2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion

1050-1099 Norman Invasion is in 11th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Banishment of the Godwins

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1051. This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should consecrate him Bishop o[oe] London; but the archbishop refused, saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused, repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn. Then during the same year came Eustace (age 36), who had the sister of King Edward (age 48) to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose, he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward, there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to Dover, Kent [Map]. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, Kent [Map], he put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was slain by the other. Then was Eustace (age 36) quickly upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace (age 36) escaped with a few men, and went again to the king (age 48), telling him partially how they had fared. The king (age 48) was very wroth with the townsmen, and sent off Earl Godwin (age 50), bidding him go into Kent with hostility to Dover, Kent [Map]. For Eustace (age 36) had told the king that the guilt of the townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl (age 50) would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin (age 50) took it much to heart, that in his earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne (age 30), his son, over his; and Harold (age 29), his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, Gloucestershire, a large and innumerable army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace (age 36) and his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward (age 48) was sitting at Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north after Earl Siward (age 41), and summoned their retinues. At first they came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to the aid of the king (age 48), though it was late. So unanimous were they all in defence of the king (age 48), that they would seek Godwin's (age 50) army if the king (age 48) desired it. But some prevented that; because it was very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this north end in Siward's (age 41) earldom, and in Leofric's, and also elsewhere; and Earl Godwin (age 50) was to come thither with his sons to a conference; They came as far as Southwark, Surrey [Map], and very many with them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and more; for they bound over to the king (age 48) all the thanes that belonged to Earl Harold (age 29) his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne (age 30) his other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come to a conference against the king (age 48) and against the army that was with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king (age 48) held a council, and proclaimed him an outlaw, with his whole army; himself (age 50) and his wife, and all his three sons - Sweyne (age 30) and Tosty (age 25) and Grith (age 19). And he went south to Thorney67, with his wife, and Sweyne (age 30) his son, and Tosty (age 25) and his wife (age 18), a cousin of Baldwin of Bruges (age 38) [Note. Judith Flanders Duchess Bavaria (age 18) was a sister of Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders (age 38)], and his son Grith (age 19). Earl Harold (age 29) with Leofwine (age 16) went to Bristol, Gloucestershire [Map] in the ship that Earl Sweyne (age 30) had before prepared and provisioned for himself; and the king (age 48) sent Bishop Aldred from London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne (age 30), and brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's (age 48) men thereabout as they could. Then came Earl Godwin (age 50), and Earl Sweyne (age 30), and Earl Harold (age 29), together at Beverstone [Map], and many men with them; to the intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's (age 48) counsel and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge the insult offered to the king (age 48), and to all the nation. But the Welshmen were before with the king (age 48), and betrayed the earls, so that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to betray the king (age 48). There was now assembled before the king (age 48)68 Earl Siward (age 41), and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the north: and it was told Earl Godwin (age 50) and his sons, that the king (age 48) and the men who were with him would take counsel against them; but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the peers on either side, that they should abstain from all hostility: and the king (age 48) gave God's peace and his full friendship to each party. Then advised the king (age 48) and his council, that there should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king (age 48) ordered out an army both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then was Earl Sweyne (age 30) proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Harold (age 29) were summoned to the council as early as they could come. When they came thither and were cited to the council, then required they security and hostages, that they might come into the council and go out without treachery. The king (age 48) then demanded all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his hands. Then sent the king (age 48) again to them, and commanded them to come with twelve men to the king's (age 48) council. Then desired the earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Sweyne (age 30) to Bosham [Map], and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking the protection of Baldwin (age 38); and there they abode all the winter. Earl Harold (age 29) went westward to Ireland, and was there all the winter on the king's (age 48) security.

It was from Thorney69 that Godwin (age 50) and those that were with him went to Bruges [Map], to Baldwin's (age 38) land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by every man that was then in England, if any person had said before this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a height, that he ruled the king (age 48) and all England; his sons were earls, and the king's (age 48) darlings; and his daughter (age 25) wedded and united to the king (age 48). Soon after this took place, the king (age 48) dismissed the lady (age 25) who had been consecrated his queen, and ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the care of his sister at Wherwell [Map]. Soon after came Earl William (age 23) from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king (age 48) entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven from his bishopric at London; and William (age 23) the king's priest was invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales; and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom which Harold (age 29) before possessed.

Note 67. The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.

Note 68. i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle; which omits all that took place in the meantime at London and Southwark.

Note 69. Now Westminster.

