Biography of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Descendants Family Tree: King Edward IV of England 1442-1483

Relatives Family Tree: King Edward IV of England 1442-1483

1415 Southampton Plot

1459 Parliament of the Devils

1459 Battle of Ludford Bridge

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

1460 Battle of Northampton

1460 Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Battle of Mortimer's Cross

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

1461 Proclamation of Edward IV as King

1461 Battle of Towton

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Edward IV

1461 Coronation of Edward IV

1461 Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

1461 Edward IV Rewards his Followers

1462 Creation of Garter Knights

1462 Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

1464 Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance

1463 Creation of Garter Knights

1464 Battle of Hedgeley Moor

1464 Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

1464 Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

1465 Marriage of John Woodville and Catherine Neville

1465 Coronation of Elizabeth Woodville

1467 Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

1469 Execution of Warwick's Supporters

1469 Capture of Edward IV

1469 Execution of the Woodvilles

1469 Execution of the Neville Brothers

1470 Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

1470 Earldom of Northumberland returned to the Percy Family

1470 Edward IV escapes to Flanders

1470 Edward V born in Sanctuary

1471 Edward IV lands at Ravenspur

1471 Battle of Barnet

1471 Battle of Tewkesbury

1472 Creation of Garter Knights

1474 Creation of Garter Knights

1474 Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

1475 Creation of Garter Knights

1475 Treaty of Picquigny

1476 Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

1478 Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

1478 Attainder of George Duke of Clarence

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1483 Mowbray Succession Changed

1483 Death of Edward IV

1483 Funeral of Edward IV

1483 Robert Stillington Claims Edward IV's Marriage to Elizabeth Woodville to be Bigamous

1483 Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

1483 Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

1483 The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate

1483 Richard III Rewards his Supporters

1486 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1491 Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

1495 Edward IV's Daughter's Marriages

After 21 Sep 1411 [his grandmother] Anne Mortimer (age 20) died from childbirth. Her son [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York succeeded Heir to the Throne of England, 8th Earl Ulster.

Southampton Plot

On 05 Aug 1415 two executions of those involved in the Southampton Plot took place at the North Gate aka Bargate [Map]:

[his grandfather] Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 30) was beheaded. His son [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 3) succeeded 2nd Earl Cambridge.

Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham (age 42) was beheaded. His brother John Scrope 4th Baron Scrope Masham (age 27) succeeded 4th Baron Scrope Masham.

On 18 Jan 1425 Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 33) died at Trim Castle. He was buried at Clare Priory, Suffolk [Map]. His nephew [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 13) succeeded 6th Earl March.

In Oct 1429 [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 18) and [his mother] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 14) were married. She by marriage Countess Cambridge Countess Ulster. She was the youngest sister of Richard's brother-in-arms [his uncle] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 29). She the daughter of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 50). He the son of Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge and Anne Mortimer. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 28 Apr 1442 King Edward IV of England was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 30) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 26) at Rouen, France [Map]. He was immediately baptised in a small side chapel at Rouen Cathedral [Map]. Some historians suggest the lack of grandeur indicates Edward IV may have been illegitimate whereas others suggest the baptism was typical for a country at war. Some historians also suggest Edward IV was illegitimate since his father Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 30) was away at the siege of Pontoise [Map] at the time of conception. Pontoise [Map] is some sixty miles from Rouen. There is straight road, an old Roman road known as the Chaussée Jules César, between the Pontoise and Rouen, now known as the D14. Easy for Richard to return to Rouen as and when he chose to. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

In Jun 1449 King Edward IV of England (age 7) travelled to Ireland.

On 27 Mar 1450 John Strange 8th Baron Strange Knockin 4th Baron Mohun Dunster (age 6) and [his future sister-in-law] Jacquetta Woodville Baroness Strange and Mohun (age 5) were married. She the daughter of Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 45) and Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 35).

Around 1454 John Grey (age 22) and [his future wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 17) were married. She the daughter of Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 49) and Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 39). He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Parliament of the Devils

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham (age 39) was elected Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry [Map]. The primary purpose of the Parliament was to attaint the Yorkist leaders:

[his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 48), his sons Edward Earl of March (age 17), [his brother] Edmund Earl of Rutland (age 16) were attainted, as were [his uncle] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 59) and his sons Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30) and John Neville 1431-1471 (age 28).

Battle of Ludford Bridge

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. Ande thys same yere there was a grete afray at Lodlowe by twyne the kynge (age 37) and the [his father] Duke of Yorke (age 48), the [his uncle] Erle of Salusbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwyke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17). The Duke of Yorke lete make a grete depe dyche and fortefyde it with gonnys, cartys, and stakys, but hys party was ovyr weke, for the kyng was mo thenn xxxM [Note. 3000] of harneysyd men, by-syde nakyd men that were compellyd for to come with the kynge. And thenne the duke (age 48) fledde fro place to place in Walys, and breke downe the bryggys aftyr hym that the kyngys mayny schulde not come aftyr hym. And he wente unto Monde. And there he taryd tylle the jornay was endyd at Northehampton. And he made newe grotys of a newe kune in Irlonde; in on syde of the grote was a crowne and in that othyr syde a crosse. And there he made many newe statutys, and hys yong sonys [[his son] King Edward V of England and [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York] were sende by yende the see unto the Duke of Burgayne (age 25) [Note. Husband of Edward's sister [his sister] Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 13)], and they were fulle welle ande worschypfully ressayvyd.

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow [Map]. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope refused to fight against King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 37) who was present.

The Yorkist [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 48), the future King Edward IV of England (age 17), [his brother] Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30), [his uncle] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 59) left overnight before the battle.

John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 26) and Thomas Parr (age 52) were present.

The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel (age 41).

Richard Grey 3rd Earl Tankerville (age 22) was present on the Yorkist side for which he was subsequently attainted. Earl Tankerville forfeit.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. The [his uncle] Erle of Saulysbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwycke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17), Syr John Wenlocke (age 59), alle thes come unto Devynschyre to Syr John Denham (age 26), and alle thes by the conveynge of Syr John Denham (age 26); and they bought a smalle vesselle in that contray, an they were conveyde unto Garnesey [Map], ande from Garnesaye unto Calys [Map], for fere of dethe that they sayde was ymagenyde by the kyng and hys lordys, and of hyr owne housolde mayny for hyr dystruccyon, the counselle and consent of King Harry the VI. Thes lordys departyd owte of Ingelonde on Synt Edwarde ys evyn, Synt Edwarde bothe kynge and confessoure, the xij day of Octobera, and they taryd at Calys xxxvj wekys.

Note a. This is really the date of the breaking up of their camp at Ludlow, not of their leaving England.

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Calendars. Membrane 27d. 30 Oct 1459. Farnham Royal, Buckinghamshire [Map]. Commission of array to [his future father-in-law] Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (age 54), knight, and the sheriff of Kent in Kent, to resist [his father] Richard, duke of York (age 48), Edward Earl of March (age 17), Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 30), and [his uncle] Richard, Earl of Salisbury (age 59), and their accomplices, leagued in rebellion against the king and crown and allowed by certain persons having the keeping of the town and castle of Calais [Map] to enter the same contrary to the king's mandates, and now preparing to arouse congregations and insur rections in the said county; and appointment of the same to arrest all ships and other vessels late of the said Earl of Warwick and all the tackling thereof and to keep the same for the king's use. By K.

Around Nov 1459 Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30), [his uncle] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 59) and King Edward IV of England (age 17) fled to Calais [Map].

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

On 26 Jun 1460 King Edward IV of England (age 18) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 31) landed at Sandwich, Kent [Map].

Before Jul 1460 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales (age 63) and Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns (age 29) were commissioned to hold London for the Lancastrians. They retreated to the Tower of London [Map] where they set the guns of the Tower towards the City; it isn't known whether they were fired or not. They eventually surrendered for lack of food. He was sent to Sanctuary Westminster Abbey [Map].

On 20 Jul 1460 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales (age 63) was murdered by boatmen whilst travelling from the Tower of London [Map] to Sanctuary Westminster Abbey [Map]. His daughter Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers succeeded 8th Baroness Scales. She was, or had been married to, Henry Bourchier (the year of his death may been 1458). She was in 1466 married to [his future brother-in-law] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 20), brother of King Edward IV's (age 18) wife [his future wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 23); an example of the Woodville family marrying rich heiresses.

1460 Battle of Northampton

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future King Edward IV of England (age 18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 31), Archbishop George Neville (age 28), [his uncle] William Neville 1st Earl Kent (age 55), Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 43), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham (age 45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the 1460 Battle of Northampton.

King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) was captured.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 57) was killed. His grandson Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 5) succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 7th Earl Stafford, 8th Baron Stafford.

John Talbot 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 42) was killed. His son John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 11) succeeded 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall, 12th Baron Strange Blackmere, 9th Baron Talbot.

Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 37) was killed.

John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont (age 50) was killed. His son William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 22) succeeded 2nd Viscount Beaumont, 7th Baron Beaumont.

William Lucy (age 56) was killed apparently by a member of the Stafford family who wanted his wife Margaret Fitzlewis (age 21).

Thomas Tresham (age 40) fought.

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 22) and William Norreys (age 19) were knighted.

Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland was executed following the battle.

The battle was fought south of the Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map] River Nene in the grounds of Delapré Abbey.

Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was declared heir to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (age 7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was created Prince of Wales, 1st Duke Cornwall. He was also appointed Lord Protector.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle [Map]. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30), Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke Somerset (age 24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon (age 25) and William Gascoigne XIII (age 30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), Henry Roos and Thomas St Leger (age 20).

The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.

[his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was killed. His son King Edward IV of England (age 18) succeeded 4th Duke York, 7th Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49), 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge.

Thomas Neville (age 30), Thomas Harrington (age 60), and Edward Bourchier were killed.

William Bonville 6th Baron Harington (age 18) was killed. His daughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 7th Baroness Harington.

Thomas Parr (age 53) fought in the Yorkist army.

Following the battle [his uncle] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland. William Bonville (age 40) was executed.

[his brother] Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 17) was killed on Wakefield Bridge [Map] by John "Butcher" Clifford (age 25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher". Earl of Rutland extinct.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Then come tydyngys of the comynge of þea Erle of Marche (age 18) unto London; thenn alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and sayde that

He that had Londyn for sake

Wolde no more to hem take,

and sayde, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with thys fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche (age 18)." And the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle owte of hit, at a towne of hys owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde [Map]; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was fulle sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for hys fadyr the [his father] Duke of Yorke (age 49), and for hys good brother the [his brother] Erle of Rutlond (age 17), and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.

Note a. the repeated in MS.

Before 1461 King Edward IV (age 18) donated a pulpit to St Mary and All Saints Church, Fotheringhay [Map].

In 1461 Thomas Witham's (age 41) appointment as Chancellor of the Exchequer was confirmed by King Edward IV of England (age 18).

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

On 02 Feb 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross, Herefordshire [Map] the future King Edward IV of England (age 18) commanded the Yorkist forces including William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 30), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 35), John Savage (age 17) and Roger Vaughan (age 51).

In the Lancastrian army Owen Tudor (age 61) (captured by Roger Vaughan (age 51)) and his son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 29) fought as well as James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40) and Henry Roos. Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth (age 68) were killed. Watkin Vaughan (age 66) and Henry Wogan (age 59) were killed.

Monument to the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross, Herefordshire [Map]. Note the mistake - Edward IV described as Edward Mortimer. The monument was erected by subscription in 1799.

Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth: In 1393 he was born to Nicolas ap Philip Deheubarth and Jonet Unknown at Sheffield.

Watkin Vaughan: Around 1395 he was born to Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam "Star of Abergavenny" Brecon. Around 1435 Watkin Vaughan and Elinor Wogan were married. The date based on his age being around twenty. The difference in their ages was 29 years.

Henry Wogan: In 1402 he was born to John Wogan at Wiston.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 02 Feb 1461. Alle so Edwarde Erle of Marche (age 18), the Duke of Yorke ys sone and heyre, hadde a gre jornaye at Mortymer ys Crosse in Walys the secunde day of Februar nexte soo folowynge, and there he put to flyght the Erle of Penbroke (age 29), the Erle of Wylteschyre (age 40). And there he toke and slowe of knyghtys and squyers, and of the,a to the nomber of iij M1 [3000] ., &c.

Ande in that jornay was Owyn Tetyr (age 61) take and brought unto Herforde este, an he was be heddyde at the market place [Map], and hys hedde sette a-pone the hygheyste gryce of the market crosse, and a madde woman kembyd hys here and wysche a way the blode of hys face, and she gate candellys and sette a-boute hym brennynge, moo then a C [Note. One hundred]. Thys Owyne Tytyr (age 61) was fadyr unto the Erle of Penbroke (age 29), and hadde weddyd Quene Kateryn, Kyng Harry the VI (age 39). ys modyr, wenyng and trustyng all eway that he shulde not be hedyd tylle he sawe the axe and the blocke, and whenn that he was in hys dobelet he trustyd on pardon and grace tylle the coler of hys redde vellvet dobbelet was ryppyd of. Then he sayde, "That hede shalle ly on the stocke that was wonte to ly on Quene Kateryns lappe," and put hys herte and mynde holy unto God, and fulle mekely toke hys dethe.

Alle soo the same day that the Erle of Marche (age 18) shulde take hys jornaye towarde Mortymer ys Crosse fro Herforde esteb, he mousterd hys many with owte the towne wallys in a mersche that ys callyd Wyg mersche. And ovyr hym men sayc iij [3] sonnys schynyng.[This a reference to the Parhelion which occurred on the morning of the Battle of Mortimer's Cross.]

Note a. So in MS.

Note b. Haverfordwest.

Note c. saw.

Second Battle of St Albans

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 45), Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 26), Henry Roos and Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby 7th Baron Welles (age 33).

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme (age 46), John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 12) and Thomas Tresham (age 41) were knighted.

The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel (age 43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 30) was captured. Robert Poynings (age 42) and James Luttrell (age 34) were killed.

John Grey (age 29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow [his future wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 24) subsequently married King Edward IV of England (age 18).


During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) and Thomas Kyriell (age 65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (age 39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.

William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) was beheaded. His great granddaughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 2nd Baroness Bonville.

Thomas Kyriell (age 65) was beheaded.

William Cotton (age 21) was killed.

Proclamation of Edward IV as King

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Alle soo the xxvj [26] day of Februer nexte folowyng Edwarde Erle of Marche (age 18) com to London owt of Walys and the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) with hym, and xl M1 [40,000] men with hem bothe, and they enteryd unto the cytte of London, and there he toke uppon hym the crowne of Inglond by the avysse of the lordys spyrytual and temporalle, and by the elexyon of the comyns. And so he began hys rayne the iiij day of Marche, in the yere of oure Lorde God M1CCCC lxj [1461], the Sondy letter D as for that yere.

On 04 Mar 1461 King Edward IV of England (age 18) declared himself King of England. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 30) was present.

Around Mar 1461 Thomas Billing was knighted on the accession of King Edward IV of England (age 18).

Calendars. 12 Mar 1461. Westminster Palace [Map]. Commission to the king's kinsman Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 32), to receive deserters from the party of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39) and to cause proclamations to be made to the effect, and to seize the possessions of all recusants. By K (age 18) by word of mouth.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. The xiij day of Marche the kynge, owre newe Kynge Edwarde (age 18), toke hys jornaye unto the Northe, and the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) with hym. The Erle of Warwycke (age 32) and the Lorde Fauconbrygge (age 32), with many knyghtes, squyers, and comyns, to the nombyr of iic Mlmen.

Battle of Towton

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for King Edward IV of England (age 18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.

The Yorkist army was commanded by King Edward IV of England (age 18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 45), [his uncle] William Neville 1st Earl Kent (age 56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 30) (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy (age 45), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 57), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 23) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61).

The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Richard Percy (age 35), Ralph Bigod Lord Morley (age 50), John Bigod (age 28), Robert Cromwell (age 71), Ralph Eure (age 49), John Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 51), John Beaumont (age 33), Thomas Dethick (age 61), Everard Simon Digby, William Plumpton (age 25) and William Welles (age 51) who were killed.

Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39) was killed. His son Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 12) succeeded 4th Earl of Northumberland, 7th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 15th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland (age 3) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 49) was killed. He was buried at the nearby Saxton church where his chest tombs is extant. Baron Dacre Gilsland extinct.

Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles (age 55) was killed. His son Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby 7th Baron Welles (age 33) succeeded 7th Baron Welles.


The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke Somerset (age 25), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39) and Andrew Trollope.

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30) was attainted after the battle; Duke Exeter, Earl Huntingdon forfeit.

Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme (age 46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 60), William Norreys (age 20), Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey of Richemont (age 43), Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns (age 30), John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby 7th Baron Welles (age 33), [his future father-in-law] Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde (age 39), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 22), Henry Roos and Thomas Tresham (age 41). Cardinal John Morton (age 41) were captured.

On 03 Apr 1461 Thomas Courtenay 14th Earl Devon (age 29) was beheaded at York [Map] and attainted.

John Heron of Ford Castle Northumberland (age 45), Robert Dethick (age 86), Andrew Trollope and his son David Trollope were killed.

Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey of Richemont (age 43) was executed.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xxix [29] day of the same monythe of Marche, that was þe Palme Sunday, the kyng (age 18) mette with the lordys of the Northe at Schyrborne. And there was on Harrys party that was kynge-

Prynce Edwarde (age 7), Kyng Harrys son.

The Duke of Exceter (age 30).

The Duke of Somersett (age 25).

The Erle of Northehumberlond (age 39).

The Erle of Devynschyre (age 29).

The Lorde Roos.

The Lorde Bemound (age 33).

The Lorde Clyfforde (deceased).

The Lorde Nevyle.

The Lorde Wellys (age 51).

The Lorde Wylby (age 40).

The Lorde Harry of Bokyngham.

[his future father-in-law] The Lorde Ryvers (age 56).

The Lorde Schalys.

The Lorde Maule (age 50).

The Lorde Ferys of Groby (age 23).

The Lorde Foschewe. [Possibly John Fortescue (age 67)]

The Lorde Lovelle (age 28).

Syr Thomas Hammys, captayne of alle the fote men.

Syr Androwe Thorlloppe.

Syr Thomas Tressam (age 41).

Syr Robert Whytyngham (age 32).

Syr John Dawne.

And the yonge Lorde of Schrouysbury (age 12), and many moo othyr, bothe lordys, knyghtys, and squyers.


Here ben the namys of the lordys that were slayne in the felde in Kynge Harrys (age 39) party.

The Erle of Northehumberlond (age 39),

The Lorde Clyfforde (deceased),

The Lorde Nevyle (age 51),

The Lorde Wellys (age 51),

The Lorde Maules (age 50),

And many moo then I can reherse; but whythe [t]es and othyr that were slayne in the fylde ys a grete nombyr, by syde xlij [42] knyghtys that were slayne aftyr; the hoole nombyr ys xxxv M1 [35000] of comeners. Jhesu be þou marcyfulle unto hyr soulys. Amen.


And the lordys before wretyn fledde, the substance in to Schotlond with the Kynge Harry (age 39) and Quene Margarete (age 31), and sone the Prynce (age 7) with hym, fulle of sorowe and hevynys, no wondyr. God knowythe, but every man deme the beste tylle the trought be tryde owte. For many a lady lost hyr beste be lovyd in that batayle.

Paston Letters Volume 2 450. 04 Apr 1461. William Paston and John Playters to John Paston (age 39).

To my maister, John Paston, in hast,

Please you to knowe and wete of suche tydyngs as my Lady of York hath by a lettre of credens, under the signe manuel of oure Soverayn Lord King Edward, whiche lettre cam un to oure sayd Lady this same day, Esterne Evyn, at xj. clok, and was sene and red by me, William Paston.

Fyrst, oure Soverayn Lord (age 18) hath wonne the feld, and uppon the Munday next after Palmesunday, he was resseved in to York with gret solempnyte and processyons. And the Mair the Yorkist cause and Comons of the said cite mad ther menys to have grace be Lord Montagu (age 30) and Lord Barenars (age 45), whiche be for the Kyngs coming in to the said cite desyred hym of grace for the said cite, whiche graunted hem grace. On the Kyngs parte is slayn Lord Fitz Water (deceased), and Lord Scrop (age 23) sore hurt; John Stafford, Horne of Kent ben ded; and Umfrey Stafford, William Hastyngs (age 30) mad knyghts with other; Blont is knygth, &c.

Un the contrary part is ded Lord Clyfford (deceased), Lord Nevyle (deceased), Lord Welles (deceased), Lord Wyllouby, Antony Lord Scales, Lord Harry, and be supposyng the Erle of Northumberland, Andrew Trollop, with many other gentyll and comons to the nomber of xx.ml. (20000).

Item, Kyng Harry, the Qwen, the Prince, Duke of Somerset, Duke of Exeter, Lord Roos, be fledde in to Scotteland, and they be chased and folwed, &c. We send no er un to you be cause we had non certynges tyl now; for un to this day London was as sory cite as myght. And because Spordauns had no certeyn tydyngs, we thought ye schuld take them a worthe tyl more certayn.

Item, Thorp Waterfeld is yeldyn, as Spordauns can telle you. And Jesu spede you. We pray you that this tydyngs my moder may knowe.

Be your Broder,

W. PASTON.

T. PLAYTERS.


Comes Northumbriæ (deceased).

Comes Devon (deceased).

Dominus de Beamunde.

Dominus de Clifford (deceased).

Dominus de Nevyll (deceased).

Dominus de Dacre (deceased).

Dominus Henricus de Bokyngham.

Dominus de Well[es] (deceased).

Dominus de Scales Antony Revers.

Dominus de Wellugby.

Dominus de Malley Radulfus Bigot Miles.

Millites.

Sir Rauff Gray.

Sir Ric. Jeney.

Sir Harry Bekingham.

Sir Andrew Trollop.

With xxviij.ml. (28000) nomberd by Harralds.

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Edward IV

In Apr 1461 King Edward IV of England (age 18) appointed new Garter Knights:

185th [his brother] George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 11).

186th William Chamberlaine.

Calendars. 02 May 1461. Westminster Palace [Map]. The like (Grant for life) to the king's (age 19) kinsman John Neville of Montagu (age 30), knight, from Easter last, of the king's mines in Decon and Cornwall in which gold and silver can be found or worked for, at a rent of 110l yearly, as the king's father used to pay, with power of demise the same for 10, 15 or 20 years, provided that after his death the holders pay a tithe of the pure silver or lead to the king or his farmer. By p.s.

Calendars. 04 May 1461. Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to the king's (age 19) kinsman George (age 29), Bishop of Exeter, from Easter last of the custody of the king's manor manor or lordship of Chiltern Langley in Hertfordshire, with mills, rents, vert and other profits, excepting 250 rabbits yearly for the king's hosehold, at a yearly rent of 50 marks 20d as formerly and 6s 8d besides; with acquittance of repairs and allowance for any annuity granted out of the manor. By K (age 19).

Calendars. 07 May 1461. Middleham Castle [Map]. Grant to the king's (age 19) kinsman Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 32), of the custody of all lordships, manors and lands with knight's fees and advowsons held by the king's uncle [his uncle] George Neville (age 54), knight, lord Latymer, within the county of York or elsewhere, during the idiotcy of the latter, even though no inquisition has been taken. By other letters patent.

Calendars. 08 May 1461. York [Map]. Commission to John Haryngton (age 47), esquire, John Kyrton, Thomas Banke and William Boleyn to arrest Thomas CLaymond, esquire, Robert Heryng, 'sowter' and John Hedale, carpenter, and bring them before the king (age 19) in Chancery.

Coronation of Edward IV

Around Jun 1461, the time of his coronation, King Edward IV of England (age 19) created his two brothers as Dukes ...

[his brother] George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 11) was created 1st Duke Clarence.

[his brother] King Richard III of England (age 8) was created 1st Duke Gloucester.

On 28 Jun 1461 King Edward IV of England (age 19) was crowned IV King England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 43) who was assisted by Archbishop William Booth (age 73) at Westminster Abbey [Map] during the Coronation of Edward IV. Duke York, Earl March, Earl Ulster, Earl Cambridge merged with the Crown.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 28 Jun 1461. Ande the Kynge (age 19) taryd in the Northe a grette whyle, a made grete inquerens of the rebellyens a-gayne hys fadyr. And toke downe hys [his father] fadyrs hedde fro the walle of Yorke [Map]. And made alle the contray to ben sworne unt hym and to hys lawys. And then he returnyd unto Lundon agayne. And there he made xviij [18] knyghtys and many lordys. And then he rode to Westemyster. And there he was crounyd the xxviij day of June, and the yere of oure Lorde M1CCCC lxj [1461], blessyd be God of hys grete grace, etc.

Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

Around Jun 1461, the record is very vague, King Edward IV (age 19) and Eleanor Talbot (age 25) were possibly secretly married by Bishop Robert Stillington (age 41). The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Bishop Robert Stillington (age 41) provided the information to the future [his brother] King Richard III of England (age 8) in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since Edward IV's (age 19) children with [his future wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 24) were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and [his brother] George Duke of Clarence's (age 11) children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder.

Calendars. On 05 Jun 1461. Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury (age 43), of the custody of the lordship, manor and park of Langle by Maydeston, co Kent [Map], rendering 5 marks yearly. By K (age 19).

Edward IV Rewards his Followers

On 26 Jul 1461 William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 30) was created 1st Baron Hastings for supporting King Edward IV of England (age 19) in his claim to the throne.

Robert Ogle 1st Baron Ogle (age 55) was created 1st Baron Ogle by King Edward IV of England (age 19) for having been the principal Northumbrian gentleman to support the Yorkist cause.

On 09 Sep 1461 Baldwin Fulford (age 46) was beheaded at Bristol, Gloucestershire [Map] on the orders of King Edward IV of England (age 19) for having supported King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39).

Calendars. 26 Nov 1461. Westminster Palace [Map]. The like (Grant for life) to Margaret, duchess of Somerset (age 51), of 166l 13s 4d yearly from Michaelmas, 39 Henry VI, from the king's petty custom in the port of London and the same at the same at the receipt of the Exchequer, in lieu of a grant and confirmation to her of the same sums in pdwer by latters atent dated 9 July, surrendered. By K (age 19).

Calendars. 02 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to the king's (age 19) kinsman John, Earl of Worcester (age 34), of the office of the constable of the Tower of London, with the accustomed fees.

Calendars. 03 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace [Map]. Appointment of the king's (age 19) kinsman Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 33), to execute the office of steward of England at the trial of Henry VI and other rebels who murdered the King's father Richard, duke of York, at Wakefield.

1462 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1462 King Edward IV of England (age 19) appointed new Garter Knights:

187th John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 34).

188th William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 31).

189th John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 31).

190th William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 39).

191st John Astley.

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. 1462. Thenn the Kynge Edwarde the iiij (age 19) purposyd to make an arme into Schotlonde by londe and by water, that the grete rebellyous Harry ande the Quene Margarete shulde not passe a way by water. And the kyng made the Erle of Worseter (age 34) captayne by water. And thenn there was ordaynyd a grete navy and a grete armye bothe by watyr and by lond. And alle was loste and in vayne, and cam too noo purposse, neyther by water ne by londe.

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. 1462. Alle so the kynge (age 19) sone aftyr dysposyd hym, and was purposyd to ryde into Yorke schyre and to the contray a boute, to see and understonde the dysposyscyon of the pepylle of the Northe. And toke with hym the Duke of Somersett (age 25), and ij C of hys men welle horsyd and welle i-harnaysyd. Ande the sayde Duke, Harry of Somersett, ande his men were made the Kyngys garde, for the Kyng hadde that duke in moche favyr and trustyd hym welle. But [t]e garde of hym was as men shulde put a lombe a monge wolvysse of malyscyus bestys; but Alle myghty God was the scheparde. And whenn the kynge departyd from London he toke hys way to Northehampton [Map], and thedyr the kynge com a Syn Jamys day the Apostylle, ande that fals duke with hym. And the comyns of the towne of Northehampton [Map] and of the schyre a-boute sawe that the fals duke and traytoure was so nyghe the Kyngys presens and was made hys garde. The comyns a rosse uppon that fals traytur thee Duke of Somersett, and wolde have slayne hym with yn the kyngys palys. And thenn the kynge with fayre speche and grete defeculte savyde hys lyffe for that tyme, and that was pytte, for the savynge of hys lyffe at that tyme causyd mony mannys dethys son aftyr, as ye shalle heyre. And then the Duke sende that fals Duke of Somersett in to a castelle of hys owne fulle secretly, for save garde of hys the dukys lyffe, and the dukys men unto Newe Castelle [Map], to kepe the towne, and gave hem goode wages fulle treuly payde. And the Kyng fulle lovyngly gave the comyns of Northehampton [Map] a tonne of wyne that they shulde drynke and make mery. And [t]e wyne was drunkyn merely in the market place, for they hadde many fayre pecys of sylvyr. I darsay ther ys no taverne that hathe not so moche of stuffe as they occupyde in hys hyr tavernys. For sum fette wyne in basynnys, and sum in caudryns, and sum in bollys, and sum in pannys and sum in dyschys. Loo, the grete tresoure that they scheuyd that tyme.

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

Before 20 Feb 1462 John de Vere 12th Earl of Oxford (age 53), his son Aubrey de Vere and Thomas Tuddenham (age 60) were arrested for treason against King Edward IV (age 19). They were subsequently tried by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 34).

1464 Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. Jul 1462. Thys yere Quene Margarete (age 32) com owt of Frauns with lij [52] schyppys, with Freynysche men and sum Engelysche men in the schyppys. And they londyd in Northe Humberlonde, hyt was vij dayes be-fore Alle Halwyn tyde. And there sche toke the castelle of Anwyke [Map] and put hyt fulle of Fraynyschemen. And thenn she retornyd in to Schotlonde by water. And there rosse suche a tempaste uppon hyr that she for soke hyr schippe, and a schapyd with the bote of þe schyppe. And the schyppe was drownyd with moche of hyr stuffe and iij [3] grete schippys moo. And iiij c and vj [406] Fraynysche men were take in the chyrche of Hooly Ylond [Map]. Thenn Kyng Edward (age 20) hyrde telle of thys, and made hym redy towarde the Northe with many lordys, gentellys, and comyns with hym. And there he layde a sege to Anwyke Castelle [Map], and to the castelle of Bamborowe [Map], and to Dunsterborowe [Map]. Bamborowe [Map] and Dunsterborowe [Map] was kepte by Syr Raffe Persy (age 37) and Syr Harry Bewforde (age 26), late Duke of Somersett, and the castelle of Anwyke [Map] with the Lorde Hungerforde (age 31). And Bamborowe [Map] and Dunsterborowe [Map] were yoldyn be Syr Raffe Percy (age 37) and Syr Harry Beuford (age 26), late Duke of Somersett, to the Kyngys wylle, whythe the condyscyons that the sayde Raffe Percy (age 37) schulde have the kepynge of the ij castellys, Bamborowe [Map] and Dunstarborowe [Map]. The sayde Syr Raffe Percy (age 37) and Syr Harry Beuforde (age 26), late Duke of Somersett, were sworne to be trewe and faythefulle as trewe lege men unto owre kynge and soverayne lorde Edwarde the iiijthe (age 20). And they com to Derham [Map], and there they were sworne byfore owre kynge. And the kynge gaffe hem hys levery and grete rewardys. See 1464 Suppressing the Lancastrian Northern Resistance.

Before Dec 1462 Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 31) was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Edward IV of England (age 20), and to the Privy Council.

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. Dec 1462. And then Kyng Edward (age 20) made Syr John Ascheley, the knyght that fought so manly in Smethefylde with an alyon that calengyd, he was made captayne of the castelle, and Syr Raffe Gray (age 30) constabylle of the sayde castelle of Anwycke [Map]. And withyn iij or iiij monythys aftyr that fals knyght and traytoure, Syr Raffe Graye (age 30), by fals treson toke the sayde Syr John Ascheley presoner, and delyveryd hym to Quene Margarete (age 32), and thenn delyveryde the castelle to the Lorde Hungerforde (age 31) and unto the Fraynysche men accompanyd whythe hym; and by thys mene he put the kyng owre soverayne lorde owte of possessyon. And thenne aftyr that come Kyng Harry that was, and the Quene to the Kynge of Schottys, Syr Perys de Brasylle (age 52), with iiijxx M1 Schottys, and layde a sege unto the castelle of Norham [Map], and lay there xviij [8] dayes.

