On this Day in History ... 4th January

04 Jan is in January.

871 Battle of Reading

1642 King Charles I Attacks Parliament

1649 Rump Parliament

1698 Burning of Whitehall Palace

See Births, Marriages and Deaths.

Events on the 4th January

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 04 Jan 871. About four nights after this, King Ethered (age 24) and Alfred (age 22) his brother led their main army to Reading, where they fought with the enemy; and there was much slaughter on either hand, Alderman Ethelwulf (age 46) being among the skain; but the Danes kept possession of the field.

On 04 Jan 871 King Æthelred of Wessex (age 24) and Alfred the Great's (age 22) army attacked, but were repulsed by, the Viking army at Battle of Reading at Reading [Map]. Æthelwulf Mercia Earldorman Berkshire (age 46) was killed.

On 04 Jan 1248 Sancho "Pious" II King Portugal (age 38) died. His brother Alfonso III King Portugal (age 37) succeeded III King Portugal.

On 04 Jan 1578 Elizabeth Drury Countess Exeter was born to William Drury (age 27) and Elizabeth Stafford (age 32).

On 04 Jan 1581 James Ussher was born to Arnold Ussher (age 29) and Margaret Stanyhurst (age 21) in Dublin [Map].

In 04 Mar 1606 Edward Fitton (age 58) died. He was buried at the Church of St James, Gawsworth [Map]. His effigy missing from his monument.

On or before 04 Jan 1627 Alice Holcroft (age 87) died. She was buried at the Church of St James, Gawsworth [Map] on 04 Jan 1627.

Jacobean Hooded Monument.

Alice Holcroft: In 1540 she was born to John Holcroft. In or before 1572 Edward Fitton and she were married.

On 04 Jan 1621 Charles Wilmot 1st Viscount Wilmot (age 49) was created 1st Viscount Wilmot of Athlone by King Charles I (age 20) as a reward for his activities in Ireland.

The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Rutland 1640. 04 Jan 1640. Savoy.

F. Lord Willoughby to his uncle, the Earl of Rutland (age 60), at Belvoir Castle [Map].

When we ate your venison my wife and I drank your health and my Lady's and did not forget little Mr. George, whom, I am glad to hear, grows towards a man. "There hath beene a marriage at the court betweene one of my Lord of Corcke (age 73) sonnse (age 21) and my Lady Elizabeth Feelding, about which there is a greate stur, for it seemes he did not prove eoe rite as a man should be to goo about such a business. For the report goese that his manly part had lost something in his former serviocesse, and beside that he was soe full of severall disceases ... as that it was tould the Queene (age 30), whoe sent for my Lady Elizabeth, and tould her that she must desier her not to lett her husband lye with her that night, whoe put of, modilestly making little answere, but she seemed so lothe to understand the Queene (age 30), as that she tould her she must command her not to come in a pair of sheets with him, and tould her the reasons; soe as that he is gone out of the way some say into France, others thinks he is in London under cower. It was discovered by his sister (age 30) Mr. Goring's (age 31) wife, to whom he had imparted his grevancess, and she had plotted it soe, to make an excuse for him, that he should falie downe stares that day, and she would come and take him up, and soe he should complane how he had breused himselfe and strained his back with the fale, that he should be soe ill he was not fitt to goe to bed to his wife that night. But could not keepe her counsel but must tell her husband Jorge Goring (age 31), and he presently ran and tould the Queene (age 30), and soe it was discovered and then it was presently in every buddy's mouth.".

My Lord Keeper is so ill that the physicians think he cannot recover. My Lord Chief Justice Bramstone is talked of to be Lord Keeper, and Bishop Wren (age 54). It is known to be between those two. My Lord Finch (age 12) will be Chief Justice of the King's Bench and the Attorney General to be Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. Signet.

On 04 Jan 1642 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41) sent soldiers into Parliament to arrest a five MPs: Pym, John Hampden (age 46), Hazlerigg, Holies and Strode (age 44). They had received warning and sought safety. After this Civil War was certain, and men began to choose their side.

On 04 Jan 1649 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 48) was committed for trial by the Rump Parliament.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1664. After doing business here, I to my Lord's again, and there spoke with him, and he seems now almost friends again as he used to be. Here meeting Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, he told me among other Court newes, how the Queene (age 54) is very well again, and the King (age 33) lay with her on Saturday night last; and that she speaks now very pretty English, and makes her sense out now and then with pretty phrazes: as among others this is mightily cried up; that, meaning to say that she did not like such a horse so well as the rest, he being too prancing and full of tricks, she said he did make too much vanity.