John of Worcester. 08 Sep 1051. Meanwhile, Godwin (age 50) and his sons [Note. Sweyn (age 30), Harold (age 29), Tostig (age 25), Gyrth (age 19), Leofwine (age 16) and Wulfnoth (age 11); it isn't clear whether all were present?], with their respective armies, entered Gloucestershire after the feast of the nativity of St. Mary [8th September], and encamping at a place called Langtreo, sent envoys to the king at Gloucester, demanding the surrender of count Eustace (age 36) and his followers, as well as of the Normans and men of Boulogne, who were in possession of the castle on the cliff at Dover, Kent [Map], on pain of hostilities. The king, alarmed for a time at this message, was in great distress, and in the utmost perplexity what to do. But when he found that the troops of the earls Leofric, Siward (age 41), and Ralph were on their march, he replied with firmness that he would by no means consent to give up Eustace (age 36) and the rest who were demanded. On hearing this, the envoys returned from their bootless errand. As they were departing, the army entered Gloucester, so exasperated, and unanimously ready to fight, that, if the king had given permission, they would have instantly engaged earl Godwin's (age 50) army. But earl Leofric considering that all the men of greatest note in England were assembled either on his side or the other, it appeared to him and some others a great folly to fight with their own countrymen, and he proposed that, hostages having been given by both parties, the king and Godwin (age 50) should meet at London on a day appointed, and settle their controversy in a legal way. This advice being approved, and after the exchange of messages, hostages having been given and received, the earl (age 50) returned into Wessex; and the king assembled a more powerful army from the whole of Mercia and Northumbria, and led it to London. Meanwhile, Godwin (age 50) and his sons came to Southwark with a vast multitude of the people of Wessex; but his army gradually dwindling away and deserting him, he did not venture to abide the judgment of the king's court, but fled, under cover of night. When, therefore, the morning came, the king, in his witan, with the unanimous consent of the whole army, made a decree that Godwin (age 50) and his five sons should be banished. Thereupon he and his wife Githa, and Tosti (age 25) and his wife Judith (age 18), the daughter of Baldwin, count of Flanders, and two of his. other sons, namely, Sweyn (age 30) and Gurth (age 19), went, without loss of time, to Thorney, where a ship had been got ready for them. They quickly laded her with as much gold, silver, and other valuable articles as she could hold, and, embarking in great haste, directed her course towards Flanders and Baldwin (age 39) the count. His sons Harold (age 29) and Leofwine (age 16), making their way to Brycgstowe [Map], went on board a ship which their brother Sweyn (age 30) had prepared for them, and crossed over to Ireland. The king (age 48) repudiated the queen Edgitha (age 25), on account of his wrath against her father Godwin (age 50), and sent her in disgrace, with only a single handmaid, to Wherwell [Map], where she was committed to the custody of the abbess.67

Note 67. She was a sister of the king.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, William the Conqueror visits King Edward the Confessor

John of Worcester. 1051. After these occurrences, William (age 23), earl [duke] of Normandy, came over to England with a vast retinue of Normans. King Edward (age 48) honourably entertained him and his companions, and on their return made them many valuable presents. The same year, William, the king's chaplain, was appointed to the bishopric of London, which was before given to Spearheafoc.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Godwins Restored

John of Worcester. 1052. As soon as his arrival was known in the king's fleet, which lay at Sandwich, Kent [Map], it went in chase of him; but he escaped and concealed himself wherever he could, and the fleet returned to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and thence sailed to London. On hearing this, Godwin (age 51) shaped his course again for the Isle of Wight [Map], and kept hovering about along the shore until his sons Harold (age 30) and Leofwine (age 17) joined him with their fleet. After this junction, they desisted from plundering and wasting the country, taking only such provisions as necessity required for the subsistence of their troops. Having increased their force by enlisting as many men as they could on the sea-coast and in other places, and by collecting all the mariners they met with in every direction, they directed their course towards the port of Sandwich, Kent [Map]. Their arrival there was notified to king Edward (age 49), who was then at London, and he lost no time sending messengers requiring all persons, who had not revolted from him, to hasten to his succour; but they were too slow in their movements, and did not arrive in time. Meanwhile, earl Godwin (age 51), having sailed up the Thames against the current, reached Southwark, Surrey [Map] on the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross [14th September], being Monday, and waited there until the flood-tide came up. In the interval, he so dealt with the citizens of London, some in person, others through his emissaries, having before seduced them by a variety of promises, that he persuaded nearly all of them to enter heartily into his designs. At last, everything being duly planned and set in order, on the tide's flowing up they quickly weighed anchor, and, no one offering them any resistance at the bridge, sailed upwards along the south bank of the river. The land army also arrived, and, being drawn up on the river-bank, formed a close and formidable column. Then the fleet drew towards the northern bank, with the intention, apparently, of enclosing the king's fleet, for the king had also a fleet, as well as a numerous land army. But as there were very few men of any courage, either on the king's or Godwin's (age 51) side, who were not Englishmen, nearly all shrunk from fighting against their kinsfolk and countrymen; so that the wiser sort on both sides interfered to restore peace between the king and the earl, and both armies received orders to lay down their arms. The next morning the king (age 49) held a council, and fully restored to their former honours Godwin (age 51), and his wife, and all his sons, except Sweyn (age 31), who, touched with repentance for the murder of his cousin Beorn, mentioned before, had undertaken a journey barefoot from Flanders to Jerusalem, and who, on his return, died in Lycia70 from illness brought on by the severity of the cold. The king, also, took back with due honour queen Edgitha (age 26), the earl's (age 51) daughter, and restored her to her former dignity.

Note 70. According to the Saxon Chronicle, Sweyn died at Constantinople on his journey home. Malmesbury relates that he was slain by the Saracens.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1052. Then proceeded they to the Nore, and so toward London; but some of the ships landed on the Isle of Sheppey, Kent [Map], and did much harm there; whence they steered to Milton Regis, Kent [Map], and burned it all, and then proceeded toward London after the earls. When they came to London, there lay the king (age 49) and all his earls to meet them, with fifty ships. The earls73 then sent to the king (age 49), praying that they might be each possessed of those things which had been unjustly taken from them. But the king (age 49) resisted some while; so long that the people who were with the earl (age 51) were very much stirred against the king (age 49) and against his people, so that the earl (age 51) himself with difficulty appeased them. When King Edward (age 49) understood that, then sent he upward after more aid; but they came very late. And Godwin (age 51) stationed himself continually before London with his fleet, till he came to Southwark, Surrey [Map]; where he abode some time, until the flood74 came up. On this occasion he also contrived with the burgesses that they should do almost all that he would. When he had arranged his whole expedition, then came the flood; and they soon weighed anchor, and steered through the bridge by the south side. The land-force meanwhile came above, and arranged themselves by the Strand [Map]; and they formed an angle with the ships against the north side, as if they wished to surround the king's (age 49) ships. The king (age 49) had also a great land-force on his side, to add to his shipmen: but they were most of them loth to fight with their own kinsmen-for there was little else of any great importance but Englishmen on either side; and they were also unwilling that this land should be the more exposed to outlandish people, because they destroyed each other. Then it was determined that wise men should be sent between them, who should settle peace on either side. Godwin (age 51) went up, and Harold (age 30) his son, and their navy, as many as they then thought proper. Then advanced Bishop Stigand with God's assistance, and the wise men both within the town and without; who determined that hostages should be given on either side.

