Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849

 Middleton Newhaven Over Haddon Parwich Vincent Knoll Chelmorton Minninglow Hurdlow Minninglow Ballidon Moor Parwich Minninglow Sheen Middleton

Ten Years' Digging 1849 is in Ten Years' Digging.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Middleton

On the 5th of February we re-opened the barrow at Borthor Low [Map], first examined In September, 1843, (Vestiges, p. 48.,) when no central interment was found, although it appears that the cutting on that occasion was carried to within six inches of a skeleton, which lay on its left side in a very contracted posture, and which appears to have been the interment over which the tumulus was originally raised. The only relic found in close proximity to the body, was a rudely formed arrow-head of burnt flint, but in the earth not far distant were two more pieces of flint and a chip from a stone celt. In the course of the excavation we noticed rats' bones in profusion, and near the surface some small pieces of earthenware.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Newhaven

On the 27th of April we opened a mutilated mound of earth in a field near Newhaven House, called the Low [Map], two-thirds of which had been removed, and the remainder more or less disturbed. So that nothing was found in its original state; which is much to be regretted, as the contents appear to be late in date, and different in character from anything we have before found in tumuli. The mound itself, being constructed of tempered earth, bore some analogy to the grave hill of the Saxon Thegn opened at Benty Grange [Map] about a year before; and like it was without human remains, if we except a few fragments of calcined bone, which are too minute to be certainly assigned either to a human or animal subject. The articles found comprise many small pieces of thin iron straps or bands, more or less overlaid with bronze, which are by no means unlike the framework of the helmet found at Benty Grange. There is also a boss of thin bronze, 3 inches diameter, pierced with three holes for attachment to the dress (?) and divided by raised concentric circles, between which the metal is ornamented with a dotted chevron pattern, in the angles of which are small roses punched by a die. Another object in bronze is a small round vessel or box of thick cast metal, surrounded by six vertical ribs, and having two perforated ears, serving probably better to secure the lid and suspend the box. Although it measures less than an inch in height, and less than 2 in diameter, it weighs full 3½ ounces. A similar box, with the lid, on which is a cross formed of annulets, found with Roman remains at Lincoln, is engraved at page 30 of the Lincoln Boot of the Archaeological Institute, where it is called a pyx. Two others, discovered at Lewes, are engraved in the Archaeologia, Vol. XXXI., page 437, one of which has the lid bearing a cross precisely similar to the Lincoln example, whence it is certain that they must be assigned to a Christian period, probably not long previous to the extinction of the Saxon monarchy. The last object there is occasion to describe is an iron ferrule or hoop, 1½ inch diameter, one edge of which is turned inwards so as to prevent its slipping up the shaft on which it has been fixed. We also found some shapeless pieces of melted glass, which from their variegated appearance might be the product of fused beads; and observed many pieces of charred wood throughout the mound, which may possibly not have been of a sepulchral character.

A laughable circumstance occurred in connection with one article found here, which is really too good to be lost, t sent a sketch of the bronze box to a metropolitan archaeologist in order to ascertain its use. It was submitted to a well known collector, since deceased, who sent word that it was a Chinese weight I which he had recently seen knocked down at Stevens' saleroom!