On 04 Jan 1698 Whitehall Palace [Map] was burned to the ground. The only remaining building was the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace [Map].

On 04 Jan 1733 John Newton died at Culverthorpe Hall [Map]. He is reported to have died when he was removed from his crib by a pet monkey who then dropped him from the roof of the house; there are variations of the story. He was buried at St Michael's Church, Heydour [Map].

John Newton: On 16 Oct 1732 he was born to Michael Newton 4th Baronet and Margaret Coningsby 2nd Countess Coningsby.

On 04 Jan 1793 Reverend John Gordon (age 67) died. Memorial at Lincoln Cathedral [Map].

On 04 Jan 1798 Gavin Hamilton (age 75) died in Rome, Italy.

After 04 Jan 1863. Church of St John the Baptist, Ashley [Map]. Monument to Elizabeth Kinnersley sculpted by Peter Hollins (age 62).

On 04 Jan 1892 Frederick Richards Leyland (age 60) died. He was buried at Brompton Cemetery where he has a monument designed by Edward Coley Burne-Jones 1st Baronet (age 58).

On Tuesday the 4th January 1892 the 60 year shipping magnate Frederick Richards Leyland was travelling on the Metropolitan Line with Colonel Robert Rainsford Jackson, the managing director of the National Telephone Company (of which Leyland was also president).. Within a few minutes of entering a first class carriage in Cannon Street Leyland was gasping for air and clutching his chest. At Mansion House station Colonel Jackson summoned the train’s guard for help. At Blackfriars the train was held in the platform whilst the Station Inspector, who suspected that Leyland was already dead, called for a stretcher and had him removed from his carriage and put in his office. A doctor was sent for who arrived at 5.15pm and confirmed the Inspectors suspicions, Leyland had died of a heart attack. An inquest was held on 7 January (“death by natural causes” the verdict) and the funeral at Brompton took place next day, on the Friday morning.

On 04 Jan 1927 Ambrose McEvoy (age 49) died at Pimlico.

Births on the 4th January

On 04 Jan 1488 Thomas Gerard was born to Peter Gerard of Bryn Kings (age 27) and Margaret Stanley (age 24).

On or before 04 Jan 1556 John Stafford was born to William Stafford (age 48) and Dorothy Stafford (age 29). He was baptised on 04 Jan 1556; the first to be baptised as part of the English Congregation established in Geneva. John Calvin was his godfather,

On 04 Jan 1578 Elizabeth Drury Countess Exeter was born to William Drury (age 27) and Elizabeth Stafford (age 32).

On 04 Jan 1581 James Ussher was born to Arnold Ussher (age 29) and Margaret Stanyhurst (age 21) in Dublin [Map].

On 04 Jan 1586 Edward Lewknor of Denham was born to Edward Lewknor of Denham (age 44).

On or before 04 Jan 1591 William Spencer 2nd Baron Spencer was born to Robert Spencer 1st Baron Spencer (age 21) and Margaret Willoughby (age 24) at Althorp House, Northamptonshire [Map]. He was baptised on 04 Jan 1591 at Brington, Northamptonshire.

On 04 Jan 1610 Robert Nelson was born.

On 04 Jan 1671 John Morgan of Tredegar was born to William Morgan (age 31) and Blanche Morgan.

On 04 Jan 1728 Frances Bromley was born to Henry Bromley 1st Baron Montfort (age 22) and Frances Wyndham (age 23).

On 04 Jan 1732 Anne Chaplin was born to John Chaplin 2nd Baronet and Elizabeth Morris. Her father had died some eight months before.

On 04 Jan 1762 Humphrey Prideaux was born to Humphrey Prideaux (age 43).

On 04 Jan 1785 Friedrich Wilhelm Glücksburg Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Glücksburg was born to Friedrich Karl Ludwig Oldenburg I Duke Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (age 27) and Friederike Schlieben Duchess Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck at Schleswig.

On 04 Jan 1793 William Charles Fitzgerald was born to William Robert Fitzgerald 2nd Duke Leinster (age 43) and Emilia St George Duchess Leinster. He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 04 Jan 1797 Aldborough Brydges John Henniker was born to Brydges Trecothic Henniker 1st Baronet (age 29) and Mary Press.