Note 73. i.e. Godwin and his son Harold.

Note 74. i.e. the tide of the river.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Christmas Court

In 1052 during his Christmas Court King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 49) ordered the killing of Rhys ap Rhydderch in reprisal for his raiding of England. The chronicle of Florence of Worcester recorded a bit more information, stating that Rhys was killed at "Bulendun", which may be Bullen's Bank near Clyro in Radnorshire.

On 05 Jan 1053 the head of Rhys ap Rhydderch was brought before King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 50).

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle of Dunsinane

John of Worcester. 27 Jul 1054. Siward (age 44), the stout earl of Northumbria, by order of the king (age 51) entered Scotland, with a large body of cavalry and a powerful fleet, and fought a battle with Macbeth (age 49), king of the Scots, in which the king was defeated with the loss of many thousands both of the Scots and of the Normans before mentioned; he then, as the king had commanded, raised to the throne Malcolm (age 23), son of the king of the Cumbrians. However, his own son and many English and Danes fell in that battle.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 27 Jul 1054. This year went Earl Siward (age 44) with a large army against Scotland, consisting both of marines and landforces; and engaging with the Scots, he put to flight the King Macbeth (age 49); slew all the best in the land; and led thence much spoil, such as no man before obtained. Many fell also on his side, both Danish and English; even his own son, Osborn, and his sister's son, Sihward: and many of his house-carls, and also of the king's, were there slain that day, which was that of the Seven Sleepers.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle of Lille

In 1054 Lambert Flanders II Count Lens (age 38) died at Lille during the Battle of Lille when fighting for Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders (age 41).

In 1054 Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders (age 41) fought against Henry "Black Pious" Salian III Holy Roman Emperor (age 36) at the Battle of Lille after Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders (age 41) had seized Cambrai.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle and Burning of Hereford

John of Worcester. 24 Oct 1055. Earl Ralph, the cowardly son of king Edward's (age 52) sister, having assembled an army, fell in with the enemy two miles from the city of Hereford [Map], on the ninth of the calends of November [24th October]. He ordered the English, contrary to their custom, to fight on horseback; but just as the engagement was about to commence, the earl, with his French and Normans, were the first to flee. The English seeing this, followed their leader's example, and nearly the whole of the enemy's army going in pursuit, four or five hundred of the fugitives were killed, and many were wounded. Having gained the victory, king Griffyth and earl Algar entered Hereford [Map], and having slain seven of the canons who defended the doors of the principal church, and burnt the monastery built by bishop Athelstan, that true servant of Christ, with all its ornaments, and the relics of St. Ethelbert, king and martyr, and other saints, and having slain some of the citizens, and made many other captives, they returned laden with spoil.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 24 Oct 1055. This year died Earl Siward at York; and his body lies within the minster at Galmanho76, which he had himself ordered to be built and consecrated, in the name of God and St. Olave, to the honour of God and to all his saints. Archbishop Kinsey fetched his pall from Pope Victor. Then, within a little time after, a general council was summoned in London, seven nights before mid-Lent; at which Earl Elgar, son of Earl Leofric, was outlawed almost without any guilt; because it was said against him that he was the betrayer of the king and of all the people of the land. And he was arraigned thereof before all that were there assembled, though the crime laid to his charge was unintentional. The king, however, gave the earldom, which Earl Siward formerly had, to Tosty (age 29), son of Earl Godwin. Whereupon Earl Elgar sought Griffin's territory in North-Wales; whence he went to Ireland, and there gave him a fleet of eighteen ships, besides his own; and then returned to Wales to King Griffin with the armament, who received him on terms of amity. And they gathered a great force with the Irishmen and the Welsh: and Earl Ralph collected a great army against them at the town of Hereford [Map]; where they met; but ere there was a spear thrown the English people fled, because they were on horses. The enemy then made a great slaughter there-about four hundred or five hundred men; they on the other side none. They went then to the town, and burned it utterly; and the large minster [Map]77 also which the worthy Bishop Athelstan had caused to be built, that they plundered and bereft of relic and of reef, and of all things whatever; and the people they slew, and led some away. Then an army from all parts of England was gathered very nigh;78 and they came to Gloucester: whence they sallied not far out against the Welsh, and there lay some time. And Earl Harold (age 33) caused the dike to be dug about the town the while. Meantime men began to speak of peace; and Earl Harold (age 33) and those who were with him came to Bilsley, where amity and friendship were established between them. The sentence of outlawry against Earl Elgar was reversed; and they gave him all that was taken from him before. The fleet returned to Chester, and there awaited their pay, which Elgar promised them. The slaughter was on the ninth before the calends of November. In the same year died Tremerig, the Welsh bishop, soon after the plundering; who was Bishop Athelstan's substitute, after he became infirm.

Note 76 The church, dedicated to St. Olave, was given by Alan Earl of Richmond, about thirty-three years afterwards, to the first abbot of St. Mary's in York, to assist him in the construction of the new abbey. It appears from a MS. quoted by Leland, that Bootham-bar was formerly called "Galman-hithe", not Galmanlith, as printed by Tanner and others.

Note 77 Called St. Ethelbert's minster; because the relics of the holy King Ethelbert were there deposited and preserved.