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Over Haddon

On the 30th of April a barrow [Map] [Burton Moor Barrow [Map]] near Over Haddon, in land called Grindlow, was examined as completely as the meeting of three walls on its summit would allow. It had been much mutilated; but fortunately the primitive interments lay too deep to receive injury from the labours of those in search of stone, by whom an important interment of secondary date had been destroyed. The original deposit had been made on the rock a little below the natural surface, and about 5 feet from the top of the mound; it comprised three skeletons, laid in the usual contracted position, two of which were females; with them were one or two rude instruments of flint, and a fine collection of jet ornaments, 73 In number, which form a very handsome necklace. Of these 26 are cylindrical beads, 39 are conical studs, pierced at the back by two holes meeting at an angle in the centre; and the remaining 8 are flat dividing plates, ornamented in the front with a punctured chevron pattern, superficially drilled in the jet; 7 of them are laterally perforated with three holes, to admit of their being connected by a triple row of the cylindrical beads, whilst the 8th, which is of bone, ornamented in the same style, has nine holes at one side, which diminish to three on the other by being bored obliquely. Above these bodies, which were covered with stone, the mound was of unmixed earth, very compact and clayey, and between the stone and earth were many pieces of calcined bone, and numerous splinters of the leg bones of large animals, some of which are likely to have been used as points for weapons. In the earth near the summit of the barrow were some relics of a later interment, probably of a distinguished Saxon, with whom had been deposited a circular enamel, of which only the silver plated frame remained, the latter is engrailed on the front, and engraved with a lozengy pattern round the edge; and a bowl of thin bronze, very neatly made, with a simple hollow moulding round the edge, which when complete was 7 inches diameter, and appears to have had two handles soldered or cemented to the sides. The bowl was broken when found, and no handles were discovered; but it is probable that both they and some other ornaments, as well as another of the bone plates with 9 perforations, which is wanting to complete the necklace, would have been found if the triple wall could have been removed, as the point of junction was directly over the place where the interments lay, which were exhumed by a dangerous undercutting.

May 4th we partially excavated the remains of Grindlow [Map] proper, originally a large cairn 25 yards across, wholly composed of stones of all sizes, but now almost demolished: we were therefore unsuccessful in our search for interments, but found broken human bones, accompanied by those of the rat, in every direction. We also met with a broken lance head of flint, and part of the tusk of a wild boar.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Parwich

Next day we were engaged in opening barrows [Low Moor Barrow 1 [Map] and Low Moor Barrow 2 [Map]] upon Low Moor near Parwich. The first was, to all appearance, a large and perfect tumulus, but we were disappointed by finding the remains of a lime-kiln in the middle, which had been constructed above a large grave in the rock, the covering slabs of which had been converted into the roof of the draught hole of the kiln. After this discovery we abandoned the search, having found no human remains. The other barrow was much smaller, the central elevation being only a foot, it was, nevertheless, found to cover a grave sunk through the natural soil into the rock, to the further depth of six feet. About two feet from the surface we met with fragments of pottery, pieces of human bone, burnt and unburnt, and traces of decomposed wood which lay in a regular stratum amongst the stones by which the grave was filled. After much labour we succeeded in emptying the grave, which did not exhibit any marks of former opening, until about the end of our operations, when such became too evident on the discovery of the skeleton of an infant and some pieces of a roughly ornamented vase, carelessly thrown together in a corner; while, to make assurance doubly sure, at the other end of the grave was a piece of rusty iron, bearing a suspicious resemblance to the end of a pick, by no means primitive in form. The former opening must have taken place at an ancient, perhaps medieval, period, as the stones filling the grave were all of one colour from having lain in the damp so long, and were quite free from earth which might have fallen from the surface, so that we had no idea of its having been disturbed till we reached the bottom.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Vincent Knoll

May 24th. - We explored the remnant of a large barrow in a field near Parcelly Hay, called Vincent Knoll [Map]. The portion remaining had been the central part of the mound, and had been recently disturbed down to the natural surface of the field, fortunately without injury to the interments, which lay about two feet deeper in an irregularly shaped grave cut in the rock for their reception. To make the description intelligible we will call the grave an elongated oval though it was not strictly so, the rock having been removed in accordance with the natural angular and irregular joints. At one side of the grave was a skeleton, lying on its left side with the legs gathered up, accompanied only by the core of a cow's horn which lay upon the ribs. This skeleton, which was that of a male, exhibited a singular malformation of the upper part of each femur; close to its feet, and near one eixd of the oval, was a second skeleton of slender make which had been buried in a slovenly manner, it had with it a very large tooth of some animal, which, as well as both skeletons, was much decayed: they were surrounded by rats' bones, and a few inches above them was a thin layer of black earth, running through the small stones that filled this part of the grave. On the opposite side lay a third skeleton which faced the first, and was deposited in the same portion on its left side, the head being, of necessity, in the contrary direction: near the pelvis was a very neat circular ended instrument of white flint, and about a foot from the legs was a small iron spear with an open socket much corroded, which, however, did not appear to belong to the interment. This body in better condition than the others, was not surrounded by so many rats' bones, and was covered by larger stones. Following the side of the grave to the end of the oval, opposite to that occupied by the second skeleton, was found, about two feet from the last, the upper part of a fourth, to which, it is probable, the iron spear belonged: the bones were in good condition, but lay huddled together as if the body had been hastily buried. Careful observation at the time led to the conclusion that the two first bodies were interred at the same time, that the third deposit took place at a subsequent, but very early period, and that the fourth was of comparatively modem introduction, not dating earlier than the Pagan-Saxon age.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Chelmorton

