Biography of King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Tomasina Morosini

1413 Death of King Henry IV Accession of Henry V

1420 Marriage of Henry V and Catherine of Valois

1422 Death of Henry V

1422 Death of Charles VI

1426 Henry VI Knighting ceremony

1429 English Coronation of Henry VI

1431 French Coronation of Henry VI

1437 Death of Dowager Queen Consort Catherine of Valois

1441 Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

1444 Treaty of Tours

1445 Richard of York meets Margaret of Anjou

1445 Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

1447 Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

1453 Knighting at Greenwich

1453 Henry VI's First Illness

1453 Birth of Edward of Westminster

1455 First Battle of St Albans

1458 Loveday

1459 Battle of Ludford Bridge

1460 Battle of Northampton

1460 Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

1461 Battle of Mortimer's Cross

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Henry VI

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

1461 Battle of Towton

1462 Siege of Norham Castle

1465 Capture of King Henry VI

1470 Angers Agreement

1470 Re-adeption of King Henry VI

1471 Death of King Henry VI

King Henry VI of England and II of France was buried at Altar, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle [Map].

On 09 Aug 1386 [his father] King Henry V of England was created 1st Duke Cornwall.

In 1399 [his father] King Henry V of England (age 12) was created Prince of Wales.

On 10 Nov 1399 [his father] King Henry V of England (age 13) was created 1st Duke Lancaster by [his grandfather] King Henry IV of England (age 32).

Death of King Henry IV Accession of Henry V

On 20 Mar 1413 [his grandfather] King Henry IV of England (age 45) died in the Jerusalem Chamber, Cheyneygates, Westminster Abbey [Map] in Westminster Abbey confirming a prophesy that he would die in Jerusalem. His son [his father] King Henry V of England (age 26) succeeded V King England. His sons King Henry V of England (age 26) and [his uncle] Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 22) were present. He was buried in the Chancel of Canterbury Cathedral [Map].

Marriage of Henry V and Catherine of Valois

On 02 Jun 1420 [his father] Henry V (age 33) and [his mother] Catherine of Valois (age 18) were married at Troyes Cathedral [Map]. She the daughter of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 51) and Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France (age 50). He the son of King Henry IV of England and Mary Bohun. They were half third cousin once removed. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

On 06 Dec 1421 King Henry VI of England and II of France was born to King Henry V of England (age 35) and Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England (age 20) at Windsor Castle [Map].

Death of Henry V

On 31 Aug 1422 [his father] King Henry V of England (age 36) died at Château de Vincennes, Vincennes possibly from dysentery, possibly from heatstroke. John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 21) brought the body back to England. His son King Henry VI of England and II of France succeeded VI King England.

Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter (age 45) was appointed Governor to King Henry VI of England and II of France.

After 29 Sep 1422 Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 19) was appointed Lord Chamberlain of the Household to King Henry VI of England and II of France.

Death of Charles VI

On 21 Oct 1422 [his grandfather] Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 53) died at Hôtel Saint Pol [Map]. The succession of the French throne was disputed between:

King Henry VI  succeeded II King France: Lancaster

[his uncle] Charles "Victorious" VII King France (age 19) succeeded VII King France: Capet Valois. Marie Valois Anjou Queen Consort France (age 18) by marriage Queen Consort France.

After 17 Aug 1424 John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl of Shrewsbury (age 41) was appointed 141st Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 2).

On 14 Jul 1425 John Mowbray 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 33) paid homage to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 3) for his Dukedom.

In 1426 Robert Wingfield (age 23) was knighted by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 4) at Hereford [Map].

In 1426 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales (age 29) was appointed 142nd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 4).

In 1426 Edmund Hungerford (age 17) was knighted by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 4).

In Feb 1426 John Fastolf (age 46) was appointed 143rd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 4).

1426 Henry VI Knighting ceremony

On 19 May 1426, Whitsunday, King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 4) was knighted by his uncles [his uncle] John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 36) and [his uncle] Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 35) at Leicester, Leicestershire [Map]. Henry then went on to knight Ralph Longford (age 25), Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon (age 12) and Robert Wingfield (age 23).

In 1427 Peter Aviz I Duke Coimbra (age 34) was appointed 144th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 5).

In 1429 Humphrey Stafford 6th Earl Stafford (age 26) was appointed 145th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 7).

In 1429 John Radclyffe (age 49) was appointed 146th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 7).

English Coronation of Henry VI

On 06 Nov 1429 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 7) was crowned VI King England by Cardinal Henry Beaufort (age 54) at Westminster Abbey [Map]. Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick (age 4) carried the child King. John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 14) attended. John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont (age 20) was knighted.

Around 1430 [his step-father] Owen Tudor (age 30) and [his mother] Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England (age 28) were married. She the daughter of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France and Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France (age 60). He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

Chronicle of Gregory 1431. 03 Dec 1431. Ande that year the kyng (age 9) passyde the see in to Fraunce, and wente unto Parysse [Map]; and he come thedyr the thyrde day of Decembyr.

French Coronation of Henry VI

Chronicle of Gregory 1431. 13 Dec 1431. And the xiij day of the same monythe he was crownyde at Parysse; for there he was worthely and ryally ressayvyd as they cowthe devyse whythe alle the statys of the towne. And there he hylde his feste raylly to alle maner of nacyons that were in that contre, that yf it plesyde them thedyr for to come. And in Syn Johnys day in the Crystysmasse weke the King remevyd towarde Roone [Map], and on the xij evyn he come unto Calys. Ande the xxix day of Janyver he londyd at Dovyr [Map].

On 16 Dec 1431 Henry VI (age 10) was crowned II King France: Lancaster at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map] by Cardinal Henry Beaufort (age 56). A somewhat futile exercise; the last gasps of the Hundred Years War. The ceremony had been arranged by [his uncle] John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 42). His wife Anne Valois Duchess of Bedford (age 27) attended.

Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford (age 53) was appointed Carver.

Thomas Harrington (age 31), Richard Archer (age 44), Hugh Courtenay 12th Earl Devon and his son Thomas (age 17) attended.

Chronicle of Gregory 1432. 14 Feb 1432. And yn Syn Volantynys day he come unto London; and he was worthely fette in to the cytte whythe the mayre and his aldyrmen whythe alle the worthy comyns of the cytte and every crafte in her devys.

And whenne the King (age 10) come to Londyn Brygge [Map] there was made a towre, and there yn stondynge a gy aunte welle arayde and welle be-sene, whythe a swerde holdynge uppe on hye, sayynge this reson in Latyn, Inimicos ejus induam confusione. And on every syde of him stode an antiloppe, that one holdynge the armys of Ingelond and that othyr the armys of Fraunce. Ande at the drawe brygge there was a nothyr ryalle toure, there yn stondynge iij empryssys ryally arayde, whythe crownys on her heddys, the whyche namys folowyn here: first, Nature; the secunde, Grace; the thyrde, Fortune, presentyng him whythe gyftys of grace. The first gaffe him Scyence an Cunnynge, and the secunde gaffe him Prosperyte and Eyches. And on the ryght syde of the emperyssys stode vij fayre maydyns clothide alle in whyte, i-powderyde whythe sonnys of golde, presentynge the kyng whythe vij gyftys of the Holy Goste in the lykenys of vij whyte dovys by fygure owtwarde, whythe this resonys: Impleat te Dominus spiritu1 sapiencie et intellectus, spiritu consitij etfortitudinis, sciencie et pietatys, spiritu timorys Domini. And on the lyfte syde of thes emperysse stode vi j othyr fay re maydyns in why the, powdery de why the sterrys of golde, presentyng the kyng whythe vij gyftys of worschyppe. The first was a crowne of glorye, the seconde with a cepter of clennysse, the iij whythe a swyrde of ryght and vyctorye, the iiij whythe a mantelle of prudence, the v whythe a schylde of fay the, the vj an helme of helme, the vij a gyrdylle of love and of parfyte pes. And this maydens song an hevynly songe unto the King of praysynge and of his vyctorye and welle comynge home. And whenne he come unto Cornehylle, there yn the vij scyence, and every scyence schewynge his propyr corny ng wondyrly i-wroughte.

