took away fifteen large crucifixes, of gold and of silver; in short, they seized there so much gold and silver, and so many treasures, in money, in raiment, and in books, as no man could tell another; and said, that they did it from their attachment to the minster. Afterwards they went to their ships, proceeded to Ely [Map], and deposited there all the treasure. The Danes, believing that they should overcome the Frenchmen, drove out all the monks; leaving there only one, whose name was Leofwine Lang, who lay sick in the infirmary. Then came Abbot Thorold (age 40) and eight times twenty Frenchmen with him, all full-armed. When he came thither, he found all within and without consumed by fire, except the church alone; but the outlaws were all with the fleet, knowing that he would come thither. This was done on the fourth day before the nones of June. The two kings, William (age 42) and Sweyne (age 51), were now reconciled; and the Danes went out of Ely with all the aforesaid treasure, and carried it away with them. But when they came into the middle of the sea, there came a violent storm, and dispersed all the ships wherein the treasures were. Some went to Norway, some to Ireland, some to Denmark. All that reached the latter, consisted of the table, and some shrines, and some crucifixes, and many of the other treasures; which they brought to a king's town, called --, and deposited it all there in the church. Afterwards through their own carelessness, and through their drunkenness, in one night the church and all that was therein was consumed by fire. Thus was the minster of Peterborough burned and plundered. Almighty God have mercy on it through his great goodness. Thus came the Abbot Thorold (age 40) to Peterborough; and the monks too returned, and performed the service of Christ in the church, which had before stood a full week without any kind of rite. When Bishop Aylric heard it, he excommunicated all the men who that evil deed had done. There was a great famine this year: and in the summer came the fleet in the north from the Humber into the Thames, and lay there two nights, and made afterwards for Denmark.
1072. Construction of Durham Castle [Map] began in 1072 on the orders of King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 44). The construction took place under the supervision of Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria, until he rebelled against William and was executed in 1076. Bishop William Walcher was appointed by the king to exercise royal authority on his behalf, with the castle being his seat, and thus became the first of the Prince-Bishops of Durham, with the right to raise an army, mint his own coins, and levy taxes. As long as he remained loyal to the king of England, he could govern as a virtually autonomous ruler, reaping the revenue from his territory, but also remaining mindful of his role of protecting England's northern frontier.
Bishop William Walcher: Flowers of History. 1080. This year also, king William led a powerful army into Wales, and subjugated it; and received homage and hostages for their fidelity from the petty kings of the viscounty. The same year, Antioch was taken by the pagans, together with the adjacent province, which had been a Christian land ever since the time of Saint Peter, without any disturbances. The same year, Malcolm, king of Scotland, became furious a second time after the Assumption of the blessed Virgin Mary, and ravaged the whole of Northumberland, as far as the river Tyne. But when he heard of this, the king of England sent his son Robert with an army into Scotland, who returned without having succeeded in his objects, and built a new castle in the river Tyne, and then returned to his father. The same year also, the king sent his brother Odo, bishop of Bayeux, with a large army, to lay waste Northumberland, the people of which district had risen in insurrection against the king, and had murdered Walcher, bishop of Durham, a man of exemplary character, at Gateshead. In May 1080 Bishop William Walcher was killed when Durham Castle was besieged by rebels from Northumbria.
In 1072 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 44) stripped Gospatric of his Earldom of Northumbria and replaced him with Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon.
In 1074 Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon took revenge against the family who murdered his father and grandfather by having his retainers kill most of Carl's sons and grandsons.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1075. This year King William (age 47) gave Earl Ralph (age 33) the daughter of William Fitz-Osborne to wife. This same Ralph (age 33) was British on his mother's side; but his father, whose name was also Ralph, was English; and born in Norfolk. The king (age 47) therefore gave his son the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk; and he then led the bride to Norwich [Map]. There was that bride-ale The source of man's bale. There was Earl Roger, and Earl Waltheof, and bishops, and abbots; who there resolved, that they would drive the king (age 47) out of the realm of England. But it was soon told the king (age 47) in Normandy how it was determined. It was Earl Roger and Earl Ralph (age 33) who were the authors of that plot; and who enticed the Britons to them, and sent eastward to Denmark after a fleet to assist them. Roger went westward to his earldom, and collected his people there, to the king's (age 47) annoyance, as he thought; but it was to the great disadvantage of himself. He was however prevented. Ralph (age 33) also in his earldom would go forth with his people; but the castlemen that were in England and also the people of the land, came against him, and prevented him from doing anything. He escaped however to the ships at Norwich [Map].97 And his wife was in the castle; which she held until peace was made with her; when she went out of England, with all her men who wished to join her. The king (age 47) afterwards came to England, and seized Earl Roger, his relative, and put him in prison. And Earl Waltheof went over sea, and bewrayed himself; but he asked forgiveness, and proffered gifts of ransom. The king (age 47), however, let him off lightly, until he98 came to England; when he had him seized. Soon after that came east from Denmark two hundred ships; wherein were two captains, Cnute Swainson, and Earl Hacco; but they durst not maintain a fight with King William (age 47). They went rather to York, and broke into St. Peter's minster, and took therein much treasure, and so went away. They made for Flanders over sea; but they all perished who were privy to that design; that was, the son of Earl Hacco, and many others with him. This year died the Lady Edgitha (age 49), who was the relict of King Edward, seven nights before Christmas, at Winchester; and the king (age 47) caused her to be brought to Westminster with great pomp; and he laid her with King Edward, her lord. And the king (age 47) was then at Westminster, at midwinter; where all the Britons were condemned who were at the bride-ale at Norwich. Some were punished with blindness; some were driven from the land; and some were towed to Scandinavia. So were the traitors of King William (age 47) subdued.