On the 20th of June we examined two barrows on a tract of high land, called Great Low [Map], between Hurdlow and Chelmorton:

he first had been removed almost to the surface of the land so that nothing was found but a small piece of Romano-British pottery. The other, called Nether Low [Map], originally a large barrow, but mutilated by stone getters, still covers an area 25 yards across, and is 4 feet high: it is composed exclusively of stone. Although we failed on this occasion to discover the primary interment we found remains of two individuals, one of whom had undergone cremation; and myriads of rats' bones, which were most abundant near some very large stones on the natural surface, about the centre of the mound.

23rd of June we opened a small low barrow [Probably Chelmorton Barrow 3 [Map]] in the neighbourhood of the last, which covered a rock grave three feet deep, the irregular shape of which was corrected by an interior lining of stone slabs. It was chiefly filled with stones, but had a layer of tempered earth above and below them: the latter had the nature of exceedingly tenacious clay, and in it was imbedded the skeleton of a tall man of middle age, who lay extended on his back with the head raised and pointing to the west; the hands, with the fingers extended, were placed on the thighs; an iron knife much corroded lay in an oblique direction across the left side of the pelvis, and was itself crossed by the bones of the wrist. The right femur had been fractured about 6 inches below the neck, but had firmly reunited, apparently with the effect of shortening the limb, Parallel with the right side of the body, for its whole length, was a ridge of dark-coloured earth so remarkably dense that we could not detect the substances of which it was composed in any part excepting between the right humerus and the ribs, where it contained remains of wood and of animal's skin, the earth separating with ease where the latter had been folded, and exhibiting a hairy surface almost as perfect as would be shown by a recent hide under the same circumstances of damp and pressure, colour alone excepted. Although there was a hard mass of tempered earth above the grave, a few water rats had left their bones near those of this Saxon.

On the 5th of July we resumed the examination of the barrow at Nether Low [Map], and found at the west side about five yards from the centre, four interments, three of which were placed in angle of a shallow depression in the rock, of irregular form. The most important of these was the skeleton of a middle aged man, lying contracted in the western angle, having beneath the head, and in contact with the skull, a beautiful leaf-shaped dagger of white flint, 4½ inches long, with the narrower half curiously serrated. A few inches from this unique weapon, was a plain but neat spear head of white flint. In a joint of the rock at a right angle with this interment, was a slender skeleton, probably of a female in the prime of life, accompanied by a prism-shaped piece of white flint, a piece of hematite, a boar's tusk, and a large globular bead of jet; the last found close to the neck.

The third skeleton was that of a much younger subject, and lay on the rock a little nearer the centre; it was not provided with implements, but between it and the others was a single piece of a calcined human skull. They were all about 4 feet from the top of the barrow.

Another skeleton was discovered about two feet from the surface, in a cist covered by a large flat stone and constructed across the joint of rock occupied by the female skeleton; it was accompanied by stags' horns of large size, and an arrow point of grey flint; and appeared to be the body of a person 17 or 18 years old.

