On this Day in History ... 14 December

14 Dec is in December.

1287 Great Storm

1290 Eleanor Crosses

1417 Execution of Lollard John Oldcastle

1542 Death of King James V of Scotland

1558 Funeral of Mary I

1666 Paper Bill

1666 Great Fire of London

1861 Death of Prince Albert

1895 Birth of King George VI

1911 South Pole Reached

On 14 Dec 704 Aldfrith King Northumbria died. His son Osred King Northumbria (age 7) succeeded King Northumbria.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 705. This year died Ealdferth, king of the Northumbrians, on the nineteenth day before the calends of January, at Driffield [Map]; and was succeeded by his son Osred (age 8). Bishop Saxulf also died the same year.

1287 Great Storm

On 14 Dec 1287 a great storm caused a significant number of deaths on both sides of the English Channel. In the Low Countries around 50,000 people are believed to have died. In England hundreds were killed. The port of New Romney was so changed as to be replaced by Rye [Map] through which the course of the River Rother now ran. The port of Dunwich never recovered from the storm and thereafter declined.

Eleanor Crosses

On 14 Dec 1290 Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (deceased) body rested at the sight of the Cheapside Cross [Map] where, thereafter, a Cross was constructed. The Cross, built at an original cost of £300, was one of the most elaborate of the twelve Eleanor Crosses.

On 14 Dec 1334 Otto Wittelsbach IV Duke Lower Bavaria (age 27) died at Munich.

On 14 Dec 1392 John Grey 3rd Baron Grey of Codnor (age 87) died at Aylesford [Map]. His grandson Richard Grey 1st or 4th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 21) succeeded 4th Baron Grey of Codnor 1299. Elizabeth Bassett Baroness Grey Codnor (age 20) by marriage Baroness Grey of Codnor 1299. Or he was created 1st Baron Grey of Codnor 1299 depending on whether the first three Barons were ever summoned to Parliament.

Execution of Lollard John Oldcastle

On 14 Dec 1417 John Oldcastle was hanged in St Giles' Field Holborn for being a Lollard.

On 14 Dec 1476 John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde (age 54) died. His brother Thomas Butler 7th Earl Ormonde (age 50) succeeded 7th Earl Ormonde 1C 1328. Anne Hankford Countess Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Countess Ormonde.

Death of King James V of Scotland

On 14 Dec 1542 King James V of Scotland (age 30) died at Falkland Palace [Map]. His daughter Mary Queen of Scots succeeded I Queen Scotland. She was six days old.

PAINTINGS/LYON/James_V2.jpg PAINTINGS/LYON/James_V.jpg PAINTINGS/CLOUET/Mary_Queen_Scots.jpg PAINTINGS/UNKNOWN/Mary_Queen_Scots2.jpg PAINTINGS/UNKNOWN/Mary_Queen_Scots.jpg PAINTINGS/MADOXBROWN/Execution_Mary_Queen_Scots.jpg

Funeral of Mary I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Dec 1558. The xiiij day of Desember [was] the quen('s) (deceased) masse; and [all the lords] and lades, knyghtes and gentyll women, dyd offer. [And there was] a man of armes and horse offered; and her cotarmur, and sword, and targett, and baner of armes, and iij [standards]; and all the haroldes abowt her; and ther my lord bysshope of Wynchester (age 48) mad the sermon; and ther was offered cloth of gold and welvet, holle pesses, and odur thynges. [After the] masse all done, her grace was cared up [to the chapel [Map]] the kyng Henry the vij byldyd, with bysshopes [mitred;] and all the offesers whent to the grayffe [grave], and after [they] brake ther stayffes, and cast them in-to the grayffe; in the mayn tyme the pepull pluckt [down] the cloth, evere man a pesse that cold caycth [catch] [it,] rond a-bowt the cherche, and the armes. And after[wards,] my lord bysshope of Yorke (age 57), after her grace was [buried,] he declaryd an colasyon [collation], and as sone as he had made an end, all the trumpetes bluw a blast, and so the cheyff morners and the lords and knyghtes, and the bysshopes, with [the] abbott (age 43), whent in-to the abbay to dener, and all the offesers of the quen('s) cott [court].

