On this Day in History ... 26 March

26 Mar is in March.

655 Battle of the Winwaed

1124 Battle of Bourgtheroulde

1152 Eleanor of Aquitaine Abduction Attempts

1348 Black Death Plague Outbreak

1351 Battle of the Thirty

1351 Combat of the Thirty

1371 Coronation of King Robert II of Scotland

1437 Assassination of King James I of Scotland

1520 Field of the Cloth of Gold

Battle of the Winwaed

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 655. This year Penda was slain at Wingfield, and thirty royal personages with him, some of whom were kings. One of them was Ethelhere, brother of Anna, king of the East-Angles. The Mercians after this became Christians. From the beginning of the world had now elapsed five thousand eight hundred and fifty winters, when Peada, the son of Penda, assumed the government of the Mercians. In his time came together himself and Oswy (age 43), brother of King Oswald, and said, that they would rear a minster to the glory of Christ, and the honour of St. Peter. And they did so, and gave it the name of Medhamsted [Map]; because there is a well there, called Meadswell. And they began the groundwall, and wrought thereon; after which they committed the work to a monk, whose name was Saxulf. He was very much the friend of God, and him also loved all people. He was nobly born in the world, and rich: he is now much richer with Christ. But King Peada reigned no while; for he was betrayed by his own EalhflAed Bernicia, in Easter-tide. This year Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester, consecrated Deus-dedit to Canterbury, on the twenty-sixth day of March.

Bede. 668. There was at that time in Rome, a monk, called Theodore (age 66), well known to Hadrian (age 31), born at Tarsus in Cilicia, a man well instructed in worldly and Divine literature, as also in Greek and Latin; of known probity of life, and venerable for age, being sixty-six years old. Hadrian (age 31) offered him to the pope to be ordained bishop, and prevailed; but upon these conditions, that he should conduct him into Britain, because he had already travelled through France twice upon several occasions, and was, therefore, better acquainted with the way, and was, moreover, sufficiently provided with men of his own; as also that being his fellow-labourer in doctrine, he might take special care that Theodore (age 66) should not, according to the custom of the Greeks, introduce any thing contrary to the true faith into the church where he presided. Hadrian (age 31), being ordained subdeacon, waited four months for his hair to grow, that it might be shorn into the shape of a crown; for he had before the tonsure of St. Paul, the apostle, after the manner of the eastern people. He was ordained by Pope Vitalian, in the year of our Lord 668, on Sunday, the 26th of March, and on the 27th of May was sent with Hadrian (age 31) into Britain.

Around 26 Mar 1031 Malcolm III King Scotland was born to Duncan "The Sick" I King Scotland (age 30) and Bethóc Unknown Queen Consort Scotland.

1124 Battle of Bourgtheroulde

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 26 Mar 1124. All this year was the King Henry (age 56) in Normandy. That was for the great hostility that he had with the King Louis of France (age 42), and with the Earl of Anjou (age 35), and most of all with his own men. Then it happened, on the day of the Annunciation of St. Mary, that the Earl Waleram of Mellent (age 20) went from one of his castles called Belmont to another called Watteville. With him went the steward of the King of France, Amalric, and Hugh (age 26) the son of Gervase (age 54), and Hugh IV Montfort (age 49), and many other good knights. Then came against them the king's (age 56) knights from all the castles that were thereabout, and fought with them, and put them to flight, and took the Earl Waleram (age 20), and Hugh, the son of Gervase (age 26), and Hugh IV Montfort (age 49), and five and twenty other knights, and brought them to the king (age 56). And the king (age 56) committed the Earl Waleram (age 20), and Hugh, the son of Gervase (age 26), to close custody in the castle at Rouen; but Hugh IV Montfort (age 49) he sent to England, and ordered him to be secured with strong bonds in the castle at Glocester [Map]. And of the others as many as he chose he sent north and south to his castles in captivity.

Eleanor of Aquitaine Abduction Attempts

Around 26 Mar 1152 Geoffrey Plantagenet Count Nantes (age 17) attempted to abduct Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 30) from Port de Piles, Vienne where she intended to cross the River Creuse. Once again Eleanor escaped.