On 04 Jan 1800 Charles Wager Watson 2nd Baronet was born to Charles Watson 1st Baronet (age 48) and Juliana Moyle aka Copley (age 38).

On 04 Jan 1813 Henry Montagu Villiers was born to George Villiers (age 53) and Theresa Parker (age 38) at Upper Grosvenor Street.

On 04 Jan 1818 Archibald Orr-Ewing 1st Baronet was born.

On 04 Jan 1821 Frances Braham Countess Waldegrave was born to John Braham Singer (age 47).

On 04 Jan 1832 Vice-Admiral George Tryon was born to Thomas Tryon of Bulwick (age 29) and Anne Trollope.

On 04 Jan 1881 Norah Ida Emily Noel was born to Charles William Noel 3rd Earl Gainsborough (age 30) and Mary Elizabeth Dease. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King William IV of the United Kingdom.

On 04 Jan 1889 Captain Geoffrey Robert St John was born to Henry Percy St John (age 34).

On 04 Jan 1909 Captain Anthony Edmund Winn was born to Rowland Winn 2nd Baron St Oswald (age 51) and Mabel Susan Forbes Baroness Winn.

On 04 Jan 1925 Richard Lycett Green was born to David Cecil Lycett Green (age 32).

On 04 Jan 1978 James Shuckburgh 14th Baronet was born to Rupert Shuckburgh 13th Baronet (age 28).

Marriages on the 4th January

Before 04 Jan 1581 Arnold Ussher (age 29) and Margaret Stanyhurst (age 21) were married.

On 04 Jan 1625 Richard Lennard 13th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 28) and Dorothy North Baroness Dacre Gilsland (age 20) were married. She by marriage Baroness Dacre Gilsland.

On 04 Jan 1682 Meinhart Schomberg 3rd Duke Schomberg (age 40) and Karoline von der Pfalz (age 22) were married. He the son of Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg (age 66). She a great granddaughter of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland.

Before 04 Jan 1720 Lieutenant-General Harry Mordaunt (age 56) and Penelope Tipping were married.

On 04 Jan 1793 William Cave-Browne-Cave 9th Baronet (age 27) and Louisa Wilmot Lady Cave (age 21) were married.

On 04 Jan 1896 John Richard Geers Cotterell 4th Baronet (age 29) and Evelyn Gordon-Lennox (age 23) were married. She the daughter of Charles Gordon-Lennox 7th Duke Richmond (age 50) and Amy Mary Ricardo.

On 04 Jan 1938 John Henry Guy Neville 5th Marquess Abergavenny (age 23) and Mary Patricia Harrison Marchioness Abergavenny (age 22) were married. He the son of Guy Larnach Neville 4th Marquess Abergavenny (age 54) and Isabel "Nellie" Larnach Marchioness Abergavenny (age 47).

Deaths on the 4th January

On 04 Jan 871 King Æthelred of Wessex (age 24) and Alfred the Great's (age 22) army attacked, but were repulsed by, the Viking army at Battle of Reading at Reading [Map]. Æthelwulf Mercia Earldorman Berkshire (age 46) was killed.

On 04 Jan 1130 Clementia Aquitaine Countess Luxemburg (age 82) died.

On 04 Jan 1163 Agnes or Nest St John (age 84) died at Breconshire, Welsh March.

On 04 Jan 1248 Sancho "Pious" II King Portugal (age 38) died. His brother Alfonso III King Portugal (age 37) succeeded III King Portugal.

On 04 Jan 1424 Muzio Attendolo Sforza (age 54) died.

On 04 Jan 1428 Frederick I Duke Saxony (age 57) died.

On 04 Jan 1456 Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 53) died at South Wingfield [Map]. He was buried at the Collegiate Church, Tattershall. Baron Cromwell became abeyant between his his two nieces, daughters of his sister Maud Cromwell: Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell Baroness Willoughby Eresby and Joan Stanhope.

On 04 Jan 1483 Blanche Bourchier died.

On 04 Jan 1514 John Danvers (age 62) died.

On 04 Jan 1550 Christopher Barker died.

On 04 Jan 1563 Elisabeth of Hesse (age 59) died.