In another cutting, near the outside, we found the remains of an infant, and a very neat instrument of white flint of uncertain use.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849 Hurdlow

On the 7th of July we opened the first of a line of three small tumuli, occupying the summits of hills between the Buxton and Ashbourne road and the village of Church Sterndale. The field in which it is placed is called "Top of the Hurst". The mound, about 12 yards across, and not more than a foot high, consisted of earth, tempered in that part immediately above the grave, which was so far sunk into the rock as to render its floor rather more than two feet below the turf. It was cut nearly east to west, and contained a skeleton extended at length, with the head to the latter point; the lower bones were fairly preserved, but of the upper parts there were but few remains, the enamel crowns of the teeth being in the best condition. At the left hip was a small iron knife, 4 inches long; and where the right shoulder had been was an assemblage of curious articles, the most important of which was a small bronze box, or canister, with a lid to slide on, measuring altogether 2 inches high and the same in diameter. When found it was much crushed, but still retained inside remains of thread, and bore on the outside impressions of linen cloth. Close to it were two bronze pins or broken needles, and a mass of corroded iron, some of which has been wire chainwork connected with a small bronze ornament with five perforations, plated with silver and engraved with a cable pattern, near which were two iron implements of larger size, the whole comprising the girdle and chatelaine with appendages, of a Saxon lady. Many pieces of hazel stick were found in contact with these relics, which were probably the remains of a basket in which they were placed at the funeral All the iron shows impressions of woven fabrics, three varieties being distinguishable, namely, coarse and fine linen, and coarse flannel or woollen cloth. The box is very faintly ornamented by lozenges, produced by the intersection of oblique lines scratched in the metal and may be compared with one found at Stand Low in 1845 (see Vestiges, p. 75).

On the 10th of July we opened two more barrows of the same construction on the hills rather nearer Buxton; the first, 9 yards across and a foot high, composed of earth, was tempered or puddled above the grave, which was sunk a little beneath the natural level. We could not perceive the least trace of bone, but about the middle of the grave was part of an iron knife, to which adhered a mass of decayed wood, the impression of the grain being sharp and distinct upon the rust.

The other barrow, 11 yards diameter and about 18 inches high, is composed, as the two others, of earth tempered over the grave, which was dug nearly east and west. Within it, about a yard from the top, lay a skeleton extended on its back, with the left arm crossed over the body, the right lying close to the side, and the head to the west. The teeth indicated the deceased to have been a young man. The closest scrutiny of the earth for some distance around the body failed to reveal anything further, the knife so commonly found with Saxon interments being absent in this case.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Minninglow

18th of July [1849] we made a slight excavation in the large barrow at Minninglow [Map], near the cist wherein a skeleton was found in 1843 (Vestiges, p. 39). The cutting was continued through loose stones to the depth of 4 feet from the surface, when the natural soil appeared, and through the whole we found many pieces of firmly baked Romano-British pottery that had been formed on the wheel, from clay mixed with coarse sand and small pebbles, which had acquired in baking colours varying from brick red to dark grey or purple; altogether we collected near a peck of fragments, which might have been purposely broken, as no large pieces are to be found amongst them; most of them appear to be parts of vessels modelled after the pattern of the common globular cinerary urn of the Romans. Near the natural soil we found two small brass coins in good preservation.

I. Constantino the Great. Reverse: Gloria Exercitus. Two figures holding standards.

II. Constantius II. Same legend and same reverse.

On the 20th of July we opened a small mound [Map] [Rockhurst Barrow [Map]] near the preceding, on the face of the hill declining towards the Brassington and Elton road. Upon cutting a section through the middle, traces of a large fire appeared, the earth forming the tumulus being changed in colour and consolidated. The natural surface in the centre was strewed with charred wood, calcined human bones, and stones which had been cracked and flaked by heat. Amongst these relics of the long quenched pile, were portions of three vessels of compact wheel-formed earthenware, precisely like the bulk of the fragments from the large barrow last described, and one small brass coin of the Lower Empire; all much burnt. One, only, of the three vessels is sufficiently complete to afford an, outline of its form, which is clearly an improvement on the usual globular shape of the Roman olla: it is very elegant in outline, and measures 7 inches in height, and differs from the Roman ware in the quality of the paste, which is extremely gritty and hard, and is externally grey. One of the others has been of the same shape, but of a dark red colour. It is certain that this mound covers the place where the corpse was reduced to ashes along with the three vases and the coin, but from so few bones being found, it is rather likely that the collected remains were deposited in some part of the mound not explored unless, indeed, they were so completely burnt as to leave but a slight residuum.

