Biography of King Richard III of England 1452-1485

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

1415 Southampton Plot

1460 Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Coronation of Edward IV

1461 Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

1465 George Neville's Enthronement as Archbishop of York

1470 Marriage of Edward of Westminster to Anne Neville

1471 Battle of Barnet

1471 Battle of Tewkesbury

1472 Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

1474 Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

1475 Treaty of Picquigny

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1482 Capture of Berwick

1483 Death of Edward IV

1483 Richard III's Dinner with the Woodvilles

1483 Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

1483 Death of George Neville

1483 Richard III appointed Lord Protector

1483 Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

1483 Richard III elected King by the Three Estates

1483 Coronation of Richard III

1483 Richard III Rewards his Supporters

1483 Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

1483 Creation of Garter Knights

1483 Edward of Middleham created Prince of Wales

1483 Buckingham's Rebellion

1484 Titulus Regius

1484 Opening Parliament

1484 Richard III Secures Elizabeth Woodville's Daughters

1484 Death of King Richard III's Heir

1485 Queen Consort Anne Neville Dies

1485 Richard III publicly denies that he intended to marry his niece Elizabeth

1485 Battle of Bosworth

After 21 Sep 1411 [his grandmother] Anne Mortimer (age 20) died from childbirth. Her son [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York succeeded Heir to the Throne of England, 8th Earl Ulster.

Southampton Plot

On 05 Aug 1415 two executions of those involved in the Southampton Plot took place at the North Gate aka Bargate [Map]:

[his grandfather] Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 30) was beheaded. His son [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 3) succeeded 2nd Earl Cambridge.

Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham (age 42) was beheaded. His brother John Scrope 4th Baron Scrope Masham (age 27) succeeded 4th Baron Scrope Masham.

On 18 Jan 1425 Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 33) died at Trim Castle. He was buried at Clare Priory, Suffolk [Map]. His nephew [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 13) succeeded 6th Earl March.

In Oct 1429 [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 18) and [his mother] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 14) were married. She by marriage Countess Cambridge Countess Ulster. She was the youngest sister of Richard's brother-in-arms [his uncle] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 29). She the daughter of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 50). He the son of Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge and Anne Mortimer. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 02 Oct 1452 Richard was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 41) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 37) at Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire [Map]. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was declared heir to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (age 7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was created Prince of Wales, 1st Duke Cornwall. He was also appointed Lord Protector.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle [Map]. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30), Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke Somerset (age 24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon (age 25) and William Gascoigne XIII (age 30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), Henry Roos and Thomas St Leger (age 20).

The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.

[his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was killed. His son [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 18) succeeded 4th Duke York, 7th Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49), 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge.

Thomas Neville (age 30), Thomas Harrington (age 60), and Edward Bourchier were killed.

William Bonville 6th Baron Harington (age 18) was killed. His daughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 7th Baroness Harington.

Thomas Parr (age 53) fought in the Yorkist army.

Following the battle [his uncle] Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland. William Bonville (age 40) was executed.

[his brother] Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 17) was killed on Wakefield Bridge [Map] by John "Butcher" Clifford (age 25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher". Earl of Rutland extinct.

Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

Around Jun 1461, the record is very vague, [his brother] King Edward IV (age 19) and Eleanor Talbot (age 25) were possibly secretly married by Bishop Robert Stillington (age 41). The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Bishop Robert Stillington (age 41) provided the information to the future King Richard III of England (age 8) in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since Edward IV's (age 19) children with Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 24) were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and [his brother] George Duke of Clarence's (age 11) children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder.

Coronation of Edward IV

Around Jun 1461, the time of his coronation, [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 19) created his two brothers as Dukes ...

[his brother] George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 11) was created 1st Duke Clarence.

King Richard III of England (age 8) was created 1st Duke Gloucester.

On 28 Feb 1463 John Lovell 8th Baron Lovel 5th Baron Holand (age 30) died. On 28 Feb 1463 His son Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 7) succeeded 9th Baron Lovel of Titchmarsh, 6th Baron Holand at around eight years of age. He became a ward of [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 20) who gave his wardship to Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 34) spending his childhood at Middleham Castle [Map] with the young (future) King Richard III of England (age 10).

Calendars. 23 Jun 1463. Inspeximus and confirmation to the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of Clyfton, Dertmuth and Hardenesse of (1) letters patent dated 14 December, 2 Richard II. inspecting and confirming a charter dated at the Tower of London, 14 April, 15 Edward III. [Charter Roll, 15 Edward III. No. 18,] and (2) a charter dated at Westminster, 5 November, 17 Richard II. [Charter Noll, 15-17 Richard II. No. 10]; and grant that the adjoining township of Southtouudertemouth shall henceforth be annexed to the said borough of Cliftondertemouth Hardenasse, in consideration of the fact that the burgesses keep watches against invaders on the confines of the township and beyond at a place called 'Galions Boure' but the inhabitants of the township contribute nothing because they do not enjoy the liberties of the borough. Th« mayor and bailiffs shall have return of writs and execu- tion thereof within the said township and the liberty of the borough, saving always the right of the lord of the fee of the township, and all pleas real and personal and attachments and fines and amercements, and also view of frauk-pledge and all that peitains to it. And they may acquire, in mortmain, after inquisition, lands, tenements, rents and other possessions, not held in chief, to the value of 201. yearly. Witnesses: Th. archbishop of Canterbury (age 45), W. archbishop of York (age 75), G. Bishop of  Exeter (age 31), the chancellor, J. Bishop of  Carlisle, the king's brothers [his brother] George, duke of Clarence (age 13), and Richard, duke of Gloucester (age 10), the king's kinsmen Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 34), and John, Earl of Worcester (age 36), treasurer of England, Robert Styllyngton (age 43), king's clerk, keeper of the privy seal, and William Hastynges of Hastynges (age 32), the king's chamberlain, and John Wenlok of Wenlok (age 63), knights.

In 1465 Richard Duke of Gloucester (age 12) was appointed 198th Knight of the Garter by [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 22).

George Neville's Enthronement as Archbishop of York

On 06 Sep 1465 Archbishop George Neville (age 33) was enthroned as Archbishop of York at Cawood Castle [Map]. [his future sister-in-law] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 14), [his future wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 9) and King Richard III of England (age 12) were present.

On 10 May 1468 [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 26), his brother Richard Duke of Gloucester (age 15), John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 41) and John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 42) met in the Chapter House at Salisbury Cathedral [Map].

Marriage of Edward of Westminster to Anne Neville

On 13 Dec 1470 Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales (age 17) and [his future wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 14) were married at Angers Cathedral [Map]. She by marriage Princess of Wales. She the daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 42) and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 44). He the son of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 49) and Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 40). They were half third cousins. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In or before 1471 [his illegitimate son] John York was born illegitimately to King Richard III of England (age 18).

In or before 1471 [his illegitimate daughter] Katherine York Countess Huntingdon was born illegitimately to King Richard III of England (age 18).