On 04 Jan 1578 William Roper (age 82) died.

On 04 Jan 1593 Edmund Walter died.

On 04 Jan 1601 Joan Alington died.

On 04 Jan 1606 George Villiers of Brokesby (age 62) died. He was buried at the Chapel of St Nicholas, Westminster Abbey [Map].

In 04 Mar 1606 Edward Fitton (age 58) died. He was buried at the Church of St James, Gawsworth [Map]. His effigy missing from his monument.

On or before 04 Jan 1627 Alice Holcroft (age 87) died. She was buried at the Church of St James, Gawsworth [Map] on 04 Jan 1627.

Jacobean Hooded Monument.

Alice Holcroft: In 1540 she was born to John Holcroft. In or before 1572 Edward Fitton and she were married.

On 04 Jan 1608 Piers Edgecombe (age 72) died.

Around 04 Jan 1626 Joane Ogle Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 60) died. Her sister Catherine Ogle 8th Baroness Ogle (age 56) abeyance terminated 8th Baroness Ogle.

On 04 Jan 1635 Elisabeth Renata Lorraine Duchess Bavaria (age 60) died.

On 04 Jan 1637 John King (age 77) died.

On 04 Jan 1637 Ann Jerningham (age 65) died.

On 04 Jan 1657 Elizabeth Neville (age 69) died.

On 04 Jan 1703 Margaret Maccarthy Countess Fingall died. She was buried at the Chapel, Somerset House.

On 04 Jan 1707 Prince Louis William Margrave of Baden Baden (age 51) died.

On 04 Jan 1720 Lieutenant-General Harry Mordaunt (age 56) died.

On 04 Jan 1733 John Newton died at Culverthorpe Hall [Map]. He is reported to have died when he was removed from his crib by a pet monkey who then dropped him from the roof of the house; there are variations of the story. He was buried at St Michael's Church, Heydour [Map].

John Newton: On 16 Oct 1732 he was born to Michael Newton 4th Baronet and Margaret Coningsby 2nd Countess Coningsby.

On 04 Jan 1735 Darcy Wyvill died.

On 04 Jan 1736 John Egerton died.

On 04 Jan 1738 George Douglas 13th Earl Morton (age 76) died. His son James Douglas 14th Earl Morton (age 36) succeeded 14th Earl Morton.

On 04 Jan 1742 James Graham 1st Duke Montrose (age 59) died. His son William Graham 2nd Duke Montrose (age 29) succeeded 2nd Duke Montrose.

On 04 Jan 1744 Martha Morgan Countess of Oxford and Mortimer (age 45) died.

On 04 Jan 1759 Henry Fane (age 8) died. He was buried at Lewknor, Oxfordshire.

On 28 Dec 1761 Crisp Gascoyne (age 61) died. He was buried on 04 Jan 1762 in Church of St Margaret of Antioch, Barking [Map].

On 04 Jan 1777 Elizabeth Abigail Cotton Lady Cotton (age 64) died.

On 04 Jan 1790 Anthony Brabazon 8th Earl Meath (age 69) died. His son William Brabazon 9th Earl Meath (age 20) succeeded 9th Earl Meath.

On 04 Jan 1793 Reverend John Gordon (age 67) died. Memorial at Lincoln Cathedral [Map].

On 04 Jan 1798 Gavin Hamilton (age 75) died in Rome, Italy.

On 04 Jan 1801 Louise Charlotte Mecklenburg-Schwerin (age 21) died.

On 04 Jan 1814 Major-General Archibald Montgomerie (age 40) died.

On 04 Jan 1815 William John Kerr 5th Marquess Lothian (age 77) died. His son William Kerr 6th Marquess Lothian (age 51) succeeded 6th Marquess Lothian. Harriet Scott Marchioness Lothian (age 34) by marriage Marchioness Lothian.

On 04 Jan 1815 Susannah Starkey died. Her former husband Thomas Coutts (age 79) remarried four days later.

On 04 Jan 1825 Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (age 73) died.

On 04 Jan 1829 Reverend Brooke Boothby (age 44) died.

On 04 Jan 1830 Brigadier-General John Johnson 2nd Baronet (age 88) died.

On 04 Jan 1838 John Head 7th Baronet (age 65) died. His son Edmund Walker Head 8th Baronet (age 33) succeeded 8th Baronet Head of Hermitage in Kent.