I have frequently observed the difference between Celtic deposits from tumuli, and Roman incinerated bones, to be most strongly marked; the former are almost uniformly cleanly burnt in pieces sufficiently large to be recognised as parts of the skeleton, and consequently far exceed the latter in quantity, which are as constantly reduced to ashes, and are frequently mixed with sand and other impurities from the embers of the pile. This discovery is chiefly interesting as fixing the date of a kind of pottery which might easily be mistaken for medieval ware by persons not accustomed to the critical examination of texture.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Hurdlow

On the 21st of July we opened a small tumulus [Map] [Hurdlow Barrow [Map]] on a hill above the High Peak Railway, near Hurdlow, which had been cut through the centre, but the imperfect manner in which investigations of this kind were formerly executed, afforded a chance of our finding something. We discovered that the former excavators had removed one side of a small rectangular cist, which was placed a little to the side of their trench; its other sides were intact, and the earth inside did not seem to have been disturbed, yet we found nothing within but a horse's tooth, a bit of thin bronze, and a few imperfectly burnt bones.

On the afternoon we re-opened the barrow on Cronkstone Hill [Map] (the next eminence), which was examined by Mr. William Bateman, in 1825 (Vestiges, p. 33). A short distance east from the centre was a large irregularly shaped grave in the rock, the bottom of which was upwards of five feet below the apex of the mound, within it lay the skeleton of a full sized person who had suffered from a morbid enlargement of the head of the right humerus; as usual, in the early interments, he lay in a contracted posture, with a circular instrument of flint near the head, and surrounded by rats' bones. A few inches above this skeleton was a deposit of calcined human bones, apparently interred at the same time as it. There may probably be other interments in the mound, which is about 20 yards diameter.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Minninglow

Walking over the smaller tumulus [Map] [Rockhurst Barrow [Map]] in Minninglow plantation, on the 20th of July, I observed, as a peculiarity before unnoticed, that it consists of two distinct barrows of different structure, or to speak more correctly, that a later barrow of earth has been cast up against the side of the original mound, which is a cairn entirely of stone surrounding a megalithic cist vaen (Vestiges p. 40).

On the 27th of July, excavating as near the centre of the earthy barrow [Map] [Rockhurst Barrow [Map]] as possible, we raised three or four ponderous flat stones, beneath which the earth exhibited a crystalized appearance, resulting from its having been tempered with liquid; cutting down through it we arrived at the natural surface at the depth of rather more than 4 feet, and found that the mound had been raised over the site of the funeral pile, as it remained when burnt out. The scattered human bones had not been collected, but lay strewed upon the earth accompanied by some good flints, part of a bone implement, and a bronze dagger of the most archaic form, having holes for thongs and no rivets, all of which had been burnt along with their owner. The dagger is singularly contorted by the heat, and affords the first instance of a weapon of bronze having been burnt, and the second in which we have found one associated with calcined bones, the first being at Moot Low [Map], in 1844 (Vestiges p. 51). But perhaps the most important conclusion to be drawn from the discovery is the corroboration of the opinion entertained in favour of the high antiquity of the cairns or stone barrows, and other megalithic remains of primitive industry, as we here find a mound containing an interment accompanied by weapons indicating a very remote period, and itself differing both in material and structure, occupying a position in relation to the cairn, which affords positive proof of its more recent origin.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Ballidon Moor

On the 30th of July we opened a fine bowl-shaped tumulus [Blackstone's Low [Map]], 15 yards across, situated on Ballidon Moor. The upper part, to the depth of two feet was almost entirely of earth, near the centre presenting the appearance of having been tempered. In this stratum were a few calcined bones, and fragments of a rude urn. Immediately beneath was an accumulation of stones, large and small, forming the base of the mound, which was raised on a rocky and uneven surface, which caused the thickness of the substructure of stone to fluctuate between two feet and a yard. The limestone employed being of a friable nature had become so far decomposed as to yield sufficient sand to choke up the interstices.