Battle of Barnet

On 14 Apr 1471 [his brother] Edward IV (age 28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers [his brother] George (age 21) and Richard (age 18), John Babington (age 48), Wiliam Hastings (age 40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings, William Norreys (age 30), William Parr (age 37), John Savage (age 49), William Bourchier Viscount Bourchier (age 41), Thomas St Leger (age 31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 40), John Scott Comptroller (age 48) and Thomas Strickland.

The Yorkists William Blount (age 29), Humphrey Bourchier (age 40), Humphrey Bourchier (age 36), Henry Stafford (age 46) and Thomas Parr were killed.

The Lancastrians ...

Warwick the Kingmaker (age 42) was killed. Earl Salisbury forfeit on the assumption he was attainted either before or after his death; the date of his attainder is unknown. If not attainted the Earldom may be in abeyance. Baron Montagu and Baron Montagu abeyant between his two daughters [his future sister-in-law] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 19) and [his future wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 14).

John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 40) was killed. Marquess Montagu extinct. He was buried at Bisham Abbey [Map].

William Tyrrell was killed.

William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele (age 43) was killed. His son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele (age 25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford (age 46) and John Paston (age 27) were wounded, John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 28) commanded, and John Paston (age 29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 33) fought.

Robert Harleston (age 36) was killed.

Thomas Hen Salusbury (age 62) was killed.

Thomas Tresham (age 51) escaped but was subsequently captured and executed on 06 May 1471.

Battle of Tewkesbury

On 04 May 1471 [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 29) was victorious at the Battle of Tewkesbury. His brother Richard (age 18), Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 36), John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 46), George Neville 4th and 2nd Baron Bergavenny (age 31), John Savage (age 49), John Savage (age 27), Thomas St Leger (age 31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 40) fought. William Brandon (age 46), George Browne (age 31), Ralph Hastings, Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby (age 38), James Tyrrell (age 16), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 38) were knighted. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 40) commanded.

Margaret of Anjou (age 41) was captured. Her son Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales (age 17) was killed. He was the last of the Lancastrian line excluding the illegitmate Charles Somerset 1st Earl of Worcester (age 11) whose line continues to the present.

John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon (age 36) was killed and attainted. Earl Devon, Baron Courtenay forfeit. Some sources refer to these titles as being abeyant?

John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 71) was killed. Baron Wenlock extinct.

John Delves (age 49), Humphrey Tuchet (age 37), John Beaufort (age 30), William Vaux of Harrowden (age 35) and Robert Whittingham (age 42) were killed.

Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset (age 32) and Hugh Courtenay (age 44) were captured.

Henry Roos fought and escaped to Tewkesbury Abbey [Map] where he sought sanctuary. He was subsequently pardoned.

On 05 May 1471 those captured at the Battle of Tewkesbury were tried in the Market Square Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire [Map] by John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 46) and the Duke of Gloucester (age 18): Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke Somerset (age 32), Hugh Courtenay (age 44), Gervase Clifton (age 66), Thomas Tresham (deceased) and Humphrey Tuchet (deceased).

Marriage of Richard Duke of Gloucester and Anne Neville

On 12 Jul 1472 Richard Duke of Gloucester (age 19) and Anne Neville (age 16) were married at St Stephen's Chapel [Map]. She by marriage Duchess Gloucester. She the daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 45). He the son of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 57). They were first cousin once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In Dec 1473 [his son] Edward York Prince of Wales was born to King Richard III of England (age 21) and [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 17) at Middleham Castle [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 5.36%.

Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared [his mother-in-law] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that [his brother] Edward IV's (age 31) two younger brothers [his brother] George (age 24) and the Richard (age 21), who had married Anne Beauchamp's (age 47) daughters, [his sister-in-law] Isabel (age 22) and [his wife] Anne (age 17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.

Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker, had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of King Edward IV of England (age 31) and before King Richard III of England (age 21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described King Richard III of England (age 21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape (age 6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 56).

Calendars. 06 Jun 1474. Westminster Palace [Map]. Exemplification at the request of Richard Duke of Gloucester (age 21), of the tenour of an act (English) in the Parliament summoned at Westminster [Map], 6 October, 12 Edward IV, and continued to 9 May, 14 Edward IV, ordaining that [his brother] George Duke Clarence (age 24), and [his sister-in-law] Isabel (age 22) his wife and Richard Duke of Gloucester, and [his wife] Anne (age 17) his wife, daughters and heirs to Richard Nevyle, late Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent to [his mother-in-law] Anne Beauchamp (age 47), his wife should possess and enjoy as in the right of the said wives all possessions belonging to the said Countess as though she were naturally dead and that she should be barred and excluded therefrom, that they should make partition of the premises and the same partition should be good in law, that the said Dukes should enjoy for life all the possessions of their wives if they should outlive the latter, that the said George (age 24) and Isabel (age 22) should not make any alienation, grant, fine or recovery of any of the premises to the hurt of the said Richard (age 21) and Anne (age 17) or the latter to the hurt of the former, that if the said Richard and Anne be divorced and afterwards married this Act should hold good, that if they be divorced and he do his effectual diligence to be married to her and during her life be not wedded to any other woman he should enjoy as much of the premises as should appertain to her during his life, and that notwithstanding the restraint of alienation or recovery above specified the lordship, manor and wappentake of Chesterfield [Map] and Scarvesdale with the appurtenances and all the lands and tenements in Chesterfield [Map] and Scarvesdale sometime of Ales, late Countess of Salisbury, might be given to the King and his heirs in exchange for other lands and tenements, which shall however be subject of this Act.Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead.

Treaty of Picquigny

On 29 Aug 1475 [his brother] Edward IV (age 33) signed the Treaty of Picquigny; in effect a non-aggression pact or, possibly, a protection racket. France would pay Edward a pension of 50,000 crowns per year as long as he didn't invade France. Cardinal Bourchier (age 57) arbitrated on behalf of Edward. William Hastings (age 44) received a pension of 2000 crowns per year, John Howard and Thomas Montgomery 1200 each, Thomas Rotherham Archbishop of York (age 52) 1000, Cardinal John Morton (age 55) 600.

Edward's youngest brother Richard (age 22) opposed the Treaty considering it dishonourable. Roger Cheney (age 33) was present at the signing, and remained as a hostage until King Edward IV of England (age 33) returned to England.

Calendars. 15 Feb 1478. Charter to the king's nephew [his son] Edward Plantagenet (age 4), first-born son of the said duke (age 25), creating him earl of Salisbury, with remainder to the heirs of his body, and granting to him and his said heirs £20 yearly from the issues of the county of Wilts. Witnesses: Th. cardinal archbishop of Canterbury (age 60), L. archbishop of York (age 58), Th. Bishop of  Lincoln (age 54), the chancellor, J. Bishop of  Rochester, keeper of the privy seal, Richard, duke of Gloucester (age 25), Henry, duke of Buckingham (age 23), Henry, Earl of Essex (age 74), treasurer of England, Anthony Earl of Ryvers (age 38), chief butler of England, and Thomas Stanley of Stanley (age 43), steward of the household, and William Hastynges of Hastynges (age 47), chamberlain of the household, knights. By p.s.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

On 18 Feb 1478 [his brother] George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28) was drowned in a butt of wine (Malmsey) wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London [Map]. Duke Clarence, Earl Salisbury extinct. "in a butt of Malmsey wine" may refer to 1 a butt full of Malmsey wine or 2 a butt that once contained Malmsey wine that was subsequently re-used for another purpose such as washing or bathing.