Note 1. spiritu. spiritus, MS.

In Apr 1432 John Fitzalan 14th Earl of Arundel (age 24) was appointed 147th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 10).

In 1433 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 21) was appointed 148th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 11).

Chronicle of Gregory 1433. 08 Jul 1433. And that same year the King (age 11) hylde his Parlyment at Wystemystyr, that be ganne the viij day of Juylle; and soo forthe it induryd unto Lammas, and thenne it was enjornyde unto Syntte Edward is day nexte folowynge; unto the whyche Parlyment came the Regaunt of Fraunce. Ande he come unto London on Syn Johnys evyn the Baptyste, and was worthely ressayvyde of the Mayre of London why the alle his aldyrmen and worthy comyners of the cytte.

In 1435 Edward "The Philosopher" I King Portugal (age 43) was appointed 149th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 13).

In 1436 Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 30) was appointed 150th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 14).

On 05 May 1436 John Grey (age 49) was appointed 151st Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 14).

Chronicle of Gregory 1436. 22 Jul 1436. And on Mary Magdelene is day the kyng (age 14) hylde his counselle at Cauntyrbury [Map], whythe a grete party of his lordys.

Death of Dowager Queen Consort Catherine of Valois

On 03 Jan 1437 [his mother] Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England (age 35) died at Bermondsey Abbey [Map]. She had been married aged eighteen to [his father] King Henry V of England for two years three months. Their son was King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 15).

After Henry V died she disappears somewhat from the records other than for Parliament to legislate against her marrying without permission, which she then duly did, to [his step-father] Owen Tudor (age 37), and had two sons, the elder of which was father to King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Her children [his half-brother] Edmund (age 6) and [his half-brother] Jasper (age 5) were subsequently placed in the care of Abbess Katherine Pole, then Abbess of Barking. Katherine's brother William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 40) had the wardship of Edmund's future wife Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond.

Chronicle of Gregory 1437. 21 Jan 1437. And that year the King (age 15) ordaynyde the Parlyment to be holde at Cambridge [Map] Caumbryge, but aftyr warde by goode counselle it was tornyde and holde att Westemyster; the whyche Parlyment be ganne the xxj day of Janyver. And to that Parlyment come the Byschoppe of Tyrwynne [Thérouanne] ande the counselle of the Erle of Armanacke (age 40).

Chronicle of Gregory 1437. 09 Dec 1437. Ande that same year deyde the Emperowre of Rome (age 69), and his termentte was solempnly holde at Syn Poulys [Map] at the cytte of London the iij day of May, there beynge the King (age 16) and his lordys.

In 1438 Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 38) was appointed 152nd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 16).

In 1438 Albert Habsburg V Duke Austria (age 40) was appointed 153rd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 16).

Chronicle of Gregory 1439. 1439. And that same year, a-pon Wytsondaye, the kyng (age 17) made knyghtys at Kenyngton, that is to wete, the sone and hayre (age 8) of the Lord of Huntyngdon (age 43), and the son ande the ayre of the Erle of Aroundelle1, Lewys John, and Wylliam Estefylde, marchaunt of London. And the mayre ordaynyd that year that comvn wemmen shulde were raye hoodys, and bawdys to the pelory. And this was cryde the v day of Auguste the same year, and so it was done at dyvers tymys.

In 1439 Gaston Foix was appointed 154th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 17).

Around 1440 Ralph Boteler 6th and 1st Baron Sudeley (age 51) was appointed 157th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 18).

In 1440 William Neville 1st Earl Kent (age 35) was appointed 155th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 18).

In 1441 Roger Fiennes (age 56) was appointed Keeper of the King's Wardrobe to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 19).

In 1441 London's Lord Mayor obtained permission of Henry VI (age 19) to rebuild the Cheapside Cross [Map], being by length of time decayed […] in more beautifull manner for the honor of the citie. This new Cross was completed in 1486. During the first half of the Tudor period, the Cross was freshly gilded nearly every decade for important visitors and occasions: in 1522 for the visit of Charles I of Spain (by then Holy Roman Emperor Charles V); in 1533, for the coronation of Anne Boleyn; for the coronation of Edward VI; and in 1554, for the coronation of Philip, the Spanish consort of Mary.

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

Before 27 Oct 1441 Eleanor Cobham Duchess of Gloucester (age 41), wife of the heir presumptive [his uncle] Humphrey 1st Duke Gloucester (age 51), brother of the deceased [his father] King Henry V of England, uncle of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 19), was tried for predicting the future of the King; in reality a veiled attack on her husband who had over-reached himself. She had consulted two astrologers Thomas Southwell and Roger Bolingbroke. All three were arrested, tried and found guilty. Eleanor denied most of the charges but confessd to obtaining potions from Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" (age 26). She was sentenced to do public penance, divorce her husband and remain confined for the remainder of her life.

In 1442 John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont (age 32) was appointed 158th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 20).

Chronicle of Gregory 1442. 30 Jan 1442. Ande the xxx day of Janyver was certayne poyntys of armys done in Smethefylde [Map] by twyne a knyght of Catelan and a Engelysche squyer, i-callyde Syr John Ascheley; of the whiche tyme the son of the said knyght, in presens of alle the pepylle there, was made knyght opynly by the kyngys (age 20) owne hondys. And the said John Ayschelay also was made knyght att the same tyme.

In 1443 John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset (age 40) was appointed 156th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 21).

On 28 Aug 1443 John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset (age 40) was created 1st Duke Somerset, 1st Earl Kendal by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 21). Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 33) by marriage Duchess Somerset.

Treaty of Tours

On 28 May 1444 the Treaty of Tours was concluded. The terms included the marriage of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 22) and [his future wife] Margaret of Anjou (age 14) in return for which England ceded the strategically important French County of Maine to France; she brought no dowry. The Treaty was negotiated by William de la Pole Duke of Suffolk (age 47). The cessation of Maine subsequently came as something of surprise to Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (age 38) who was its Governor. He, Somerset (age 38), was offered the Governorship of Normandy instead leading to a further rift between Somerset (age 38) and Richard Duke of York (age 32) who had already been offered Normandy. These seeds of the Wars of the Roses were falling on fertile ground.

On 30 May 1444 John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset (age 41) committed suicide. Suicide not certain but likely. Duke Somerset, Earl Kendal extinct. His brother Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 38) succeeded 4th Earl Somerset. Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 35) by marriage Countess Somerset.

His only child Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond aged one was his heir. King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 22) granted her wardship to William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 47) who married her to his son John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 1).

In Sep 1444 Humphrey Stafford 6th Earl Stafford (age 42) was created 1st Duke of Buckingham by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 22) in reward many years of loyal and continuous service to the Crown. Anne Neville Duchess Buckingham (age 36) by marriage Duchess of Buckingham.