Note 78 The place where this army was assembled, though said to be very nigh to Hereford, was only so with reference to the great distance from which some part of the forces came; as they were gathered from all England. They met, I conjecture, on the memorable spot called "Harold's Cross", near Cheltenham, and thence proceeded, as here stated, to Gloucester.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle of Glasbury-on-Wye

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 16 Jun 1056. This year Bishop Egelric resigned his bishopric at Durham, and retired to Peterborough minster [Map]; and his brother Egelwine succeeded him. The worthy Bishop Athelstan died on the fourth before the ides of February; and his body lies at Hereford [Map]. To him succeeded Leofgar, who was Earl Harold's mass-priest. He wore his knapsack in his priesthood, until he was a bishop. He abandoned his chrism and his rood-his ghostly weapons-and took to his spear and to his sword, after his bishophood; and so marched to the field against Griffin the Welsh king.79 But he was there slain, and his priests with him, and Elnoth the sheriff, and many other good men with them; and the rest fled. This was eight nights before midsummer. Difficult is it to relate all the vexation and the journeying, the marching and the fatigue, the fall of men, and of horses also, which the whole army of the English suffered, until Earl Leofric, and Earl Harold (age 34), and Bishop Eldred, came together and made peace between them; so that Griffin swore oaths, that he would be a firm and faithful viceroy to King Edward. Then Bishop Eldred took to the bishopric which Leofgar had before eleven weeks and four days.

Note 79. This was no uncommon thing among the Saxon clergy, bishops and all. The tone of elevated diction in which the writer describes the military enterprise of Leofgar and his companions, testifies his admiration.

John of Worcester. 16 Jun 1056. Athelstan, bishop of Hereford, a man of great sanctity, died on the fourth of the ides [the 10th] of February, at the episcopal vill called Bosanbyrig [Bosbury]; his body was carried to Hereford, and buried in the church [Map] which he himself had built from the foundations. He was succeeded by Leovegar, earl Harold's chaplain, who, on the sixteenth of the calends [the 16th] of June in the same year, together with his clerks and Ethelnoth the vice-reeve and many others, was massacred by Griffyth, king of Wales, at a place called Claftbyrig [Map]. He held the see only eleven weeks and four days. On his being thus cut off, the bishopric of Hereford was administered by Aldred, bishop of Worcester, until a successor could be appointed. This same bishop Aldred and the earls Leofric and Harold (age 34) afterwards reconciled Griffyth, king of Wales, with king Edward.

On 16 Jun 1056 Bishop Leofgar of Hereford was killed at the Battle of Glasbury-on-Wye.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle of Varaville

In 1057 at Varaville King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 29) defeated the army of King Henry I of France (age 48) and Geoffrey "Martel aka Hammer" Ingelger II Count Anjou during the Battle of Varaville. Henry and Geoffrey's army were fording the Dives River when the tide came in; only half of the army had crossed. William seized the opportunity and attacked.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Ealdred Appointed Archbishop of York

On 25 Dec 1060 Archbishop Ealdred was appointed Archbishop of York.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Exile of Tostig

John of Worcester. 1065. Soon after the feast of St. Michael, the archangel, on Monday, the fifth of the nones [the 3rd] of October, the Northumbrian thanes, Gamelbearn, Dunstan, son of Athelneth, and Glonicorn, son of Heardulf, entered York with two hundred soldiers, to revenge the execrable murder of the noble Northumbrian thane, Cospatric, who was treacherously killed by order of queen Edgitha (age 39) at the king's court on the fourth night of Christmas, for the sake of her brother Tosti (age 39); as also the murder of the thanes Gamel, the son of Orm, and Ulf, the son of Dolfin, whom earl Tosti (age 39) had perfidiously caused to be assassinated in his own chamber at York, the year before, although there was peace between them. The insurgent thanes were also aggrieved by the enormous taxes which Tosti (age 39) unjustly levied through the whole of Northumbria. They therefore, on the day of their arrival, first seized his Danish house-carles, Amund and Ravenswart, as they were making their escape, and put them to death outside the walls, and the next day slew more than two hundred of his liege-men, on the north side of the river Humber. They also broke open his treasury, and retired carrying off all that belonged to him. After that, nearly all the men of his earldom assembled in a body, and met, at Northampton, Harold (age 43), earl of Wessex, and others whom the king, at Tosti's (age 39) request, had sent to restore peace between them. There first, and afterwards at Oxford, on the feast of the apostles St. Simon and St. Jude [28th October], when earl Harold (age 43) and the rest endeavoured to restore peace between them and earl Tosti (age 39), they all unanimously rejected the proposal, and outlawed him and all who had prompted him to enact the oppressive law; and after the feast of All-Saints [1st November], with the assistance of earl Edwin, they banished Tosti (age 39) from England. Thereupon he went, accompanied by his wife (age 32), to Baldwin (age 52), earl of Flanders, and passed the winter at St. Omer. After this, king Edward (age 62) fell into a lingering sickness, but he held his court at London during Christmas as well as he was able, and on Holy Innocents' day caused the church, which he had built from the foundations [at Westminster], to be dedicated with great splendour to St. Peter, the prince of the apostles.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle of Graus

08 May 1063. The Battle of Graus was part of the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsular by the Spanish from the Arabs.

Ramiro Sánchez I King Aragon (age 56) was killed in battle. His son Sancho Ramírez I King Aragon V King Pamplona (age 21) succeeded I King Aragon.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Consecration of Westminster Abbey

On 28 Dec 1065 the Westminster Abbey [Map] that preceded the current building, known as St Peter's Abbey, was consecrated. King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 62) was too ill to attend (he died eight days later).

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Death of Edward the Confessor

John of Worcester. 1066. King Edward the Pacific (age 63), the pride of the English, son of king Ethelred, died at London on Thursday, the eve of the Epiphany, in the fourth indiction; after having filled the royal throne of the Anglo-Saxons twenty-three years, six months, and twenty-seven days. He was buried the next day with royal pomp, amidst the tears and lamentations of the crowds who flocked to his funeral.