Note 97. Whence he sailed to Bretagne, according to Flor. S. Dunelm, etc.; but according to Henry of Huntingdon he fled directly to Denmark, returning afterwards with Cnute and Hacco, who invaded England With a fleet of 200 sail.
Note 98. i.e. Earl Waltheof.
Flowers of History. 1075. Queen Edith (age 49) died on the fifth of April. The same year, king William (age 47) gave the daughter of William, the son of Osbert, to earl Radolph (age 33), as his wife, and gave him also the government of Norfolk and Suffolk. This Radolph was of British extraction, on his mother's side, and his father was an Englishman. He was born in Norfolk, and there he celebrated his marriage, which was the cause of destruction to many persons. At that wedding there were present earl Roger and earl Waltheof; and many bishops and abbots; and they took counsel how to expel king William (age 47) from his kingdom. And this speedily became known to the king, who was in Normandy, and immediately the king returned to England, and took Waltheof, and Roger, who was his own kinsman, and threw them into prison. As to the rest who were present at the wedding, he deferred his determination.
In 1075 three Earls joined in rebellion against King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 47). The three Earls were: Roger de Breteuil Fitzosbern 2nd Earl Hereford, Ralph de Gael 2nd Earl East Anglia (age 33) and Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon. The ostensible cause of their rebellion was William's (age 47) the marriage of Emma Fitzosbern Countess East Anglia, daughter of William Fitzosbern 1st Earl Hereford, with Ralph de Gael 2nd Earl East Anglia (age 33). Possibly to do with she being Norman and he being British/English.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1076. This year also was Earl Waltheof beheaded at Winchester, Hampshire [Map], on the mass-day of St. Petronilla;99 and his body was carried to Croyland [Map], where he lies buried. King William (age 48) now went over sea, and led his army to Brittany, and beset the castle of Dol; but the Bretons defended it, until the king (age 23) came from France; whereupon William (age 48) departed thence, having lost there both men and horses, and many of his treasures.
Note 99. This notice of St. Petronilla, whose name and existence seem scarcely to have been known to the Latin historians, we owe exclusively to the valuable MS. "Cotton Tiberius" B lv. Yet if ever female saint deserved to be commemorated as a conspicuous example of early piety and christian zeal, it must be Petronilla.
After 1086 [his former wife] Judith Flanders Countess Huntingdon (age 32) died.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Then on midwinter's day Archbishop Aldred hallowed him to king at Westminster, and gave him possession with the books of Christ, and also swore him, ere that he would set the crown on his head, that he would so well govern this nation as any before him best did, if they would be faithful to him. Nevertheless he laid very heavy tribute on men, and in Lent went over sea to Normandy, taking with him Archbishop Stigand, and Abbot Aylnoth of Glastonbury, and the child Edgar, and the Earls Edwin, Morkar, and Waltheof, and many other good men of England. Bishop Odo and Earl William lived here afterwards, and wrought castles widely through this country, and harassed the miserable people; and ever since has evil increased very much. May the end be good, when God will! In that same expedition92 was Leofric, Abbot of Peterborough; who sickened there, and came home, and died soon after, on the night of Allhallow-mass. God honour his soul! In his day was all bliss and all good at Peterborough. He was beloved by all; so that the king gave to St. Peter and him the abbey at Burton, and that at Coventry, which the Earl Leofric, who was his uncle, had formerly made; with that of Croyland, and that of Thorney. He did so much good to the minster of Peterborough [Map], in gold, and in silver, and in shroud, and in land, as no other ever did before him, nor any one after him. But now was Gilden-borough become a wretched borough. The monks then chose for abbot Provost Brand, because he was a very good man, and very wise; and sent him to Edgar Etheling, for that the land-folk supposed that he should be king: and the etheling received him gladly. When King William heard say that, he was very wroth, and said that the abbot had renounced him: but good men went between them, and reconciled them; because the abbot was a good man. He gave the king forty marks of gold for his reconciliation; and he lived but a little while after-only three years. Afterwards came all wretchedness and all evil to the minster. God have mercy on it!
Note 92. i.e. in the expedition against the usurper William.
[his son] Eadwulf Cudel Northumbria Earl Bernicia was born to Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon and Judith Flanders Countess Huntingdon.
[his son] Uchtred "The Bold" Earldorman of Northumbria was born to Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon.
[his daughter] Alice Northumbria was born to Waltheof Northumbria 1st Earl of Northampton 1st Earl Huntingdon.
Queen Jane Seymour x 23
Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 8044