In 1445 Frederick Lorraine Count Vaudémont (age 17) and [his future sister-in-law] Yolande Valois Anjou (age 16) were married. She the daughter of René Valois Anjou I Duke Anjou (age 35) and Isabella Metz Duchess Anjou I Duchess Lorraine (age 45). He the son of Antoine Count of Vaudémont (age 45) and Marie Countess of Harcourt (age 46). They were second cousins.

In 1445 Álvaro Vaz Almada 1st Count Avranches (age 55) was appointed 162nd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 23).

In 1445 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 36) was appointed 159th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 23).

In 1445 Thomas Hoo 1st Baron Hoo and Hastings (age 49) was appointed 161st Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 23).

Richard of York meets Margaret of Anjou

On 18 Mar 1445 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 33) met [his future wife] Margaret of Anjou (age 14) at Pontoise [Map] on his mission to bring her back to England for her marriage to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 23).

On 14 Apr 1445 Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick (age 20) was created 1st Duke Warwick by his third cousin King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 23). Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick (age 21) by marriage Duchess Warwick.

Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

On 23 Apr 1445 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 23) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 15) were married at Titchfield Abbey, Hampshire [Map] probably by Bishop William Ayscough (age 50), Bishop of Salisbury. She the daughter of René Valois Anjou I Duke Anjou (age 36) and Isabella Metz Duchess Anjou I Duchess Lorraine (age 45). He the son of King Henry V of England and Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England. They were third cousins.

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 26 May 1445. And uppon Thorsday, the xxvj day of May, the kyng (age 23) made xlvj [46] Knyghtys of the Bathe yn the Towre of London. And uppon the morowe, that was the Fry day, lordys of the realme, whythe nobylle and grete and costelowe araye, the Mayre of London and the aldyrmen in scharlet, whythe alle the craftys of London in blewe, wythe dyvers dyvysyngys, every crafte to be knowe from othyr, rydyng agayne [his wife] Quene Margarete (age 15) and brought her unto the Toure of London [Map], the quene (age 15) havynge whythe her xvij [17] charys with ladys.

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 04 Oct 1445. Ande that same year there was a pechyng i-made uppon the Erle of Ormounde (age 52) by the pryour of Kylmayn (age 24)1 for certayne poyntys of treson, the whyche was takyn in to the kyngys grace, where uppon it lykyd our sovereign lorde (age 23) to graunte a generalle pardon unto the said Erle (age 52). But nevyrtheles the said pryour (age 24) appayryde in Smethefylde [Map] the iiij day of the monythe of October, as it was apoyntyde, full clenly harnyssyd, redy whythe alle his fetys and whythe alle his wepyns, kepynge the fylde tylle hyghe none.

Note 1. Thomas Fitzgerald (age 24) grandson of Thomas Earl of Kildare, was at this time Prior of the Knights of St. John at Kilmainham in Ireland.

In 1446 Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 2) was created 1st Earl of Rutland by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 24).

In 1446 John Foix 1st Earl Kendal (age 35) was appointed 163rd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 24).

In 1447 Alfonso "The African" V King Portugal (age 14) was appointed 164th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 25).

In 1447 Henry "The Navigator" Aviz (age 52) was appointed 160th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 25).

In 1447 François Surrienne was appointed 165th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 25).

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. Jan 1447. Ande that same year was a Parlyment begon at Byry [Map]; and that same year there was grete wache at Syn Donstonys in the Este [Map], by the sofferens of our sufferayne lord the kyng, in every warde of London alle the xvi dayes in Crystysmasse by the commaundement of the King (age 25).

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 31 Jan 1447. Ande in that same year there was an armyrer and his owne man fought whythe yn the lystys in Smethefylde [Map] the laste day of Januer, ande there the mayster was slayne and dyspoylyde out of his harnys, and lay stylle in the fylde alle that day and that nyght next folowynge. And thenne afty[r]ward, by the kyngys (age 25) commaundement, he was d[r]awyn, hanggyde, and be-heddyde, and his hedde sette on London Brygge [Map], and the body hynggyng a-bove erthe be-syde the towre.

Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 23 Feb 1447. Ande at Schroffe tyde nexte aftyr there was ordaynyd a Parlyment at Synt Edmondys Bury [Map]; ande att the comyng of the goode [his uncle] Duke Umfray, some tyme Duke of Glouceter (age 56), uppon the Satyrday anon as he was a lyght of his hors he was a-restyde of dyvers lordys for treson by commaundement of the kyng (age 25), and men said at that tyme. And uppon the Thursseday next folowynge he dyssesyd ande passyde out of this wrecchide and false trobely worlde. And he is buryde at Syn Albonys.

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 14 Jul 1447. And on Fryday the xiiij day of Juylle nexte folowynge by jugement at Westemyster, there by fore v [5] personys were dampnyd to be drawe, hanggyd and her bowellys i-brente by fore hem, and thenne her heddys to ben smetyn of, ande thenne to be quarteryde, and every parte to be sende unto dyvers placys by assygnement of the jugys. Whyche personys werethes: Arteys the bastarde of the said [his uncle] Duke of Glouceter, Syr Rogger Chambyrlayne knyght, Mylton squyer, Thomas Harberde squyer, Nedam yeman, whyche were the said xiiij day of Juylle i-drawe fro Syn Gorgys thoroughe out Sowthewerke and on Londyn Brygge [Map], ande so forthe thorowe the cytte of London to the Tyborne [Map], and there alle they were hanggyde, and the ropys smetyn a-sondyr, they beynge alle lyvynge, and thenne, ar any more of any markys of excecusyon were done, the Duke of Sowthefolke (age 50) brought them alle yn generalle pardon and grace from our lord and sovereign King Harry the vj (age 25)te.

In 1448 William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 51) was created 1st Duke Suffolk by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 26). Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (age 44) by marriage Duchess Suffolk.

Chronicle of Gregory 1448. 1448 Ande that same year the Duke of Yorke, Rycharde Plantagenet (age 36), was exsylyde in to Irlonde for his rebellyon, as thoo a boute the King (age 26) informyde hym, fully ande falsely as it was aftyr warde i-knowe.

On 09 May 1448 Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 43) was created 1st Baron Rivers by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 26). Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 33) by marriage Baroness Rivers.

On 15 Dec 1449 [his half-brother] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (age 19) was created 1st Earl Richmond by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 28).

In 1450 Casimir IV King Poland (age 22) was appointed 168th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 28).

In 1450 [his sister-in-law] Anne Valois Anjou (age 13) died.

In 1450 Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 45) was appointed 169th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 28).

In 1450 Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 47) was appointed Lord Chamberlain of the Household to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 28).

In 1450 Alfonso V King Aragon (age 54) was appointed 166th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 28).