1463 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1463 King Edward IV of England (age 20) appointed new Garter Knights:

192nd Ferdinand I King Naples (age 39).

193rd Galeard Durefort (age 33).

194th John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 25).

195th Francesco Sforza I Duke Milan (age 61).

196th James Douglas 9th Earl Douglas 3rd Earl Avondale (age 37).

197th Robert Harcourt (age 52).

On 28 Feb 1463 John Lovell 8th Baron Lovel 5th Baron Holand (age 30) died. On 28 Feb 1463 His son Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 7) succeeded 9th Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh, 6th Baron Holand at around eight years of age. He became a ward of King Edward IV of England (age 20) who gave his wardship to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 34) spending his childhood at Middleham Castle [Map] with the young (future) [his brother] King Richard III of England (age 10).

On 21 Aug 1463 Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby 7th Baron Welles (age 35) arrived at Dover, Kent [Map] with King Edward IV of England (age 21).

Around 1464 [his illegitimate daughter] Elizabeth York was born illegitimately to King Edward IV of England (age 21) and Elizabeth Waite.

In 1464 Henry Pierrepont (age 34) rewarded by King Edward IV of England (age 21) for his good and laudable services at his great cost and charges, and with manifold bodily dangers against the king's rebels levying war against him.

Battle of Hedgeley Moor

On 25 Apr 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 33) defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke Somerset (age 28) at Hedgeley Moor [Map] during the Battle of Hedgeley Moor.

Of the Lancastrians ...

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 36) was killed. His son Edmund Ros 10th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 9) succeeded 10th Baron Ros Helmsley. Thomas' lands however, including Belvoir Castle [Map] was given by King Edward IV of England (age 21) to William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 33).

Ralph Percy (age 39) was killed.

Edmund Ros 10th Baron Ros Helmsley: Around 1455 he was born to Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley and Philippa Tiptoft Baroness Ros Helmsley. On 23 Oct 1508 Edmund Ros 10th Baron Ros Helmsley died. Baron Ros Helmsley abeyant between his daughters.

Marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. 01 May 1464. That same yere, the fyrste day of May be fore sayde or wrete, oure soverayne lorde the Kynge, Edwarde the iiij (age 22), was weddyd to the [his father-in-law] Lorde Ryvers (age 59) doughter; hyr name ys [his wife] Dame Elyzabethe (age 27), that was wyffe unto Syr John Grey, sone and heyre unto the Lady Ferys of Groby (age 45). And thys maryage was kepte fulle secretely longe and many a day, that no man knewe hyt; but men mervelyd that oure soverayne lorde was so longe with owte any wyffe, and were evyr ferde that he had be not chaste of hys levynge.

On 01 May 1464 King Edward IV of England (age 22) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 27) were married at Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire [Map]. Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 49), Elizabeth's mother, being the only witness. The date not certain. She the daughter of Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 59) and Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 49). He the son of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 48). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Around 01 May 1464 [his illegitimate son] Arthur Plantagenet 1st Viscount Lisle was born illegitimately to King Edward IV of England (age 22) and Elizabeth Waite.

Edward IV announces his marriage at Privy Council

In Sep 1464 King Edward IV of England (age 22) announced his recent marriage at Privy Council to the astonishment of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 35) who had until recently been actively seeking a French Princess as Edward's future wife.

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. 01 Nov 1464. But on Alle Halowe day at Redyng there it was knowe, for there the kynge (age 22) kepte hys comyn counselle, and the lordys mevyd hym and exortyd hym in Goddys name to ben weddyd and to lyffe undyr the lawe of God and Chyrche, and they wold sente in too sum stronge lond to inquere a quene good of byrthe, a-cordyng unto hys dygnyte. And thenn our soverayne myght not no longer hyde hys maryage, and tolde hem howe he hadde done, and made that the maryage shuld be oppynde unto hys lordys.

In 1465 [his brother] Richard Duke of Gloucester (age 12) was appointed 198th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV of England (age 22).

In 1465 [his brother-in-law] John Woodville (age 20) was created Knight of the Bath.

Marriage of John Woodville and Catherine Neville

In Jan 1465 [his brother-in-law] John Woodville (age 20) and [his aunt] Katherine Neville Duchess Norfolk (age 65) were married. Described as a 'Diabolical Marriage' by opponents of the Woodvilles. He being nineteen, she sixty-five. His first wife, her fourth husband. Regarded as an example of the Woodville family increasing their wealth and power. See Woodville Marriages The difference in their ages was 45 years. She the daughter of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland. He the son of Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 60) and Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 50). She a great granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Coronation of Elizabeth Woodville

On 26 May 1465 [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 28) was crowned Queen Consort England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 47) at Westminster Abbey [Map].

King Edward IV of England (age 23) attended.

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 23), [his brother-in-law] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 25), [his brother-in-law] Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers (age 12) and William Calthorpe (age 55) were created Knight of the Bath.

Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey (age 21) carried her train.

Judge Richard Choke (age 45) was created Knight of the Bath.

In 1466 [his brother-in-law] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 26) was appointed 199th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV of England (age 23).

On 11 Feb 1466 [his daughter] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England was born to King Edward IV of England (age 23) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 29) at Westminster Palace [Map].

Before Mar 1466 [his father-in-law] Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 61) was created 1st Earl Rivers by King Edward IV of England (age 23).

In Oct 1466 [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 11) and Anne Holland (age 5) were married at Greenwich, Kent [Map]. See She the daughter of Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 36) and Anne York Duchess Exeter (age 27). He the son of John Grey and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 29). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1467 Thomas Cooke was charged with high treason for lending money to Margaret (age 36), the queen of the deposed Lancastrian King Henry VI (age 45), on the strength of a confession of a statement obtained under torture from one Hawkins. Chief Justice Markham directed the jury to find it only misprision of treason, whereby Cooke's lands and life were saved, though he was heavily fined and long imprisoned. While awaiting his trial in the Tower his effects, both at his town house and at Gidea Hall [Map], were seized by [his father-in-law] Lord Rivers (age 62), then treasurer of England, and his wife was committed to the custody of the mayor. On his acquittal he was sent to the Bread Street compter [Map], and afterwards to the king's bench [Map], and was kept there until he paid eight thousand pounds to the king (age 24) and eight hundred pounds to the [his wife] queen (age 30). Lord Rivers (age 62) and his [his mother-in-law] wife (age 52), the Duchess of Bedford, also obtained the dismissal of Markham from his office for having determined that Cooke was not guilty of treason.

In 1467 Bishop John Russell sent by King Edward IV of England (age 24) on a diplomatic mission to Charles "Bold" Valois Duke Burgundy (age 33) at Bruges [Map].

In 1467 Iñigo Avalos was appointed 200th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV of England (age 24).

On 13 May 1467 John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 5) was created 1st Earl Lincoln by King Edward IV of England (age 25).

Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

On 29 May 1467 King Edward IV of England (age 25) and Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" (age 46) met at Chelsea. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 36), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 63), Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 12), [his brother-in-law] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 27), James Douglas 9th Earl Douglas 3rd Earl Avondale (age 41) and Thomas Montgomery accompanied Edward.

On 08 Jun 1467 King Edward IV of England (age 25) and John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 40) went to Whitehall Palace [Map] to retrieve the Great Seal from Archbishop George Neville (age 35). Considered as a slight against the Neville family to whom King Edward IV of England (age 25) was increasingly distant.

On 11 Jun 1467 the fighting on horseback took place witnessed by King Edward IV of England (age 25). John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 40) was Master of the Ceremonies accompanied by John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 42). The day ended with the Bastard's (age 46) horse having being accidentally fatally injured by [his brother-in-law] Lord Scales' (age 11) saddle.

On 14 Jun 1467 the Tournament ended with a great banquet attended by King Edward IV of England (age 25) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 30) at the Grocer's Hall. John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 40) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel (age 49) were present.

On 16 Jun 1467 a great banquet was hosted by the King's older sister [his sister] Anne York Duchess Exeter (age 27) and, in the absence of her husband Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 36) who remained, her future husband Thomas St Leger (age 27). King Edward IV of England (age 25) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 30) attended as did Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" (age 46).

On 11 Aug 1467 [his daughter] Mary York was born to King Edward IV of England (age 25) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 30) at Windsor Castle [Map].

On or before 15 Aug 1467 William Bourchier Viscount Bourchier (age 37) and [his sister-in-law] Anne Woodville Viscountess Bourchier (age 29) were married. An example of a Woodville marriage to a wealthy family which antagonised the nobilty - see Woodville Marriages. William Bourchier Viscount Bourchier (age 37) was heir to his father Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 63). She the daughter of Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 62) and Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 52). He the son of Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 63) and Isabel York Countess Eu and Essex (age 58). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 10 May 1468 King Edward IV of England (age 26), his brother [his brother] Richard Duke of Gloucester (age 15), John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 41) and John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 42) met in the Chapter House at Salisbury Cathedral [Map].

On 24 May 1468 King Edward IV of England (age 26) was admitted to the confraternity of the Chapter of Salisbury in the Chapter House at Salisbury Cathedral [Map].

In 1469 William Norreys (age 28) was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Edward IV of England (age 26).

Execution of Warwick's Supporters

On 17 Jan 1469 Warwick's supporters were executed in Salisbury Marketplace [Map] in the presence of King Edward IV of England (age 26):

Thomas Hungerford was beheaded. His father Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns had been executed five years previously after the Battle of Hexham.

Henry Courtenay was beheaded.

On 20 Mar 1469 [his daughter] Cecily York Viscountess Welles was born to King Edward IV of England (age 26) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 32) at Westminster Palace [Map]. Named after her father's mother [his mother] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 53).

Capture of Edward IV

After 26 Jul 1469 King Edward IV of England (age 27) was captured by his brother [his brother] George (age 19) at Olney, Buckinghamshire [Map] after the Battle of Edgecote Moor.

Around 05 Aug 1469 King Edward IV of England (age 27) was imprisoned at Warwick Castle [Map].

Execution of the Woodvilles

On 12 Aug 1469 Woodvilles father and son were beheaded at Kenilworth Castle [Map] by supporters of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40).

[his father-in-law] Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 64) was beheaded. His son [his brother-in-law] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 29) succeeded 2nd Earl Rivers. Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers by marriage Countess Rivers.

[his brother-in-law] John Woodville (age 24) was beheaded.

Around 15 Aug 1469 King Edward IV of England (age 27) was imprisoned at Middleham Castle [Map].

On 10 Sep 1469 King Edward IV of England (age 27) was released by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40) afer Warwick realised he didn't have sufficient support for an alternative regime.

Execution of the Neville Brothers

On 29 Sep 1469 brothers Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (age 30) and Charles Neville of Brancepeth were beheaded at York [Map] in the presence of King Edward IV of England (age 27) and Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40) bringing to an end the Neville-Neville feud that arose as a consequence of the senior line being dis-inherited.

Around Oct 1469 Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 38) rescued King Edward IV of England (age 27) from Middleham Castle [Map].

In 1470 Bishop John Hales (age 70) was appointed Lord Keeper of the Great Seal by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 48) during his re-adeption but lost it again when King Edward IV of England (age 27) was restored in 1471.

In Feb 1470 Charles "Bold" Valois Duke Burgundy (age 36) was appointed 201st Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV of England (age 27).

Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

Before 03 Feb 1470 Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles attacked Gainsborough Old Hall, Lincolnshire [Map] home of Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 39), a senior Yorkist, Edward IV's (age 27) Master of the Horse. It isn't known whether this attack was a consequence of local or national issues. King Edward IV of England (age 27) summoned Robert's father Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby 7th Baron Welles (age 42) and uncle-in-law Thomas Dymoke (age 42) (married to Margaret Welles (age 38) sister of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles) to London. Both initially went into Sanctuary Westminster Abbey [Map] but were pardoned on 03 Mar 1470.

After 03 Mar 1470 Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles continued to resist King Edward IV of England (age 27) by raising forces in Lincolnshire. King Edward IV of England (age 27) travelled north and threatened Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles with the execution of his father (age 42) and Thomas Dymoke (age 42) if Robert persisted in rebellion.

On 12 Mar 1470 King Edward IV of England (age 27) commanded at the Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham). The battle apparently didn't take place since the army of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles fled in the face of the Royal army. The name 'Losecoat' not contemporary; Battle of Empingham may be. Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles was captured with documents describing the fomenting of rebellion by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 41) and [his brother] George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 20).

On 19 Mar 1470 Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles was beheaded at Doncaster [Map]. He was buried at Whitefriars Doncaster [Map]. His sister Joan Welles 9th Baroness Willoughby Eresby succeeded 9th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby. Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby (age 37) by marriage Baron Willoughby de Eresby. He, Hastings, a favourite of King Edward IV of England (age 27), younger brother of Edward's (age 27) great friend William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 39).

Before 23 Jan 1475 Joan Welles 9th Baroness Willoughby Eresby died.

Christopher Willoughby 10th Baron Willoughby (age 22) de jure 10th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Margaret Jenney Baroness Willoughby Eresby (age 15) by marriage Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.

King Edward IV of England (age 32) had father and son Richard Welles 7th Baron Willoughby 7th Baron Welles and Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles posthumously attainted some five years after the Welles' Rebellion to ensure Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby (age 42) would continue to enjoy the benefit of the Welles' estates; he was given a life interest in the estates on 23 Jan 1475. Another example of King Edward IV of England (age 32) being somewhat disingenuous with the legal system to his own advantage. He, Edward (age 32) was, in effect, disinheriting Christopher Willoughby 10th Baron Willoughby (age 22) who should have inherited Baron Willoughby de Eresby and John Welles 1st Viscount Welles (age 25) who should have inherited Baron Welles following Joan's death.

Earldom of Northumberland returned to the Percy Family

On 27 Mar 1470 George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 9) was created 1st Duke Bedford by King Edward IV of England (age 27) in preparation for his marriage to [his daughter] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 4) which didn't, in the end, take place. He, George, was nephew to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 41) whose defection to the Lancastrian side may have caused the King to change his mind about his daughter's marriage. The attainder of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 39), if it was enacted, would have resulted in the King appropriating the his estate.

Edward IV escapes to Flanders

In Sep 1470 King Edward IV of England (age 28) fled from King's Lynn, Norfolk [Map] to the court of Charles the Bold (age 36) who was married to his sister [his sister] Margaret (age 24) two years earlier.

Edward V born in Sanctuary

On 02 Nov 1470 [his son] the future Edward V was born to Edward IV (age 28) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville (age 33) in Sanctuary Westminster Abbey [Map]. His father was abroad in Flanders. His Godparents included the Abbot and Prior of Westminster, and Elizabeth St John Baroness Scrope Bolton Baroness Zouche Harringworth.

In 1471 the wardship of Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 15) was awarded by King Edward IV of England (age 28) to his sister [his sister] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk (age 26).

In 1471 William Fitzalan 16th Earl Arundel (age 53) was appointed 202nd Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV of England (age 28).

Edward IV lands at Ravenspur

On 14 Mar 1471 King Edward IV of England (age 28) landed at Ravenspur [Map] with William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 40).

Battle of Barnet

On 14 Apr 1471 Edward IV (age 28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers [his brother] George (age 21) and [his brother] Richard (age 18), John Babington (age 48), Wiliam Hastings (age 40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings, William Norreys (age 30), William Parr (age 37), John Savage (age 49), William Bourchier Viscount Bourchier (age 41), Thomas St Leger (age 31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 40), John Scott Comptroller (age 48) and Thomas Strickland.

The Yorkists William Blount (age 29), Humphrey Bourchier (age 40), Humphrey Bourchier (age 36), Henry Stafford (age 46) and Thomas Parr were killed.

The Lancastrians ...

Warwick the Kingmaker (age 42) was killed. Earl Salisbury forfeit on the assumption he was attainted either before or after his death; the date of his attainder is unknown. If not attainted the Earldom may be in abeyance. Baron Montagu and Baron Montagu abeyant between his two daughters Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 19) and Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 14).

John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 40) was killed. Marquess Montagu extinct. He was buried at Bisham Abbey [Map].

William Tyrrell was killed.

William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele (age 43) was killed. His son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele (age 25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford (age 46) and John Paston (age 27) were wounded, John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 28) commanded, and John Paston (age 29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 33) fought.