PAINTINGS/MOR/Mary_I_of_England.jpg PAINTINGS/EWORTH/Mary1_Eworth_1556.jpg

On 14 Dec 1561 Robert Stewart 1st Earl Orkney (age 28) and Jean Kennedy Countess Orkney were married. Jean Kennedy Countess Orkney by marriage Countess Orkney. She the daughter of Gilbert Kennedy 3rd Earl Cassilis and Margaret Kennedy Countess Cassilis (age 47). He the son of King James V of Scotland and Euphame Elphinstone (age 52). He a great grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

On 14 Dec 1576 Gilbert Kennedy 4th Earl Cassilis (age 35) died. His son John Kennedy 5th Earl Cassilis (age 1) succeeded 5th Earl Cassilis.

On 14 Dec 1593 Henry Radclyffe 4th Earl of Sussex (age 61) died. He was buried at Boreham [Map]. His son Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex (age 20) succeeded 5th Earl of Sussex 2C 1529, 14th Baron Fitzwalter 1C 1295.


On 14 Dec 1599 Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge was born to Maurice Berkeley (age 23) and Elizabeth Killigrew (age 20).

On 14 Dec 1616 William Hamilton 2nd Duke Hamilton was born to James Hamilton 2nd Marquess Hamilton (age 27) and Ann Cunningham Marchioness Hamilton (age 31) at Hamilton Palace, Hamilton.

PAINTINGS/MIJTENS/James_Hamilton2.jpg PAINTINGS/MIJTENS/James_Hamilton.jpg
PAINTINGS/HILLIARD/Charles_Howard.png PAINTINGS/UNKNOWN/Funeral_of_Elizabeth_I.jpg PAINTINGS/CRITZ/Somerset_House_Conference.jpg PAINTINGS/MIJTENS/Charles_Howard.jpg

On 14 Dec 1634 John Erskine 19th Earl Mar (age 72) died. His son John Erskine 20th Earl Mar (age 49) succeeded 20th Earl Mar 1C 1404.


On 14 Dec 1637 George Brydges 6th Baron Chandos (age 17) and Susan Montagu Baroness Chandos were married. She by marriage Baroness Chandos of Sudeley. She the daughter of Henry Montagu 1st Earl Manchester (age 74) and Margaret Crouch Countess Manchester (age 32). He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

On 14 Dec 1655 Philip Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal was born.

Paper Bill

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1666. The House have been mighty hot to-day against the Paper Bill, showing all manner of averseness to give the King (age 36) money; which these courtiers do take mighty notice of, and look upon the others as bad rebells as ever the last were. But the courtiers did carry it against those men upon a division of the House, a great many, that it should be committed; and so it was: which they reckon good news.

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1666. So I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met my good friend Mr. Evelyn (age 46), and walked with him a good while, lamenting our condition for want of good council, and the King's minding of his business and servants. I out to the Bell Tavern, and thither comes Doll to me .... [Note. Other versions include 'and yo did tocar la cosa [ I did touch the thing ] of her as I pleased;'], and after an hour's stay, away and staid in Westminster Hall [Map] till the rising of the house, having told Mr. Evelyn (age 46), and he several others, of my Gazette which I had about me that mentioned in April last a plot for which several were condemned of treason at the Old Bayly for many things, and among others for a design of burning the city on the 3rd of September.

PAINTINGS/BLOCK/Leopold_Habsburg.jpg PAINTINGS/EGMONT/Eleonore_Neuburg.jpg

PAINTINGS/HIGHMORE/Willoughby_Aston.jpgBefore 14 Dec 1702 Joseph Highmore (age 10). Portrait of Willoughby Aston 2nd Baronet (age 62) and Mary Offley (age 53).

Willoughby Aston 2nd Baronet: On 05 Jul 1640 he was born to Thomas Aston 1st Baronet (age 39) and Anne Willoughby Lady Aston (age 26). On 24 Mar 1645 Thomas Aston 1st Baronet (age 44) died. His son Willoughby Aston 2nd Baronet (age 4) succeeded 2nd Baronet Aston of Aston. Before 17 Jan 1665 Willoughby Aston 2nd Baronet (age 24) and Mary Offley (age 15) were married. On 14 Dec 1702 Willoughby Aston 2nd Baronet (age 62) died. His son Thomas Aston 3rd Baronet (age 37) succeeded 3rd Baronet Aston of Aston.