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. Apr 1450. Ande aftyr that the comyns of Kent a rosse with certayne othyr schyrys, and they chesse them a captayne, the whyche captayne compellyd alle the gentellys to a-rysse why the hem. Ande at the ende of the Parlyment they come whythe a grete might and a strong oste unto the Blackehethe [Map], be syde Grene wyche, the nomber of xlvj M [46000]; and there they made a fylde, dykyd and stakyde welle a-bowt, as it ben in the londe of warre, save only they kept ordyr among them, for als goode was Jacke Robyn as John at the Noke, for alle were as hyghe as pygysfete, unto the tyme that they shulde common and speke with suche statys and massyngerys as were sende unto hem; thenne they put alle her pouer unto the man that namyd him captayne of alle her oste. And there they a-bode certayne days too the comyng of the King (age 28) fro the Parlymentte at Leyceter. Ande thenne the kyng (age 28) send unto the captayne dyvers lordys bothe spyrytualle and temporalle, to wytte and to have knowleche of that grette assembelynge and gaderyng of that grete a[n]d mysavysyd feleschyppe. The captayne of them sendyng worde agayne unto the King (age 28), that it was for the wele of him our sovereign lorde, and of alle the realme, and for to dystrye the traytours beyng a-boute hym, whythe othyr dyvers poyntys that they wolde see that it were in schorte tyme a-mendyde. Uppon whyche answere that the kyng, a thedyr sent by his lordys, dyd make a crye in the kyngys name of Engelonde that alle the kyngys lege men of Engelonde shulde a-voyde the fylde. And a-pon the nyght aftyr they were alle voydyd and a-goo.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. Jun 1450. The morne aftyr, the King (age 28) rode armyd at alle pecys from Syn Johnys be-syde Clerkynwelle [Map] thoroughe London; and whythe him the moste party of temporalle lordys of this londe of Engelond in there a beste raye. Aftyr that they were every lord whythe his retenowe, to the nombyr of x M [10000] personys, redy as they alle shulde have gon to batayle in to any londe of Crystyn-dome, whythe bendys a-bove her harnys that every lord schulde be knowe from othyr.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 07 Jun 1450. And yn the fowarde, as they wolde have folowyde the captayne, was slayn Syr Umfray Stafforde (age 50) and Wylliam Stafford (age 30), squyer, one the mannylste man of alle this realme of Engelonde, whythe many moo othyr of mene personys at Sevenocke [Map], in Kentt, in her oute ragyng fro her oste of our sovereign lordys the kyng, Harry the vj te . And the kyng (age 28) loggyd that nyght at Grenewyche [Map], and son aftyr every lord whythe his retynewe rood home in to her contraye. [Note. The date sometimes given as the 08 Jun 1450 and 18 Jun 1850]

On 04 Aug 1450 William "The Victorious" Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (age 58) was appointed 167th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 28).

In 1451 John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 35) was appointed 170th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 29).

In 1451 John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 50) was appointed 178th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 29).

In 1452 Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 48) was appointed 171st Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 30).

In 1453 Edward Hull was appointed 172nd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 31).

Knighting at Greenwich

On 05 Jan 1453 brothers John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 22) and Thomas Neville (age 23), William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 30), brothers [his half-brother] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (age 22) and [his half-brother] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 21) and Roger Lewknor were knighted by King Henry VI (age 31) at Greenwich, Kent [Map].

In Aug 1453 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 31) suffered a mental breakdown in which state he remained for eighteen months until Dec 1855.

Henry VI's First Illness

In Aug 1453 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 31) suffered his first bout of illness; a mental breakdown. He was unresponsive for a year. His paternal grand-father [his grandfather] Charles VI of France suffered a similar illness; his sobriquet "Mad".

Birth of Edward of Westminster

On 13 Oct 1453 [his son] Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales was born to Henry VI (age 31) and [his wife] Margaret of Anjou (age 23) at Westminster Palace [Map]. When King Henry (age 31) recovered from his catatonic state in Jan 1455, he greeted the child as a 'miracle'. There is some speculation as the child's actual father since King Henry (age 31) and Queen Margaret (age 23) had been married for eight years before the birth. Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 47) was suggested at the time.

In Jan 1455 Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 49) was released by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 33).

First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 26), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham (age 40) and Walter Strickland (age 44).

The Lancastrians ...

Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 49) was killed. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset, 5th Earl Somerset. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.

Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland, 6th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 14th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland (age 33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford (age 41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 20) succeeded 9th Baron de Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford (age 21) by marriage Baroness de Clifford.

William Cotton (age 45) and Richard Fortescue (age 41) were killed.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 52) was wounded and captured.

King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 54) and Edmund Dudley (age 30) were captured.

Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 55) fought.

Richard Cotton of Hampstall Ridware (age 51) and his son William Cotton of Connington in Huntingdonshire (age 27) were killed.

Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 22 May 1455. Ande that year there was a batayle at Synt Albonys by-twyne Kyng Harry the VI (age 33). and the Duke of Yorke (age 43), and this batayle was the weke be-fore Whytte Sonday. And Kyng Harry (age 33) was in harnys his owne propyr person, and was hurte with the shotte of an arowe in the necke. And the Duke of Yorke (age 43) brought him unto London as King and not as a presener. The Erle of Wyltschyre (age 34) bare the kyngys baner that day in the batayle, for he was at that tyme namyd but Syr Jamys Urmon;b and this said Jamys (age 34) sette the kyngys baner agayne an howse ende and fought manly with the helys, for he was a feryd of lesynge of beute, for he was namyd the fayryd knyght of this londe. And with yn a lytyl whyle aftyr was made the Erle of Wyltschyre.

In 1457 Thomas Stanley 1st Baron Stanley (age 52) was appointed 174th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 35).

In 1457 Frederick "Peaceful or Fat" Habsburg III Holy Roman Emperor (age 41) was appointed 176th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 35).

In 1457 John Talbot 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 39) was appointed 173rd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 35).

On 14 May 1457 Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles (age 51) was appointed 175th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 35).

Loveday

On 24 Mar 1458 at Westminster Hall [Map] King Henry VI (age 36) made a great speech [See Chronicle of St Albans] the purpose of which was to ensure future peace in his Kingdom. Some were required to pay fines in recomponse for deaths at the First Battle of St Albans some three years before, some prisoners were released, some were bound to good behaviour, and future arbitration.

After the speech King Henry VI (age 36), [his wife] Queen Margaret (age 28), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 22), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 29), Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 22), Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 36) and Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 35) processed, hand-in-hand to St Paul's Cathedral [Map] and a ttended a service presided over by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 40).

In 1459 James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 38) was appointed 177th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 37).

Around 1459 [his half-brother] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 27) was appointed 180th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 37).

In 1459 John Bourchier 1st Baron Berners (age 43) was appointed 179th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 37).

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. After 09 Oct 1459. Also that same year the Duchyes of Yorke (age 44) com unto Kyng Harry (age 37) and submyttyd her unto his grace, and she prayde for her husbonde (age 48) that he might come to his answere and to be ressayvyd unto his grace; and the King full humbely grauntyde her grace, and to alle hyrs that wolde come with hyr, and to alle othyr that wolde com yn with yn viij dayes. And after viij days to done þe execusyon of the lawe as hit requyryd. And many men, bothe knyghtys and squyers, come whythe Syr Water Deverose, in her schyrtys and halters in her hondys, fallynge by-fore the King, and alle hadde grace and marcy bothe of lyffe and lym.

Battle of Ludford Bridge

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow [Map]. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope refused to fight against King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 37) who was present.

The Yorkist Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 48), the future King Edward IV of England (age 17), Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 59) left overnight before the battle.

John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 26) and Thomas Parr (age 52) were present.

The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl of Arundel (age 41).