Robert Harleston (age 36) was killed.

Thomas Hen Salusbury (age 62) was killed.

Thomas Tresham (age 51) escaped but was subsequently captured and executed on 06 May 1471.

Battle of Tewkesbury

On 04 May 1471 King Edward IV of England (age 29) was victorious at the Battle of Tewkesbury. His brother [his brother] Richard (age 18), Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 36), John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 46), George Neville 4th and 2nd Baron Bergavenny (age 31), John Savage (age 49), John Savage (age 27), Thomas St Leger (age 31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 40) fought. William Brandon (age 46), George Browne (age 31), Ralph Hastings, Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby (age 38), James Tyrrell (age 16), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 38) were knighted. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 40) commanded.

Margaret of Anjou (age 41) was captured. Her son Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales (age 17) was killed. He was the last of the Lancastrian line excluding the illegitmate Charles Somerset 1st Earl of Worcester (age 11) whose line continues to the present.

John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon (age 36) was killed and attainted. Earl Devon, Baron Courtenay forfeit. Some sources refer to these titles as being abeyant?

John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 71) was killed. Baron Wenlock extinct.

John Delves (age 49), Humphrey Tuchet (age 37), John Beaufort (age 30), William Vaux of Harrowden (age 35) and Robert Whittingham (age 42) were killed.

Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset (age 32) and Hugh Courtenay (age 44) were captured.

Henry Roos fought and escaped to Tewkesbury Abbey [Map] where he sought sanctuary. He was subsequently pardoned.

On 09 May 1471 George Neville 4th and 2nd Baron Bergavenny (age 31) was knighted by King Edward IV of England (age 29).

On 14 Aug 1471 [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 16) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon.

1472 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1472 King Edward IV of England (age 29) appointed new Garter Knights given the large number of vacant positions as a result of the recent Warwick rebellion:

203rd John Mowbray 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 27).

204th John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 44).

205th Walter Devereux Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 40).

206th Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy (age 56).

207th John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 47).

208th John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 29).

On 10 Apr 1472 [his daughter] Margaret York was born to King Edward IV of England (age 29) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 35).

On 11 Dec 1472 [his daughter] Margaret York died. She was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

On 08 Apr 1473 (some sources state 1482) Humphrey Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 49) was created 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland by King Edward IV of England (age 30). By letters patent he created Dacre Baron Dacre of Gilsland, declaring "that the said Humfrey Dacre, Knight, and the heirs male of the body of the said Thomas, late Lord Dacre, comyng, bee reputed, had, named and called the Lord Dacre of Gillesland". Mabel Parr Baroness Dacre Gilsland by marriage Baroness Dacre Gilsland.

On 17 Aug 1473 [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York was born to King Edward IV of England (age 31) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 36) at Westminster Palace [Map]. He was created 1st Duke York by his father on the same day.

Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that Edward IV's (age 31) two younger brothers [his brother] George (age 24) and the [his brother] Richard (age 21), who had married Anne Beauchamp's (age 47) daughters, Isabel (age 22) and Anne (age 17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.

Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker, had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of King Edward IV of England (age 31) and before King Richard III of England (age 21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described King Richard III of England (age 21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape (age 6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 56).

1474 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1474 King Edward IV of England (age 31) appointed new Garter Knights:

209th Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl Arundel (age 24).

210th William Parr (age 40).

211th Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 19).

212th Federico Montefeltro (age 51).

213th Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 25).

On 05 Sep 1474 [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 19) and Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset (age 14) were married. He the son of John Grey and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 37). They were half second cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1475 [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 20) was created 1st Marquess Dorset. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset (age 14) by marriage Marchioness Dorset.

In 1475 [his brother-in-law] Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 19) was created Knight of the Bath.

1475 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1475 King Edward IV of England (age 32) created his two sons as Garter Knights:

214th [his son] King Edward V of England (age 4).

215th [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 1).

After 20 May 1475. St Mary's Church, Ewelme [Map]. Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (deceased). Wrist Garter. The effigy was, apparently, viewed to determine how a lady should wear the garter at the re-commencement of Lady of the Garter appointments in 1901 after a gap of several hundred years. A particularly fine Cadaver Underneath the chest on which Alice's effigy lies. Full-length in a shroud. Chest with Angels with Rounded Wings holding Shields.

Detail of the South Side of the Monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (deceased).

1 Roet Arms impaled Chaucer Modern Arms. Alice's paternal grandparents.

2 De La Pole Arms impaled Stafford Arms. Her third husbands parents Michael de la Pole 2nd Earl Suffolk and Katherine Stafford Countess Suffolk.

3 Montacute and Monthermer Arms impaled Francis? Possibly Alice's second husband's parents John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury and Maud Francis Countess of Salisbury.

4 De La Pole Arms quartered Chaucer Modern Arms.

5 Roet Arms quartered Chaucer Modern Arms.

6 Chaucer Modern Arms.

7 De La Pole Arms.

8 De La Pole Arms impaled England Henry IV Arms signifying Alice's son John's (age 32) marriage to [his sister] Elizabeth of York (age 31) sister of King Edward IV of England (age 33).

Detail of the North Side of the monument to Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (deceased). Arms from left to right ...

1 De La Pole Arms quartered Chaucer Modern Arms impaled Unknown.

2 De La Pole Arms impaled Chaucer Modern Arms. Her third husband William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk.

3 De La Pole Arms quarted Chaucer Modern Arms. Alice's son John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 32) by her second husband William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk.

4 Chaucer Modern Arms.

5 Montacute and Monthermer Arms quartering impaled Chaucer. Alice's second husband Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury.

6 Roet Arms. Alice's paternal grandmother Philippa Roet.

7 England Henry IV Arms impaling Roet Arms probably signifying John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster and Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster, Katherine being the sister of Alice's paternal grandmother Philippa Roet who married Geoffrey Chaucer.

8 Roet Arms impaling Chaucer Modern Arms. Her paternal grandparents Geoffrey Chaucer and Philippa Roet.

Treaty of Picquigny

On 29 Aug 1475 Edward IV (age 33) signed the Treaty of Picquigny; in effect a non-aggression pact or, possibly, a protection racket. France would pay Edward a pension of 50,000 crowns per year as long as he didn't invade France. Cardinal Bourchier (age 57) arbitrated on behalf of Edward. William Hastings (age 44) received a pension of 2000 crowns per year, John Howard and Thomas Montgomery 1200 each, Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York (age 52) 1000, Cardinal John Morton (age 55) 600.

Edward's youngest brother [his brother] Richard (age 22) opposed the Treaty considering it dishonourable. Roger Cheney (age 33) was present at the signing, and remained as a hostage until King Edward IV of England (age 33) returned to England.

In Sep 1475 Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 45) drowned on his return from France having probably been thrown over-board on the orders of King Edward IV of England (age 33).

On 02 Nov 1475 [his daughter] Anne York was born to King Edward IV of England (age 33) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 38) at Westminster Palace [Map].

In 1476 [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 21) was appointed 216th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV of England (age 33).

In 1476 Thomas Montgomery was appointed 217th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV of England (age 33).

On 12 Jun 1476 [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 2) was created 1st Earl Nottingham by King Edward IV of England (age 34).

Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father Edward of York, [his father] Richard of York and his younger brother [his brother] Edmund were reburied at St Mary and All Saints in Fotheringhay [Map] in a ceremony attended by King Edward IV of England (age 34), [his brother] George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 26), [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 21), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 45), [his brother-in-law] Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 36).

Thomas Whiting, Chester Harald wrote:

n 24 July [1476] the bodies were exhumed, that of the Duke, "garbed in an ermine furred mantle and cap of maintenance, covered with a cloth of gold" lay in state under a hearse blazing with candles, guarded by an angel of silver, bearing a crown of gold as a reminder that by right the Duke had been a king. On its journey, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, with other lords and officers of arms, all dressed in mourning, followed the funeral chariot, drawn by six horses, with trappings of black, charged with the arms of France and England and preceded by a knight bearing the banner of the ducal arms. Fotheringhay was reached on 29 July, where members of the college and other ecclesiastics went forth to meet the cortege. At the entrance to the churchyard, King Edward waited, together with the Duke of Clarence, the Marquis of Dorset, Earl Rivers, Lord Hastings and other noblemen. Upon its arrival the King 'made obeisance to the body right humbly and put his hand on the body and kissed it, crying all the time.' The procession moved into the church where two hearses were waiting, one in the choir for the body of the Duke and one in the Lady Chapel for that of the Earl of Rutland, and after the King had retired to his 'closet' and the princes and officers of arms had stationed themselves around the hearses, masses were sung and the King's chamberlain offered for him seven pieces of cloth of gold 'which were laid in a cross on the body.' The next day three masses were sung, the Bishop of Lincoln preached a 'very noble sermon' and offerings were made by the Duke of Gloucester and other lords, of 'The Duke of York's coat of arms, of his shield, his sword, his helmet and his coursers on which rode Lord Ferrers in full armour, holding in his hand an axe reversed.' When the funeral was over, the people were admitted into the church and it is said that before the coffins were placed in the vault which had been built under the chancel, five thousand persons came to receive the alms, while four times that number partook of the dinner, served partly in the castle and partly in the King's tents and pavilions. The menu included capons, cygnets, herons, rabbits and so many good things that the bills for it amounted to more than three hundred pounds.

Around Dec 1476 King Edward IV of England (age 34) began an affair with Elizabeth "Jane Shore" Lambert (age 31). See Patent Rolls Edward IV 1476.

On 07 Feb 1477 [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 3) was created 1st Duke Norfolk, 1st Earl Norfolk by his father King Edward IV of England (age 34) in preparation for his marriage to [his future daughter-in-law] Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk (age 4). She, Anne, being daughter of the last Duke of Norfolk of the 1st Creation John Mowbray 4th Duke of Norfolk.

In Mar 1477 [his son] George York 1st Duke Bedford was born to King Edward IV of England (age 34) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 40) at Windsor Castle [Map].

In 1478 [his son] George York 1st Duke Bedford was created 1st Duke Bedford by King Edward IV of England (age 35).

Marriage of Richard Duke of York and Anne Mowbray

On 15 Jan 1478 Edward IV's youngest son [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury (age 4) and [his daughter-in-law] Anne Mowbray (age 5) were married at St Stephen's Chapel in Westminster [Map]. She by marriage Duchess Norfolk. She the daughter of John Mowbray 4th Duke of Norfolk and Elizabeth Talbot Duchess Norfolk (age 35). He the son of King Edward IV of England (age 35) and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 41). They were second cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

The ceremony was attended by Edward's daughters [his daughter] Elizabeth (age 11), [his daughter] Mary (age 10) and [his daughter] Cecily (age 8).

The day before Thomas Howard (age 35) was knighted.

In 1483 Parliament changed the succession so Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 4) would continue to enjoy her inheritance (she died in 1481) effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 52) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess), and who accepted a payment of £34,000, and John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 53), who was subsequently created Duke of Norfolk, possibly in compensation.

Thomas Frowyk (age 55) was created Knight of the Bath.

See Woodville Marriages.

Attainder of George Duke of Clarence

After 16 Jan 1478 and before 07 Feb 1478. The original act doesn't contain a date. Parliament opened on 16 Jan 1478. On 07 Feb 1478 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 23) was appointed Steward of England for the purpose of effecting the exection. [his brother] George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28) was attainted by Parliament. The wording of the attainder as follows:

The Kyng (age 35), oure Sovereigne Lorde, hath called to his Remembraunce the manyfold grete Conspiracies, malicious and heynous Ttresons, that hertofore hath be compassed by dyverse persones his unnaturall Subgetts, Rebelles and Traytoures, wherby Commocions and Insurrections have been made within this his Royaulme, for entent and purpose to have destroyed his moost Roiall persone, and with that to have subverted the state, wele publique and politic of all his said Royaulme; ne had so been, that by th'elp of Almyghty God, with the grete laboures and diligences and uttermost explette of his persone by Chevalrye and Werr, he had mightly and graciously repressed the same. Wherthrogh grete nowmbre of the said his Rebelles and Traytours he hath at dyverse tymes punysshed, as well by swerd as other punysshments, in exemple to others to have been ware of suche attempting hereafter. And yet as a benigne and a gracious Prince moeved unto pitie, after his grete Victories sent hym by God, not oonly he hath spared the multitudes in theire feldes and assembles overcomen, but thaym and certeyn other, the grete movers, sturters and executours of suche haynous Tresons, at the reverence of God, he hath taken to his mercy and clerly pardoned, as may not be unknowen to all the Worlde.

This notwithstondyng, it is comen nowe of late to his knowlage, howe that agaynst his mooste Royall persone, and agaynst the persones of the blessed Princesse oure alther soveraigne and Liege Lady the Quene, of my Lorde the Prince theire son and Heire, and of all the other of thaire moost noble issue, and also against the grete parte of the Noble of this Lande, the good rule, politike and wele publique of the same, hath been conspired, compassed and purposed a moch higher, moch more malicious, more unnaturall and lothely Treason than atte eny tyme hertoforn hath been compassed, purposed and conspired, from the Kyng's first Reigne hiderto; which Treason is, and must be called, so moche and more henyous, unnaturell and lothely, for that not oonly it hath proceded of the moost extreme purpensed malice, incomparably excedyng eny other that hath been aforn, but also for that it hath been contryved, imagined and conspired, by the persone that of all erthely creatures, beside the dutie of ligeaunce, by nature, by benefette, by gratitude, and by yeftes and grauntes of Goodes and Possessions, hath been moost bounden and behalden to have dradde, loved, honoured, and evere thanked the kyng more largely, than evere was eny other bounden or beholden, whom to name it gretely aggruggeth the hert of oure said Sovereigne Lorde, sauf oonly that he is of necessite compelled, for the suertie, wele and tranquillite of hym and all this Royaulme, which were full neer the poynt of perdicion, ne were the help and grace of Almyghty God:

He sheweth you therefore, that all this hath been entended by his Brother, George, the Duke of Clarence (age 28). Wherein it is to be remembered that the Kynges Highnesse, of tendre youthe unto now of late, hath evere loved and cherysshed hym, as tenderly and as kynderly, as eny creature myght his naturell Brother, as well it may be declared, by that that he beyng right yonge, not borne to have eny lifelode, butt oonly of the Kynges grace he yave hym soo large porcion of Possessions that noo memorie is of, or seldom hath been seen, that eny Kyng of Englande hertoforn within his Royaulme yave soo largely to eny his Brothers. And not oonly that, butt above that, he furnyssed hym plenteously of all manere stuff, that to a right grete Prynce myght well suffice; so that aftre the Kynges, his lifelode and richesse notably exceded any other within his Lande at thatt tyme.

And yet the kyng, not herewith content, butt beyng ryght desirous to make hym of myght and puissance excedyng others, caused the greate parte of all the Nobles of this Lande to be assured unto hym next his Highnesse; trustyng that not oonly by the bond of nature, butt also by the bondes of soo grete benefitt, he shulde be more than others loving, helping, assisting and obeissaunt to all the Kyngs good pleasures and commaundments, and to all that myght be to the politik wele of his Lande.

All this notwithstondyng, it is to remember, the large grace and foryevnesse that he yave hym uppon, and for that at dyverse tyme sith he gretely offended the Kyng, as in jupartyng the Kyngs Royall estate, persone and life, in straite warde, puttyng hym thereby from all his libertie, aftre procuryng grete Commocions, and sith the voydaunce oute of his Royaulme, assistyng yevyng to his enemies mortall, the usurpers, laboryng also by Parlement to exclude hym and all his from the Regalie, and enabling hymself to the same, and by dyverse weyes otherwyse attemptyng; which all the Kyng, by nature and love moeved, utterly foryave, entendyng to have putte all in perpetuell oblivion.