On 05 Jan 1066 King Edward "Confessor" of England (age 63) died. He was buried the same day at Westminster Abbey [Map].

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Coronation of King Harold

John of Worcester. 1066. After his interment, Harold (age 44), the vice-king, son of earl Godwin, whom the king before his death had chosen for his successor, was elected king by the leading men of all England; and, the same day, was crowned with great ceremony by Aldred, archbishop of York. As soon as he had taken the reins of government, he made it his business to revoke unjust laws, and establish good ones; to become the protector of the churches and monasteries; to cherish and reverence the bishops, abbots, monks, and clerks; and to show himself kind, humble, and courteous to all good men, while to malefactors he used the utmost rigour. For he gave orders to his earls, ealdormen, vice-reeves, and all his officers, to arrest all thieves, robbers, and disturbers of the peace; and he laboured himself for the defence of the country by land and by sea.

On 06 Jan 1066 King Harold II of England (age 44) was crowned II King England having been selected by the Witan probably at Westminster Abbey [Map]. Harold quick to be crowned the day after the death and burial of Edward the Confessor.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Council of Lillebonne

After 05 Jan 1066 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 38) convened the Council of Lillebonne at Lillebonne to raise support for his claim to the English throne. The attendees are not known but likely to have included his companions at the subsequent Battle of Hastings including Roger "The Great" Montgomery 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Bishop Odo of Bayeux.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle of Fulford

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1066. When the ships were come home, then came Harald, King of Norway (age 51), north into the Tine, unawares, with a very great sea-force-no small one; that might be, with three hundred ships or more; and Earl Tosty (age 40) came to him with all those that he had got; just as they had before said: and they both then went up with all the fleet along the Ouse toward York.89 When it was told King Harold (age 44) in the south, after he had come from the ships, that Harald, King of Norway (age 51), and Earl Tosty (age 40) were come up near York, then went he northward by day and night, as soon as he could collect his army. But, ere King Harold (age 44) could come thither, the Earls Edwin and Morkar had gathered from their earldoms as great a force as they could get, and fought with the enemy.90 They made a great slaughter too; but there was a good number of the English people slain, and drowned, and put to flight: and the Northmen had possession of the field of battle. It was then told Harold, king of the English (age 44), that this had thus happened. And this fight was on the eve of St. Matthew the apostle, which was Wednesday.

Note 89. Not only the twelve smacks with which he went into Scotland during the summer, as before stated, but an accession of force from all quarters.

Note 90. On the north bank of the Ouse, according to Florence of Worcester; the enemy having landed at Richale (now "Riccal"). Simeon of Durham names the spot "Apud Fulford," i.e. Fulford-water, south of the city of York.

John of Worcester. 20 Sep 1066. After these transactions, Harold Harfaager (age 51), king of Norway, brother [Note. maternal half-brother] of St. Olave the king, suddenly arrived at the mouth of the river Tyne [Map], with a powerful fleet of more than five hundred great ships. Earl Tosti (age 40) joined him with his fleet, as they had before agreed, and they made all sail into the Humber; and then ascending the river Tyne against the current, landed their troops at a place called Richale. As soon as king Harold (age 44) received this news, he marched with all expedition towards Northumbria; but, before the king's arrival, the two brothers, earls Edwin and Morcar, at the head of a large army, fought a battle with the Norwegians on the northern bank of the river Ouse, near York, on the eve of the feast of St. Matthew the Apostle [20th September], being Wednesday; and their first onset was so furious that numbers of the enemy fell before it. But, after a long struggle, the English, unable to withstand the attack of the Norwegians, fled with great loss, and many more of them were drowned in the river than slain in the fight. The Norwegians remained in possession of the field of death; and, having taken one hundred and fifty hostages from York, and leaving there one hundred and fifty hostages of their own, returned to their ships.

On 20 Sep 1066 King Harald Hardrada III of Norway (age 51), with Tostig Godwinson Earl Northumbria (age 40), defeated the brothers Edwin Earl of Mercia and Morcar Earl Northumbria at the Battle of Fulford at Fulford York.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, 1066 Battle of Stamford Bridge

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1066. Then after the fight went Harold, King of Norway (age 51), and Earl Tosty (age 40) into York with as many followers as they thought fit; and having procured hostages and provisions from the city, they proceeded to their ships, and proclaimed full friendship, on condition that all would go southward with them, and gain this land. In the midst of this came Harold, king of the English, with all his army, on the Sunday, to Tadcaster; where he collected his fleet. Thence he proceeded on Monday throughout York. But Harald, King of Norway (age 51), and Earl Tosty (age 40), with their forces, were gone from their ships beyond York to Stanfordbridge; for that it was given them to understand, that hostages would be brought to them there from all the shire. Thither came Harold, king of the English (age 44), unawares against them beyond the bridge; and they closed together there, and continued long in the day fighting very severely. There was slain Harald the Fair-hair'd, King of Norway (age 51), and Earl Tosty (age 40), and a multitude of people with them, both of Normans and English;91 and the Normans that were left fled from the English, who slew them hotly behind; until some came to their ships, some were drowned, some burned to death, and thus variously destroyed; so that there was little left: and the English gained possession of the field. But there was one of the Norwegians who withstood the English folk, so that they could not pass over the bridge, nor complete the victory. An Englishman aimed at him with a javelin, but it availed nothing. Then came another under the bridge, who pierced him terribly inwards under the coat of mail. And Harold, king of the English (age 44), then came over the bridge, followed by his army; and there they made a great slaughter, both of the Norwegians and of the Flemings. But Harold let the king's son, Edmund, go home to Norway with all the ships. He also gave quarter to Olave (age 16), the Norwegian king's son, and to their bishop, and to the earl of the Orkneys, and to all those that were left in the ships; who then went up to our king, and took oaths that they would ever maintain faith and friendship unto this land. Whereupon the King let them go home with twenty-four ships. These two general battles were fought within five nights.