William Hussey (age 35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

Richard, Duke of Gloucester (age 25) succeeded 2nd Earl Richmond.

The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb [Map].

Capture of Berwick

On 24 Aug 1482 Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle (age 20) was knighted by King Richard III of England (age 29) at Berwick on Tweed [Map] during the Capture of Berwick.

Around 1483 John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire (age 72) was appointed Knight of the Body to King Richard III of England (age 30).

Death of Edward IV

Mémoires de Philippe de Commynes Chapter 6 Section 8. Dès l'heure que le roy Edouard fut mort, le Roy nostre maistre en fut adverty, et n'en feit nulle joye quant il le sceut:

From the hour that [his brother] King Edward IV (age 40) died, the King our master was made aware, and took no joy in it [Note. Not clear what il le sceut means!]

et peu de jours après receut lettres du duc de Clocestre, qui s'estoit faict roy d'Angleterre1, et se signoit Richard, lequel avoit faict mourir les deux filz du roy Edouard son frère.

And few days after he received letters from the Duke of Gloucester (age 30), who had become the King of England, and signed Richard, who had caused the death of the two sons [Note. The Princes in the Tower King Edward V of England (age 12) and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 9)] of King Edward (age 40) his brother.

Lequel roy Richard requeroit l'amytié du Roy, et croy qu'il eust bien voulu ravoir reste pension;

King Richard (age 30) wanted the friendship of the King, and belived he would continue to receive the pension;

mais le Roy ne voulut respondre à ses lettres, ne ouyr le messagier, et l'estima très cruel et mauvais:

but the King didn't want to respond to the letters, nor hear the messanger, and considered him very cruel and bad:

car, après le trespas dudict roy Edouard, ledict duc de Clocestre avoit faict hommaige à son nepveu, comme à son roy et souverain seigneur, et incontinent après commit ce cas.

since, after the [Note. didict? Possibly dudit ie said] crime against King Edward, the Duke of Gloucester (age 30) gave homage to his nephew, as his King and sovereign lord, and [Note. incontinent?] after commited this case.

Et, en plain parlement d'Angleterre, feit desgrader deux filles dudict roy Edouard et desclarer bastardes, soubz couleur3 qu'il prouva par ung evesque de Bas4 en Angleterre

And, in the parliament of England, had degraded the two daughters of the said King of England (age 40) and declared them bastards, on the pretext of the evidence of a Bishop of Bath (age 63) in England

(qui aultresfois avoit eu grant credit avec ledict roy Edouard, et puis le desappoincta, et le tint en prison, et puis le ranconna d'une somme d'argent):

(who formerley had great credit with the King Edward then disappointed him, and held him in prison, and then ransomed himself with a sum of money)

lequel evesque disoit que ledict roy Edouard avoit promis foy de mariaige à une dame d'Angleterre (qu'il nommoit)5 pour ce qu'il en estoit amoureux, pour en avoir son plaisir;

which Bishop (age 63) said that King Edward (age 40) had promised [Note. foy? ] marriage to an English lady [who he named] who he was in love with, to have his pleasure; [See Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly].

et en avoit faict la promesse en la main dudict evesque (age 63), et, sur ceste promesse, coucha avec elle: et ne le faisoit que pour la tromper.

and had made this promise in the presence of the Bishop (age 63), and, on this promise, slept with her: and did this to deceive her. See The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate.

Toutesfois telz jeux sont bien dangereux, tesmoing ces enseignes. J'ay veu beaucoup de gens de court qui, une bonne adventure qui leur eust pleu en tel cas, ilz ne l'eussent point perdue par faulte de promettre.

Nevertheless such games are very dangerous, [Note. tesmoing?] these signs. I saw alot of courtiers who, having the opportunity of such an adventure, would not have lost it for the sake of a promise.

Et ce mauvais evesque garda ceste vengeance en son cueur, par adventure vingt ans; mais il luy en meschut:

And this bad Bishop (age 63) guarded revenge in his heart, for twenty years; but he is in [Note. meshut?]:

car il avoit ung filz, qu'il aymoit fort, à qui ledict roy Richard (age 30) vouloit faire de grans biens et luy faire espouser l'une de ces deux filles, desgradees de leur dignité, laquelle de présent est royne d'Angleterre et a deux beaux enfans.

because he had a son, who he loved very much, whom King Richard (age 30) wished to do great things and to marry one of the two daughters, beneath their dignity, one of whom is now the present Queen of England (age 17) and has two beautiful children.

Richard III's Dinner with the Woodvilles

On 30 Apr 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30) met Richard Grey (age 26) and Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 43) at Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire [Map] who were accompanying King Edward V of England (age 12) to from Ludlow to London. All three had dinner together.

Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

On 01 May 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30) arrested Richard Grey (age 26), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 43) and Thomas Vaughan (age 73) at Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire [Map]. King Edward V of England (age 12) was taken under his uncle Richard's Protection to London.

Death of George Neville

On 04 May 1483 George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 22) died. He being the son of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, the nephew of Warwick the Kingmaker who should, perhaps, have inherited the Earldoms of Warwick and Salisbury from his mother that had been appropriated by George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 22) and King Richard III of England (age 30). The timing somewhat suspicious. The future Richard III would now enjoy the whole of the Warwick inheritance.

Richard III appointed Lord Protector

Before 08 May 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30) was appointed Lord Protector.

Calendars. 16 May 1483. King Richard III of England (age 30). Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to the king's servant Henry Duke of Buckingham (age 28), of the offices of chief justice and chamberlain in South and North Wales, constable of the castles and counties of Kermerdyn and Cardigan, the castles of Abrustwith, co Cardigan, and Denevour in South Wales, the castle and town of Tonebigh, co. Pembroke, the castle and lordship of Kylgarvan in South Wales, the castle and town of Llan Stepham in South Wales, the lordship of Wallewynscastell in South Wales, the lordship of Westhaverford in South Wales, constable, steward, and receiver of the castle, lordshiop and manor of Uske, the castle and lordship of Carlion, the castle, lordship and manor of Dynas, the castle and a moiety of the lordship of Ewyas Lacy [Map], the castles, lordships and manors of Belth,Clifford, Radnore, Melenyth, Montgomery, Dynbigh, Elvell and Narberth, the castle, lordship and manors of Wygmore [Map] and Holt [Map] in the marches of Wales, and the lordship and manor of Bromfield [Map] in the same marches, steward and receiver of the lordships and manors of Norton, Knyghton, Raydor, Guerthrenyon, Comotoyder, Glasbury, Weryfreton, Cherbury, Terthic, Halcetur, Kadewyn, Newton, Kyry in the marches.