The said Duke, nathelesse for all this, noo love encreasyng, but growyng daily in more and more malice, hath not left to consedre and conspire newe Treasons, more haynous and lothely than ever aforn, how that the said Duke falsly and traitrously entended, and puposed fermely, th'extreme distruction and disherityng of the Kyng and his Issue, and to subverte all the polityk rule of this Royaulme, by myght to be goten as well outewarde as inward, which false purpose the rather to brynge aboute, he cast and compassed the moyans to enduce the Kynges naturell Subgetts to withdrawe theire herts, loves and affections from the Kyng, theire naturell Sovereigne Lorde, by many subtill, contryved weyes, as in causyng dyverse his Servauntes, suche as he coude imagyne moste apte to sowe sedicion and aggrugge amonge the People, to goo into diverse parties of this Royaulme, and to laboure to enforme the People largely in every place where they shulde come, that Thomas Burdett, his Servaunte, which was lawefully and truly atteynted of Treason, was wrongefully putte to Deth; to some his Servauntes of suche like disposicion, he yave large Money, Veneson, therewith to assemble the Kynges Subgects to Feste theym and chere theym, and by theire policies and resonyng, enduce hem to beleve that the said Burdett was wrongfully executed, and so to putte it in noyse and herts of the People;

he saide and laboured also to be noysed by such his Servauntez apte for that werk, that the Kyng, oure Sovereigne Lorde, wroght by Nygromancye, and used Crafte to poyson his Subgettes, suche as hym pleased; to th'entent to desclaundre the Kyng in the moost haynous wyse he couth in the sight and conceipt of his Subgetts, and thefore to encorage theym to hate, despice and aggrugge theire herts agaynst hym, thynkyng that he ne lived ne dealid with his Subgettes as a Christien Prynce.

And overe this, the said duke beyng in full purpose to exalte hymself and his Heires to the Regallye and Corone of Englande, and clerely in opinion to putte aside from the same for ever the said Corone from the Kyng and his Heirez, uppon oon the falsest and moost unnaturall coloured pretense that man myght imagine, falsely and untruely noysed, published and saide, that the Kyng oure Sovereigne Lorde was a Bastard, and not begottone to reigne uppon us; and to contynue and procede ferther in this his moost malicious and traytorous purpose, after this lothely, false and sedicious langage shewed and declared amonge the People, he enduced dyverse of the Kynges naturall Subgetts to be sworne uppon the blessed Sacrament to be true to hym and his heires, noon exception reserved of theire liegeaunce; and after the same Othe soo made, he shewed to many other, and to certayn persones, that suche Othe had made, that the Kyng had taken his lifelode from hym and his men, and disheryed theym, and he wolde utterly endevoire hym to gete hem theire enheritaunce as he wolde doo for his owen.

He shewed also that the Kyng entended to consume hym in like wyse as a Candell consumeth in brennyng, wherof he wolde in brief tyme quyte hym. And overe this, the said Duke continuyng ín his false purpose, opteyned and gate an exemplificacion undre the Grete Seall of Herry the Sexte, late in dede and not in right Kyng of this Lande, wherin were conteyned alle suche appoyntements as late was made betwene the said Duke and Margaret, callyng herself Quene of this Lande, and other; amonges whiche it was conteyned, that if the said Herry, and Edward, his first begoton Son, died withoute Issue Male of theire Bodye, that the seid Duke and his Heires shulde be Kyng of this Lande; which exemplificacion the said Duke hath kepyd with hymself secrete, not doyng the Kyng to have eny knowlegge therof, therby to have abused the Kynges true Subgetts for the rather execucion of his said false purpose.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

The Kyng, remembryng over, that to side the neernesse of Blode, howe be nature he myght be kynde to his Brother; the tendre love also, whiche of youthe he bare unto hym, couthe have founden in his hert, uppon due submission, to have yet foryeven hym estsones, ne were, furst that his said Brother by his former dedes, and nowe by this conspiracye, sheweth hymself to be incorrigible, and in noo wyse reducible to that by bonde of nature, and of the grete benefices aforn reherced, he were moost soveraynly beholden of all Creature: Secondly, ne were the grete juparty of effusion of Christien blode, which most likkely shulde therof ensue: And thridenly and principally, the bond of his Conscience, wherby and by solempne Othe, he is bounden anenst God, uppon the peryll of everlastyng dampnacion, to provyde and defende, first the suertie of hymself and his moste Royall Issue, secondly, the tranquilite of Goddes Churche within this, his Royaulme, and after that, the wele publique, peas and tranquilite of all his Lordez, Noblemen, Comens and others of every degree and condicion, whiche all shulde necessarily stande in extreme jupartie, yf Justice and due punyshement of soo lothely offencez shulde be pardoned; in pernicious example to all mysdoers, theves, traytours, rebelles and all other suche as lightly wolde therby bee encoraged and enbolded to spare noo manner of wikkednesse.

Wherfore thof all [sic]11 the Kynges Highnesse be right sory to determyne hymself to the contrarie, yet consideryng that Justice is a vertue excellently pleasyng Almyghty God, wherby Reaulmes stande, Kynges and Pryncez reign and governe, all goode rule, polyce and publique wele is mayteigned; and that this vertue standeth not oonly in retribucion and rewarde for goode dedes, butt also in correccion and punysshement of evil doers, after the qualitees of theire mysdoyngs. For whiche premissez and causez the Kyng, by the avyse and assent of his Lordes Speretuell and Temporell, and by the Commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the auctorite of the same, ordeyneth, enacteth and establith that the said George, Duke of Clarence, be convicte and atteyntit of Heigh Treason commyttet and doon agaynst the Kynges moost Royall persone; and that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever the Honoure, Estate, Dignite and name of Duke1. And also that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever, all Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landes, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions that the same Duke nowe hath by eny of the Kynges Lettrez Patents to his owen use, or that any other persone nowe hath to the use of the same Duke by eny of the Kynges Letterez Patents, or that passed to hym fro the Kyng by the same: And that all Lettrez Patents made by the kyng to the said Duke bee from henseforthe utterly voyde and of noon effecte.

And that it be also ordeigned by the same auctorite that noo Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments or Possessions that the same duke nowe hath joyntly with other, or sole to hymself, to the use of eny other persone, be forfett, nor conteyned by or in this present Acte; but that by the said auctoritee, every other persone to whose use the said Duke is sole seised in eny Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettres Patents, have power and auctorite by this present Acte lawefully to entre into theym, and theym to have and holde after the entent and trust that the said Duke nowe hath theryn. And also where the same Duke is joyntly seased with any other persone in any Castells, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Hereditaments or Possessions to the use of eny other persone, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettrez Patents: that by the said auctorite, the said joynt feffez stonde and be feoffez to the same use and entent as they nowe arre and be; and that suche right, interest and title as the same Duke nowe hath with theym in the same premyssez, by the said auctorite, be in his cofeffez to the same entent as the same Duke nowe ys: Savyng to every of the Kynges Liege people, other than the said Duke and his Heyrez, and all other persone and persones that clayme or have eny tytell of interest in eny of the premyssez by the same Duke, suche right, tytle and interest as they owe or shulde have in eny of the premyssez, as if this Acte had never been made.

A cest Bille les Comunez sont assentuz.

Le Roy le voet.

Note 1. It is interesting that he forfeits the title of Duke rather than the usual attainted in the blood which may have debarred his children from inheriting the crown.

Croyland Chronicle 1478. Before 18 Feb 1478. On the following day, the [his brother] duke of Clarence (age 28) came to the council-chamber at Westminster, bringing with him a famous Doctor of the order of Minorites, Master William Goddard by name, in order that he might read the confession and declaration of innocence above-mentioned before the lords in the said council assembled; which he accordingly did, and then withdrew. The king (age 35) was then at Windsor, but when he was informed of this circumstance, he was greatly displeased thereat, and recalling to mind the information formerly laid against his brother, and which he had long kept treasured up in his breast, he summoned the duke to appear on a certain day in the royal palace of Westminster: upon which, in presence of the Mayor and aldermen of the city of London, the king began, with his own lips, amongst other matters, to inveigh against the conduct of the before-named duke, as being derogatory to the laws of the realm, and most dangerous to judges and jurors throughout the kingdom. But why enlarge? The duke was placed in custody, and from that day up to the time of his death never was known to have regained his liberty.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

Croyland Chronicle 1478. The circumstances that happened in the ensuing Parliament my mind quite shudders to enlarge upon, for then was to be witnessed a sad strife carried on before these two brethren of such high estate.29 For not a single person uttered a word against the [his brother] duke (age 28), except the king (age 35); not one individual made answer to the king except the duke (age 28). Some parties were introduced, however, as to whom it was greatly doubted by many, whether they filled the office of accusers rather, or of witnesses: these two offices not being exactly suited to the same person in the same cause. The duke met all the charges made against him with a denial, and offered, if he could only obtain a hearing, to defend his cause with his own hand. But why delay in using many words? Parliament, being of opinion that the informations which they had heard were established, passed sentence upon him of condemnation, the same being pronounced by the mouth of Henry, duke of Buckingham (age 23), who was appointed Seneschal of England for the occasion. After this, execution was delayed for a considerable time; until the Speaker of the Commons, coming to the upper house with his fellows, made a fresh request that the matter might be brought to a conclusion. In consequence of this, in a few days after, the execution, whatever its nature may have been, took place, (and would that it had ended these troubles!) in the Tower of London [Map], it being the year of our Lord, 1478, and the eighteenth of the reign of king Edward.

Note 29. One would think that "tantae himanitatis," can hardly mean "of such humanity," when applied to such persons as Edward the Fourth and his brother Clarence.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. [his brother] George, Duke of Clarence (age 28), was a goodly noble prince, and at all points fortunate, if either his own ambition had not set him against his brother (age 35), or the envy of his enemies had not set his brother against him. For were it by the [his wife] Queen (age 41) and the lords of her blood, who highly maligned the King's kindred (as women commonly, not of malice but of nature, hate them whom their husbands love), or were it a proud appetite of the Duke (age 28) himself intending to be king, in any case, heinous treason was there laid to his charge, and, finally, were he faulty or were he faultless, attainted was he by Parliament and judged to the death, and thereupon hastily drowned in a butt of malmesey, whose death, King Edward (although he commanded it), when he knew it was done, piteously bewailed and sorrowfully repented. .

In 1479 William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 27) was compelled to relinquish the Earldom of Pembroke by King Edward IV (age 36) who gave it to his son.

[his son] Edward Prince of Wales (age 8) was created 1st Earl Pembroke.

In compensation William (age 27) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon. [his sister-in-law] Mary Woodville Countess Pembroke and Huntingdon (age 23) by marriage Countess Huntingdon.

On 14 Aug 1479 [his daughter] Catherine York Countess Devon was born to King Edward IV of England (age 37) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 42).

In 1480 Ercole Este I Duke Ferrara (age 48) was appointed 219th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV of England (age 37).

In 1480 Bishop Oliver King (age 48) was appointed Secretary to King Edward IV of England (age 37).

In 1480 Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 27) was appointed 218th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV of England (age 37).

On 10 Nov 1480 [his daughter] Bridget York was born to King Edward IV of England (age 38) and [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 43) at Eltham Palace, Kent [Map].

Before 1481 George Grey 2nd Earl Kent (age 27) and [his sister-in-law] Anne Woodville Viscountess Bourchier (age 42) were married. See Woodville Marriages. She the daughter of Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers and Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford. He the son of Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 64) and Katherine Percy. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.

In 1482 John II King Portugal (age 26) was appointed 220th Knight of the Garter by King Edward IV of England (age 39).

On 23 May 1482 [his daughter] Mary York (age 14) died at Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. She was buried at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle [Map].

Before 1483 Ralph Hastings was appointed Knight of the Body to King Edward IV of England (age 40).

Mowbray Succession Changed

In Jan 1483 King Edward IV of England (age 40) had Parliament re-enact earlier legislation regarding the Mowbray succession so that his son, [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 9), who had married [his former daughter-in-law] Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk (who had died in 1481), would continue to benefit from them effectively dis-inheriting William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 57) (who was subsequently created Earl and Marquess) and John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) (who would become an ardent supporter of Richard III following Edward's death.

Death of Edward IV

On 25 Mar 1483 King Edward IV of England (age 40) returned to Westminster [Map] from Windsor [Map]. A few days later he became sufficiently unwell to add codicils to his will, and to have urged reconciliation between William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52) and [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 28); it isn't clear what the cause of the friction between the two men was although it appears well known that Hastings resented the Woodville family.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. As soon as the King (age 40) was departed, that noble [his son] Prince (age 12) his son drew toward London, who at the time of his father's death kept household at Ludlow, Shropshire [Map] in Wales. Such country, being far off from the law and recourse to justice, was begun to be far out of good will and had grown up wild with robbers and thieves walking at liberty uncorrected. And for this reason the Prince (age 12) was, in the life of his father, sent thither, to the end that the authority of his presence should restrain evilly disposed persons from the boldness of their former outrages. To the governance and ordering of this young Prince (age 12), at his sending thither, was there appointed [his brother-in-law] Sir Anthony Woodville, Lord Rivers (age 43) and brother unto the [his wife] Queen (age 46), a right honorable man, as valiant of hand as politic in counsel. Adjoined were there unto him others of the same party, and, in effect, every one as he was nearest of kin unto the Queen (age 46) was so planted next about the Prince (age 12).

On 09 Apr 1483 King Edward IV of England (age 40) died at Westminster [Map]. His son [his son] King Edward V of England (age 12) succeeded V King England. Those present included [his wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 46), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52) and [his step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 28).

Mémoires de Philippe de Commynes Chapter 6 Section 8. Dès l'heure que le roy Edouard fut mort, le Roy nostre maistre en fut adverty, et n'en feit nulle joye quant il le sceut:

From the hour that King Edward IV (age 40) died, the King our master was made aware, and took no joy in it [Note. Not clear what il le sceut means!]

et peu de jours après receut lettres du duc de Clocestre, qui s'estoit faict roy d'Angleterre1, et se signoit Richard, lequel avoit faict mourir les deux filz du roy Edouard son frère.

And few days after he received letters from the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester (age 30), who had become the King of England, and signed Richard, who had caused the death of the two sons [Note. The Princes in the Tower [his son] King Edward V of England (age 12) and [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 9)] of King Edward (age 40) his brother.

Lequel roy Richard requeroit l'amytié du Roy, et croy qu'il eust bien voulu ravoir reste pension;

King Richard (age 30) wanted the friendship of the King, and belived he would continue to receive the pension;

mais le Roy ne voulut respondre à ses lettres, ne ouyr le messagier, et l'estima très cruel et mauvais:

but the King didn't want to respond to the letters, nor hear the messanger, and considered him very cruel and bad:

car, après le trespas dudict roy Edouard, ledict duc de Clocestre avoit faict hommaige à son nepveu, comme à son roy et souverain seigneur, et incontinent après commit ce cas.

since, after the [Note. didict? Possibly dudit ie said] crime against King Edward, the Duke of Gloucester (age 30) gave homage to his nephew, as his King and sovereign lord, and [Note. incontinent?] after commited this case.

Et, en plain parlement d'Angleterre, feit desgrader deux filles dudict roy Edouard et desclarer bastardes, soubz couleur3 qu'il prouva par ung evesque de Bas4 en Angleterre

And, in the parliament of England, had degraded the two daughters of the said King of England (age 40) and declared them bastards, on the pretext of the evidence of a Bishop of Bath (age 63) in England

(qui aultresfois avoit eu grant credit avec ledict roy Edouard, et puis le desappoincta, et le tint en prison, et puis le ranconna d'une somme d'argent):

(who formerley had great credit with the King Edward then disappointed him, and held him in prison, and then ransomed himself with a sum of money)

lequel evesque disoit que ledict roy Edouard avoit promis foy de mariaige à une dame d'Angleterre (qu'il nommoit)5 pour ce qu'il en estoit amoureux, pour en avoir son plaisir;

which Bishop (age 63) said that King Edward (age 40) had promised [Note. foy? ] marriage to an English lady [who he named] who he was in love with, to have his pleasure; [See Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly].

et en avoit faict la promesse en la main dudict evesque (age 63), et, sur ceste promesse, coucha avec elle: et ne le faisoit que pour la tromper.

and had made this promise in the presence of the Bishop (age 63), and, on this promise, slept with her: and did this to deceive her. See The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate.

Toutesfois telz jeux sont bien dangereux, tesmoing ces enseignes. J'ay veu beaucoup de gens de court qui, une bonne adventure qui leur eust pleu en tel cas, ilz ne l'eussent point perdue par faulte de promettre.