Note 91. It is scarcely necessary to observe that the term "English" begins about this time to be substituted for "Angles"; and that the Normans are not merely the Norwegians, but the Danes and other adventurers from the north, joined with the forces of France and Flanders; who, we shall presently see, overwhelmed by their numbers the expiring, liberties of England. The Franks begin also to assume the name of Frencyscan or "Frenchmen".

John of Worcester. 25 Sep 1066. However, on the fifth day afterwards, viz. on Monday, the seventh of the calends of October [25th September], Harold (age 44), king of England, having reached York, with many thousand well-armed troops, encountered the Norwegians at a place called Stanford-bridge, and put to the sword king Harold and earl Tosti (age 40), with the greatest part of their army; and, although the battle was severely contested, gained a complete victory. Notwithstanding, he allowed Harold's son Olaf, and Paul, earl of Orkney, who had been left with part of the army to guard the ships, to return to their own country, with twenty ships and the relics of the [defeated] army; having first received from them hostages and their oaths.

On 25 Sep 1066 King Harold II of England (age 44), supported by the brothers Edwin Earl of Mercia and Morcar Earl Northumbria, defeated the Viking army at the Battle of Stamford Bridge at Stamford Bridge [Map].

King Harald Hardrada III of Norway (age 51) was killed. His son Magnus II King Norway (age 18) succeeded King Norway.

Tostig Godwinson Earl Northumbria (age 40) was killed.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle of Hastings

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1066. Meantime Earl William (age 38) came up from Normandy into Pevensey [Map] on the eve of St. Michael's mass; and soon after his landing was effected, they constructed a castle at the port of Hastings. This was then told to King Harold (age 44); and he gathered a large force, and came to meet him at the estuary of Appledore. William, however, came against him unawares, ere his army was collected; but the king, nevertheless, very hardly encountered him with the men that would support him: and there was a great slaughter made on either side. There was slain King Harold (age 44), and Leofwin (age 31) his brother, and Earl Girth (age 34) his brother, with many good men: and the Frenchmen gained the field of battle, as God granted them for the sins of the nation. Archbishop Aldred and the corporation of London were then desirous of having child Edgar (age 15) to king, as he was quite natural to them; and Edwin and Morkar promised them that they would fight with them. But the more prompt the business should ever be, so was it from day to day the later and worse; as in the end it all fared. This battle was fought on the day of Pope Calixtus: and Earl William returned to Hastings, and waited there to know whether the people would submit to him. But when he found that they would not come to him, he went up with all his force that was left and that came since to him from over sea, and ravaged all the country that he overran, until he came to Berkhampstead; where Archbishop Aldred came to meet him, with child Edgar, and Earls (age 15) Edwin and Morkar, and all the best men from London; who submitted then for need, when the most harm was done. It was very ill-advised that they did not so before, seeing that God would not better things for our sins. And they gave him hostages and took oaths: and he promised them that he would be a faithful lord to them; though in the midst of this they plundered wherever they went.

John of Worcester. Sep 1066. While these events were passing, and when the king (age 44) might have supposed that all his enemies were quelled, he received intelligence of the arrival of William (age 38), earl of Normandy, with an innumerable host of horsemen, slingers, archers, and foot soldiers, having taken into his pay auxiliary forces of great bravery from all parts of France; and that he had moored his fleet at a place called Pevensey [Map]. Thereupon the king (age 44) led his army towards London by forced marches; and, although he was very sensible that some of the bravest men in England had fallen in the two [recent] battles, and that one half of his troops was not yet assembled, he did not hesitate to meet the enemy in Sussex, without loss of time; and on Saturday, the eleventh of the calends of November [22nd October], before a third of his army was in fighting order, he gave them battle at a place nine miles from Hastings, where they had built a fort. The English being crowded in a confused position, many of them left their ranks, and few stood by him with resolute hearts: nevertheless he made a stout resistance from the third hour of the day until nightfall, and defended himself with such courage and obstinacy, that the enemy almost despaired of taking his life. When, however, numbers had fallen on both sides, he, alas! fell at twilight. There fell, also, his brothers, the earls Gurth (age 34) and Leofric (age 31), and almost all the English nobles. Earl William (age 38) led his army back to Hastings.

After 05 Jan 1066 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 38) convened the Council of Lillebonne at Lillebonne to raise support for his claim to the English throne. The attendees are not known but likely to have included his companions at the subsequent Battle of Hastings including Roger "The Great" Montgomery 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Bishop Odo of Bayeux.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Coronation of William The Conqueror

In 1052 Archbishop Stigand was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury which he held jointly with his Bishopric of Worcester making him very wealthy. Five successive Popes excommunicated Stigand for his holding of both Winchester and Canterbury. His excommunication meant he could ot preside at the Coronation of William The Conqueror.

John of Worcester. Sep 1066. Meanwhile, earl William (age 38) was laying waste Sussex, Kent, Hampshire, Surrey, Middlesex, and Herefordshire, and ceased not from burning vills and slaughtering the inhabitants, until he came to a vill called Beorcham, where Aldred, the archbishop, Wulfstan (age 58), bishop of Worcester, Walter, bishop of Hereford, Edgar (age 15) the etheling, the earls Edwin and Morcar, and some Londoners of the better sort, with many others, met him, and, giving hostages, made their submission, and swore fealty to him; but, although he concluded a treaty with them, he still allowed his troops to burn and pillage the vills. The feast of our Lord's Nativity approaching, he marched the whole army to London that he might be proclaimed king there; and as Stigand, the primate of all England, lay under the censure of the apostolical pope for not having obtained the pall canonically, he was anointed by Aldred, archbishop of York, with great ceremony, at Westminster, on Christmas-day, which that year fell on a Monday; having first, as the archbishop required, sworn before the altar of St. Peter the apostle, in the presence of the clergy and people, to protect the holy churches of God and their governors, and to rule the whole nation subject to him with justice and kingly providence, to make and maintain just laws, and straitly to forbid every sort of rapine and all unrighteous judgements.