Mary Offley: On 03 Feb 1649 she was born to John Offley (age 29) and Mary Broughton (age 27). On 22 Jan 1711 Mary Offley (age 61) died.

Before 14 Dec 1715 Archbishop Thomas Tenison (age 79) and Anne Love were married.

On 14 Dec 1715 Archbishop Thomas Tenison (age 79) died without issue.

On 14 Dec 1717 Nicholas Shireburn (age 59) died. Monument in Church of All Hallows, Great Mitton [Map].

Nicholas Shireburn: On 29 Jul 1658 he was born to Richard Shireburn (age 32) and Isabel Ingleby (age 31).

On 14 Dec 1723 James Ogilvy 5th Earl Findlater 2nd Earl Seafield (age 34) and Sophia Hope Countess Findlater (age 21) were married. She the daughter of Charles Hope 1st Earl Hopetoun (age 42) and Henrietta Johnstone (age 41). He the son of James Ogilvy 1st Earl Seafield 4th Earl Findlater (age 60).

On 14 Dec 1773 Edward Ligonier 1st Earl Ligonier (age 33) and Mary Henley Countess Ligonier (age 20) were married. She the daughter of Robert Henley 1st Earl Northington and Jane Huband.

On 14 Dec 1788 Charles III King Spain (age 72) died. His son Charles IV King Spain (age 40) succeeded IV King Spain.


On 14 Dec 1798 Thomas Ralph Maude 2nd Viscount Hawarden (age 31) and Frances Anne Agar Viscountess Hawarden were married. She the daughter of Charles Agar 1st Earl Normanton (age 61) and Jane Benson Countess Northampton.

On 14 Dec 1799 President George Washington (age 67) died.


On 14 Dec 1812 Charles Canning 1st Earl Canning was born to George Canning Prime Mininster (age 42) and Joan Scott Viscountess Canning (age 36) at Gloucester Lodge.


On 14 Dec 1812 George Byng 4th Viscount Torrington (age 72) died. His brother John Byng 5th Viscount Torrington (age 69) succeeded 5th Viscount Torrington. He enjoyed the Viscountcy for only twenty-four days dying on 08 Jan 1813. Further, the seat of the Viscountcy Southill Park had been sold to pay off debts. Bridget Forrest Viscountess Byng (age 64) by marriage Viscountess Torrington.


On 14 Dec 1837 Arthur Hill-Trevor 2nd Viscount Dungannon (age 74) died. His son Arthur Hill-Trevor 3rd Viscount Dungannon (age 39) succeeded 3rd Viscount Dungannon.

On 14 Dec 1841 Anne Fitzpatrick (age 72) died at Farmingwood or Farming Woods. Monument in St James the Apostle Church, Grafton Underwood [Map] sculpted by Richard "The Younger" Westmacott (age 42).

Anne Fitzpatrick: After 23 Mar 1769 she was born to John Fitzpatrick 2nd Earl Upper Ossory (age 23) and Anne Liddell Duchess Grafton (age 32).

On 14 Dec 1852 Denison Faber 1st Baron Wittenham was born.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. On September 28, 1858, my marriage took place at the Military Chapel Gibraltar, and I was the first Countess of Cardigan to be married on foreign soil, I wore a white silk gown draped with a blue scarf, and a large hat adorned with many feathers; Lord Cardigan's (age 60) friends, Stuart Paget, Mrs, Paget and the Misses Paget, were present, and we gave a ball on the yacht in the evening. We spent a very gay week at Gibraltar, and then left for Cádiz, touching at Malacca and Alicante; then we took rail to Madrid, where we arrived on October 16 in time to witness a review of 30,000 troops on Queen Isabella's (age 27) birthday. After a short stay at Madrid we rejoined the Airedale at Barcelona, and went 500 miles by sea to Leghorn. We experienced bad weather and many storms, and every one on board was ill except myself. The cook was a great sufferer, and his absence was naturally felt by those who were able to look at food without aversion.

From Leghorn we went to Elba, when I saw the place Napoleon embarked from after the "hundred days". We left the Airedale at Civiti Vecchia and started for Rome in our travelling-carriage with six horses, escorted by some of the Papal Guard sent by the Pope to protect us. I met many of my friends in the Eternal City; I saw everything worth seeing during my delightful sojourn there, and before we left Lord Cardigan and I were blessed by the Pope at an audience we had with his Holiness. As I wished to go to Genoa by sea, we returned to Civita Vecchia and set out in the yacht for Genoa, where we landed; we went from there to Turin, and on by rail by the Mont Cenis route to Paris [Map].