Richard Grey 3rd Earl Tankerville (age 22) was present on the Yorkist side for which he was subsequently attainted. Earl Tankerville forfeit.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. Ande this same year there was a grete afray at Lodlowe by twyne the King (age 37) and the Duke of Yorke (age 48), the Erle of Salusbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwyke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17). The Duke of Yorke lete make a grete depe dyche and fortefyde it with gonnys, cartys, and stakys, but his party was ovyr weke, for the kyng was mo then xxxM [Note. 3000] of harneysyd men, by-syde nakyd men that were compellyd for to come with the King. And thenne the duke (age 48) fledde fro place to place in Walys, and breke downe the bryggys aftyr him that the kyngys mayny schulde not come aftyr hym. And he wente unto Monde. And there he taryd tylle the jornay was endyd at Northehampton. And he made newe grotys of a newe kune in Irlonde; in on syde of the grote was a crowne and in that othyr syde a crosse. And there he made many newe statutys, and his yong sonys [King Edward V of England and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York] were sende by yende the see unto the Duke of Burgayne (age 25) [Note. Husband of Edward's sister Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 13)], and they were full welle ande worschypfully ressayvyd.

1460 Battle of Northampton

On 10 Jul 1460 the Yorkist army led by the future King Edward IV of England (age 18) and including Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 31), Archbishop George Neville (age 28), William Neville 1st Earl Kent (age 55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham (age 45) and John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 22) defeated the Lancastrian army at the 1460 Battle of Northampton.

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 43) had started the day as part of the Lancastrian army but did nothing to prevent the Yorkist army attacking.

King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) was captured.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 57) was killed. His grandson Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 5) succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 7th Earl Stafford, 8th Baron Stafford.

John Talbot 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 42) was killed. His son John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 11) succeeded 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, 3rd Earl Waterford, 8th Baron Furnivall, 12th Baron Strange Blackmere, 9th Baron Talbot.

Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 37) was killed.

John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont (age 50) was killed. His son William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 22) succeeded 2nd Viscount Beaumont, 7th Baron Beaumont.

William Lucy (age 56) was killed apparently by servants of a member of the Stafford family who wanted his wife Margaret Fitzlewis (age 21).

Thomas Tresham (age 40) fought.

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 22) and William Norreys (age 19) were knighted.

Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland was executed following the battle.

The battle was fought south of the River Nene [Map] in the grounds of Delapré Abbey.

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 10 Jul 1460 And there they mete with the King and foughte manly with the kyngys lordys and mayny, but there was moche favyr in that fylde unto the Erle of Warwycke (age 31). And there they toke the King (age 38), and made newe offycers of the londe, as the chaunceler and tresyrar and othyr, but they occupy de not fo[r]thewith, but abode a seson of the comyng of Duke of York (age 48) out of Irlonde. And in that fylde was slayne the Duke of Bokyngham (age 57), stondyng stylle at his tente, the Erle of Schrovysbury (age 42), the Lord Bemond (age 50), and the Lord Egremond (age 37), with many othyr men. Ande many men were drownyd by syde the fylde in the revyr at a mylle. And that goode knyght Syr Wylliam Lucy (age 56) that dwellyd besyde Northehampton hyrde the gonne schotte, and come unto the fylde to have holpyn the King, but the fylde was done or that he come; an one of the Staffordys was ware of his comynge, and lovyd that knyght is wyffe (age 21) and hatyd hym, and a-non causyd his dethe.

Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) was declared heir to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) disinheriting [his son] Edward of Westminster (age 7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) was created Prince of Wales, 1st Duke Cornwall. He was also appointed Lord Protector.

Letters. 1461. Letter XXXVII. [his wife] Margaret of Anjou (age 30) Queen of Henry IV to the Citizens of London.

Right trusty and well-beloved, we greet you heartily well.

And whereas the late Duke of N. of extreme malice, long hid under colours, imagined by divers and many ways and means the destruction of my lord's (age 39) good grace, whom God of his mercy ever preserve, hath now late, upon an untrue pretence, feigned a title to my lord's crown, and royal estate, and pre-eminence, contrary to his allegiance and divers solemn oaths of his own offer made, uncompelled or constrained, and fully proposed to have deposed him of his regality, he had been (had it not been for) the sad (firm) unchangeable and true dispositions of you and others, his true liegemen, for the which your worshipful dispositions we thank you as heartily as we can. And howbeit, that the same untrue, unsad, and unadvised person, of very pure malice, disposed to continue in his cruelness, to the utterest undoing, if he might, of us, and of my lord's son and ours the prince, which, with God's mercy, he shall not be of power to perform, by the help of you and all other my lord's faithful disposed subjects, hath thrown among you, as we be certainly informed, divers untrue and feigned matters and surmises; and in especial, that we and my lord's said son and ours should newly draw toward you with an unseen power of strangers, disposed to rob and to despoil you of your goods and havings (property); we will that you know for certain that, at such time as we or our said son shall be disposed to see my lord, as our duty is and so binds us to do, you, nor none of you, shall be robbed, despoiled, nor wronged by any person that at that time we or our said son shall be accompanied with, or any other sent in our or his name, praying you, in our most hearty and desirous wise, that [above] all earthly things you will diligently intend (attend) to the surety of my lord's royal person in the mean time; so that through malice of his said enemy he be no more troubled, vexed, nor jeoparded. And, so doing, we shall be unto you such lady as of reason you shall be largely content. Given under our signet, &c.

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 02 Feb 1461. Alle so Edwarde Erle of Marche (age 18), the Duke of Yorke is son and heyre, hadde a gre jornaye at Mortymer is Crosse in Walys the secunde day of Februar nexte soo folowynge, and there he put to flyght the [his half-brother] Erle of Penbroke (age 29), the Erle of Wylteschyre (age 40). And there he toke and slowe of knyghtys and squyers, and of the,a to the nomber of iij M1 [3000] ., &c.

Ande in that jornay was [his step-father] Owyn Tetyr (age 61) take and brought unto Herforde este, an he was be heddyde at the market place [Map], and his hedde sette a-pone the hygheyste gryce of the market crosse, and a madde woman kembyd his here and wysche a way the blode of his face, and she gate candellys and sette a-boute him brennynge, moo then a C [Note. One hundred]. Thys Owyne Tytyr (age 61) was fadyr unto the Erle of Penbroke (age 29), and hadde weddyd [his mother] Quene Kateryn, Kyng Harry the VI (age 39). is modyr, wenyng and trustyng all eway that he shulde not be hedyd tylle he sawe the axe and the blocke, and whenn that he was in his dobelet he trustyd on pardon and grace tylle the coler of his redde vellvet dobbelet was ryppyd of. Then he said, "That hede shalle ly on the stocke that was wonte to ly on Quene Kateryns lappe," and put his herte and mynde holy unto God, and full mekely toke his dethe.

Alle soo the same day that the Erle of Marche (age 18) shulde take his jornaye towarde Mortymer is Crosse fro Herforde este [Map]b, he mousterd his many without the towne wallys in a mersche that is callyd Wyg mersche. And ovyr him men sayc iij [3] sonnys schynyng.[And over him men say three suns shining. This a reference to the Parhelion which occurred on the morning of the Battle of Mortimer's Cross.]

Note a. So in MS.

Note b. Haverfordwest. [Note. While the note suggests Haverfordwest we believe this is a reference to Hereford?]

Note c. saw.

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Henry VI

On 08 Feb 1461 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39) created four Garter Knights two of whom would be killed nine days later at the Second Battle of St Albans:

181st Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32).

182nd William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68).

183rd Thomas Kyriell (age 65).

184th John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61).