On 04 Jan 1840 Frances Maria Owen (age 55) died.

On 04 Jan 1847 William Ralph Cartwright (age 75) died.

On 04 Jan 1847 John Joseph Gurney (age 58) died.

On 04 Jan 1849 Anne Sara Thellusson (age 74) died at Felbrigg Hall Felbrigg, Norfolk.

On 04 Jan 1858 Elizabeth Sophia Hawkins Whitshed died from childbirth.

On 04 Jan 1863 Sophia Marsham (age 55) died.

On 04 Jan 1865 Elizabeth Kinnersley died.

On 04 Jan 1866 Frederick Paget (age 58) died.

On 04 Jan 1868 Henry William Des Voeux 3rd Baronet (age 61) died.

On 04 Jan 1877 Cornelius "Commodore" Vanderbilt (age 82) died at his home 10 Washington Place. He left 95% of his $105 million estate to his son William Henry Vanderbilt (age 55), who becme the rishest Amercican, and his four sons, with the remainder being divided between his other children. Litigation ensued.

On 04 Jan 1882 Ralph Bernal Osbourne (age 73) died.

On 04 Jan 1883 Joseph William Copley 4th Baronet (age 78) died without issue. Baronet Copley Sprotborough extinct. He was buried at Brompton Cemetery.

On 04 Jan 1892 Frederick Richards Leyland (age 60) died. He was buried at Brompton Cemetery where he has a monument designed by Edward Coley Burne-Jones 1st Baronet (age 58).

On Tuesday the 4th January 1892 the 60 year shipping magnate Frederick Richards Leyland was travelling on the Metropolitan Line with Colonel Robert Rainsford Jackson, the managing director of the National Telephone Company (of which Leyland was also president).. Within a few minutes of entering a first class carriage in Cannon Street Leyland was gasping for air and clutching his chest. At Mansion House station Colonel Jackson summoned the train’s guard for help. At Blackfriars the train was held in the platform whilst the Station Inspector, who suspected that Leyland was already dead, called for a stretcher and had him removed from his carriage and put in his office. A doctor was sent for who arrived at 5.15pm and confirmed the Inspectors suspicions, Leyland had died of a heart attack. An inquest was held on 7 January (“death by natural causes” the verdict) and the funeral at Brompton took place next day, on the Friday morning.

On 04 Jan 1897 Henry St John Halford 3rd Baronet (age 68) died. His brother Reverend John Frederick Halford 4th Baronet (age 66) succeeded 4th Baronet Vaughan aka Halford of Wistow in Leicestershire; he died three months later.

On 04 Jan 1927 Ambrose McEvoy (age 49) died at Pimlico.

On 04 Jan 1931 Louise Windsor Duchess Fife (age 63) died.

On 04 Jan 1950 Frances Margaret Irby Countess Kimberley (age 65) died.

On 04 Jan 1951 Lillian Maud Spencer-Churchill (age 77) died.

On 04 Jan 1952 Balthazar Stephen Sargant Foster 2nd Baron Ilkeston (age 84) died. Baron Ilkeston of Ilkeston in Derbyshire extinct.

On 04 Jan 1967 Joan Katherine Lambton Baroness Joicey (age 73) died some twelve weeks after her husband Hugh Edward Joicey 3rd Baron.

On 04 Jan 1972 Gerald Wellesley 7th Duke Wellington (age 86) died. His son Arthur Valerian Wellesley 8th Duke Wellington (age 56) succeeded 8th Duke Wellington, 12th Earl Mornington, 12th Viscount Wellesley of Dangan Castle, 8th Viscount Wellington of Talavera. Diana McConnel Duchess of Wellington (age 49) by marriage Duchess Wellington.

On 04 Jan 1977 Princess Margaretha of Sweden (age 77) died.

On 04 Jan 1999 Charles John Robert Manners 10th Duke Rutland (age 79) died. His son David Manners 11th Duke of Rutland (age 39) succeeded 11th Duke Rutland, 11th Marquess Grandby, 19th Earl of Rutland.

On 04 Jan 2002 Peter Griffiths Earl Loudon (age 77) died.

On 04 Jan 2008 Anthony Brand 6th Viscount Hampden (age 70) died. His son Francis Brand 7th Viscount Hampden (age 38) succeeded 7th Viscount Hampden.