Flowers of History. Before 25 Dec 1066. William, Duke of Normandy (age 38), proceeded to the city of London, was received with great exultation by both clergy and people, and was proclaimed king by universal acclamation, and on the day of the birth of our Lord he received the crown of the kingdom of England from Aeldred, archbishop of York. For he refused to accept the office of consecration from Stigand archbishop of Canterbury, although of ancient right that solemn office is known to belong to that see, because he had no legal right to occupy that pre-eminent dignity. Then, haying received homage and the oath of fealty, and hostages likewise, from the nobles, and being confirmed in his kingdom, be became the terror of all those who had aspired to the kingdom. And having arranged his affairs in the different cities and castles, and having placed his own servants in them, he sailed back to Normandy [Map] with the English hostages, and with inestimable treasures. And, when he put the hostages in prison, and committed them to the custody of safe keepers, he returned again to England, where he distributed with a liberal hand the estates and possessions of the Epglish among his Norman comrades who had helped him to subdue the country in the battle of Hastings; expelling all the legitimate owners successively, and becoming a tyrant rather than a king, he burdened the little that remained to them with the yoke of perpetual slavery. And when he saw himself now raised to such a lofty dignity, and confirmed in his proud kingdom, he became rapidly changed into another man; and, alas ! alas ! trampled under foot the nobles of the land, whom their hereditary blood had elevated from the times of old. And the nobles of the kingdom being indignant at this, fled, some of them to Malcolm, king of Scotland (age 35), others, preferring to end their unhappy lives rather than to endure a shameful slavery, sought the desert places and woods, and there living the life of wild beasts, and repenting of having made submission to the Normans, and being weighed down as to their inmost hearts with violent grief, though it was now too late, had recourse to the only hope left them, and prepared secret plots and intrigues. But the noble counts, the brothers Edwin and Morcar, and many other nobles, and many also of the bishops and clergy and many others, whom it would take too long to enumerate by name, when they saw that theirs was the weaker side, and as they disdained to become slaves, abandoned England altogether.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Coronation of Queen Matilda

John of Worcester. 1068. After Easter [23rd March], the countess Matilda (age 37) came to England from Normandy, and was crowned queen by Aldred, archbishop of York, on Whitsunday [1lth May]. After this, Mariesweyn and Cospatric, and some of the most noble of the Northumbrian nation, in order to escape the king's tyranny, and fearing that, like others, they might be thrown into prison, took with them Edgar (age 17) the etheling, with his mother Agatha and his two sisters, Margaret (age 23) and Christina (age 11), and, embarking for Scotland, wintered there under favour of Malcolm (age 36), king of Scots. Meanwhile, king William (age 40) marched his army to Nottingham [Map], and, having fortified the castle there, proceeded to York [Map], where he erected two strong forts, and having stationed in them five hundred men, he gave orders that strong castles should be built at Lincoln, Lincolnshire [Map] and other places.

Flowers of History. 11 May 1068. Matilda (age 37), the wife of king William (age 40), was consecrated queen on the day of Pentecost, by Aeldred, archbishop of York, on the twenty-second of March. [Note. The date a mistake. Pentecost the fiftieth day after Easter so usually in May. Pentcost known as White Sunday, or Whit-Sunday.] This year also, William (age 40) had a son born in England, who was called Henry. For his first-born, William Rufus (age 12), and also Robert (age 17), were born in Normandy, before their father had conquered England.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 11 May 1068. This Easter came the king (age 40) to Winchester, Hampshire [Map]; and Easter was then on the tenth before the calends of April. Soon after this came the Lady Matilda (age 37) hither to this land; and Archbishop Eldred hallowed her to queen at Westminster on Whit Sunday.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle of Bleadon

John of Worcester. 1068. While these events were in process, the sons of king Harold, Godwin (age 19), Edmund (age 19), and Magnus (age 17), returned from Ireland, and landed in Somersetshire, where Eadnoth, who had been the horse-thane of king Harold, opposed them with his forces, and giving them battle, was slain, with many of his troops. Flushed with victory, and having carried off much plunder from Devon and Cornwall, they returned to Ireland.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle of Northam

John of Worcester. 24 Jun 1069. Two of Harold's sons came again from Ireland, with sixty-four ships, and landing about the Nativity of St. John the Baptist [24th June] at the mouth of the river Tivy, fought a severe battle with Brian (age 29), count of Brittany; after which they returned to the place whence they came.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Council of Windsor

John of Worcester. 23 May 1070. On Whitsunday [3rd May] the king (age 42), at Windsor [Map], gave the archbishopric of York to the venerable Thomas, canon of Bayeux, and the bishopric of Winchester to his chaplain, Walkeline. On the following day, by the king's command, Ermenfrid, bishop of Sion, held a synod, [the other legates] the cardinals John and Peter having returned to Rome. At this synod, Ethelric, bishop of Sussex, was uncanonically deposed; and although he was guilty of no crime, the king soon afterwards placed him in confinement at Marlborough, Wiltshire [Map]; several abbots were also deprived. After these depositions, the king gave the bishopric of East-Anglia to Arfast, and the bishopric of Sussex to Stigand79, who were both his chaplains; which Stigand transferred his see to Chichester, the chief city in his diocese: the king also gave abbeys to some Norman monks. The archbishop of Canterbury being degraded, and the archbishop of York dead, Walkeline was, by the king's command, consecrated by the same Ermenfrid, bishop of Sion, on the octave of Whitsunday [30th May].