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 17 Feb 1461. Ande at the nyght aftyr the batayle the King (age 39) blessyd his son the [his son] Prynce (age 7), and Doctor Morton (age 41) brought forthe a boke that was full of orysons, and there the boke was oppenyd, and blessyd that yong chylde cum pinguedine terre et cum rore celi1, and made him knyght. And the yong knyght weryd a payre of bregant yerys i-coveryd with purpylle velvyt i-bete with golde-smythe is worke. And the Prynce (age 7) made many knyghtys. The fryste that he made was Androwe Trolloppe, for he was hurte and might not goo for a calletrappe in his fote; and he said, "My lorde, I have not deservyd hit for I slowe but xv men, for I stode stylle in oo place and they come unto me, but they bode stylle with me." And then come Whytyngam (age 32), Tresham (age 41), and many moo othyr, and were made knyghtys that same tyme.

Note 1. "with the richness of the earth and with the dew of heaven".

Second Battle of St Albans

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 45), Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 26), Henry Roos and Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 33).

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme (age 46), John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 12) and Thomas Tresham (age 41) were knighted.

The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl of Arundel (age 43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 30) was captured. Robert Poynings (age 42) and James Luttrell (age 34) were killed.

John Grey (age 29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 24) subsequently married King Edward IV of England (age 18).

During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) and Thomas Kyriell (age 65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (age 39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.

William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) was beheaded. His great granddaughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 2nd Baroness Bonville.

Thomas Kyriell (age 65) was beheaded.

William Cotton (age 21) was killed.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xvij day nexte folowynge Kyng Harry (age 39) roode to Synt Albonys [Map], and the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) with hym, the Erle of Warwycke (age 32), the Erle of Arundelle (age 43), the Lord Bouser (age 30), the Lord Bonvyle (age 68), with many grete lordys, knyghtys, and squyers, and commyns of an C [Hundred] Ml men. And there they hadde a grete batayle whythe the [his wife] Quene (age 30), for she come ever on fro the jornaye of Wackefylde tylle sche come to Synt Albonys, with alle the lordys a fore said; and her mayny and every lord is men bare her lordys leverey, that every man mighte knowe his owne feleschippe by his lyverey. And be-syde alle that, every man and lord bare the [his son] Pryncys (age 7) levery, that was a bende of crymesyn and blacke with esteryge is fetherys. The substance that gate that fylde were howseholde men and feyd men. I wene there were not v Mlmen that fought in the Quenys party, for [t]emoste parte of Northeryn men fledde a-way, and some were take and spoylyd out of her harnysse by the way as they fledde. And some of them robbyd evyr as they yede, a petyffulle thynge hit is to hyre hit. But the day before that batayle there was a jornay at Dunstapyl [Map]; but the kyngys mayny lackyd good gydyng, for some were but newe men of warre, for the chevyste captayne was a boucher of the same towne; and there were the kyngys mayny ovyr throughe only by the Northeryn men. And son aftyr the bocher, for schame of his sympylle gydynge and loste of the men, the nombyr of viij C, for very sorowe as it is said, hynge him selfe; and some men said that it was for loste of his goode, but dede he ys-God knowythe the trought.

And in the myddys of the batayle King Harry (age 39) wente unto his Quene (age 30) and for-soke alle his lordys, ande truste better to her party thenne unto his owne lordys. And then thoroughe grete labur the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) and the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) a schapyd a-waye; the Byschoppe of Exceter (age 29), that tyme Chaunceler of Ingelond, and brother unto the Erle of Warwycke, the Lord Bouser (age 30), whythe many othyr knyghtys, squyers, and comyns fledde, and many men slayne in bothe partys. And the Lord Bonevyle (age 68) was be-heddyd, the common sayynge that his longage causyd him to dye. The Prynce (age 7) was jugge is owne sylfe. Ande ther was slayne that manly knyght Syr Thomas Keryel (age 65). The nomber of ded men was xxxv C an moo [t]at were slayne. The lordys in Kyng Harrys (age 39) party pycchyd a fylde and fortefyd it full stronge, and lyke unwyse men brake her raye and fyld and toke a-nothyr, and or that they were alle sette a buskyd to batayle, the Quenys parte was at hond whythe them in towne of Synt Albonys [Map], and then alle [t]yng was to seke and out of ordyr, for her pryckyers come not home to bryng no tydyng howe ny that the Quene (age 30) was, save one come and sayd that she was ix myle of. And ar the goners and borgeners couthe levylle her gonnys they were besely fyghtyng, and many a gynne of wer was ordaynyd that stode in lytylle a-vayle or nought; for the burgeners hadde suche instrumentys that wolde schute bothe pellettys of ledde and arowys of an elle of lenghthe with vj fetherys, iij in myddys and iij at the othyr ende, with a grete mighty hedde of yryn at the othyr ende, and wylde fyre with alle. Alle thes iij thyngys they might schute welle and esely at onys, but in tyme of nede they couthe not schut not one of thes, but the fyre turnyd backe a-pon them that wold schute this iij thyngys. Also they hadde nettys made of grete cordys of iiij fethem of lengthe and of iiij fote brode, lyke unto an haye, and at every ij knott there was an nayl stondyng uppe ryght, that there couthe no man passe ovyr it by lyckely hode but he shulde be hurte. Alle so they hadde pavysse bore as a dore i-made with a staffe foldynge uppe and downe to sette the pavys where the lykyd, and loupys with schyttyng wyndowys to schute out at, they stondyng by hynde [t]e pavys, and the pavys as full of iijdnayle aftyr ordyr as they might stonde. And whenn her schotte was spende and done they caste the pavysse by-fore hem, then there might noo man come unto them ovyr the pavysse for the naylys that stode up-ryghte, but yf he wolde myschyffe him sylfe. Alle so they hadde a thynge made lyke unto a latysse full of naylys as the net was, but hit wolde be mevyd as a man wolde; a man might bryse it to-gedyr that the lengythe wolde be more then ij yerdys long, and yf he wolde he might hale it a brode, then hit wolde be iiij square. And that servyd to lye at gappys there at horsemen wolde entyr yn, and many a caltrappe. And as the substaunce of men of worschyppe that wylle not glose nor cory favyl for no parcyallyte, they cowthe not undyrstond that alle this ordenaunce dyd any goode or harme but yf it were a mong us in owre parte with Kyng Harry (age 39). There fore it is moche lefte, and men take them to mallys of ledde, bowys, swyrdys, gleyvys, and axys. As for speremen they ben good to ryde be-fore the foote men and ete and drynke uppe her vetayle, and many moo suche prety thyngys they doo, holde me excusyd thoughe I say the beste, for in the fote men is alle the tryste.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Before 25 Feb 1461. There the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) informyd him of the gydynge and dysposyscyon of Kyng Harry (age 39), and of the [his wife] Quene (age 30), and of the love and favyr that the comyns hadde unto hym, and by ryght to occupy the crowne of Inglonde, and soo his hert was some what made gladde and comfortyd. But he was sory that he was soo pore, for he hadde no mony, but the substance of his mayny come at her owne coste.

Calendars. 12 Mar 1461. Westminster Palace [Map]. Commission to the king's kinsman Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 32), to receive deserters from the party of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39) and to cause proclamations to be made to the effect, and to seize the possessions of all recusants. By K (age 18) by word of mouth.

Battle of Towton

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Ande the xxix [29] day of the same monythe of Marche, that was þe Palme Sunday, the kyng (age 18) mette with the lordys of the Northe at Schyrborne. And there was on Harrys party that was King-

[his son] Prynce Edwarde (age 7), Kyng Harrys son.

The Duke of Exceter (age 30).

The Duke of Somersett (age 25).

The Erle of Northehumberlond (age 39).

The Erle of Devynschyre (age 29).

The lord Roos.

The lord Bemound (age 33).

The lord Clyfforde (deceased).

The lord Nevyle.