After noticing the trifling remains exhumed from the upper bed of earth, we observed nothing until arriving at the sandy stone, amongst which were four skeletons that might have been slightly disturbed before, but from their contracted posture and decayed condition it was difficult to decide, with respect to three of them, whether they had or not; the fourth had certainly been either disturbed at the interment of the others, or had been buried as a skeleton whilst the bones were fresh, as all parts of the skeleton had been collected and the long bones laid side by side. The latter were still unbroken, and it is obvious that they must have been thus arranged while retaining much of their natural strength, had it been otherwise they would have been broken by the stones with which they were in contact. This skeleton was nearer the centre than the others, and a very few inches beyond it we first observed a well-defined stratum of burnt earth, with a layer of pure charcoal above it, interposed between the upper bed of earth and the sandy stone. Pursuing this favourable indication we discovered, almost simultaneously, two very interesting interments which were found by extending the cutting a little beyond the middle of the barrow. The most ancient was about five feet below the summit in a depression in the rock, which was converted into a neat lozenge-shaped cist by four flat stones placed on edge; it was the skeleton of a middle aged man in unusually flne preservation, who lay with the knees drawn up, contrary to the usual custom on his right: side his femur measures 18.6 inches; he was accompanied by one poor flint only, suited to point an arrow. The skull, in perfect preservation, has been engraved in the Crania Britannica, it is chiefly distinguished by the rugged or strongly marked character of the facial bones, and has an internal capacity of 74½ ounces; the nasal bones have been fractured, and re-joined during life, and the teeth were much worn down. The cranium is considered by the learned authors of the Crania Britannica, as a typical example of the brachy-cephalic variety of the Ancient British head, and is engraved as such in Dr. Meigs' Cranial Characteristics of the Races of Men, Philadelphia, 1857.

While taking up this skeleton we met with a large flat stone lying aslant, with its lowest edge within the cist; this was moat likely the cover which had given way; the upper end was embedded in stones and burnt sand, interspersed with partially calcined human bones, and others in their natural state; among the latter were some remains of an infant; close above stood a large cinerary urn in an upright position, containing calcined human bones, and protected from superincumbent pressure by a large stone resting at each end upon an upright slab. The urn, 11½ inches high and 9 diameter at the mouth, is ornamented by patterns impressed from a twisted thong, and is in fine preservation, having been found perfect. The bones within it were beautifully coloured by burning, and perfectly clean; amongst them we found a piece of an animal's jaw, rats' bones, a fine bone pin 4 inches long, a fragment of thin pottery, and a flint arrow head, all (including the rats' bones) much burnt. The presence of partially burnt human bones in the sand, the discoloration of the latter, and the occurrence of calcined rats' bones in the urn, demonstrate the fact of the corpse having been consumed upon the spot. The section will render the arrangement of the interments in this curious barrow easily understood.

On the 1st of August we examined three more tumuli, in the same neighbourhood, all of which had most unfortunately been mutilated. The first had been encroached upon by a stone quarry, and we were told that a pitcher had been found in it some years before. By removing the loose stones and earth down to the rock, we found some bits of hard Romano-British pottery, which alone had resisted the attacks of the quarry men.

The second was in the next field but one, and appears to have been nearly all removed, though, from occupying a rocky protuberance, it looked tolerably perfect. About the middle we found the humerus of a human subject, near which was a grit sharpening stone and a cow's tooth.