Nevertheless such games are very dangerous, [Note. tesmoing?] these signs. I saw alot of courtiers who, having the opportunity of such an adventure, would not have lost it for the sake of a promise.

Et ce mauvais evesque garda ceste vengeance en son cueur, par adventure vingt ans; mais il luy en meschut:

And this bad Bishop (age 63) guarded revenge in his heart, for twenty years; but he is in [Note. meshut?]:

car il avoit ung filz, qu'il aymoit fort, à qui ledict roy Richard (age 30) vouloit faire de grans biens et luy faire espouser l'une de ces deux filles, desgradees de leur dignité, laquelle de présent est royne d'Angleterre et a deux beaux enfans.

because he had a son, who he loved very much, whom King Richard (age 30) wished to do great things and to marry one of the two daughters, beneath their dignity, one of whom is now the present [his daughter] Queen of England (age 17) and has two beautiful children.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. This noble prince died at his palace of Westminster [Map] and, with great funeral honor and heaviness of his people from thence conveyed, was interred at Windsor [Map]. He was a king of such governance and behavior in time of peace (for in war each part must needs be another's enemy) that there was never any prince of this land attaining the crown by battle so heartily beloved by the substance of the people, nor he himself so specially in any part of his life as at the time of his death.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. When these lords [Note. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52), John Grey] with diverse others of both parties were come into his presence, the King (age 40), lifting up himself and propped up with pillows, as it is reported, after this fashion said unto them:

My lords, my dear kinsmen and allies, in what plight I lie, you see, and I feel. By which, the less while I expect to live with you, the more deeply am I moved to care in what case I leave you, for such as I leave you, such be my children like to find you. That if they should (God forbid) find you at variance, might by chance fall themselves at war before their discretion would serve to set you at peace. You see their youth, of which I reckon the only security to rest in your concord. For it suffices not that all you love them, if each of you hate the other. If they were men, your faithfulness by chance would suffice. But childhood must be maintained by men's authority, and slippery youth supported with elder counsel, which neither they can have unless you give it, nor can you give it if you do not agree. For where each labors to break what the other makes, and for hatred of each other's person impugns each other's counsel, it must needs be long before any good conclusion go forward. And also while either party labors to be chief, flattery shall have more place than plain and faithful advice, of which must needs ensue the evil bringing up of the Prince, whose mind in tender youth infected shall readily fall to mischief and riot, and draw down with this noble realm to ruin-unless grace turn him to wisdom, which if God send, then they who by evil means before pleased him best shall after fall furthest out of favor, so that ever at length evil plans drive to nothing and good plain ways prosper.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. King Edward of that name the Fourth (age 40), after he had lived fifty and three years, seven months, and six days, and thereof reigned two and twenty years, one month, and eight days, died at Westminster the ninth day of April, the year of our redemption, a thousand four hundred four score and three, leaving much fair issue, that is, [his son] Edward the Prince (age 12), thirteen years of age; [his son] Richard Duke of York (age 9), two years younger; [his daughter] Elizabeth (age 17), whose fortune and grace was after to be queen, wife unto King Henry the Seventh (age 26), and mother unto the Eighth; [his daughter] Cecily (age 14) not so fortunate as fair; [his daughter] Brigette (age 2), who, representing the virtue of her whose name she bore, professed and observed a religious life in Dertford [Map], a house of cloistered Nuns; [his daughter] Anne (age 7), who was after honorably married unto Thomas (age 10), then Lord Howard and after Earl of Surrey; and [his daughter] Katherine (age 3), who long time tossed in either fortune-sometime in wealth, often in adversity-at the last, if this be the last, for yet she lives, is by the goodness of her nephew, King Henry the Eighth, in very prosperous state, and worthy her birth and virtue.

After 09 Apr 1483 King Edward IV of England (age 40) lay in state at St Stephen's Chapel [Map].

Funeral of Edward IV

On 10 Apr 1483, in the morning, the coffin of King Edward IV of England (deceased) was moved to St Stephen's Chapel [Map]. Bishop Edward Story sang the masses. Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 68), Chamberlain to [his former wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 46), offered on the Queen's behalf.

On 17 Apr 1483 the coffin of Edward IV (deceased) was carried to Westminster Abbey [Map] by Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle (age 21), John Savage (age 39), Thomas Wortley (age 50), Thomas Molyneux (age 38), probably John Welles 1st Viscount Welles (age 33) who had married Edward's daughter Cecily), John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 41), Walter Hungerford (age 19), Guy Wolston (age 50), John Sapcote (age 35), Thomas Tyrrell (age 30), John Risley, Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 15), John Norreys, Louis de Bretelles and John Comyn 4th Lord Baddenoch.

Those in the procession included:

Thomas St Leger (age 43), widow of Edward's sister Anne.

William Parr.

John Astley.

William Stonor (age 33).

Henry Ferrers (age 40).

James Radclyffe (age 43).

George Browne (age 43).

Gilbert Debenham (age 51).

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) walked in front of the coffin with Edward's personal arms.

John Marlow Abbot Bermondsey followed by:

Bishop Thomas Kempe (age 93).

Bishop John Hales (age 83) (Bishop of Chester?).

Bishop Robert Stillington (age 63).

Bishop Edward Story.

Bishop Richard Bell.

Bishop James Goldwell.

Bishop William Dudley (age 58).

Bishop John Russell.

Cardinal John Morton (age 63) (as Bishop of Ely).

Bishop Edmund Tuchet (age 40) (as Bishop of Rochester).

Bishop Peter Courtenay, and.

[his former brother-in-law] Bishop Lionel Woodville (age 36).

Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) brought up the rear.

Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 65), then Archbishop of Canterbury, took no part due to infirmity.

John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 21); the King's nephew,.

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52).

[his former step-son] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 28).

William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 32) (some sources say Earl of Huntingindon?).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 57).

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 48).

Richard Fiennes 7th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 68).

John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 82).

George Neville 4th and 2nd Baron Bergavenny (age 43).

John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 57).

Walter Devereux Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 51).

Edward Grey 1st Viscount Lisle (age 51).

Henry Lovell 9th Baron Marshal 8th Baron Morley (age 7).

[his former brother-in-law] Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers (age 30).

John Brooke 7th Baron Cobham (age 35).

Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby (age 50).

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers of Groby (age 45).

Thomas Bourchier.

Thomas Bourchier.

On 20 Apr 1483 King Edward IV of England (deceased) was buried at Altar, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) celebrated the mass. John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) attended. John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 21) was chief mourner. John Savage (age 39) and Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle (age 21) were pall-bearers.

Robert Stillington Claims Edward IV's Marriage to Elizabeth Woodville to be Bigamous

Around 09 Jun 1483 Bishop Robert Stillington (age 63) informed a Council meeting that the coronation of [his son] King Edward V of England (age 12) could not proceed since he was illegitimate since his father's marriage to his mother [his former wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 46) had been bigamous since King Edward IV of England had previously married Eleanor Talbot at which Bishop Robert Stillington (age 63) presided. The only witness being Bishop Robert Stillington (age 63).

Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

On 13 Jun 1483 [his brother] King Richard III of England (age 30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London [Map] attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52), Cardinal John Morton (age 63), Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52), Cardinal John Morton (age 63) and Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) of treasonable conspiracy with the [his former wife] Queen (age 46).

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. He was buried in North Aisle St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle [Map] next to King Edward IV of England. His son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings Baron Botreaux, Hungerford and Moleyns (age 16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings.

Cardinal John Morton (age 63) and Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) were arrested.

Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

On 16 Jun 1483 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 65) removed Edward IV's youngest son [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 9) from Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey [Map] to the Tower of London [Map] so that he could join his brother in preparation for his Coronation. Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 28) was present.

The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate

On 22 Jun 1483 Ralph Shaa preached the bastardy of Edward IV's children by Elizabeth Woodville, including Edward V, and who were therefore ineligible to be King, at St Paul's Cross [Map].

Richard III Rewards his Supporters

On 05 Jul 1483 John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) was created 1st Duke Norfolk by [his brother] King Richard III of England (age 30). Margaret Chedworth Duchess Norfolk (age 47) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

His son Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 40) was created 1st Earl Surrey. Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey (age 39) by marriage Countess Surrey.

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 57) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 57) were heirs to the vast Mowbray estates that had been inherited by [his former daughter-in-law] Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk who had been married to [his son] Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 9).

Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-'s father King Edward IV of England had legislated that in the event of Anne's death his son Richard would continue to benefit from the inheritance; she died in 1481.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 27) was created 1st Viscount Lovell. Anne Fitzhugh Viscountess Lovell by marriage Viscountess Lovell. [Note. Some sources place his created on 01 Jan 1483 although the source for that is unknown. ]

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. King Edward in his life, although this dissension between his friends somewhat irked him, yet in his good health he somewhat the less regarded it because he thought whatsoever business should fall between them, he should always be able to rule both parties. But in his last sickness, when he perceived his natural strength so sore enfeebled that he despaired all recovery, then he, considering the youth of his children, suspecting nothing less than what would happen, and well foreseeing that many harms might grow by family debates while the youth of his children lacked discretion of themselves, and good counsel of their friends-because either party should counsel for their own advantage and by pleasant advice win themselves favor, rather than by profitable advertisement do the children good-he called some of them before him who were at variance, and especially, the [his former step-son] Lord Marquis Dorset (age 30), the [his former wife] Queen's (age 48) son by her first husband, and Lord Hastings [Note. Text says Richard? Should be William!], a noble man, then Lord Chamberlain, against whom the Queen (age 48) specially grudged for that great favor the King showed him, and also because she thought him secretly familiar with the King in wanton company. Her kindred also bore him dislike, as well for that the King had made him Captain of Calais (which office the [his former brother-in-law] Lord Rivers, brother to the Queen (age 48), claimed because of the King's former promise), and for diverse other great gifts which he received that they looked for.

Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

Vatican Regesta Vol. DCLXXXV Secretarum Tomus IV 2 Innocent VIII. 10 Kal. Aug. Decree, at the petition of king Henry (age 29) and [his daughter] queen Elizabeth (age 20), that a notarial copy of the process before James, bishop of Imola, Apostolic Nuncio with the power of a legate de latere, in regard to the dispensation granted by him to them to contract marriage, notwithstanding the impediment arising from their being related in the double fourth degree of kindred, shall have the same credence as the original letters of the said bishop. The Pope (age 54) exemplifies the said letters and process as follows:

Public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation 1486, after the computation of the English church, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII [16 Jan 1486], in the chapel of St. Mary [the Virgin] on the east side of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London [Map], before James, bishop of Imola, apostolic legate to England and Scotland, in presence of the below-written notaries public, appointed by the said bishop as scribes in the below-written matter of dispensation, and witnesses below-named, there appeared in person Master Robert Morton (age 51), Archdeacon of Winchester, and John de Giglis, I.U.D., as proctors of king Henry (age 29), and Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the household of the said king, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, as proctors of the lady Elizabeth (age 20), eldest daughter of the late king Edward IV, who produced their mandates of procuration and presented to the said legate a schedule of petition on behalf of the said king and lady, praying him to dispense them to marry, notwithstanding the impediment of their relationship in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, as was specified by the said Master Robert Morton (age 51).

The said instrument exemplifies the said procurations and schedule, as follows:

(i) A public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation, etc., 1486, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII, January 14, in a certain great chamber within the palace royal at Westminster, before Thomas, archbishop of York (age 62) and legate of the apostolic see, John, bishop of Worcester (age 56), chancellor of England, and Jasper duke of Bedford (age 54), and many other nobles and magnates, in the presence of me, Richard Spencer, notary public below-written, the said king (age 29), present in person, appointed Masters John de Giglis, I.U.D., and Robert Morton (age 51), master or keeper of the rolls of the chancery of the said king, as his proctors to appear before the said bishop and legate (who, as is said, has faculty from the apostolic see to dispense a certain number of persons related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred and affinity to contract marriage), and to request him to exhibit, etc., the said letters, and execute them in accordance with the desire of the said king, etc. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the above-named witnesses and of Richard Spencer, clerk, of the diocese of Lincoln, notary public by apostolic and imperial authorities, registrar-principal of the court of Canterbury, and keeper of the registers of the same court, the said notary has made the present public instrument, and, being otherwise engaged, has caused it to be written by another, and has published and drawn it up in this public form, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(ii) A like public instrument, setting forth that on the same date as in the preceding, and in a certain chamber within the royal palace of Westminster, before John, bishop of Worcester, chancellor of England (age 56), John lord de Wellys (age 36), Master William Smyth, dean of the chapel royal of Wymbourn in the diocese of Salisbury, and other witnesses, in the presence of the above notary, Richard Spencer, the above lady Elizabeth (age 20), present in person, appointed Masters Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the king's household, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, and commissary-general of the official of the court of Canterbury and president of the said court, in the absence of the said official, as her proctors to appear, etc., as in the preceding. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the abovenamed witnesses and of … Richard Spencer, clerk, etc., as above, the said notary has made, written, subscribed, published, and drawn up in this public form the present public instrument, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(iii) The petition to James, bishop of Imola, apostolic legate to England and Scotland, on behalf of the most serene prince and lord, the lord Henry (age 29), by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the one part, and of the most illustrious (clarissime) lady, the lady Elizabeth (age 20), eldest legitimate and natural daughter of the late Edward, sometime king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the other part, setting forth that whereas the said king Henry has by God's providence won his realm of England, and is in peaceful possession thereof, and has been asked by all the lords of his realm, both spiritual and temporal, and also by the general council of the said realm, called Parliament, to take the said lady Elizabeth to wife, he, wishing to accede to the just petitions of his subjects, desires to take the said lady to wife, but cannot do so without dispensation, inasmuch as they are related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, wherefore petition is made on their behalf to the said legate to grant them dispensation by his apostolic authority to contract marriage and remain therein, notwithstanding the said impediment of kindred, and to decree the offspring to be born thereof legitimate.

Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

Hall's Chronicle 1492. This yere was borne at Grenewiche [Map] lord Henry, second son to the King (age 34), which was created duke of Yorke, and after Prince of Wales, and in conclusion succeeded his father in crown and dignity. Nowe let us return to the new found son of King Edward, conjured by men’s policies from death to life.

And first to declare his lineage and beginning, you must understad that the [his sister] Duchess of Burgoyne (age 45) so nourished and brought up in the seditious and scelerate factions of false contryers and founders of discord could never cease nor be unquiet (like a viper that is ready to burst with superfluity of poison) except he should infest and unquiet the King of England, for no desert or displeasure by him to her committed, but only because he was propagate and descended of the house of Lancaster, ever being adverse and enemy to her line and lineage. For which only cause she compassed, imagined and invented how to cast a scorpion in his bosom, and to infect his whole realm with, a pestiferous discord. To the intent that he being vanquished and brought to confusion, both the boiling heat of her malicious heart might be fully satiated with his innocent blood, and also advance and prefer some darling of her faction to his Empire rule and dignity. And principally remembering that the Earl of Lincoln, which was by her set forth and al his company had small fortune and worse success in their progression and enterprise, contrary to her hope and expectation, she like a dog reverting to her olde vomit, began to devise and spin a new web, like a spider that daily weaves when his caul is torn. And as the devil provides venomous sauce to corrupt banckettes, so for her purpose she espied a certain young man of visage beautiful, of countenance demure, of with subtle crafty and pregnant, called Peter Warbreck. And for his dastard cowardness of the Englishmen, in derision called Perkin Warbreck (age 17), according to the Dutch phrase, which change the name of Peter to Pekin, to younglings of no strength nor courage for their timorous hearts and pusillanimity. Which young man travelling many countries, could speak English and many other languages, and for his basenes of stock and birth was known of none almost, and only for the gain of his living from his childhood was of necessity, compelled to seek and frequent diverse realms and regions. Therefore the duches (age 45) thinking to have gotten God by the foot, when she had the devil by the taile, and adjudging this young man to be a mete organ to convey her purpose, and one not unlike to be [his son] duke of Yorke, son to her brother King Edward, which was called Richard, kept him a certain space with her privately, and him with such diligence instructed, both of the secretes and common affaires of the realm of England, and of the lineage, descent and order of the House of Yorke, that he like a good scholar not forgetting his lesson could tell all that was taught him promptly without any difficulty or sign of any subornation and besides, he kept such a princely countenance, and so counterfeit a Majesty Royal, that all men in manner did firmly believe that he was extracted of the noble house and family of the Dukes of Yorke. For surely it was a gift given to that noble progeny as of nature in the root planted that all the sequel of that line and stock did study and devise how to be equivalent in honour and fame with their forefathers and noble predecessors.