On 26 Mar 1211 Sancho "Populator" I King Portugal (age 56) died. On 26 Mar 1211 His son Alfonso "Fat" II King Portugal (age 25) succeeded II King Portugal. Urraca Ivrea Queen Consort Portugal (age 23) by marriage Queen Consort Portugal.

Before 26 Mar 1242 William Forz 3rd Earl Albemarle aka Aumale and Aveline Montfichet were married. He the son of William Forz 2nd Earl Albemarle aka Aumale and Hawise Blois 2nd Countess Albemarle aka Aumale and Essex.

Before 26 Mar 1326 William Deincourt 1st Baron Deincourt (age 25) and Millicent Zouche Baroness Deincourt were married. She by marriage Baroness Deincourt.

1348 Black Death Plague Outbreak

On 26 Mar 1350 Alfonso "Avenger" XI King Castile (age 38) died of plague. His son Peter "Cruel" I King Castile (age 15) succeeded I King Castile.

Battle of the Thirty

On 26 Mar 1351 thirty English and thirty French knights fought in an arranged battle at Guillac known as Battle of the Thirty. Hugh Calverley (age 27) fought, was captured and ransomed.

Combat of the Thirty

On 26 Mar 1351 the Combat of the Thirty was an arranged fight between selected combatants from both sides of the conflict, fought at a site midway between the Breton castles of Josselin and Ploërmel among 30 champions, knights, and squires on each side.

Robert Knollys (age 26) took part.

Coronation of King Robert II of Scotland

On 26 Mar 1371 King Robert II of Scotland (age 55) was crowned King Scotland.

His son David Stewart 3rd Earl Strathearn 1st Earl Caithness (age 15) was created 1st Earl Strathearn on the same day.

Assassination of King James I of Scotland

On 26 Mar 1437 Walter Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 3rd Earl Caithness (age 77) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Edinburgh Castle [Map] for having conspired to assassinate King James I of Scotland (deceased). He had unbarred the doors to the royal apartments, permitting assassins to enter the King's lodging. Earl Atholl 5C 1398 and Earl Caithness 2C 1375 forfeit by attainder.

Field of the Cloth of Gold

Letters and Papers 1520. 26 March. [1520] R. O. Rym. XIII. 705. 702. Francis I.

Confirmation of the arrangements made for his meeting with Henry VIII. under the Great Seal. Chatelleraut, 26 March 1519; 6 Francis I. Signed.


R. T. 137. 2. Letters indented specifying, in accordance with the treaty of 12 March 1519, the number and rank of the lords, ladies and gentlemen to attend the King and Queen at the interview with Francis I., viz.:—

i. For the King: The cardinal of York, with 300 servants, of whom 12 shall be chaplains and 50 gentlemen, with 50 horses; one archbishop with 70 servants, of whom 5 shall be chaplains and 10 gentlemen, with 30 horses; 2 dukes, each with 70 servants, 5 to be chaplains and 10 gentlemen, with 30 horses. 1 marquis with 56 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 8 gentlemen; 26 horses. 10 earls, each with 42 servants, 3 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; 20 horses. 5 bishops, of whom the Bishop of Winchester shall have 56 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 8 gentlemen; 26 horses;—each of the others, 44 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; 20 horses. 20 barons, each to have 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; 12 horses. 4 knights of the order of St. George, each to have 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; 48 horses. 70 knights, each to have 12 servants, one to be a chaplain; 8 horses. Councillors of the long robe; viz., the King's secretary, the vice-Chancellor, the dean of the Chapel, and the almoner, each to have 12 servants, one a chaplain, and 8 horses. 12 King's chaplains, each with 6 servants and 3 horses. 12 serjeants-at-arms, each with 1 servant and two horses. 200 of the King's guard with 100 horses. 70 grooms of the chamber, with 150 servants and 100 horses among them; 266 officers of the house, with 216 servants and 70 horses; 205 grooms of the stable and of the armories, with 211 horses. The Earl of Essex, being Earl marshal, shall have, beside the number above stated, 130 servants and 100 light horses. Sum total of the King's company, 3,997 persons and 2,087 horses.