Calendars. 20 May 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30). Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to the king's servant William Hastings (age 52), knight, of the office of master and worker of the king's moneys and keeper of the exchange within the Tower of London [Map], the realm of England and the town of Calais according to the form of certain indentures, receiving the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Calendars. 20 May 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30). Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant to the king's kinsman Henry Duke of Buckingham (age 28), of the supervision and power of array of the king's subjects in the counties of Salop, Hereford, Somerset, Dorset and Wilts. By p.s.

Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

On 13 Jun 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London [Map] attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52), Cardinal John Morton (age 63), Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52), Cardinal John Morton (age 63) and Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (age 46).

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. He was buried in North Aisle St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle [Map] next to [his brother] King Edward IV of England. His son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings Baron Botreaux, Hungerford and Moleyns (age 16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings.

Cardinal John Morton (age 63) and Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) were arrested.

Richard III elected King by the Three Estates

On 26 Jun 1483 Richard III (age 30) accepted the invitation of the citizens of London to become King.

Coronation of Richard III

Calendars. 30 Jun 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30). Westminster Palace [Map]. Commission to the king's kinsman John duke of Norfolk (age 58), to execute the office of steward of England at the king's coronation. By K.

On 06 Jul 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30) was crowned III King England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 65) at Westminster Abbey [Map]. [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 27) by marriage Queen Consort England. Duke Gloucester merged with the Crown.

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) was appointed Lord High Steward. William Brandon (age 58), Thomas Fitzalan 17th Earl Arundel (age 33), Thomas St Leger (age 43), Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby (age 50), Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 46), [his sister] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk (age 39), Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney (age 32) and Humphrey Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 59) attended.

Robert Dymoke (age 22) attended as the Kings' Champion.

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 66) carried The Pointed Sword of Justice. Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 40) carried the Crown. Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 27) carried the Third Sword of State. John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 40) carried the Sceptre. John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 21) carried the Cross and Ball. Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 28) carried the king's train. Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire (age 13) bore the Queen's Crown.

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 48) carried the Lord High Constable's Mace. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 40) held Queen Anne's train. Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 34) carried The Blunt Sword of Mercy. Christopher Willoughby 10th Baron Willoughby (age 30) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Humphrey Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 59) attended.

[his mother] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 68) refused to attend the Coronation of Richard III. History doesn't record her reason.

Calendars. 30 Jun 1483 William Catesby (age 33) was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer. King Richard III of England (age 30). Westminster Palace [Map] Grant for life to William Catesby (age 33), esquire, of the office of Baron of the Exchequer, receiving the accustomed fees at the Exchequer or the receipt of the Exchequer, with all rights, profits and commodities. By p.s.

Richard III Rewards his Supporters

On 05 Jul 1483 John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) was created 1st Duke Norfolk by King Richard III of England (age 30). Margaret Chedworth Duchess Norfolk (age 47) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

His son Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 40) was created 1st Earl Surrey. Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey (age 39) by marriage Countess Surrey.

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 57) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 57) were heirs to the vast Mowbray estates that had been inherited by Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk who had been married to Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 9).

Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-'s father [his brother] King Edward IV of England had legislated that in the event of Anne's death his son Richard would continue to benefit from the inheritance; she died in 1481.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 27) was created 1st Viscount Lovell. Anne Fitzhugh Viscountess Lovell by marriage Viscountess Lovell. [Note. Some sources place his created on 01 Jan 1483 although the source for that is unknown. ]

Calendars. 15 Jul 1483 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 28) was appointed Constable of England. King Richard III of England (age 30). Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Henry, Duke of Buckingham (age 28), of divers specified offices and powers in North and South Wales and the marches.

The like to the same of the office of constable of England, with the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Calendars. 25 Jul 1483. John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) was appointed Lord Admiral of all England Ireland and Aquitaine. King Richard III of England (age 30). Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Henry (age 58), duke of Norfolk, of the office of admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine, with certain specified powers and the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

Around Aug 1483 King Edward V of England (age 12) and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 9) disappeared, presumably killed, from the Tower of London [Map]. Thomas More (age 5)writes, around 1515, that King Richard III of England (age 30) requested Robert Brackenbury undertake the murder of the children. Upon Brackenbury's refusal King Richard III of England (age 30) instructed Robert Brackenbury give the keys to the Tower to James Tyrrell (age 28) who would then undertake the task. Duke Norfolk, Duke York, Earl March, Earl Nottingham, Earl Norfolk and Earl Pembroke extinct.

Calendars. 14 Aug 1483 Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 27) was appointed Chief Butler of England. King Richard III of England (age 30). Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to the king's kinsman Francis Lovell (age 27), knight, Viscount Lovel, the king's chamberlain, of the office of Chief Butler of England, void by the death of Anthony, late earl Rivers, receiving fees of 100l yearly from the customs and prises of wines and other issues of his office, with all other profits. By p.s.

Before Sep 1483 Marmaduke Constable (age 26) was appointed Knight of the Body to King Richard III of England (age 30).

1483 Creation of Garter Knights

Around Sep 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30) created a number of new Garter Knights from his key supporters to fill the stalls made vacant by his recent accession:

221st Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 27).

222nd Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 40).

223rd Richard Ratclyffe (age 53).

224th Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 48).

225th Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 52).

Edward of Middleham created Prince of Wales

On 08 Sep 1483 [his son] Edward York Prince of Wales (age 9) was created Prince of Wales and 1st Earl Chester at York Minster [Map]. His parents Richard III (age 30) and [his wife] Anne Neville (age 27) attended as did Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire (age 13). !Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick (age 8) and [his illegitimate son] John York (age 12) were knighted.

Note. Hall's Chronicle places the date at 05 Jul 1483.

Buckingham's Rebellion

In Oct 1483 Buckingham's Rebellion was an attempt to replace King Richard III of England (age 30) with Henry Tudor (age 26). Richard Haute took part. He escaped execution, and was subsequently pardoned. Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers (age 30) was attainted.

Calendars. 23 Oct 1483 King Richard III of England (age 31). Leicester, Leicestershire [Map]. Precept to the Sheriff of Devon to issue a proclamation (English) denouncing Thomas Dorset, late Marquess of Dorset (age 28), who holds unshameful and mischievous woman called Shore's wife in adultery, Sir William Noreys (age 42), Sir William Knevet (age 43), Sir Thomas Bourghchier of Barnes, Sir George Broun, knights, John Cheyne, John Noreis, Walter Hungerford, John Russh and John Harecourt of Staunton, who have assembled the Person by the comfort of the great rebel the late duke of Bukyngham (age 29) and bishops of Ely and Salisbury, and offering rewards for their capture and pardon for all who withdraw from them. By K.