On 08 Jun 1492 [his former wife] Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 55) died at Bermondsey [Map]. She was buried at the Altar, St George's Chapel [Map].

Edward IV's Daughter's Marriages

In 1495 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 37) arranged marriages for two of the daughters of King Edward IV of England his [his daughter] wife's (age 28) sisters).

On 01 Apr 1495 [his mother] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 79) made her last will. It was proved 27 Aug 1495.

Source: A Selection From the Wills of Eminent Persons by Camden Society (Great Britain). Published 1838. Transcribed by John Gough Nichols and John Bruce.

IN the name of allmyghty God, the blessed Trinite, fader and son and the holigost, trusting in the meanes and mediacions of oure blessed Lady Moder, of oure most blessed Saviour Jh'u Crist, and by the intercession of holy Saint John Baptist, and all the saintes of heven: I, CECILLE, wife unto the right noble prince [his father] Richard late Duke of Yorke, fader unto the most cristen prince my Lord and son King Edward the iiij th, the first day of Aprill the yere of our Lord M.CCCC.lxxxxv. after the computacion of the Church of Englond, of hole mynde and body, loving therfore be it to Jh'u, make and ordeigne my testament in fourme and maner ensuyng.

Furst, I bequeath and surrendour my soule in to the mercifull handes of allmyghty God my maker, and in to protecion of the blessed yrgin our lady Saint Mary, and suffrage of Saint John Baptist, and of all other saintes of heven. Also my body to be buried beside the body of my moost entierly best beloved Lord and housbond, fader unto my said lorde and son, and in Fstamfordhis tumbe within the collegiate church of Fodringhay [Map], a if myn executours by the sufferaunce of the King (age 38) finde goode sufficient therto; and elles at the Kinges (age 38) pleasure. And I will that after my deceasse all my dettes sufficiently appering and proved be paid, thanking oure Lord at this tyme of making of this my testament to the knolege of my conscience I am not muche in dett; and if it happen, as I trust to God it shalnot, that there be not found sufficient money aswell to pay my dettes as to enture my body, than in advoiding such charges as myght growe for the same, the whiche God defende, I lymytte and assigne all such parcelles of plate as belongith to my chapell, pantry, cellour, ewry, and squillery, to the perfourmyng of the same, as apperith in the inventary, except such plate as I have bequeithed. Also I geve and bequeith to the Kinges noble grace all such money as is owing to me of the customes, and two cuppes of gold.

Also I geve and bequeith to the [his daughter] Quene (age 29) a crosse croslette of diamantes, a sawter with claspes of silver and guilte enameled covered with grene clothe of golde, and a pix with the fleshe of Saint Cristofer.

Also I bequeith to my lady the Kinges moder (age 51) a portuos with claspes of gold covered with blacke cloth of golde.

Also I geve to my lord Prince (age 8) a bedde of arres of the Whele of Fortune and testour of the same, a counterpoint of arras and a tappett of arres with the pope.

Also I geve to my lord Henry Duke of Yorke (age 3) b three tappettes of arres, oon of them of the life of Saint John Baptist, another of Mary Maudeleyn, and the thirde of the passion of our Lord and Saint George.

And if my body be buried at Fodringhay [Map] in the colege there with my most entierly best beloved lord and housbond, than I geve to the said colege a square canapie of crymeson clothe of gold with iiij. staves, twoo auter clothes of crymeson clothe of gold, twoo copes of crymeson cloth of gold, a chesibull and twoo tenucles of cryinyson clothe of golcrvith iij. abes, c twoo auter clothes of crymeson damask browdered, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and iij. copes of blewe velwett brodered, with iij. abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and vij. processioners.

Also I geve to the colege of Stoke Clare [Map] a chesibull and twoo tenucles of playn crymyson cloth of gold with iij. abes, twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and fyve coopes of white damaske browdered, with iij. abes, twoo awter clothes of crymeson velwett upon the velwete (sic), a vestement of crymeson playne velvet, iiij. antiphoners, iiij. grayles, and sixe processioners.

Also I geve to the house of Sion [Map] two of the best coopes of crymyson clothe of gold.

Note. These next four people refer to her grand-daughters, children of Edward IV.

Also I geve to my doughter [his daughter] Brigitte (age 14) the boke of Legenda Aurea in velem, a boke of the life of Saint Kateryn of Sene, a boke of Saint Matilde.

Also I geve to my doughter [his daughter] Cecill (age 26) a portuous with claspes silver and gilte covered with purple velvet, and a grete portuous without note.

Also I geve to my doughter [his daughter] Anne (age 19) the largest bedde of bawdekyn, withe countrepoint of the same, the barge with bailies, tilde, and ores belonging to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter [his daughter] Kateryn (age 15) a traves of blewe satten.

Also I geve to my doughter of [his sister] Suffolke (age 50) a the chare with the coveryng, all the quoshons, horses, and harneys belonging to the same, and all my palfreys.

Note. The next people are her grand-children, children of her daughter Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk (age 50).

Also I geve to my son of Suffolke (age 24) b a clothe of estate and iij. quoschons of purpull damaske cloth of gold.

Also I geve to my son Humfrey (age 21) c two awter clothes of blewe damaske brawdered and a vestyment of crymeson satten for Jh'us masse.

Also I geve to my son William (age 17) d a traves of white sarcenet, twoo beddes of downe, and twoo bolsters to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter Anne priores of Sion, a boke of Bonaventure and Hilton in the same in Englishe, and a boke of the Revelacions of Saint Burgitte.

Also I woll that all my plate not bequeithed be sold, and the money thereof be putte to the use of my burying, that is to sey, in discharging of suche costes and expensis as shalbe for carying of my body from the castell of Barkehampstede [Map] unto the colege of Fodringhey [Map]. And if any of the said plate be lefte unexpended I woll the said colege have it.

Also I geve to the colege of saint Antonies in London an antiphoner with the ruelles of musik in the later ynd.

Also I geve unto Master Richard Lessy all suche money as is owing unto me by obligations what soever they be, and also all such money as is owing unto me by the Shirfe of Yorkeshire, to helpe to bere his charges which he has to pay to the Kinges grace, trusting he shall the rather nyghe the said dettes by the help and socour of his said grace.

Also I geve to Master William Croxston a chesibull, stoles, and fanons of blake velwett, with an abe.

Also I geve to Master Eichard Henmershe a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of crymyson damaske, with an abe; and a chesibill, stoles and fanons of crymeson saten, with an abe.

Also I geve to Sir John More a frontell of purpull cloth of gold, a legend boke, and a colett boke.

Also I give to Sir Kandall Brantingham a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymson velvet, with an abe, the better of bothe.

Also I geve to Sir William Grave a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymeson velvett, with an abe; a masse-boke that servith for the closett, a prymour with claspes silver and gilt, covered with blewe velvett, and a sawter that servith for the closett covered with white ledder.

Also I geve to Sir John Blotte a gospell boke, a pistill covered with ledder, and a case for a corporax of grene playne velvett. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Clerk a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, fanons, of rede bawdeken, with iij. abes.

Also I geve to Sir William Tiler twoo coopes of rede bawdekyn.

Also I geve to Robert Claver iij. copes of white damaske brawdered, and a gowne of the Duchie b facion of playne blake velvett furred with ermyns.

Also I geve to John Bury twoo old copes of crymysyn satten cloth of gold, a frontell of white bawdekyn, twoo curteyns of rede sarcenett fringed, twoo curteyns of whit sarcenet fringed, a feder bed, a bolstour to the same, the best of feders, and two whit spervers of lynyn.

Also I geve to John Poule twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of white bawdekyn, with iij. abes; a short gowne of purple playne velvett furred with ermyns, the better of ij. and a kirtill of damaske with andelettes of silver and gilt furred.

Also I geve to John Smyth twoo auter clothes, a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of blew bawdekyn, with iij. abes. Also I geve to John Bury twoo copes of crymysyn clothe of gold that servith for Sondays.

Also I geve to John Walter a case for corporax of purple playne velvett, twoo cases for corporax of blewe bawdekyn, twoo auter clothes, a chesibill of rede and grene bawdekyn, a canapie of white sarcenett, iij. abes for children, and iiij. pair of parrours of white bawdekyn, twoo pair parrours of crymsyn velvett, twoo pair parrours of rede bawdekyn, a housling towell that servith for my selfe, twoo corteyns of blewe sarcenett fringed, a sudory of crymy-syn and white, the egges blak, a crose cloth and a cloth of Saint John Baptist of sarcenett painted, a long lantorn, a dext standing doble, twoo grete stondardes and ij. litill cofers.

Also I geve to John Peit-wynne twoo vestimentes of white damaske, a white bedde of lynnyn, a federbedde and a bolstour, and a short gowne of purple playne velvet furred with sabilles. Also I geve to Thomas Lentall six auter clothes of white sarcenett, with crosses of crymsyn velvet.

Also I geve to John Long iij. peces of bawdekyn of the lengur sorte. Also I geve to Sir [John] Verney knighte and Margarett his wiffe a a crosse [of] silver and guilte and berall, and in the same a pece of the holy crosse and other diverse reliques.

Also I geve to Dame Jane Pesemershe, widue, myne Inne that is called the George in Grauntham, during terme of her life; and after her decesse I woll that the reversion therof be unto the college of Fodringhay [Map] for evermore, to find a prest to pray for my Lord my housbond and me.

Also I geve to Nicholas Talbott and Jane his wife a spone of gold with a sharp diamount in the ende, a dymy-sent of gold with a collumbine and a diamont in the same, a guirdill of blewe tissue harnessed with gold, a guirdill of gold with a bokull and a pendaunt and iiij. barres of gold, a hoke of gold with iij. roses, a pomeamber of gold garnesshed with a diamont, sex rubies and sex perles, and the surnap and towell to the same.

Also I geve to Richard Boyvile and Gresild his wife my charrett and the horses with the harnes that belongith therunto, a gowne with a dymy trayn of purpull saten furred with ermyns, a shorte gowne of purple saten furred with jennetes, a kirtill of white damaske with aunde lettes silver and gilte, a spone of gold, a dymysynt of gold with a columbyne garnesshed with a diainant, a saphour, an amatist, and viij. perles, a pomeamber of gold enameled, a litell boxe with a cover of gold and a diamant in the toppe.

Also I geve to Richard Brocas and Jane his wife a long gown of purpull velvett upon velvet furred with ermyns, a greate Agnus of gold with the Trinite, Saint Erasmus, and the Salutacion of our Lady; an Agnus of gold with our Lady and Saint Barbara; a litell goblett with a cover silver and part guild; a pair of bedes of white amber gauded with vj. grete stones of gold, part aneled, with a pair of bedes of x. stones of gold and v. of corall; a cofor with a rounde lidde bonde with iron, which the said Jane hath in her keping, and all other thinges that she hath in charge of keping.

Also I geve to Anne Pinchbeke all other myne Agnus unbequeithed, that is to sey, ten of the Trinite, a litell malmesey pott with a cover silver and parte guilte, a possenett with a cover of silver, a short gowne of playne russett velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of playne blewe velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of purple playn velvet furred with grey, a tester, a siler, and a countrepoint of bawdekyn, the lesser of ij.

Also I geve to Jane Lessy a dymysent of gold with a roos, garnisshed with twoo rubies, a guirdell of purple tissue with a broken bokull, and a broken pendaunt silver and guilte, a guirdill of white riband with twoo claspes of gold with a columbyne, a guirdell of blewe riband with a bokell and a pendaunt of gold, a litell pair of bedes of white amber gaudied with vij. stones of gold, an haliwater stope with a strynkkill silver and gilte, and a laier silver and part guilte.

Also I geve to John Metcalfe and Alice his wife all the ringes that I have, except such as hang by my bedes and Agnus, and also except my signet, a litell boxe of golde with a cover of golde, a pair of bedes of Ixj. rounde stones of golde gaudied with sex square stones of golde enemeled, with a crosse of golde, twoo other stones, and a scalop shele of geete honging by.

Also I geve to Anne Lownde a litell bokull and a litell pendaunt of golde for a guirdill, a litell guirdell of golde and silke with a bokill and a pendaunt of golde, a guirdell of white riband with aggelettes of golde enameled, a hoke of golde playne, a broken hoke of golde enameled, and a litell rounde bottumed basyn of silver.

Also I geve to the house of Asshe-rugge a chesibull and ij. tenucles of crymysyn damaske embrawdered, with thre abes.

Also I geve to the house of Saint Margaretes twoo auter clothes with a crucifix and a vestiment of grete velvet.

Also I geve to the parish church of Stoundon a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parishe church of Much Barkehampstede a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parish church of Compton by sides Guilford a eorporax case of blake cloth of gold and iiij. auter clothes of white sarcenett embrawdered with garters.

Also I geve to Alisaunder Cressener my best bedde of downe and a bolster to the same.

Also I geve to Sir Henry Haidon knyght a tablett and a cristall garnesshed with ix. stones and xxvij. perles, lacking a stone and iij. perles.

Also I geve to Gervase Cressy a long gown of playn blewe velvet furred with sabilles.

Also I geve to Edward Delahay twoo gownes of musterdevilers furred with mynckes, and iiij u of money.

Also I geve to Thomas Manory a short gowne of crymesyn playn velvet lyned, purfilled with blake velvet, and iiij ll in money.

Also I geve to John Broune all such stuf as belongith to the kechyn in his keping at my place at Baynardcastell in London, and iiij u in money.

Also I geve to William Whitington a short gown of russett cloth furred with matrons and calabour wombes, a kirtill of purpull silke chamblett with awndelettes silver and gilte, all such floures of brawdery werke and the cofer that they be kept in, and xls. in money.

Also I geve to all other gentilmen that be daily a waiting in my houshold with Mr. Richard Cressy and Robert Lichingham everich of theime iiij u in money.

Also I geve to every yoman that be daily ad waiting in my houshold with John Otley xls. in money.

Also I geve to every grome of myne xxvj s. viij d. in money. And to every page of myne xiij s. iiij d. in money.

Also I geve to Robert Harison xls. in money and all the gootes.

And if ther be no money founde in my cofers to perfourme this my will and bequest, than I will that myne executours, that is to sey the reverend fader in God Master Olyver King bisshop of Bath (age 63), Sir Reignolde Bray (age 55) knight, Sir Thomas Lovell, councellours to the Kinges grace, Master William Pikinham doctour in degrees dean of the colege of Stoke Clare, Master William Felde master of the colege of Fodringhey, and Master Richard Lessy dean of my chapell, havyng God in reverence and drede, unto whome I geve full power and auctorite to execute this my will and testament, make money of such goodes as I have not geven and bequeithed, and with the same to content my dettes and perfourme this my will and testament.

And the foresaid reverend fader in God, Sir Rignold Bray knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell knyght, Master William Pikenham, and Master William Felde, to be rewarded of suche thinges as shalbe delivered unto theme by my commaundement by the hondes of Sir Henry Haidon knyght stieward of my houshold and Master Richard Lessy, humbly beseching the Kinges habundant grace in whome is my singuler trust to name such supervisour as shalbe willing and favorabull diligently to se that this my present testament and will be perfittely executed and perfourmyd, gevyng full power also to my said executours to levey and receyve all my dettes due and owing unto me at the day of my dethe, as well of my receyvours as of all other officers, except such dettes as I have geven and bequeathed unto Master Richard Lessy aforesaid, as is above specified in this present will and testament.

And if that Master Richard Lessy cannot recover such money as I have geven to hym of the Shirffes of Yorkeshire and of my obligacions, than I will he be recompensed of the revenues of my landes to the sume of v c. marcs at the leest.

IN WITTENESSE HEROF I have setto my signet and signemanuell at my castell of Berkehamstede [Map] the last day of May the yere of our Lord abovesaid, being present Master Richard Lessy, Sir William Grant my confessour, Richard Brocas clerc of my kechyn, and Gervays Cressy. Proved at "Lamehithe" the 27 th day of August, A.D. 1495, and commission granted to Master Richard Lessy the executor in the said will mentioned to administer, &c. &c.