ii. For the Queen: 1 duchess, with 4 women, 6 servants and 12 horses; 10 Countesses, with 3 women and 4 servants, and 8 horses each; 12 baronesses, with 2 women, 3 servants and 6 horses each. 20 knights' ladies, with 1 woman, 2 servants and 4 horses each; 14 ladies, with 1 woman, 2 servants and 3 horses each; 6 ladies of the chamber, with 1 servant and 2 horses each; 1 earl, with 42 servants, 3 to be chaplains and 9 gentlemen; horses 20. 3 bishops, to have 44 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; horses 60. 4 barons, with 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; horses 48. 30 knights, with 12 servants, 1 to be a chaplain; horses 240; 6 chaplains with 3 servants and 2 horses each. Grooms 50, officers of the King's chamber, with 20 servants and 30 horses; officers of the King's stable 60, with 70 horses. Sum total of the Queen's company, 1,175 persons and 778 horses.

R. O. Rym. XIII. 710. 3. Names of those appointed to attend the king of England at the Congress.

Commissioners appointed to oversee those who shall accompany the king of France:—The Earl of Essex, Lord Abergavenny, Sir Edward Ponynges, Sir Rob. Wingfield. To give orders to the gentlemen:—Sir Edward Belknapp, Sir Nich. Vaux, Sir John Peche, Sir Maurice Berkeley. To give orders to the foot soldiers:—Sir Weston Browne, Sir Edward Ferrers, Sir Rob. Constable, Sir Ralph Egerton, Sir Thomas Lucy, Sir John Marney. To ride with the king of England at the embracing of the two Kings:—The Legate, archbishop of Canterbury, dukes of Buckingham and Suffolk, marquis of Dorset. Bishops:—Durham, Armagh, Ely, Chester, Rochester, Exeter, Hereford. Earls:—Stafford, Northumberland, Westmoreland (age 22), Shrewsbury (age 52), Worcester, Devonshire, Kent, Wiltshire, Derby, Kildare. Barons:—Maltravers, Montagu, Herbert, the grand prior of St. John of England, Roos, Fitzwalter, Hastings, Delavare, Dacres, Ferrers, Cobham, Daubeney, Lumley, Sir Henry Marney, Sir William Sandys, Th. Boleyn (age 43), Lord Howard.

The servants of the king of England shall march next their King, preceded by the nobles and gentlemen of the Legate, who shall follow the gentlemen of the other lords. The King's guard to follow him in their accustomed places.Fr., pp. 2. Endd.

R. O. Rym. XIII. 713. 4. The names of those who will be with the French king when he meets the king of England.

The king of Navarre; dukes of Alençon, Bourbon, Vendosme and Lorraine; count of Saint Pol; prince de la Roche Suryon; count of Dreux and Rhetel, Sieur Dorval and governor of Champaigne; count of Benon, sieur de la Tremoille, first Chamberlain, admiral of Guyenne and governor of Burgundy; count of Estampes and Caravats, sieur de Boysy, grand master and governor of the Dauphin; Bonnyvet, admiral of France, Lautrec, La Palisse and Chastillon, marshals; count of Guyse, brother of the duke of Lorraine; the bastard of Savoy, count of Villars and Beaufort, governor of Provence; count de Laval; mons. de Chasteaubriant; count of Harcourt; princes of Orange and Tallemont; mons. de Nevers; mons d'Esparrox, lieutenant of Guyenne, and count of Montfort; Mess. de Lescun and Montmorency; le Grand Escuyer; counts de la Chambre, Tonnerre, Brienne, Joigny, Bremie and Mont Reuel; mons. d'Albret. The other knights of the Order.

The king's household, 200 gentlemen; St. Vallier and the grand seneschal of Normandy, captains.

400 archers of the guard, and 4 captains; 100 Swiss, De Florenges, captain; maîtres d'hôtel, pannetiers, valets, &c.; gentlemen of the council and of the finances. The other pensioners will remain in their houses.Francis will bring with him the above company, if the king of England thinks it suitable; but if not, he will diminish it.