The third barrow in the same field was half removed, it afforded a few animal bones, part of a sharpening stone, some pieces of ancient earthenware, but no human remains.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Parwich

On the 6th of August we made a section into the smallest of two mounds, near Parwich, situated in a field, called, I believe, from the owner or occupier, Saint's Low [Map], in a low situation near a small watercourse. The composition of the mound, notwithstanding its affix of "Low," indicating no artificial origin, the investigation was relinquished without our interfering with the larger mound close by.

On the 9th of August we made an examination of the remains of a tumulus [Map] [Saint's Hill Barrow [Map]] in a plantation on the summit of Saint's Hill, near Parwich, which had been destroyed by getting stone for the walls enclosing the plantation, when about 80 small brass coins of the later Roman Emperors were found scattered about the barrow.

Owing to the double destruction caused by stone getters, and persons tempted to search by the discovery of the coins, we were unable to find a single inch of undisturbed ground, and the sole evidence of former interments was afforded by two human teeth and some rats' bones.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Minninglow

On the 13th of August we opened a barrow [Map] [Roystone Grange Barrow [Map]] at Ryestone Grange, close to Minninglow farm, which is a tolerably perfect mound, 11 yards across and near four feet high, but crossed by a thick stone wall which greatly impeded our operations, and which there is reason to believe prevented the discovery of the primary interment. At one side of the wall we found many bones, both human and animal; the only undisturbed skeleton being that of a ohild, buried about a foot from the surface and unaccompanied by anything of interest; among the animal bones were some teeth of dogs. On the other side of the wall we found an iron knife, of the usual Saxon shape, about a foot beneath the turf; and on the natural surface below, a deposit of calcined bones containing a bone pin. By undercutting the wall as far as practicable, we ascertained that the centre of the barrow was principally of earth surrounded by large stones inclining inwards, and from this locality we drew out a piece of curiously ornamented pottery of primitive manufacture.

On the 15th of August we examined the site of a large barrow, near the last, 25 yards across, the circle being yet well defined from the foundation of the mound consisting of very large stones round the verge. The interior had been completely destroyed, about 6 inches only of factitious earth remaining, which, near the centre was mixed with an enormous quantity of rats' bones.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Sheen

On the 21st of August we examined a very large barrow [Map] [Brund Low [Map]] near Sheen, in Staffordshire, about 35 yards diameter and more than 9 feet deep, wholly composed of earth, which, near the natural surface, was mixed with charcoal, and varied by layers of moss. The latter in a great measure retained its natural colour, and contained many beetles, some of which were well preserved. About a yard from the bottom a thin ferruginous seam ran through the mound, perfectly solid and hard like pottery, which might possibly be the effect of heat. No interment was found, but there is little doubt of the existence of a deposit of calcined bones in some part of the mound.

Books, Prehistory, Ten Years' Digging 1849, Middleton

On the 17th, 18th, and 19th of October, and 1st of November, some further researches were made in the Flax Dale Barrow [Map], near Middleton-by-Youlgrave, where a large cinerary urn with its deposit of burnt bones was found, in 1846. Although the present more extensive excavation was not equally successful, it afforded us an opportunity of becoming acquainted with a plan commonly adopted by the Britons in the construction of their tumuli, by first making a circle of large stones, within which the interments were placed, and then covered with an accumulation of stones, until a mound was formed surrounded by a kind of wall of one or two courses, consisting of the aforesaid circle; the whole was then covered with earth, which, though thinly laid on at the summit, was suffered to extend considerably further than the walled circle thus concealing all the stonework. The earth around the circumference of the barrow was very compact, particularly near the outside, and in some places abounded with pieces of melted lead and calcined flints, which led us to think it probable that fire had been employed to harden the earth whilst moist, with the intention of rendering the mound more durable. The only interment discovered on this occasion was just within the S.W. side of the stone circle: it consisted of a deposit of calcined bones which had originally been placed within an urn so imperfectly baked as to have almost become disintegrated, the decay having been accelerated by the atmosphere, eighteen inches of loose stone only covering the deposit. Some flints, fragmentary human bones, and a chip from a stone celt were casually found in the stony part of the mound.

The adjoining field is called Foggy Lees, which may be a corruption of Foggy Low.