Paris was then a city of delight, revelling in the palmy days of the Second Empire, and I greatly enjoyed my visit there. One night I went to the Opera with Cardigan and we saw Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Trelawney in a box. Mrs. Trelawney was the famous Miss Howard, once the English mistress of Louis Napoleon (age 50), who paid her £250,000 when he renounced her to marry Eugenie de Montijo (age 32). Mrs. Trelawney annoyed the Emperor (age 50) and Empress (age 32) as much as she dared by sitting opposite the Royal box at the Opera, and driving almost immediately behind the Empress's (age 32) carriage in the Bois de Boulogne. She was a very fat woman, and her embonpoint increased to such an extent that the doors of her carriage had to be enlarged to allow her to get in and out with comfort.

Clarence Trelawney was a friend of mine, and the poor fellow came to a sad end. After his wife's death he married an American lady, but unfortunately he got into debt. He appealed to his relations, who were very wealthy but apparently equally mean, for they refused to lend him the £400 he asked for, and driven desperate by worry he blew out his brains.

From Paris we came to London and stayed at Lord Cardigan's town-house in Portman Square Marylebone; then we went to Deene [Map] on December 14, where we met with a royal reception, six hundred tenants on horseback escorting our carriage from the station to the house.

PAINTINGS/SHEE/George_Hamilton-Gordon.jpg PAINTINGS/CARPENTER/Lady_Haddo.jpg

Death of Prince Albert

On 14 Dec 1861 Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha (age 42) died at Windsor Castle [Map]. His wife, Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (age 42) never recovered from his death spending, more or less, the remainder of her life in mourning.

On 14 Dec 1893 George Capell 7th Earl of Essex (age 36) and Adele Beach Grant Countess Essex (age 27) were married at St Margaret's Church, Westminster [Map]. She by marriage Countess Essex. Dollar Princess. He uncle R Suydam Grant gave her away since her father David Beach Grant had died five years before. He a great x 5 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

PAINTINGS/HUGHES/Adele_Countess_Essex.jpg PAINTINGS/BULLINGHAM/Adele_Beach_Grant.jpg PAINTINGS/LAFAYETTE/Adele_Beach_Grant.jpg PAINTINGS/SINGER-SARGENT/Adele_Countess_Essex.jpg

Birth of King George VI

On 14 Dec 1895 King George VI of the United Kingdom was born to George V King United Kingdom (age 30) and Victoria Mary Teck Queen Consort England (age 28) at York Cottage, Sandringham Estate. The second son at birth he became King when his elder brother King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom (age 1) Abdicated. Coefficient of inbreeding 1.84%.

PAINTINGS/UNKNOWN_PHOTO/7th_Earl_Harewood_Wedding.jpg PAINTINGS/FILDES/George_V.jpg PAINTINGS/VANDYCK_LTD/6th_Earl_Harewood_Wedding.png PAINTINGS/VANDYCK_LTD/Wedding_of_Princess_Mary_and_Viscount_Lascelles_1922.jpg PAINTINGS/ELWES/Queen_Mary.jpg

On 14 Dec 1901 Paul I King Greece was born to Constantine I King Greece (age 33) and Sophia Hohenzollern Queen Consort Greece (age 31). He a great grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.


On 14 Dec 1905 Henry Arthur Mornington Wellesley 3rd Earl Cowley (age 39) and Millicent Florence Eleanor Wilson Countess Cowley (age 33) were married at Colombo. She by marriage Countess Cowley. He the son of William Henry Wellesley 2nd Earl Cowley and Emily Gwendoline Williams Countess Cowley (age 66). They were third cousins.

South Pole Reached

On 14 Dec 1911 the South Pole was reached for the first time by an expedition led by Roald Amundsen. The expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott reached the pole some thirty-four days later.

On 14 Dec 1997 Gerald Legge 9th Earl of Dartmouth (age 73) died. His son William Legge 10th Earl of Dartmouth (age 48) succeeded 10th Earl Dartmouth.