Calendars. On 28 Oct 1483 King Richard III of England (age 31). Leicester, Leicestershire [Map]. General commission of array to the king's kinsman Francis Lovell, Viscount Lovel his chamberlain, for the resistance of the rebel Henry, duke of Buskingham. Mutilated. By K. by word of mouth.

Calendars. On 05 Nov 1483 King Richard III of England (age 31). Bridport, Dorset [Map]. Commission of array in Wales to the king's kinsman [his future son-in-law] William, Earl of Huntingdon (age 32), and James Tyrrell (age 28), knight, for the resistance of the rebels. By K. by word of mouth.

The like to James Tyrell, knight.

Around 1484 John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire (age 73) was appointed 227th Knight of the Garter by King Richard III of England (age 31).

In 1484 [his son-in-law] William Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 32) and [his illegitimate daughter] Katherine York Countess Huntingdon (age 13) were married. She by marriage Countess Huntingdon. She the daughter of King Richard III of England (age 31). He the son of William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke and Anne Devereux (age 54).

Titulus Regius

In 1484 Titulus Regius was the Act of Parliament that justified King Richard III's (age 31) succession.


To the High and Myghty Prince Richard Duc of Gloucester (age 31).


Please it youre Noble Grace to understande the Consideracon, Election and Peticion underwritten, of use the Lords Spirituelx and Temporelx, and Commons of this Reame of Englond, and thereunto agreably to geve your assent, to the common and public wele of this Lande, to the comforte and gladnesse of all the people of the same.


Furst, we considre how that heretofore in tyme passed, this Lande many years stode in great prosperite, honoure and tranquillite; which was caused, forsomoch as the Kings than reignyng, used and followed the advice and counsaill of certaine Lords Spirituelx and Temporelx, and othre personnes of approved sadnesse, prudence, policie and experience, dreding God, and havying tendre zele and affection to indifferent ministration of Justice, and to the common and politique wele of the Land; than oure Lord God was dred, luffed and honoured; than within the Land was peas and tranquillite, and among Neghbours concorde and charite; than the malice of outward Enemyes was myghtily resisted and repressed, and the Land honorably defended with many grete and glorious victories; than the entrecourse of Merchandizes was largely used and exercised: by which things above remembred, the Land was greatly enriched, soo that as wele the Merchants and Artificers, as other poure people, laborying for their livyng in diverse occupations, had competent gayne, to the sustentation of thaym and their households, livyng without miserable and intollerable povertie. But afterward, whan that such as had the rule and governaunce of this Land, delityng in adulation and flattery, and lede by sensuality and concupiscence, folowed the counsaill of personnes, insolent, vicious, and of inordinate avarice, despisyng the counsaill of good, vertuouse and prudent personnes, such as above be remembred; the prosperite of this Land daily decreased, soo that felicite was turned into miserie, and prosperite into adversite, and the ordre of polecye, and of the Lawe of God and Man, confounded; whereby it is likely this Reame to falle into extreme miserie and desolation, which God defende, without due provision of couvenable remedie bee had in this behalfe in all goodly hast.


Over this, amonges other things, more specially wee consider, howe that, the tyme of the Reigne of Kyng Edward the IIIIth , late decessed, after the ungracious pretensed Marriage, as all England hath cause soo to say, made betwixt the said King Edward, and Elizabeth, sometyme Wife to Sir John Grey Knight, late nameing herself and many years heretofore Quene of Englond, the ordre of all poletique Rule was perverted, the Lawes of God and of Gods Church, and also the Lawes of Nature and of Englond, and also the laudable Customes and Liberties of the same, wherein every Englishman in Inheritor, broken, subverted and contempned, against all reason and justice, soo that this Land was ruled by selfewill and pleasure, feare and drede, all manner of Equite and Lawes layd apart and despised, whereof ensued many inconvenients and mischiefs, as Murdres, Extorsions and Oppressions, namely of poore and impotent people, soo that no Man was sure of his Lif, Land ne Lyvelode, ne of his Wif, Doughter ne Servaunt, every good Maiden and Woman standing in drede to be ravished and defouled. And beides this, what Discords, inwarde Battailles, etfusion of Christian Mens Blode, and namely, by the destruction of the Blode of this Londe, was had and comitted within the same, it is evident and notarie thourough all this Reame, unto the great sorowe and hevynesse of all true Englishmen. And here also we considre, howe that the seid pretensed Mariage bitwixt the above named King Edward and Elizabeth Grey, was made of grete presumption, without the knowyng and assent of the Lords of this Lond, and also by Sorcerie and Wichecrafte, committed by the said Elizabeth, and her Moder Jaquett Duchesse of Bedford, as the common opinion of the people, and the publique voice and same is thorough all this Land; and herafter, if and as the caas shall require, shall bee proved sufficiently in tyme and place convenient. And here also we consider, howe that said pretensed Mariage was made privaly and secretely, without Edition of Banns, in a private Chamber, an prophane place, and not openly in the face of the Church, aftre the Lawe of Godds Churche, bot contrarie thereunto, and the laudable Custome of the Church of Englond. And howe also, that at the tyme of contract of the same pretensed Mariage, and bifore and longe tyme after, the seid King Edward was and stode maryed and trouth plight to oone Dame Elianor Butteler, Doughter of the old Earl of Shrewesbury, with whom the same King Edward had made a precontracte of Matrimonie, longe tyyme bifore he made the said pretensed Mariage with the said Elizabeth Grey, in maner and fourme abovesaid. Which premisses being true, as in veray trouth they been true, it appearreth and foloweth evidently, that the said King Edward duryng his lif, and the seid Elizabeth, lived together sinfully and dampnably in adultery, against the Lawe of God and of his Church; and therfore noo marivaile that the Souverain Lord and the head of this Land, being of such ungoldy disposicion, and provokyng the ire and indinacion of oure Lord God, such haynous mischieffs and inconvenients, as is above remembred, were used and comitted in the Reame amongs the Subjects. Also it appeareth evidently and followeth, that all th'Issue and Children of the seid King Edward, been Bastards, and unable to inherite or to clayme any thing by Inheritance, by the Lawe and Custome of Englond.


Moreover we considre, howe that afterward, by the thre Estates of this Reame assembled in a Parliament holden at Westminster, the XVIIth yere of the Regne of the said King Edward the IIIIth, he than being in possession of the Coroune and Roiall Estate, by an Acte made in the same Parliament, George Duc of Clarence, Brother to the said King Edward nowe decessed, was convicted and atteinted of High Treason; as in the same Acte is conteigned more at large. Bicause and by reason wherof, all the Issue of the said George, was and is dishabled and barred of all Right and Clayme, that in any wise they might have or chalenge by Enheritance, to the Crown and Dignite Roiall of this Reame, by the auncien Lawe and Custome of this same Reame.