The lord Wellys (age 51).

The lord Wylby (age 40).

The lord Harry of Bokyngham.

The lord Rivers (age 56).

The lord Schalys.

The lord Maule (age 50).

The lord Ferys of Groby (age 23).

The lord Foschewe. [Possibly John Fortescue (age 67)]

The lord Lovelle (age 28).

Syr Thomas Hammys, captayne of alle the fote men.

Syr Androwe Thorlloppe.

Syr Thomas Tressam (age 41).

Syr Robert Whytyngham (age 32).

Syr John Dawne.

And the yonge Lord of Schrouysbury (age 12), and many moo othyr, bothe lordys, knyghtys, and squyers.

Here ben the namys of the lordys that were slayne in the felde in King Harrys (age 39) party.

The Erle of Northehumberlond (age 39),

The lord Clyfforde (deceased),

The lord Nevyle (age 51),

The lord Wellys (age 51),

The lord Maules (age 50),

And many moo then I can reherse; but whythe [t]es and othyr that were slayne in the fylde is a grete nombyr, by syde xlij [42] knyghtys that were slayne aftyr; the hoole nombyr is xxxv M1 [35000] of comeners. Jhesu be þou marcyfulle unto her soulys. Amen.

And the lordys before wretyn fledde, the substance in to Schotlond with the King Harry (age 39) and [his wife] Quene Margarete (age 31), and son the Prynce (age 7) with hym, full of sorowe and hevynys, no wondyr. God knowythe, but every man deme the beste tylle the trought be tryde owte. For many a lady lost her beste be lovyd in that batayle.

1462 Siege of Norham Castle

Around Jun 1462 a Scottish and Lancastrian force, including King James III of Scotland (age 10), his mother Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland (age 28), King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 40) and his wife [his wife] Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 32), laid siege to Norham Castle [Map]. They held Norham for eighteen days until a force led by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 33) and his brother John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 31) advanced to Norham Castle [Map] at which time the Scottish and Lancastrian force fled in panic pursued by the Yorkist army. Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 32) and her son [his son] Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales (age 8) escaped to Berwick on Tweed [Map] and then to the continent. King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 40) remained in Scotland - he and his wife never saw each other again.

On 13 Jul 1465 James Harrington (age 35) assisted with the capture of the fugitive King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 43) by being the instrument of persuasion that induced Sir Thomas Talbot of Bashall, and Sir Richard Tempest of Bracewell, who were sheltering the King, to betray him, and received £66 and £100 for expenses and reward.

Capture of King Henry VI

On 25 Jul 1465 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 43) was captured.

In 1467 Thomas Cooke was charged with high treason for lending money to [his wife] Margaret (age 36), the queen of the deposed Lancastrian King Henry VI (age 45), on the strength of a confession of a statement obtained under torture from one Hawkins. Chief Justice Markham directed the jury to find it only misprision of treason, whereby Cooke's lands and life were saved, though he was heavily fined and long imprisoned. While awaiting his trial in the Tower his effects, both at his town house and at Gidea Hall [Map], were seized by Lord Rivers (age 62), then treasurer of England, and his wife was committed to the custody of the mayor. On his acquittal he was sent to the Bread Street compter [Map], and afterwards to the king's bench [Map], and was kept there until he paid eight thousand pounds to the king (age 24) and eight hundred pounds to the queen (age 30). Lord Rivers (age 62) and his wife (age 52), the Duchess of Bedford, also obtained the dismissal of Markham from his office for having determined that Cooke was not guilty of treason.

In 1470 Bishop John Hales (age 70) was appointed Lord Keeper of the Great Seal by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 48) during his re-adeption but lost it again when King Edward IV of England (age 27) was restored in 1471.

Angers Agreement

On 22 Jul 1470 Warwick the Kingmaker (age 41), King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 48) and [his wife] Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 40) signed the Angers Agreement at Angers Cathedral [Map]. The agreement had been brokered by King Louis XI of France (age 47). [his son] Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales (age 16) and [his future daughter-in-law] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 14) were betrothed as part of the Agreement.

Re-adeption of King Henry VI

On 03 Oct 1470 Henry VI (age 48) was re-adepted, ie restored, King England.

Thomas Tresham (age 50) was released.

On 13 Dec 1470 [his son] Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales (age 17) and [his daughter-in-law] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 14) were married at Angers Cathedral [Map]. She by marriage Princess of Wales. She the daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 42) and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 44). He the son of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 49) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 40). They were half third cousins. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Death of King Henry VI

On 21 May 1471 Henry VI (age 49) died (possibly murdered) in the Wakefield Tower in the Tower of London [Map].

On 25 Aug 1482 [his former wife] Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 52) died at Chateau Dampierre-sur-Loire, Dampierre-sur-Loire, Saumur. She was buried at Angers Cathedral [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1432. And soo rode he forthe unto the Crosse in Cheppe [Map]. There stode a ryalle castelle of jasper grene, and there yn ij grene treys stondyng uppe ryght, shewyng the ryght tytyllys of the Kyng of Inglond and of Fraunce, convaying fro Synt Edward and Synt Lowys be kyngys unto the tyme of Kyng Harry the vjte , every King stondynge whythe his cote armowre, some lyberdys and some flouredelysse; and on that othyr syde was made the Jesse1 of owre lord ascendyng uppewarde from Davyd unto Jesu. And so rode he forthe unto the Lytylle Condyte. And there was a ryalle mageste of the Trynyte, full of angelys syngyng hevynly songys, blessynge ande halowynge the kyngys whythe thes resonys in Latyn wrytyn: Angelis suis2 mandavit de3 te ut custodiant te, etc. Longitudinem dierum replebo in eum4 et ostendam illi salutare meum5. And thenne wente he forthe unto Poulys, and there he was ressayvyd whythe many byschoppys and prelatys whythe dene and the quere, and whythe devoute songe, as it longythe to a King. Ande so he offerryd there and thankyd God of his goode speede and of his welfare. And thenne he rode to Westemyster, and there he restyd hym; and on the nexte day folowynge the mayre and the aldyrmen6 whythe a certayne comeners that were worthy men, and they presentyde the King whythe an hampyr of sylvyr and gylte, whythe a M there yn of nobellys, &c.

Note 1. Jesse. Perhaps the writer meant "Geste," a history; but more probably he has left out some words. Fabyan speaks here of "the sprynge of Jesse, wherin was shewyd the genelogy of our blessed Lady."

Note 2. Angelis suis. Angelus suus, MS.

Note 3. de. This word is crossed through as if it were positively inaccurate, and the sentence read "Angelus suus mandavit te."

Note 4. Longitudinem - in eum. So in MS.

Note 5. meum. eum, MS.; see Ps. xc. (xci.) 11, 16.

Note 6. aldyrmen. aldyrman, MS.