These noblemen will only have with them about 200 horses.Fr., pp. 3. Endd.: Noblemen's names that shall accompany the French king at the meeting at Calais.


After 26 Mar 1521 George Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Aston (age 24) and Dorothy Melton Baroness Darcy Aston (age 15) were married.

On 26 Mar 1662 Bishop Brian Duppa (age 73) died.


On 26 Mar 1675 Ernest "The Pious" Saxe Gotha I Duke Saxe Gotha (age 73) died at Friedenstein Palace, Gotha.

On 26 Mar 1684 Bishop Edward Rainbowe (age 75) died.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Mar 1685. I was invited to the funerall of Capt. Gunman (deceased), that excellent pilot and seaman, who had behav'd himselfe so valiantly in the Dutch warr. He died of a gangrene, occasion'd by his fall from the pier of Calais. This was the Captain of the yacht carrying the Duke (age 51) (now King) to Scotland, and was accus'd for not giving timely warning when she split on the sands, where so many perish'd; but I am most confident he was no ways guilty, either of negligence or designe, as he made appeare not onely at the examination of the matter of fact, but in the Vindication he shew'd me, and which must needes give any man of reason satisfaction. He was a sober, frugal, cheerfull, and temperate man; we have few such seamen left.


On 26 Mar 1695 James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick (age 24) and Honora Burke Duchess Berwick (age 21) were married at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines. Honora Burke Duchess Berwick by marriage Duchess Berwick. She the daughter of William Burke 7th Earl Clanricarde. He the son of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 61) and Arabella Churchill (age 46).

On 26 Mar 1703 Charles Knollys 5th Earl Banbury was born to Charles Knollys 4th Earl Banbury (age 40) and Mary Woods (age 19). He was baptised on 14 Apr 1703 at St James' Church, Piccadilly.

On 26 Mar 1724 Robert Walpole 2nd Earl Orford (age 23) and Margaret Rolle Countess Orford (age 15) were married. He the son of Robert Walpole 1st Earl Orford (age 47) and Catherine Shorter (age 42).

On 26 Mar 1758 John Fane 9th Earl of Westmoreland (age 29) and Augusta Bertie (age 26) were married. He the son of Thomas Fane 8th Earl of Westmoreland (age 57) and Elizabeth Swymmer Countess Westmoreland.


On 26 Mar 1796 Thomas Liddell 1st Baron Ravensworth (age 21) and Maria Susannah Simpson Baroness Calthorpe (age 23) were married.

On 26 Mar 1831 George Coventry 7th Earl Coventry (age 72) died. His son George Coventry 8th Earl Coventry (age 46) succeeded 8th Earl Coventry. Mary Beauclerk Countess Coventry (age 39) by marriage Countess Coventry.

On 26 Mar 1845 Robert Collier 2nd Baron Monkswell was born to Robert Collier 1st Baron Monkswell (age 27) and Isabella Rose Baroness Monkswell (age 30).

On 26 Mar 1847 Francis Russell 7th Duke Bedford (age 58) was appointed 702nd Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (age 27).

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On 26 Mar 1851 Gilbert Heathcote 4th Baronet (age 77) died. His son Gilbert John Heathcote 1st Baron Aveland (age 56) succeeded 5th Baronet Heathcote of London.

After 26 Mar 1857. St Andrew's Church Brympton d'Evercy [Map]. Memorial to Jane Huck Saunders Countess of Westmoreland (deceased).

Jane Huck Saunders Countess of Westmoreland: In 1783 she was born to Richard Huck Saunders (age 63). In 1800 John Fane 10th Earl of Westmoreland (age 40) and Jane Huck Saunders Countess of Westmoreland (age 17) were married. The difference in their ages was 23 years. He the son of John Fane 9th Earl of Westmoreland and Augusta Bertie. On 26 Mar 1857 Jane Huck Saunders Countess of Westmoreland (age 74) died at Brympton d'Evercy.


On 26 Mar 1900 Dudley Ryder 3rd Earl of Harrowby (age 69) died. His brother Henry Ryder 4th Earl of Harrowby (age 63) succeeded 4th Earl of Harrowby.