Note 79. This first bishop of Chichester must not be confounded with the archbishop of the same name.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Murder of Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1069. This year died Aldred, Archbishop of York; and he is there buried, at his see [Map]. He died on the day of Protus and Hyacinthus, having held the see with much dignity ten years wanting only fifteen weeks. Soon after this came from Denmark three of the sons of King Sweyne (age 50) with two hundred and forty ships, together with Earl Esborn and Earl Thurkill, into the Humber; where they were met by the child Edgar (age 18), and Earl Waltheof, and Merle-Sweyne, and Earl Gospatric with the Northumbrians, and all the landsmen; riding and marching full merrily with an immense army: and so all unanimously advanced to York; where they stormed and demolished the castle, and won innumerable treasures therein; slew there many hundreds of Frenchmen, and led many with them to the ships; but, ere that the shipmen came thither, the Frenchmen had burned the city, and also the holy minster of St. Peter [Map] had they entirely plundered, and destroyed with fire. When the king heard this, then went he northward with all the force that he could collect, despoiling and laying waste the shire withal; whilst the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber, where the king could not come at them. The king was in York on Christmas Day, and so all the winter on land, and came to Winchester at Easter. Bishop Egelric, who was at Peterborough, was this year betrayed, and led to Westminster; and his brother Egelwine was outlawed. This year also died Brand, Abbot of Peterborough, on the fifth before the calends of December.

On 28 Jan 1069 Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria was burned to death in Durham, County Durham [Map] when a rebel army set fire to the house in which he was staying. All his men were killed. In retaliation King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 41) commenced the Harrying of the North.

Between Nov 1069 and Mar 1070 the Harrying of the North was the near destruction of Lancashire, Yorkshire, County Durham, Northumberland, Westmoreland and Cumberland by King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 41) in response to a rebel army having killed his man Murder of Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria. Somewhat difficult to estimate its effect historians believe around 100,000 people were killed and sixty percent of property destroyed. King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 41) then replaced the nobilty with his own men to ensure future compliance.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Sveyn II's Raid on England

Flowers of History. 1069. Between the time of the two festivals of the blessed Virgin Mary, in the autumn, the two sons of Sweyn (age 50) [King Harald III of Denmark (age 29) and King Canute "The Holy" IV of Denmark (age 27)] came with three hundred ships from Denmark into England, in order to subdue it in a hostile manner, and to take king William prisoner (age 41), or else expel him from England. But when their arrival was noised abroad, the counts, and barons, and nobles of the land went forth to meet them, being oppressed by the intolerable arrogance of the Normans; and they made a treaty with them, and so joined the army of the Danes, in order to overthrow king William (age 41). But William (age 41), that most prudent king, when he saw the danger that threatened him, humbled himself to them, and checked the insolence of the Normans; and having in this way recalled many of the English nobles to their allegiance, and having sagaciously made a treaty with them all, he took the city of York [Map] by storm, which was a great rendezvous of the Danes, and made himself master of every thing in it, and slew many thousand men there.

In 1069 King Sweyn II of Denmark (age 50) sent an army to England to attack King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 41) in support of Edgar Ætheling II King England (age 18). Sveyn's (age 50) army captured York [Map] and were then bought off.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Harrying of the North

On 28 Jan 1069 Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria was burned to death in Durham, County Durham [Map] when a rebel army set fire to the house in which he was staying. All his men were killed. In retaliation King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 41) commenced the Harrying of the North.

Between Nov 1069 and Mar 1070 the Harrying of the North was the near destruction of Lancashire, Yorkshire, County Durham, Northumberland, Westmoreland and Cumberland by King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 41) in response to a rebel army having killed his man Murder of Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria. Somewhat difficult to estimate its effect historians believe around 100,000 people were killed and sixty percent of property destroyed. King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 41) then replaced the nobilty with his own men to ensure future compliance.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle of Mechain

In 1069 at the Battle of Mechain fought in Radnorshire, Powys the brothers Maredudd Cadelling and Idwal Cadelling attempted to regain control of Radnorshire, Powys from brothers Bleddyn ap Cynfyn King Gwynedd King Powys and Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn Mathrafal. Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn Mathrafal and Idwal Cadelling were killed. Maredudd Cadelling died of exposure following the battle.

2nd Millennium, 11th Century Events, 1050-1099 Norman Invasion, Battle of Cassel

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1070. Earl Baldwin (age 40) also died, and his son Arnulf (age 15) succeeded to the earldom. Earl William (age 50), in conjunction with the king of the Franks (age 17), was to be his guardian; but Earl Robert (age 37) came and slew his kinsman Arnulf (age 15) and the earl (age 50), put the king to flight, and slew many thousands of his men.

On 22 Feb 1071 Battle of Cassel was fought between uncle Robert "The Frisian" I Count Flanders (age 38) and nephew Arnulf III Count Flanders (age 16), supported by his mother Richilde Countess Flanders and Hainault and Philip "Amorous" I King France (age 18), over the succession of Flanders.

Arnulf III Count Flanders (age 16) was killed. His brother Baldwin Flanders II Count Hainault (age 15) succeeded II Count Hainault. Robert "The Frisian" I Count Flanders (age 38) was appointed I Count Flanders.

William Fitzosbern 1st Earl Hereford (age 51) was killed. His son Roger de Breteuil Fitzosbern 2nd Earl Hereford succeeded 2nd Earl Hereford.

Eustace Flanders II Count Boulogne (age 56) and his son Eustace Flanders III Count Boulogne fought for Robert. During the battle Robert "The Frisian" I Count Flanders (age 38) and Richilde Countess Flanders and Hainault were captured, and subsequently exchanged for each other.