John Norreys was appointed Keeper of the King's Wardrobe to King Henry VI of England and II of France.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Richard, the third son, of whom we now treat, was in wit and courage equal with either of them, in body and prowess far under them both: little of stature, ill featured of limbs, crooked-backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favored in appearance, and such as is in the case of lords called warlike, in other men called otherwise. He was malicious, wrathful, envious, and from before his birth, ever perverse. It is for truth reported that the Duchess his mother had so much ado in her travail to birth him that she could not be delivered of him uncut, and he came into the world with the feet forward, as men be borne outward, and (as the story runs) also not untoothed. Either men of hatred reported the above for truth or else nature changed her course in his beginning-in the course of whose life many things were unnaturally committed. No unskilled captain was he in war, for which his disposition was more suited than for peace. Sundry victories had he, and sometimes overthrows, but never by fault of his own person, either of hardiness or political order. Free was he called when dispensing gifts, and somewhat above his power liberal; with large gifts he got for himself unsteadfast friendship, for which he was glad to pillage and spoil in other places, and get for himself steadfast hatred. He was close and secret, a deep dissembler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of heart, outwardly friendly where he inwardly hated, not omitting to kiss whom he thought to kill; pitiless and cruel, not for evil will always, but for ambition, and either for the surety or increase of his estate. Friend and foe was much the same; where his advantage grew, he spared no man death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with his own hands King Henry the Sixth, being prisoner in the Tower [Map], as men constantly say, and that without commandment or knowledge of the King, who would, undoubtedly, if he had intended such a thing, have appointed that butcherly office to some other than his own born brother.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Richard, Duke of York, a noble man and a mighty, had begun not by war but by law to challenge the crown, putting his claim into the Parliament. There his cause was either for right or favor so far forth advanced that King Henry (although he had a goodly [his son] prince utterly rejected his own blood; the crown was by authority of Parliament entailed unto the Duke of York, and his male issue in remainder, immediately after the death of King Henry. But the Duke, not enduring so long to tarry, but intending under pretext of dissension and debate arising in the realm, to reign before his time and to take upon him the rule in King Henry's life, was with many nobles of the realm at Wakefield slain, leaving three sons - Edward, George, and Richard.

All three, as they were great states of birth, so were they great and stately of stomach, greedy and ambitious of authority, and impatient of partners. Edward, revenging his father's death, deprived King Henry and attained the crown.

Chronicle of Gregory 1432. And whenne he come to the Condyte of Cornhylle [Map] there was a tabernacule, and there yn syttynge a King whythe a ryalle aparayle. And on the ryght syde sate the lady of Mercy, ande on the lyfte syde sate the lady of Trough the, and the lady of Clennysse them inbrasyng with Eeson. And by-fore the kyng stode ij jugys of grete worthynys, whythe viij sergauntys of lawe ther presente for the common profyte representynge of dome and of ryghtuysnysse, with this scryptura,

"Honowre of kyngys in every mannys syght

Of common custome lovythe equyte and ryghte."

Chronicle of Gregory 1432. And so the kyng rode forthe an esy passe tylle he come unto the Grete Condyte, ande there was made a ryalle syghte lyke unto Paradys, whythe alle maner of frontys of delys. And there were vyrgynnys there, drawyng waterys and wynys of joye, and of plesaunce and comforte, the whyche ranne to every mannys comforte and helthe. Thes maydyns were namyd: Mercy, Grace, and Pytte. And in this Paradys stode ij olde men lyke hevynly folke, the whyche were Ennocke and Ely, saluynge the King whythe wordys of grace and vertu.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Even after his death, this favor and affection toward him because of the cruelty, mischief, and trouble of the tempestuous world that followed afterwards-increased more highly. At such time as he died, the displeasure of those that bore him grudge for King Henry's sake, the Sixth, whom he deposed, was well assuaged, and in effect quenched, in that many of them were dead in the more than twenty years of his reign-a great part of a long life. And many of them in the meantime had grown into his favor, of which he was never sparing.

King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward III of England 1312-1377

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey 1318-1372

Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl of Arundel 8th Earl of Surrey 1306-1376

King Henry IV of England 1367-1413

King John "The Good" II of France 1319-1364

Bonne Luxemburg Queen Consort France 1315-1349

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369

Royal Ancestors of King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471

Kings Wessex: Great x 12 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 10 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 11 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Son of King Henry V of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 8 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Grand Son of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France

Ancestors of King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Edward II of England Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip "The Fair" IV King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Isabella of France Queen Consort England 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Hainault II Count Hainault II Count Holland 5 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland 6 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Philippa Luxemburg Countess Hainault and Holland 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Capet Countess Valois 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandFather: King Henry IV of England Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Capet Queen Navarre 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Patrick Chaworth

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maud Chaworth

Great x 1 Grandmother: Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis Brienne Viscount Beaumont 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry Beaumont Earl Buchan 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Agnes Beaumont Sarthe 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alexander Comyn 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Alice Comyn Baroness Beaumont 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joanna Latimer

Father: King Henry V of England Son of King Henry IV of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Princess Elizabeth of Rhuddlan Countess Essex, Hereford and Holland Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Humphrey Bohun 7th Earl Hereford 6th Earl Essex 2nd Earl of Northampton Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Gunselin Badlesmere

Great x 3 Grandfather: Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Fitzbernard

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas de Clare 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Juliana Fitzgerald 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandMother: Mary Bohun 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl of Arundel 3 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl of Arundel 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alice Saluzzo Countess Arundel 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl of Arundel 8th Earl of Surrey 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Warenne

Great x 3 Grandmother: Alice Warenne Countess Arundel

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Vere

Great x 1 Grandmother: Joan Fitzalan Countess Essex, Hereford and Northampton 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Capet Queen Navarre 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Patrick Chaworth

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maud Chaworth

King Henry VI of England and II of France Son of King Henry V of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Philip "Fortunate" VI of France 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Capet Countess Valois 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: King John "The Good" II of France 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert II Duke Burgundy 5 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan "Lame" Burgundy Queen Consort France 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Agnes Capet Duchess Burgundy 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Charles V of France 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Luxemburg VII Holy Roman Emperor 5 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King John I of Bohemia 6 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Brabant Countess Luxemburg and Namur

Great x 2 Grandmother: Bonne Luxemburg Queen Consort France 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia

Great x 4 Grandmother: Queen Judith of Bohemia and Poland

GrandFather: Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Bourbon 1st Count Clermont 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Louis Bourbon I Duke Bourbon 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Beatrice Burgundy 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Peter Bourbon Duke Bourbon 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Hainault II Count Hainault II Count Holland 5 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Mary Hainault Duchess Bourbon 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Philippa Luxemburg Countess Hainault and Holland 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Joanna Bourbon Queen Consort France 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip "Bold" III King France 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Isabella Valois Duchess Bourbon 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Guy Chatillon IV Count Saint Pol 5 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Mahaut Chatillon Countess Valois Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Capet Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Mother: Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis "Strict" Wittelsbach II Duke Upper Bavaria 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Louis Wittelsbach IV Holy Roman Emperor 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Matilda Habsburg Duchess Bavaria

Great x 2 Grandfather: Stephen Wittelsbach II Duke Bavaria 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Beatrix Świdnica Holy Roman Empress

Great x 1 Grandfather: Stephen "Magnificient Fop" Wittelsbach III Duke Bavaria 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter III King Aragon

Great x 3 Grandfather: Frederick III King Sicily

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elisabeth Barcelona Duchess Bavaria 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles II King Naples 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Capet 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Mary of Hungary Queen Consort Naples

GrandMother: Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Matteo I Visconti

Great x 3 Grandfather: Stephano Visconti

Great x 4 Grandmother: Bonacossa Borri

Great x 2 Grandfather: Bernabò Visconti

Great x 3 Grandmother: Valentina Doria

Great x 1 Grandmother: Taddea Visconti Duchess Bavaria

Great x 3 Grandfather: Mastino II della Scala

Great x 2 Grandmother: Beatrice Regina della Scala

Great x 4 Grandfather: Jacopo I da Carrara

Great x 3 Grandmother: Taddea da Carrara

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anna Gradenigo