Over this we cosidre, howe that Ye be the undoubted Son and Heire of Richard late Duke of Yorke, verray enheritour to the seid Crowne and Dignite Roiall, and as in right Kyng of Englond, by wey of Enheritaunce; and that at ths tyme, the premisses duely considered, there is noon other persoune lyvyng but Ye only, that by Right may clayme the said Coroune and Dignite Royall, by way of Enheritaunce, and howe that Ye be born withyn this Lande; by reason wherof, as we deme in oure myndes, Ye be more naturally enclyned to the prosperite and commen wele of the same; and all the thre Estatis of the Lande have, and may have, more certayn knowlage of youre Byrth and Filiation aboveseid. Wee considre also, the greate Wytte, Prudence, Justice, Princely Courage, and the memorable and laudable Acts in diverse Batalls, whiche as we by experience knowe Ye heretofore have done, for the salvacion and defence of this same Reame; and also the greate noblesse and excellence of your Byrth and Blode, as of hym that is descended of the thre moost Royall houses in Cristendom, that is to say, England, Fraunce, and Hispanic.


Wherfore, these premisses by us diligently considred, we desyryng effectuonsly the peas, tranquillite, and wele publique of this Lande, and the reduccion of the same to the auncien honourable estate and prosperite, and havyng in youre greate Prudence, Justice, Princely Courage, and excellent Vertue, singuler confidence, have chosen in all that that in us is, and by this our Wrytyng choise You, high and myghty Prynce, into oure Kyng and Soveraigne Lorde &c., to whom we knowe for certayn it apperteygneth of Enheritaunce soo to be chosen. And herupon we humbly desire, pray, and require youre seid Noble Grace, that, accordyng to this Eleccion of us the Thre Estates of this Lande, as by youre true Enherritaunce, Ye will accepte and take upon You the said Crown and Royall Dignite, with all thyngs therunto annexed and apperteynyng, as to You of Right bilongyng, as wele by Enherritaunce as by lawfull Eleccion; and, in caas Ye so do, we promitte to serve and to assiste your Highnesse, as true and feithfull Subgietts and Leigemen, and to lyve and dye with You in this matter, and every other juste quarrell. For certainly wee be determined, rather to aventure and committe us to the perill of oure lyfs and jopardye of deth, than to lyve in suche thraldome and bondage as we have lyved long tyme hertofore, oppressed and injured by Extorcions and newe Imposicons, agenst the Lawes of God and Man, and the Libertee, old Police, and Lawes of this Reame, wheryn every Englisshman is enherited. Oure Lorde God, Kyng of all Kyngs, by whos infynyte goodnesse and eternall providence all thyngs been pryncipally gouverned in this world, lighten youre soule, and graunt You grace to do, as well in this matier as in all other, all that that may be accordyng to his wille and pleasure, and to the comen and publique wele of this Lande; to that, after greate cloudes, troubles, stormes and tempestes, the Son of Justice and of Grace may shyne uppon us, to the comforte and gladnesse of all true Englishmen.


Albeit that the Right, Title, and Estate, whiche oure Souveraigne Lord the Kyng Richard the Third, hath to and in the Crown and Roiall Dignite of this Reame of Englond, with all thyngs therunto within the same Reame, and without it, united, annexed and apperteynyng, been juste and lawefull, as grounded upon the Lawes of God and of Nature, and also upon the auncien Lawes and laudable Customes of this said Reame, and so taken and reputed by all suche persounes as ben lerned in the abovesaid Lawes and Custumes. Yit neverthelesse, forasmoche as it is considred, that the most parte of the people of this Lande is not suffisantly lerned in the abovesaid Lawes and Custumes, wherby the trueth and right in this behalf of liklyhode may be hyd, and nat clerely knowen to all the people, and thereupon put in doubt and question. And over this, howe that the Courte of Parliament is of suche auctorite, and the people of this Lande of suche nature and disposicion, as experience teacheth, that manifestacion and declaration of any trueth or right, made by the Thre Estates of this Reame assembled in Parliament, and by auctorite of the same, maketh, before all other thyngs, moost seith and certaynte; and, quietyng mens myndes, remoeveth the occasion of all doubts and seditious langage. Therfore, at the request, and by assent of the Thre Estates of this Reame, that is to say, the Lordes Spirituelx and Temporalx, and Commens of this Lande, assembled in this present Parliament, by auctorite of the same, bee it pronounced, decreed, and declared, that oure said Soveraign Lorde the Kyng was, and is, veray and undoubted Kyng of this Reame of Englond, with all thyngs therunto withyn the same Reame, and without it, united, annexed and apperteyning, as well by right of Consanguinite and Enheritaunce, as by lawefull Elleccion, Consecration, and Coronacion. And over this, that, at the request, and by the assent and auctorite abovesaid, bee it ordeigned, enacted and establisshed, that the said Crown and Roaill Dignite of this Reame, and the Enheritaunce of the same, and other thyngs therunto within this same Reame, or withoute it, unite, annexed, and nowe apperteigning, rest and abyde in the persoune of oure said Soveraigne Lorde the Kyng, duryng his Lyff, and, after his Decesse, in his heires of his Body begotten. And in especiall, at the request, and by assent and auctorite abovesaid, bee it ordeigned, enacted, establed, pronounced, decreed, and declared, that the High and Excellent Prynce Edward, Son of oure said Soveraign Lorde the Kyng, be Heire Apparent of the same our Soveraign Lord the Kyng, to succede to hym in the abovesaid Crown and Roaill Dignite, with all thyngs as is aforesaid therunto unite, annexed and apperteigning; to have them after the Decesse of oure said Soveraign Lorde the Kyng, to hym and to his heires of his Body laufully begotten.

Around 1484 Richard Tunstall (age 57) was appointed 226th Knight of the Garter by King Richard III of England (age 31).

1484 Opening Parliament

Calendars. Be it remembered that on Friday, 23 January in the first year of the reign of King Richard the third (age 31) since the conquest, that is, on the first day of parliament, with the lord king sitting on the royal throne in the Painted Chamber [Map] within his palace of Westminster, then being present many lords spiritual and temporal, and the commons of the realm of England, assembled at the aforesaid parliament at the king's command, the venerable father John, Bishop of  Lincoln, chancellor of England memorably declared and announced the reasons for summoning the aforesaid parliament, taking as his theme: 'In the body there are many limbs, but not all have the same function'. In which words he gravely and very astutely explained the fealty which subjects of the king (age 31) and the functions individual members owe to the principal member, asserting that there are three kinds of body, namely the natural, the aggregate and the politic, and going on to suggest that one coin, the tenth, had been lost from the most precious fabric of the body politic of England and that to hunt for it and find it would require the king and all the lords spiritual and temporal to be very assiduous and diligent during this parliament; concluding that after the finding of the tenth coin, which signifies perfection, our body politic of England would endure gloriously and for a long time, healthy, safe and free from all damage or injury; the king (age 31), the great men of the realm and the commons eternally cherishing peace outward and inward and the author of that peace. At the end of which declaration and announcement, the aforesaid chancellor in the king's (age 31) name firmly ordered the commons to assemble on the following day in their common house as usual and elect one of their number as their speaker, and to present the man thus elected to the same lord king. The same chancellor announced moreover that the said lord king, wishing justice to be done more swiftly both to denizens and aliens wishing to complain in the said parliament, had appointed and assigned certain receivers of the petitions to be presented in the same parliament in the following form ...

Richard III Secures Elizabeth Woodville's Daughters

In Mar 1484 King Richard III of England (age 31) attempted to persuade Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 47) to leave Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey [Map] by promising to secure suitable marriages for her daughters.

Calendars. On 09 Mar 1484 King Richard III of England (age 31). Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to the king's servant Robert Brackenbury of the office of Constable of the Tower of London and £100 yearly for his wages from the issues of the manors or lordships of Wrottell, Haveryng, Boyton, Hadlegh, Raylegh and Rocheford, co Essex, and Tunbrich, Penshurste, Middleton and Merdon and the hundred of Middleton, co Kent, with arrears from 17 July last, in lieu of a grant to him by letters patent of that date surrendered. By p.s.

Death of King Richard III's Heir

On 09 Apr 1484 [his son] Edward York Prince of Wales (age 10) died at Middleham Castle [Map] leaving his father King Richard III of England (age 31) without an heir. Duke Cornwall, Earl Salisbury, Earl Chester extinct.

Ellis' Letters S2 V1 Letter LIV. [21 Jun 1484.] King Richard the Third (age 31) to his Chancellor, to prepare a Proclamation against Henry Tudor and other rebels his followers.

[MS. Donat. Mus. Brit. 4616. art. 98. ex bund, infra turr. LOND. temp. ric. hi. n. 28.]

R. R.

Right reverend fader in God, right trusty and right welbeloved, we grete yow wele, and wol and charge yow that under oure Greate Seale, being in your warde, ye do make in all haist our lettres of Proclamation, severally to be directed unto the shirrefs of everie Coun tie within this oure Royaume, according to the tenure hereafter ensueing.


"Forasmoche as the King oure Soverain Lorde hathe certaine knowledge that Piers Bisshop of Excestre, Jasper Tidder sone of Owen Tidder calling himself Erie of Pembroke, John late Erie of Oxon, and Sir Edward Widevile, with other diverse his rebells and traitours disabled and attayntedby authoritie of high Courte of Parliament, of whom many been knowon for open niiirtlrors, advowtcrs, and extortioners, contrarie to the pleasure of God and against all treuthe, honour, and nature, have forsaken thair naturall countrev, takin^j theim furst to be vuider the obeissaunce of the Due of Britaigne, and to him promised certain things which by hym and his Counseill were thought thinges to gretly unnaturall and abominable for theim to graunte, observe, kepe, and perfourme ; and therfor the same utterly refused. The said Traitours seeing that the said Due and his Counseill would not aide and succour theim, nor folow their weyes, prively departed out of his countrey into Fraunce1, there taking theim to be undre th''obbeisance of the Kings auncient ennemie Charles, calling himself King of Fraunce ; and to abuse and blynde the Commones of this said Koyaume, the said Rebeles and Traitours have chosen to be their Capitayne oon Henry Tidder son of Edmond Tidder son of Owen Tidder, whiche of his ambitious and insatiable covetise incrocheth and usurpeth hym the name and title of royal estate of this Roialme of Englande, wherunto he hath no maner interest, right, title, or colour, as every man wel knoweth ; for he is descended of bastard blode both of the fader side and moder side ; for the said Owen, the grandfader, was a bastard borne, and his moder was doughter unto John Duc of Somerset, sone unto John Erie of Somerset, son unto dame Kateryne Swynford, and of her in double advoutrow goten ; wherby it evidently appereth that noo title can or may be in hym, whiche fulley entendeth to entre this Royaume purposing a conquest : and if he should atcheve this false entent and purpose, every mannys lif, livelood, and goods shuld be in his hands, libertie, and disposition : wherby shuld ensue the disheriting and distruction of all the noble and worshipfull blode of this Royalme for ever. And to the resistence and withstanding wherof, every true and naturall Englisheman born must lay to his handes for his own suertie, and well, and to the entent that the said Henry Tidder might the rather eschewe his said fals entent and pourpous by the aide, supporte, and assistence of the Kings said auncient ennemye of Fraunce, hath covenaunted and bargayned with hym and with all the Counseill of Fraunce to geve . and relesse in perpetuyte alle the right, title, and clayme that the Kings of England have had and mighte to have to the Corone and Royaume of Fraunce, togidder with the Duchies of Normandye, Angeoye and IVIaygne, Gascoygne and Guyenne, the Castelles and Townes of Caleys, Guisnes, Hammes, with the merches apperteignyng to the same, and to dessever and exclude the armes of Fraunce out of the armes of England for ever. And in more prove and sheweing of his said pourpose of conquest, the said Henry Tidder hath geven aswele to divers of the Kings said eiRMnycs as to Iiis said rebelles and traitoures, the Aichbisshoprekes, Bissliopriches, and other dignities spirituel, and also the Diiehies, Earledomes, Baronies, and otlu-e possessions and inheritaunces of Knights, Esquires, Gentlemen, and othre the Kings true subgets within this Roialnie ; and entendeth also to chaunge and subvert the lawes of the same, and to enduce and establisshe newe lawes and ordinaunces amongs the Kings said subjiettes. And over this and besids the alienations of all the premisses into the possession of the Kings said ancient enemyes, to the gretest augeutisement, shame, and rebuke that ever might falle to this lande, the said Henry Tider and othre the Kings rebells and traietours aforesaid, have entended at thair cummyng, if theye can be of powair, to doo the moost cruell murdres, slaghters, robberies, and disherisons that ever wer seen in any Cristen Royaume. For the whiche and othre inestimable daungieres to be eschew'ed, and to the entent that the Kings said rebells, traitours, and enemyes may be utterly putt from their said malicious and fals pourpose, and soon disconfitcd of their enforce to lande, the King oure soverayn Lorde desireth, willeth, and commaundeth all and everych of the naturel and true subgiets of this his Royaume, to call the premisses into their myndes, and like good and true Enghsshemen to ... thaym self with all their powairs for the defense of theini, thair wifs, children, goocles, and hereditaments, agenst the said malicious purposes and conspirations whiche the said auncient ennemyes have made with the Kings said rebelles and traitours for the fynal destruction of this lande as is aforesaid. And oure sayde soverayn Lord, as awelewilled, diligent, and couragious Prince wol put his royal persone to all .... and payne necessarie in this behalve for the resistence and subdueing of his said ennemyes, rebelles and traitours to the moost comfort, wele, and suertie of all his true and feithfull liegemen and subgiettes; and over this cure said soverayn Lorde willeth and comaundeth all his said subgietts to be redy in their moost defensible arraye, to doo his Highnesse service of Werre, whan they by open proclamation or otherwise shall be commanded so to do for the resistence of the Kings said rebells, traitours, and enemyes" And thise oure Lettres shall be your sufficient warrant in that behalve.

Yeven under oure Signet, at oure Castell of Notyngham, the xxi day of Juyn the secund yere of our reigne.

To the right reverend fader in God our right trusty and right welbeloved the Bisshop of Lincoln our Chauncellour of England.


Note 1. For a comment upon this passage of the Letter, the reader may refer to Hall's Chronicle, edit. 1548. foll. xlv. b. xlvi.

Another Letter to the Bishop, directing a similar Proclamation to be prepared, dated December 3d m the same year, occurs in the Harleian Manuscript 433. fol. 273 b.

In Jul 1484 William Collingbourne, a Tudor agent, tacked up a lampooning poem to St Paul's Cathedral [Map], which mentions Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 28), whose family's heraldic symbol was a silver wolf, among the three aides to King Richard III (age 31), whose emblem was a white boar:

The Catte, the Ratte and Lovell our dogge.

Rulyth all Englande under a hogge.

Queen Consort Anne Neville Dies

On 16 Mar 1485 [his wife] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 28) died at Westminster Palace [Map]. Probably of tuberculosis. The day she died there was an Eclipse of the Sun; a bad omen to some. There were rumours of foul play.

Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick (age 10) abeyance terminated 6th Baron Montagu, 9th Baron Montagu.

Richard III publicly denies that he intended to marry his niece Elizabeth

On 30 Mar 1485 King Richard III of England (age 32) publicly rebutted rumours in front of the Mayor and citizens of London that he intended to marry his niece Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 19). Her sister Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 16) was probably also included in the rebuttal.

Battle of Bosworth

On 22 Aug 1485 King Richard III of England (age 32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. His second cousin once removed Henry Tudor  (age 28) succeeded VII King England. Earl Richmond forfeit.

Those supporting Henry Tudor included:

John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 35).

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 43).

Richard Guildford (age 35).

Walter Hungerford (age 21).

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50).

John Wingfield.

Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 29).

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26).

Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 36).

Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53).

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 47).

Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney (age 34).

William Stanley (age 50).

Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 52).

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney (age 38).

William Brandon (age 29) was killed.

James Harrington (age 55) was killed.

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 60) was killed and attainted. He was buried firstly at Thetford Priory, Norfolk [Map] and therafter at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. Duke Norfolk, Baron Mowbray, Baron Segrave forfeit.

John Sacheverell (age 85) was killed.

Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath

William Norreys (age 44), Gilbert Talbot (age 33), John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 42) and John Savage (age 41) commanded,.

Robert Poyntz (age 35) was knighted.

Those who fought for Richard III included:

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers of Groby (age 47).

John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire (age 74).

Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 17).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 59).

Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh (age 28).

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 48).

Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham (age 26).

Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 50).

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 68).

Ralph Neville 3rd Earl of Westmoreland (age 29).

John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 23).

Humphrey Stafford (age 59).

George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 17).

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 42) was wounded, captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for three years. He was attainted; Earl Surrey forfeit.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 29) fought and escaped.

John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth (age 26) was captured.

John Babington (age 62), William Alington (age 65), Robert Mortimer (age 43), Robert Brackenbury, Richard Ratclyffe (age 55) and Richard Bagot (age 73) were killed

Walter Devereux Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 53) was killed.

William Catesby (age 35) was executed at Leicester, Leicestershire [Map] after the battle.

George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster (age 25) held as a hostage by Richard III before the Battle of Bosworth.

Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 36) betrayed King Richard III of England (age 32) by not committing his forces at the Battle of Bosworth.

John Iwardby (age 35) was killed.

After 22 Aug 1485 King Richard III of England (age 32) was buried at Greyfriars Church Leicester, Leicestershire [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Aug 1654. To the old and ragged city of Leicester [Map], large and pleasantly seated, but despicably built, the chimney flues like so many smiths' forges; however, famous for the tomb of the tyrant, Richard III, which is now converted to a cistern, at which (I think) cattle drink. Also, here in one of the churches lies buried the magnificent Cardinal Wolsey. John of Gaunt has here also built a large but poor hospital, near which a wretch has made him a house out of the ruins of a stately church. Saw the ruins of an old Roman Temple, thought to be of Janus. Entertained at a very fine collection of fruits, such as I did not expect to meet with so far North, especially very good melons. We returned to my uncle's.

On 26 Mar 2015 King Richard III of England was reburied at Leicester Cathedral [Map].

Hall's Chronicle 1492. By reason whereof, the nobility of Flanders were to him diligent, and with due reverence did him all the pleasure that lay in their power or offices. And to be short, the more that, this poetical and feigned invention was shadowed with the pretence of sincere verity, the more faith and undoubted credence was adhibited to it. In so much that many one thought him to be preserved, only by the will and mighty power of Almighty God, and to be conveyed at the first danger by some faithful friend of [his brother] King Edward his father into some strange country, and so escaped the violent tyranny of his uncle King Rychard, which indubitably, hereafter should recover his father’s possessions and Kingdom. The same and brute of this juggled miracle was almost in one moment blown over all the country of Flanders, and the territories thereabouts. But in England it was biased in every place sooner than a man could think or devise it. In which country more than in other places it was received for an infallible verity and most sure truth, and that not only of the common people, but also of diverse noble and worshipful men of no small estimation, which are affirmed it to be true, and no comment or fable fantastically imagined. After this divulgation the Richard son to King Edward was yet living, had in great honour amongst the Flemings, there began sedition to springe on every side, none otherwise than in the pleasant time of year, trees are wont to bud or blossom. For not only they that were in sanctuaries, for great and heinous offences by them committed, but also many other that were fallen in debt, and doubting to be brought to captivity and bondage, assembled together in a company, and were passed over the sea into Flanders, to their counterfeit Richard son to King Edward, otherwise named Perkyn Warbeck. After this many of the noble men conspired together some through rashness and temerity induced thereunto, some being so earnestly persuaded in their own conceit, as though they knew perfectly that this Perkyn was the undoubted son of King Edward the Fourth solicited, slurred and allured to their opinion all such as were friends and favourites of the House of Yorke. Other through indignation, ennui and avarice, ever grudging and thinking they were not condignly rewarded for their pains and parts taken in the King’s behalf and quarrel. Other whom it grieved and vexed to see the world stand still in one stay, and all men to live in peace and tranquillity, desirous of some change, ran headlong into that fury, madness and seditious conjuration.

King Richard III of England 1452-1485 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward III of England 1312-1377

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 1364-1425

Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495

Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland 1379-1440

John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby 1337-1388

Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby

Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey 1318-1372

Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376

Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York 1411-1460

Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369

Royal Ancestors of King Richard III of England 1452-1485

Kings Wessex: Great x 12 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 10 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 11 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 2 Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 8 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 4 Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Ancestors of King Richard III of England 1452-1485

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York Son of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Isabella of Castile Duchess York 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Father: Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March 6th Earl Ulster Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Anne Mortimer 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Eleanor Holland Countess March and Ulster 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

King Richard III of England 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandFather: Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Mother: Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster