Biography of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588

Paternal Family Tree: Sutton

Maternal Family Tree: Alice Sanford Countess of Oxford

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1559 Creation of Garter Knights

1560 Death of Amy Robsart wife of Robert Dudley

1563 Creation of Garter Knights

1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

In 1525 [his father] John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 21) and [his mother] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 16) were married. They had grown up together since John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 21) had become her father's ward.

On 24 Jun 1532 Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 28) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 23).

In 1543 [his father] John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 39) was created 1st Viscount Lisle.

In 1547 [his father] John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 43) was created 1st Earl Warwick.

Before 1548 [his future brother-in-law] Robert Knollys and Catherine Vaughan were married.

On 04 Jun 1550 Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 17) and Amy Robsart (age 17) were married at Sheen Palace [Map]. King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 12) and William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (age 29) attended. He the son of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 46) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 41).

Diary of Edward VI. 04 Jun 1550. Sir Robert Dudeley (age 17), third sonne to th'erle of Warwic (age 46), maried sir Jon Robsartes [his wife] daughter (age 17)1, after wich mariage ther were certain gentlemen that did strive who shuld first take away a gose's heade, wich was hanged alive on tow crose postes.

Note 1. Whlst popular tradition, the ballad by Mickle, and Sir Walter Scott's romance of Kemlworth, had made the name of Amy Robsart exceedingly familiar, very little was formerly known of her actual history. That deficiency was in some measure supplied by a memoir of her, published in the Gentleman's Magazine for Dec. 1845, New Series, vol. xxiv. p. 595, to which was subsequently appended, in vol. xxxiv. p. 123, the account of her funeral at Oxford. Five letters relative to her mysterious death were also published in 1850, — nearly simultaneously in a new edition of Pepys's Diary, by Lord Braybrooke; and also in The Romance of the Peerage, by Mr. G. L. Craik (see the Gentleman's Magazine, New Series, vol. xxxiii. p. 255).

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 25 Jul 1553 [his father] John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49), [his brother] John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick (age 26), Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 21), [his brother] Guildford Dudley (age 18), [his uncle] Andrew Dudley (age 46), [his brother] Henry Dudley (age 22) and Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland (age 26) and Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon (age 39) were imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map] for supporting Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland (age 17).

On 22 Aug 1553 [his father] John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. Duke Northumberland, Earl Warwick and Viscount Lisle forfeit. [his brother] John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick (age 26), his son, was also attainted, with the Earldom of Warwick forfeit.

Thomas Palmer and John Gates (age 49) were hanged, drawn and quartered.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Jul 1553. The xxvj day of July cam unto the Towre my lord marqwes of Northamton (age 41), by and my lord Robart Dudley (age 21), and the bysshop of London (age 53), and ser Recherd Corbett; and after cam in to the Towre my lord cheyffe justes Chamley (age 58), the lord Montyguw (age 68), at v of the cloke at nyght.

Note. The lord Montague. The person intended by this designation was sir Edward Montague, who was lord chief justice of the common pleas, as sir Roger Cholmley was of the king's bench. The new queen appointed sir Richard Morgan and sir Thomas Bromley in their places.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Jan 1554. The xxij day of January was reynyd at yeld hall [Map] the lord Robart Dudlay (age 21) for tresun, the [his father] duke of Northumberland('s) sune, and cast the sam day.

In 1555 [his mother] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 46) died.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Mar 1557. The xvij day of Marche cam rydyng from kyng Phelype (age 29) from be-yond the see unto the court at Grenwyche [Map], to owre quen (age 41), with letters in post, my lord Robart Dudley (age 24), and after master Kemp of the preve chambur, that the kyng (age 29) wold com to Cales [Map] the xvij day of Marche; and the sam day dyd pryche a-for the quen the nuwe bysshope of Lynckolne doctur Watsun (age 42).

In 1558 John Lyttelton of Frankley (age 38) purchased the manor of Halesowen, Shropshire [Map] from Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 25).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Nov 1558. [The xxviijth day of November the Queen (age 25) removed to the Tower from the lord North's] plasse, (which) was the Charter Howsse. [All] the stretes unto the towre of London was newe gravelled. Her grace rod thrugh Barbecan and Crepulgat [Map], by [London-wall] unto Bysshope-gate [Map], and up to Leden-halle [Map] and thrugh Gracyus strett [Map] and Fanchyrchestrett [Map]; and a-for rod gentyllmen and [many] knyghtes and lordes, and after cam all the trumpetes blohyng, and then cam all the haroldes in a-ray; and my lord of Penbroke (age 57) [bare the] the quen('s) sword; then cam here Grace (age 25) on horsbake, [apparelled] in purpull welvett with a skarpe [scarf] abowt her neke, and [the serg]anttes of armes abowt here grace; and next after rod [sir] Robart Dudley (age 26) the master of her horse; and so the gard with halbards. [And] ther was shyche shutyng of gunes as never was hard a-for; so to the towre, with all the nobulles. And so here Grace lay in the towre [Map] unto the v day of Dessember, that was sant Necolas evyn. And ther was in serten plasses chylderyn with speches and odur places, syngyng and playing with regalles.

1559 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1559 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 25) created Garter Knights:

340th Thomas Howard 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 23).

341st Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland (age 32).

342nd Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 26).

William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 47) was restored 312th. He had been degraded in 1553.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1559. [The xxiij day of April, being saint George's day, the Queen (age 25) went about the hall, and all the knights of the] Garter that [went singing in proces]syon, and a-bowt the cowrt; the sam day at after [noon were] knyghtes electyd of the Garter the duke of Norfok (age 23), the marques of Northamtun (age 47) [Note. Restored since he had been degraded in 1553], the erle of Rutland (age 32), and my lord Robard Dudley (age 26), the master of the quen('s) horse.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Jun 1559. [The vj day of June saint George's feast was kept at Windsor [Map];] the yerle of Pembroke (age 58) was the [Queen's substitute,] lord Montycutt (age 30) and my lord of ....; ther was stallyd at that tyme the duke of [Norfolk] (age 23), my lord marques of Northamtun (age 47), and the yerle of [Rutland] (age 32), and my lord Robart Dudley (age 26) the master of the quen('s) horse, nuw mad knyghtes of the Garter, and ther was gret [feasting] ther, and ther be-gane the comunion that day and Englys.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Jul 1559. The furst day of July all the craftes of London send owt a (blank) men of armes, as well be-sene as ever was when owt of London, boyth waffelers in cott of velvet and cheynes, with gunes, mores-pykes, and halbardes, and flages, and in-to the duke of Suffoke('s) parke in Sowthwarke, and ther they mustered a-for my lord mayre (age 50); and ther was a howsse for bred and dryng [drink], to gyffe the sawgyars [soldiers] to ett and drynke, and they then after thay lay and mustered in sant Gorges ffeld tyll x of the cloke. [The next morning they removed towards Greenwich, Kent [Map] to the court there, and thence into Greenwich park, where they tarried] tyll viij of the cloke, and then thay [marched] to the lawne, and ther thay mustered in harnes, [and the gunners] in shurttes of maylle, and at v of the cloke at nyght the Quen (age 25) [came] in to the galere of the parke gatt, and the inbassadurs and lordes [and ladies, to a] grett nombur, and my lord marques, and my lord admerall (age 49), and my [lord Robert Dudley (age 27), and] dyvers mo lordes and knyghtes, and they rod to and fro [to view them, and] to sett the ij batelles in a-ray; and after cam trumpeters bluwing [on] boyth partes, and the drumes and fluttes; and iij ansettes [onsets] in evere bat[elle]; so thay marchyd forward, and so the gunes shott and the morespykes [en]contered to-gether with gratt larum, and after reculyd bake [again]; after the towne army lost ther pykes and ther gunes and bylle .. rely, and contenent they wher sturyd with a-larum; and so evere man toke to ther weypons agayne; by and by the trumpetes and the drumes and gones playd, and shott, and so they whent to-gether as fast as they could. Al thys wyll the Quen('s) grace and the inbasadurs and the lordes and lades be-held the skymychsyng; and after they reculyd bake agayn; and after master chamburlayn and dyvers of the commenars and the wyffelers cam to the Quen, and ther the Quen('s) grace thankyd them hartely, and all the cette [city]; and contenent ther was the grettest showtt that ever was hard, and hurlyng up of capes [caps], that her grace was so mere [merry], for ther was a-buyff above lyk M [1000] pepull besyd the men that mustered; and after ther was runyng at the tyltt, and after evere [man] home to London and odur plasses.

Note. P. 202. Muster before the queen in Greenwich park. Stowe has described this muster at some length. The Grocers' company were, by a precept from the lord mayor, required to contribute to it "190 personnes, apte and picked men; whereof 60 to be with calyvers, flaskes, touche-boxes, morions, swordes, and daggers; 95 to be in corselettes, with halbertes, swordes, and daggers, for a shewe at Greenwich." Heath's Hist, of the Grocers' Company, p. 65.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Oct 1559. [The] v day of October cam to [London by Ald]gatt the prynse of Sweythen (age 25), and [so to Leadenhall], and done [down] Gracyous-strett [Map] corner in a howse stod [the lord] marques of Northamtun (age 47) and my lord [his brother] Ambros Dudley (age 29) [and other gentlemen and] lades; and my lord of Oxford (age 43) browth (him) from Col[chester] [Map] and my lord Robart Dudley (age 27), the master of the quen('s) horse; and trumpettes bloyng in dyvers places; and thay had [a great] nombur of gentyllmen ryd with cheynes a-for them, and after them a ij C [200] of yomen rydyng, and so rydyng over the bryge unto the bysshope of Wynchastur plasse [Map], for [it] was rychely hangyd with ryche cloth of arres, wrought with gold and sylver and sylke, and ther he remanyth.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 Oct 1559. The xix day of October the prynche of Swaythen (age 25) whent to the court agayn, for my lord Robart Dudley (age 27) gave ym a grett bankett [banquet].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 Oct 1559. The xxvij day of October was cristened at sant Benettes at Powlles warff [Map] ser Thomas Chamburlayn's (age 55) son, and the chyrche hangyd with cloth of arres, the godfathers names the prynche of Swaynthen (age 21) one and my lord Robart Dudley (age 27), and the godmoder was my lade of Northamtun (age 33); after the cristenyng waffers, spysbred, comfettes, and dyver odur bankettes, dysses [dishes], and epocras and muskadyll [in great] plente; the lade was the wyff of master Machyll, altherman and clothworker.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1559. The v day of November ther was grett justes at the quen('s) palles [palace], and ther was my lord Robartt Dudley (age 27) and my lord of Hunsdon (age 33) wher the chalengers, and all they wher (in) skarffes of whyt and blake, boyth haroldes and trumpeters; and deffenders my [his brother] lord Ambros (age 29) with odur; and the haroldes and trumpeters and the fotmen with skarffes of red and yelow sarsenett.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Apr 1560. The sam day at after-none att the court was grett justes, my lord of Sussex (age 35) and my lord Robartt Dudley (age 27) and ij more a-gaynst the yerle of Northumberland (age 32) and my [his brother] lord Ambrose Dudley (age 30) and my lord of Hunsdon (age 34) and master Cornewalles and (blank): and ther was mony stayffes broken; and ther stod in the standyng as juges my lord markes of Northamtun (age 48), my lord of Ruttland (age 33), and my lord of Penbroke (age 59), and my lord admerall (age 50) and the Frenche inbassadur, and master Garter (age 50) and master Norey (age 50) dyd wrytt wome [whom] dyd rune; and by chanse of the brykyng of a stayff a pesse fluw up wher the juges sitt and hyt my lord of Penbroke (age 59) (blank) and ther rod the trumpeters and the haroldes of armes.

Henry Machyn's Diary. On or after 29 Aug 1560. The (blank) day of August was bered my [his wife] lade Dudley (age 28) the wyff of my lord Robart Dudley (age 28) the master of the quen('s) horse, with a grett baner of armes and a vj baners-rolles of armes, and a viij dosen penselles and viij dosen skochyons, and iiij grett skochyons of armes, and iiij haroldes, master Garter (age 50), master Clarenshux (age 50), master Lanckostur, and (blank).... with ij harolds, master Clarenshux (age 50) and , and a standard and a pennon of armes, a cot armur, helmett, and crest, and mantylles, and sword, and a viij dosen of skochyons of armes and vj of bokeram, and [many] mornars in blake, and ther was grett [dinner and] a dolle of mones [money] as many as cam.

Note. P. 242. Funeral of lady Amy Dudley. The name of "Amy Robsart" is invested with a prevailing interest as the heroine of poetry and romance. I have collected what is known of her, and endeavoured to sift the mysterious rumours of her assassination, in a memoir which appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine for December, 1845. I have now to append the following additional memorial: "Lady Amie Robsert, late wyff to the right noble the lord Robert Dudley, knight and companyon of the most noble order of the garter, and master of the horsse to the quenes moste excellent majestie, dyed on sonday the 8. of Septembre at a howsse of Mr. Foster, iij. myles from Oxford, in the 2. yere of quene Elizabeth, 1560, and was beryed on sonday the 22. of September next enshewenge in our Lady churche of Oxford." (MS. Harl. 897, f. 80b.)

Death of Amy Robsart wife of Robert Dudley

On 08 Sep 1560, the day of the Abingdon Fair, [his wife] Amy Robsart (age 28) died from falling down stairs at Cumnor Place Abingdon, Berkshire [Map]. She was married to Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 28), favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 27), who was with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 27) at Windsor Castle [Map] at the time. Foul play was suspected but not proven. The event was regarded as suspicious by many. The Queen's reputation being tarnished she could not risk a marriage with Dudley.

The inquest into her death concluded ...

Inquisition as indenture held at Cumnor [Map] in the aforesaid county [Oxfordshire] on 9 September in the second year of the reign of the most dread Lady Elizabeth, by the grace of God queen of England, France, and Ireland, defend of the faith, etc., before John Pudsey, gent, a coroner of the said lady queen in the aforesaid county, on inspection of the body of Lady Amy Dudley, late wife of Robert Dudley, knight of the most noble order of the garter, there lying dead: by oath of Richard Smith, gent., Humphrey Lewis, gent., Thomas Moulder, gent., Richard Knight, Thomas Spyre, Edward Stevenson, John Stevenson, Richard Hughes, William Cantrell, William Noble, John Buck, John Keene, Henry Lanlgey, Stephen Ruffyn, and John Sire: which certain jurors, sworn to tell the truth at our request, were adjourned from the aforesaid ninth day onwards day by day very often; and finally various several days were given to them by the selfsame coroner to appear both before the justices of the aforesaid lady queen at the assizes assigned to be held in the aforesaid county and before the same coroner in order there to return their verdict truthfully and speedily, until 1 August in the third year of the reign of the said lady queen; on which day the same jurors say under oath that the aforesaid Lady Amy on 8 September in the aforesaid second year of the reign of the said lady queen, being alone in a certain chamber within the home of a certain Anthony Forster, esq., in the aforesaid Cumnor, and intending to descend the aforesaid chamber by way of certain steps (in English called 'steyres') of the aforesaid chamber there and then accidentally fell precipitously down the aforesaid steps to the very bottom of the same steps, through which the same Lady Amy there and then sustained not only two injuries to her head (in English called 'dyntes') - one of which was a quarter of an inch deep and the other two inches deep - but truly also, by reason of the accidental injury or of that fall and of Lady Amy's own body weight falling down the aforesaid stairs, the same Lady Amy there and then broke her own neck, on account of which certain fracture of the neck the same Lady Amy there and then died instantly; and the aforesaid Lady Amy was found there and then without any other mark or wound on her body; and thus the jurors say on their oath that the aforesaid Lady Amy in the manner and form aforesaid by misfortune came to her death and not otherwise, as they are able to agree at present; in testimony of which fact for this inquest both the aforesaid coroner and also the aforesaid jurors have in turn affixed their seals on the day.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 30 Nov 1560. The last day of November, that was sant Andrews day, was a grett fray at the cowrt be-twyn my lord Robart [Dudley's] (age 28) men and (blank) Harbard('s) [Herbert's] men; and that day was no water in [any] condyth [conduit] in London but in Lothbere.

Around 1561 Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex (age 19) and [his future wife] Lettice Knollys Countess Essex (age 17) were married. She by marriage Viscountess Hereford. They were fourth cousins.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 09 Feb 1561. The ix day of Feybruary dyd pryche at Powlles crosse [Map] master Pylkyngtun (age 41), electyd byshope of Durram, and ther was my lord mare (age 65) and the althermen and my lord Robart Dudley (age 28) and master secretore Sysselle (age 40), and dyvers odur of the quen('s) consell; and after to my lord mare to dener.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Feb 1561. The iij yere of quen Elezabeth (age 27) the xviij day of [February] was sant Gorge fest; how all the knyghtes of the garter stod that day in order, the furst

On the Quen['s side.]

The Quen('s) grace (age 27).

The kyng Phelype (age 33).

The constabulle of France (age 67).

The yerle of Arundell (age 48).

The yerle of Darbe (age 51).

The duke of Northfoke (age 24).

The lord Pagett (age 55).

The yerle of Westmerland (age 36).

The lord chamburlayn, Haward (age 51).

The yerle of Shrowsbere (age 33)

The lord Montyguw-Browne (age 32).

The lord Gray of Wyltun (age 52).

On the Emperowre('s) syd.

The emperowre Ferna[ndo.] (age 57)

The prynse of Pyamont (age 32).

The duke Vanholtt (age 35).

The markes of Wynchester, tresorer (age 78).

The yerle of Penbroke (age 60).

The lord admerall Clynton (age 49).

The maques of Northamtun-Pare (age 49).

The yerle of Rutland-Rosse (age 34).

The yerle of Sussex (age 36).

The lord of Lugborow (age 40).

The lord Robart Dudley (age 28).

The lord of Hunsdon-Care (age 34).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 Jun 1561. The xix day of June was a grett wager shott in Fynsbere feld be-twyn my lord Robartt Dudley (age 28) and my (unfinished)

1563 Creation of Garter Knights

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Apr 1563. The xxij day of Aprell, was sant Gorge's evyn, at v of the cloke the knyghtes of the Garter cam downe from the quen('s) chambur thrugh the halle to here chapell, and yt was strod with gren ryssys, [and all] the haroldes in ther cott armurs, master Perkullys, master Ruges-dragon, master Lanckaster, master Rychmond, and master Somersett, and master Norray (age 65) and master Clarenshux (age 53), master Garter (age 53), and master dene, my lord of Hunsdon (age 37), my lord Montyguw (age 34), my lord Robartt (age 30), my lord of Lughborow (age 42), the yerle of Shrowsbere (age 35), my lord admeralle (age 51), my lord chamburlayn, the yerle of Ruttland (age 36), the yerle of Darbe (age 53), the marques of Northamtun (age 51), the duke of Northfoke (age 27), (the) yerle of Arundell (age 50), and the yerle of Penbroke (age 62), and so evere man to ys own plase in the chapell of ther owne sett.... cam a prosessyon up thrugh the halle to .... furst the serjant of the vestre with a sylver rod, [then the] chylderyn in ther surples, and then the qwyre sy[nging the English] prosessyon in copes of cloth of gold to the nombur of .... haroldes of armes and sergantes of armes, furst Ruges[croix and] Ruge-dragon, and then cam master Lonkastur and master Rychmond and master [Somerset;] furst my lord of Hunsdon, my lord Montyguw, my lord Robartt, my lord of Lowthborow, my lord admeralle, my lord chamburlayn, the yerle of Rutland, the yerle of [Shrewsbury,] the yerle of Darbe, the yerle of Penbroke, the marques of [Northampton,] the yerle of Arundell, the duke of Northfoke; and then [master Garter,] master Norres (age 65), the dene of the chapell, they iij in cremesun saten v[elvet;] and next the byshope of Wynchestur and ser Wylliam Peter in [robes of] cremesun velvett with red crosses on ther robes, and ser .... and the yerle of Northumberland bare the sword, and the(n) the [Queen] in her robe, and master Knolles bare the quen('s) trayn, and after ....

1564. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 31). The portrait shows the arms of Dudley twice, top left surrounded by the Collar of the Order of St Michael and top right the Order of the Garter. Dudley received the Order of St Michael in 1566 which suggest the painting isn't by Steven van der Meulen, to whom it was formerly attributed, who died in 1564.

On 29 Sep 1564 Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 32) was created 1st Earl of Leicester.

On 21 Aug 1565 William Devereux of Merevale (age 40) was knighted at Kenilworth Castle [Map] by Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 33).

In 1571 Nicholas Hilliard (age 24) produced "a booke of portraitures" for Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 38).

On 19 Nov 1571 Thomas West 2nd Baron De La Warr (age 15) and [his future sister-in-law] Anne Knollys Baroness De La Warr (age 16) were married.

On 07 Aug 1574 [his illegitimate son] Robert Dudley was born illegitimately to Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 42) and Douglas Howard Baroness Sheffield (age 32) at Richmond Palace [Map].

Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 42).

Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 42) wearing his Garter Collar.

On 23 Jul 1577 Thomas Wenman (age 29) died. He left significant debts to the Crown requiring some of his lands to be sold. Eaton, Berkshire was sold to John Danvers (age 37) for £7700. Richard Wenman 1st Viscount Wenman (age 4) was made a ward of his mother Jane West (age 19) and Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 45). Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 45) sold his interest to James Cressy who subsequently married Jane West (age 19).

On 21 Sep 1578 Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 46) and Lettice Knollys Countess Essex (age 34) were married secretly much to the anguish of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 45) who developed a deep hatred of Lettice Knollys Countess Essex (age 34). She by marriage Countess of Leicester. Roger North 2nd Baron North (age 48) was present. He the son of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland.

In Oct 1578 Gerald Fitzgerald Baron Offaly (age 18) and [his sister-in-law] Catherine Knollys Baroness Offaly (age 18) were married. She by marriage Baroness Offaly. He the son of Gerald "Wizard Earl" Fitzgerald 11th Earl of Kildare (age 53) and Mabel Browne Countess Kildare (age 42).

After Jun 1580 Philip Boteler (age 20) and [his sister-in-law] Catherine Knollys Baroness Offaly (age 20) were married.

On 10 Jan 1581 Robert Rich 1st Earl Warwick (age 21) and [his step-daughter] Penelope Devereux Countess Devonshire (age 18) were married. She by marriage Baroness Rich of Leez. She the daughter of Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex and Lettice Knollys Countess Essex (age 37).

On 21 Dec 1582 [his brother-in-law] Henry Knollys (age 40) died.

On 17 Jul 1583 Thomas Perrot (age 30) and [his step-daughter] Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland (age 19) were married. The marriage took place without the consent of the Queen to whom Dorothy was lady in Waiting for which Thomas was imprisoned in the Fleet Prison [Map]. She the daughter of Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex and Lettice Knollys Countess Essex (age 39).

In 1585 Richard Browne Clerk (age 46) accompanied Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 52) to the Netherlands as Victualler.

In 1586 [his brother-in-law] William Knollys 1st Earl Banbury (age 42) was knighted by Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 53).

In 1587 William Segar (age 33). Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 54).

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

Calendars. 28 Feb 1587. Paris [Map]. Bernardino De Mendoza (age 47) to the King (age 59). Note. Assumed to be the Spanish King Philip II.

The English ambassador sent the confidant (i.e., Charles Arundel (age 54)) to me this morning to say that as it was so important that your Majesty (age 59) should be informed instantly of the news he had received last night from England, that he sent to tell me of it, and openly to confess me his anxiety to serve your Majesty (age 59). He offered himself entirely through me, in the assurance that your Majesty (age 59) would not order him to do anything against the interest of his mistress the Queen (age 53), who however, he could plainly see, had not long to live now that she had allowed the execution of the Queen of Scotland (deceased). It happened in this way. The Lord Treasurer (age 66) being absent through illness, the earl of Leicester (age 54), Lord Hunsdon (age 60), Lord Admiral Howard (age 51) and Walsingham (age 55), had represented to the Queen (age 53) that the Parliament would resolutely refuse to vote any money to maintain the war in Holland, or to fit out a naval force to help Don Antonio, unless she executed the Queen of Scotland (deceased). Under this pressure she consented to sign a warrant, as they called it, that the Parliament might see, but which was not to be executed, unless it were proved that the Queen of Scotland (deceased) conspired again against her life. As Secretary Walsingham (age 55) was ill this warrant was taken to the Queen (age 53) for her signature by Davison (age 46), and after she had signed it she ordered him not to give it to anyone unless she gave him personally her authority to do so. Davison (age 46), who is a terrible heretic and an enemy of the Queen of Scotland (deceased), like the rest of the above-mentioned, delivered the warrant to them. They took a London executioner and sent him with the warrant to the justice of the county where the Queen of Scotland (deceased) was. The moment the justice received it, on the 8th [NOTE. Appears to be a typo; original says 18th], he entered the Queen of Scotland's (deceased) chamber with Paulet (age 54) and Lord Grey (age 46), who had charge of her, and there they had her head cut off with a hatchet in the presence of the four persons only. The Queen (age 53) orders her ambassador to inform this King (age 59) of it, and assure him, as she will more fully by a special envoy, that the deed was done against her will, and although she had signed the warrant she had no intention of having it carried out. She cannot avoid blaming herself for having trusted anyone but herself in such a matter. The ambassador is begging earnestly for an audience and is keeping the matter secret until he tells the King. In order that no time may be lost in informing your Majesty, I send this special courier in the name of merchants, by way of Bordeaux, whence he will go post to Irun; and as God has so willed that these accursed people, for His ends, should fall into "reprobrium sensum," and against all reason commit such an act as this, it is evidently His design to deliver those two kingdoms into your Majesty's hands. I thanked the ambassador in general terms for his offer, saying that I would give an account thereof to your Majesty. As I have formerly said, it will be most advisable to accept it, and pledge him to give us notice of any machinations here and in England against us. He reports that the fitting out of ships continues but in no greater number than he previously advised, although the rumour is current here that there would be 60 English, besides the Hollanders, but that the crews, etc. were not raised and no time fixed for the departure. The ambassador says he will have full information on the point when a gentleman of his has arrived whom he had sent to England to gain intelligence, as Cecil only writes now to say that the execution of the Queen of Scotland has been against his will, as he, the ambassador knew; and that the King, her son, was in great danger of suffering a similar fate. The execution was known in London on the 20th when the executioner returned, and great bonfires had been lit for joy all over the countryside. They did not even give her time to commend her soul to God. .

In or before 1588 [his brother-in-law] Richard Knollys (age 40) and Joan Heigham were married.

On 04 Sep 1588 Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 56) died at Cornbury Park, Oxfordshire. He was buried at Beauchamp Chapel, St Mary's Church, Warwick [Map]. Earl of Leicester extinct.

Around Apr 1589 Christopher Blount (age 24) and [his former wife] Lettice Knollys Countess Essex (age 45) were married. The difference in their ages was 21 years; she, unusually, being older than him.

In 1605 [his illegitimate son] Robert Dudley (age 30) took a case for his legitimacy to the Star Chamber supported by his mother Douglas Howard Baroness Sheffield (age 63) who claimed she and Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester had been married in secret. The Star Chamber found against him after which he left the country.

On 25 Dec 1634 [his former wife] Lettice Knollys Countess Essex (age 91) died.

On 23 May 1644 Alice Leigh 1st Duchess Dudley (age 66) was created 1st Duke Dudley by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) for life. Her husband [his illegitimate son] Robert Dudley (age 69) had claimed to be the legitimate son of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester but the Star Chamber found against him. King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) disagreed with their verdict and, in compensation of her subsequent treatment, awarded her the Dukedom ...

And whereas, our father not knowing the truth of the lawful birth of the said Sir Robert (as we piously believe) granted away the titles of the said earldom to others ... and holding ourselves in honour and conscience obliged to make reparation; and also the said great estate which the Lady Alice had in Kenilworth, and sold at our desire to us at a very great undericon... we do... give and grant unto the said Lady Alice Dudley the title of Duchess of Dudley for life.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Nov 1665. After dinner Captain Cocke (age 48) and I about some business, and then with my other barrel of oysters home to Greenwich, Kent [Map], sent them by water to Mrs. Penington, while he and I landed, and visited Mr. Evelyn (age 45), where most excellent discourse with him; among other things he showed me a ledger of a Treasurer of the Navy, his great grandfather, just 100 years old; which I seemed mighty fond of, and he did present me with it, which I take as a great rarity; and he hopes to find me more, older than it. He also shewed us several letters of the old Lord of Leicester's, in Queen Elizabeth's time, under the very hand-writing of Queen Elizabeth, and Queen Mary, Queen of Scotts; and others, very venerable names.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Feb 1683. He gave to the Trinity Corporation that land in Deptford [Map] on which are built those almshouses for twenty-four widows of emerited seamen. He was born the famous year of the Gunpowder Treason, in 1605, and being the last [male] of his family, left my wife (age 48), his only daughter, heir. His grandfather, Sir Richard Browne, was the great instrument under the great Earl of Leicester (favorite to Queen Elizabeth) in his government of the Netherland. He was Master of the Household to King James, and Cofferer; I think was the first who regulated the compositions through England for the King's (age 52) household, provisions, progresses,49 etc., which was so high a service, and so grateful to the whole nation, that he had acknowledgments and public thanks sent him from all the counties; he died by the rupture of a vein in a vehement speech he made about the compositions in a Parliament of King James. By his mother's side he was a Gunson, Treasurer of the Navy in the reigns of Henry VIII., Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, and, as by his large pedigree appears, related to divers of the English nobility. Thus ended this honorable person, after so many changes and tossings to and fro, in the same house where he was born. "Lord teach us so to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom!".

Thomas Leighton and Elizabeth Knollys were married.

Henry Knollys and Margaret Cave were married.

Royal Ancestors of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588

Kings Wessex: Great x 14 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 11 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 17 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 12 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 8 Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 12 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 12 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 9 Grand Son of Philip "Bold" III King France

Ancestors of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Sutton 3rd Baron Sutton 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Sutton 4th Baron Sutton 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Unknown Baroness Sutton Dudley

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Walter Blount 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Constance Blount Baroness Sutton Dudley 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sancha Toledo

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Dudley 6 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Rich Berkeley 8th and 3rd Baron Berkeley 3 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Berkeley 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Katherine Clivedon Baroness Berkeley

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Berkeley Baroness Cherleton Baroness Dudley 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Bettershorne

GrandFather: Edmund Dudley 7 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Bramshott

Father: John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Reginald Grey 2nd Baron Grey Ruthyn 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Reginald Grey 3rd Baron Grey Ruthyn 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alianore Strange Baroness Grey Ruthyn 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Edward Grey Baron Ferrers of Groby 6 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Astley 4th Baron Astley 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Astley Baroness Grey Ruthyn 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Willoughby Baroness Astley 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edward Grey 1st Viscount Lisle 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Ferrers 5th Baron Ferrers of Groby 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry Ferrers 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Philippa Clifford 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Ferrers 6th Baroness Ferrers Groby 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Isabel Mowbray Baroness Berkeley 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandMother: Elizabeth Grey Viscountess Lisle 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Talbot 7th Baron Strange Blackmere 4th Baron Talbot 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl of Shrewsbury 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ankaret Strange 7th Baroness Strange Blackmere, Baroness Talbot 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Talbot 1st Viscount Lisle 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Beauchamp Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Berkeley Countess Warwick 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Talbot Viscountess Lisle 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Cheddar

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joan Cheddar Viscountess Lisle

Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Guildford

Great x 1 Grandfather: Richard Guildford

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Waller

Great x 2 Grandmother: Alice Waller

GrandFather: Edward Guildford

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Pympe

Great x 1 Grandmother: Ann Pympe

Great x 2 Grandmother: Philippe Thornbury

Mother: Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas West 1st Baron West

Great x 3 Grandfather: Reginald West 6th Baron De La Warr 3rd Baron West 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Ware Baroness West 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Richard West 7th Baron De La Warr 4th Baron West 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Thorley Baroness De La Warr Baroness West

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert Hungerford 2nd Baron Hungerford 9 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor or Catherine Peverell 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Katherine Hungerford Baroness De La Warr Baroness West 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Botreaux 3rd Baron Botreaux

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Botreaux 4th Baroness Botreaux Baroness Hungerford 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Beaumont Baroness Botreaux 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

GrandMother: Eleanor West 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Roger Mortimer

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Mortimer

Great x 2 Grandfather: Hugh Mortimer

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Mortimer Baroness De La Warr and West 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Cornwall 5th Baron Burford 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Edmund Cornwall 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Eleanor Cornwall 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Barre

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Barre 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alice Talbot 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England