Archaeologia Volume 21 Section III. Account of King Edward the Fourth's Second Invasion of England, in 1471, drawn up hy one of his Followers; with the King's Letter to the Inhabitants of Bruges upon his success: translated from a French Manuscript in the Public Library at Ghent. Communicated by Edward Jerningham (age 45), Esq. F.S.A. in a Letter to Nicholas Carlisle, Esq. F.R.S. Secretary. Read 13th April, 1820.

Edward Jerningham: On 14 Jul 1774 he was born to William Jerningham of Cossey Park 6th Baronet and Frances Dillon. He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland. On 29 May 1822 Edward Jerningham died.

Angel. French Angelot, or ange. An English gold coin introduced by Edward IV in 1465

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Thys ys the fyrste of hys rayne of Kynge Edwarde the iiijthe.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Richard, the third son, of whom we now treat, was in wit and courage equal with either of them, in body and prowess far under them both: little of stature, ill featured of limbs, crooked-backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favored in appearance, and such as is in the case of lords called warlike, in other men called otherwise. He was malicious, wrathful, envious, and from before his birth, ever perverse. It is for truth reported that the [his mother] Duchess his mother had so much ado in her travail to birth him that she could not be delivered of him uncut, and he came into the world with the feet forward, as men be borne outward, and (as the story runs) also not untoothed. Either men of hatred reported the above for truth or else nature changed her course in his beginning-in the course of whose life many things were unnaturally committed. No unskilled captain was he in war, for which his disposition was more suited than for peace. Sundry victories had he, and sometimes overthrows, but never by fault of his own person, either of hardiness or political order. Free was he called when dispensing gifts, and somewhat above his power liberal; with large gifts he got for himself unsteadfast friendship, for which he was glad to pillage and spoil in other places, and get for himself steadfast hatred. He was close and secret, a deep dissembler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of heart, outwardly friendly where he inwardly hated, not omitting to kiss whom he thought to kill; pitiless and cruel, not for evil will always, but for ambition, and either for the surety or increase of his estate. Friend and foe was much the same; where his advantage grew, he spared no man death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with his own hands King Henry the Sixth, being prisoner in the Tower [Map], as men constantly say, and that without commandment or knowledge of the King, who would, undoubtedly, if he had intended such a thing, have appointed that butcherly office to some other than his own born brother.

The Red Bulwarke, Tower of London [Map], or The Bulwarke Gate, was a brick extension to the entrance of the Tower of London [Map] built during the reign of King Edward IV of England. It is now longer extant being demolished before 1668.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. [his father] Richard, Duke of York, a noble man and a mighty, had begun not by war but by law to challenge the crown, putting his claim into the Parliament. There his cause was either for right or favor so far forth advanced that King Henry (although he had a goodly prince utterly rejected his own blood; the crown was by authority of Parliament entailed unto the Duke of York, and his male issue in remainder, immediately after the death of King Henry. But the Duke, not enduring so long to tarry, but intending under pretext of dissension and debate arising in the realm, to reign before his time and to take upon him the rule in King Henry's life, was with many nobles of the realm at Wakefield slain, leaving three sons - Edward, [his brother] George, and Richard.

All three, as they were great states of birth, so were they great and stately of stomach, greedy and ambitious of authority, and impatient of partners. Edward, revenging his father's death, deprived King Henry and attained the crown.

Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. REMEMBRANCE for the enterment of the right high right excellent and most Christen [his daughter] Princese Elizabeth Queene of England and of France Lady of Ireland and the Eldest daughter of king Edward the fourth wife to the most hygh most puyssant and most victorious king Henry the viith our most dread Souveraigne Lord the which deceased in childbed in The Tower of London [Map] the xith day of Februarye which was upon Saturday and the xviiith yeare of the reigne of our said Soveraigne Lord the king her most dearest husband whose departing was as heveye and dolorous to the kings hcighuess as hath been sene or heard of. And also in likeyse to all the Estates of this Realme as well Citizens as Comnyns for she was one of the most gracious and best, beloved princesses in the world in her tyme beinge.

Then the king of his wisdom ordeyned certaine of his Counsell for the ordering of her buryall to be at Westminster. That is to say The Erle of Surry Treasurer of England and Sr Richard Guilford Comptrowler of his noble household And himselfe tooke with him certain of his secretest and prevely departed to a solitary place to passe his sorrows and would no man should resort to him but such his grace appointed untill such tyme it should please him to showe his pleasure and over yt every Officer to give their Attendance upon the said Councellours And over yt in his Departing ordeyned Incontinent the next day following for vi Hundredth and xxxvi hole masses said in London and by Sr Charles Somerset and Sr Richard Guilford sent the best comfort to all the Queens servants that hath bene sene of a soveraigne Lord with as good words.

Also then were ronngen the bells of London everye one and after that through out the Realme with solomne Dyrgies and Masses of Requiems and everye Religious place collegs and Churches.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. So died (as I have said) this noble king in that time during which his life was most desired. The love of his people and their entire affection toward him would have been to his noble children a marvelous fortress and sure armor (having in themselves also as many gifts of nature, as many princely virtues, as much goodly ability as their age could receive), if division and dissention of their friends had not unarmed them and left them destitute, and the execrable desire of sovereignty provoked their uncle to their destruction, who, if either kind or kindness had held place, must needs have been their chief defense. For Richard, the Duke of Gloucester, by nature their uncle, by office their Protector, to their father beholden, to themselves by oath and allegiance bound, all the bands broken that bind man and man together, without any respect of God or the world, unnaturally contrived to bereave them, not only their dignity, but also their lives. But because this Duke's demeanor ministers in effect all the whole matter whereof this book shall treat, it is therefore appropriate to show you somewhat, before we further go, what manner of man this was who could find in his heart so much mischief to conceive.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. "You remember, I trust, King Edward himself, although he was a man of age and of discretion, yet was he in many things ruled by the Queen's faction more than stood either with his honor or our profit, or to the advantage of any man else, except only the immoderate advancement of the Queen's family, which group either sorer thirsted after their own well being, or our woe, it were hard I suppose to guess. And if some folks' friendship had not held better place with the King than any respect of kindred, they might, by chance, easily have trapped and brought to confusion some of us before now. Why, have not they done as easily to some others already, as near to his royal blood as we? But our Lord has wrought His will, and thanks be to His grace that peril is past. However, a great peril is growing if we suffer this young King to remain in our enemies' hand, who, without the King's awareness, might abuse the name of his commandment to any of our undoing, which thing God and good provision forbid-and of such good provision, none of us has anything the less need because of the late made atonement in which the King's pleasure had more place than the parties' wills. Nor none of us, I believe, is so unwise to trust too soon a new friend made of an old foe, or to think that a slight kindness, suddenly contracted in one hour, continued yet scant a fortnight, should be deeper settled in their stomachs than a long accustomed malice many years rooted.".

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. In which time of his latter days, this realm was in quiet and prosperous estate: no fear of outward enemies, no war in hand, nor none toward, but such as no man looked for; the people toward the Prince, not in a constrained fear, but in a willing and loving obedience; among themselves, the commons in good peace. The lords whom he knew at variance, he himself in his deathbed appeased. He had left all gathering of money (which is the only thing that withdraws the hearts of Englishmen from the prince), nor anything he intended to take in hand by which he should be driven thereunto, for his tribute out of France he had obtained before, and the year foregoing his death he had obtained Berwick Castle [Map]. And although throughout his reign he was with his people so benign, courteous and so familiar that no part of his virtues was more esteemed, yet that condition in the end of his days (in which many princes by a long continued sovereignty decline into a proud port from their debonair behavior at the beginning) marvelously in him grew and increased so far forth that, in the summer, the last that ever he saw, his Highness, being at Windsor hunting, sent for the Mayor and Aldermen of London to him-for no other errand but to have them hunt and be merry with him. Here he treated them not so stately but so friendly and of so familiar cheer, and sent venison from there so freely into the city, that no one thing in many days before got him either more hearts or more hearty favor among the common people, who oftentimes more esteem and take for greater kindness a little courtesy than a great benefit.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. But now to return to the course of this history, were it that the Duke of Gloucester had of old planned this conclusion, or was now at first thereunto moved and put in hope by the occasion of the tender age of the young princes his nephews (as opportunity and likelihood of success put a man in courage of what he never intended), certain is it that he contrived their destruction with the usurpation of the regal dignity upon himself. And forasmuch as he well knew and helped to maintain a long continued grudge and heart hating between the Queen's kindred and the King's blood, each party envying the other's authority, he now thought that their division should be (as it was indeed) a favorable beginning to the pursuit of his intent and a sure ground for the foundation of all his building, if he might first, under the pretext of revenging old displeasure, abuse the anger and ignorance of the one party to the destruction of the other, and then win to his purpose as many as he could, and those that could not be won, might be lost before they looked therefore. For of one thing was he certain, that if his intent were perceived, he should soon have made peace between both parties-with his own blood.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. He was a goodly personage, and very princely to behold: of heart, courageous; politic in counsel; in adversity nothing abashed; in prosperity, rather joyful than proud; in peace, just and merciful; in war, sharp and fierce; in the field, bold and hardy, and nevertheless, no further than wisdom would, adventurous. Whose wars whosoever would well consider, he shall no less commend his wisdom when he withdrew than his manhood when he vanquished. He was of visage lovely, of body mighty, strong, and clean made; however, in his latter days with over-liberal diet, he became somewhat corpulent and burly, and nonetheless not uncomely; he was of youth greatly given to fleshly wantonness, from which health of body in great prosperity and fortune, without a special grace, hardly refrains. This fault not greatly grieved the people, for one man's pleasure could not stretch and extend to the displeasure of very many, and the fault was without violence, and besides that, in his latter days, it lessened and well left.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. And therewithal, the King, no longer enduring to sit up, laid himself down on his right side, his face toward them, and none was there present that could refrain from weeping. But the lords, encouraging him with as good words as they could and answering for the time as they thought to stand with his pleasure, there in his presence (as by their words appeared), each forgave the other and joined their hands together, when (as it after appeared by their deeds) their hearts were far asunder.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Some wise men also think that his plan-covertly conveyed-lacked not in helping his brother [his brother] Clarence to his death, which he resisted openly, although somewhat (as men judged) more faintly than one who was heartily concerned for his welfare. And they who thus judged, they think he for a long time during King Edward's life forethought to be king in case the King his brother (whose life he looked to, so that evil diet should shorten it) should happen to die (as indeed he did) while his children were young. And they judged that for this reason: he was glad of his brother's death, that Duke of Clarence, whose life must needs have hindered his plans, whether the same Duke of Clarence had kept himself true to his nephew the young King, or enterprised to be king himself. But of all this point, is there no certainty, and whosoever divines upon conjectures may as well shoot too far as too short. However, this have I by credible information learned, that the same night in which King Edward died, one Mistlebrook, long before morning, came in great haste to the house of one Potter, dwelling in Redcross Street without Cripplegate [Map], and when he was with hasty rapping quickly let in, he revealed unto Potter that King Edward was departed. "By my truth man," said Potter, "then will my master the Duke of Gloucester be king." What cause he had so to think it is hard to say: whether he, being well disposed toward him, knew anything about such a thing the Duke had purposed, or otherwise he had any inkling thereof, for he was not ever likely to speak of it.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. With these words and writings and such others, the Duke of Gloucester soon set afire them that were of themselves easy to kindle, and especially two, Duke of Buckingham and Richard Lord Hastings [Note. Mistake for William] (the chamberlain), both men of honor and of great power: the one by long succession from his ancestry, the other by his office and the King's favor. These two, not bearing each to the other so much love as hatred both unto the Queen's part, on this point accorded together with the Duke of Gloucester: that they would utterly remove from the King's company all his mother's friends, under the name of their enemies. With this concluded, the Duke of Gloucester, understanding that the lords who were about the [his son] King intended to bring him up to his coronation, accompanied with such power of their friends that it should be hard for him to bring his purpose to pass without the gathering and great assembling of people and in manner of open war, the end of which he knew to be dubious, and with the King being on their side, his part should have the face and name of a rebellion, he secretly, therefore, by diverse means caused the Queen to be persuaded and brought to believe that it neither were needed and also should be jeopardizing for the King to come up strong. For whereas now every lord loved each other and none other thing studied upon but about the coronation and honor of the King, if the lords of her kindred should assemble in the King's name many people, they should give the very same lords, between whom and them had been sometime debate, fear and suspicion, lest they should gather this people, not for the King's safeguard, whom no man impugned, but for their destruction, having more regard to their old variance than their new atonement. For which cause, they should assemble on the other party many people again for their defense, whose power she knew well far stretched. And thus should all the realm fall into a roar. And of all the hurt that thereof should ensue, which was likely not to be little, and the most harm there like to fall where she least it would, all the world would put her and her kindred in the blame and say that they had unwisely and untruly also, broken the amity and peace that the King her husband so prudently made between his kin and hers on his death bed and which the other party faithfully observed.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Even after his death, this favor and affection toward him because of the cruelty, mischief, and trouble of the tempestuous world that followed afterwards-increased more highly. At such time as he died, the displeasure of those that bore him grudge for King Henry's sake, the Sixth, whom he deposed, was well assuaged, and in effect quenched, in that many of them were dead in the more than twenty years of his reign-a great part of a long life. And many of them in the meantime had grown into his favor, of which he was never sparing.

Archaeologia Volume 29 Section X. Observations upon the History of certain Events in England during the Reign of King Edward the Fourth. By James Orchard Halliwell, Esq. F.RS., F.S.4., FRAS., &c.

Read February 27th, 1840.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. By reason whereof, the nobility of Flanders were to him diligent, and with due reverence did him all the pleasure that lay in their power or offices. And to be short, the more that, this poetical and feigned invention was shadowed with the pretence of sincere verity, the more faith and undoubted credence was adhibited to it. In so much that many one thought him to be preserved, only by the will and mighty power of Almighty God, and to be conveyed at the first danger by some faithful friend of King Edward his father into some strange country, and so escaped the violent tyranny of his uncle [his brother] King Rychard, which indubitably, hereafter should recover his father’s possessions and Kingdom. The same and brute of this juggled miracle was almost in one moment blown over all the country of Flanders, and the territories thereabouts. But in England it was biased in every place sooner than a man could think or devise it. In which country more than in other places it was received for an infallible verity and most sure truth, and that not only of the common people, but also of diverse noble and worshipful men of no small estimation, which are affirmed it to be true, and no comment or fable fantastically imagined. After this divulgation the Richard son to King Edward was yet living, had in great honour amongst the Flemings, there began sedition to springe on every side, none otherwise than in the pleasant time of year, trees are wont to bud or blossom. For not only they that were in sanctuaries, for great and heinous offences by them committed, but also many other that were fallen in debt, and doubting to be brought to captivity and bondage, assembled together in a company, and were passed over the sea into Flanders, to their counterfeit Richard son to King Edward, otherwise named Perkyn Warbeck. After this many of the noble men conspired together some through rashness and temerity induced thereunto, some being so earnestly persuaded in their own conceit, as though they knew perfectly that this Perkyn was the undoubted son of King Edward the Fourth solicited, slurred and allured to their opinion all such as were friends and favourites of the House of Yorke. Other through indignation, ennui and avarice, ever grudging and thinking they were not condignly rewarded for their pains and parts taken in the King’s behalf and quarrel. Other whom it grieved and vexed to see the world stand still in one stay, and all men to live in peace and tranquillity, desirous of some change, ran headlong into that fury, madness and seditious conjuration.

King Edward IV of England 1442-1483 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward III of England 1312-1377

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 1364-1425

Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495

Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland 1379-1440

John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby 1337-1388

Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby

Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey 1318-1372

Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376

Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York 1411-1460

Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369

Royal Ancestors of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483

Kings Wessex: Great x 12 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 10 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 11 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 2 Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 8 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 4 Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Royal Descendants of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483

Elizabeth York Queen Consort England x 1

King Edward V of England x 1

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 1

Queen Consort Camilla Shand x 1

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 1

Ancestors of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York Son of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Isabella of Castile Duchess York 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Father: Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March 6th Earl Ulster Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Anne Mortimer 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Eleanor Holland Countess March and Ulster 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

King Edward IV of England 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandFather: Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Mother: Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster