1230-1259 Henry III

1230-1259 Henry III is in 13th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, Death of Berengaria of Navarre

On 23 Dec 1230 Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England (age 65) died. She the widow of King Richard "Lionheart" I of England who she had married in 1191 in Cyprus whilst he was on Crusade. She had been brought to Cyprus by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England who was near seventy at the time. Their marriage started with his taking Jerusalem then being captured and held hostage for three years. There were no children of the marriage. She is believed to have never set foot in England. She didn't marry again.

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, Battle of Monmouth

Flowers of History 1233. Of the fierce battle between the marshal and the Poictevins.

In the same year the marshal (age 42), on one of his foraging incursions into the territories of his enemies, came to the town of Monmouth [Map], which was hostile to him, where he ordered his army to proceed on their expedition, whilst he with a hundred of his fellow knights turned aside towards the castle of that place to examine its condition, as he purposed to besiege it in a few days ; but as he was riding round the walls of the town, he was seen by Baldwin de Guisnes (age 33), to whom the king had entrusted the charge of that castle [Map] together with several Poictevins, and understanding that the marshal was there with only a few followers for the purpose of examining the castle, he sallied out with a thousand brave and well-equipped soldiers, and pursued him at full speed, designing to make him and his followers prisoners and bring them into the town. The earl Marshal's companions however, when they saw the impetuous advance of the enemy, advised him to consult their safety by flight, saying that it would be rash for such a few of them to engage with such a number of the enemy ; to which the marshal replied that he had never as yet turned his back on his enemies in battle, and declared that he would not do so now, and exhorted them to defend themselves bravely and not to die unavenged. The troops from the castle then rushed fiercely on them and attacked them with their lances and swords [Battle of Monmouth]: a severe though very unequal conflict then ensued, yet although there were only a hundred of the marshal's party to oppose a thousand of their adversaries, they fought for a great part of the day. But Baldwin de Guisnes with twelve of his stoutest and best armed soldiers made au attack on the marshal in persor, and endeavoured to take him prisoner and carry him off to the castle ; he however kept them at a distance, brandishing his sword right and left, and struck down whoever came within reach, either killing them or stunning them hy the force of his blows, and although engaged single-handed against twelve enemies, defended himself for a length of time. His enemies at length, not daring to approach him, killed the horse he rode with their lances ; but the marshal, who was well practised in the French way of fighting, seized one of the knights who was attacking him by the feet, and dragged him to the ground, and then quickly mounting his adversary's horse, he renewed the battle. The knight Baldwin was ashamed that the marshal defended himself single-handed against so many of his enemies for such a time, and made a desperate attack on him, and seizing his helmet, tore it from his head with such violence, that blood gushed forth from his mouth and nostrils ; he then seized the marshal's horse by the bridle, and endeavoured to drag it with its rider towards the castle, whilst others assisted him by impelling the marshal on from behind. The latter however, sweeping his sword behind him, struck two of his enemies to the earth stunned, but could not then release himself from their grasp. At this juncture however a cross-bowman amongst the marshal's company, seeing his lord in danger, discharged an arrow from his bow, which, striking Baldwin, who was dragging the marshal away, in the breast, entered his body, notwithstanding his armour, and he fell to the earth believing himself mortally wounded ; his companions on seeing this, left the marshal, and went to raise Baldwin nora the ground, for they thought that he was dead.

Flowers of History 1233. After this battle the marshal with Gilbert Basset, Richard Siward, and his other proscribed confederates, laid ambuscades for the Poictevins who held charge of the king's castles, so that whenever any of them went out foraging, they were attacked, and no quarter was given them: the consequence of which was, that the whole atmosphere in that part of the country was tainted by the numbers of dead foreigners who lay about in the roads and other places.

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

Chronica Majora. 14 Jan 1236. Anno Domini 1236, which was the twentieth year of the reign of King Henry the Third, he held his court at Winchester at Christmas, where he observed that festival with rejoicings. He was at this time anxiously looking for the return of the special messengers, whom he had sent into Provence to Raymond (age 38), count of that province, with letters containing his own inmost thoughts about contracting a marriage with his daughter Eleanor (age 13). This said count was a man of illustrious race and brave in battle, but, by continual wars, he had wasted almost all the money he possessed. He had married the daughter (age 38) of Thomas, the late count of Savoy, and sister of the present count, Amadeus (age 39), a woman of remarkable beauty, by name Beatrice (age 38). This lady had issue by the aforesaid count, two daughters of great beauty, the elder of whom, named Margaret (age 15), was married to Louis (age 21), the French king, as we are told by a clerk named John de Gates; and the king of England had now, by the aforesaid messengers, demanded the younger one, a young lady of handsome appearance, in marriage. In order to obtain this favour, he had secretly sent Richard, prior of Hurle, in advance, who faithfully and with diligence brought the matter to a conclusion. On the prior's returning and telling the king the result, the latter sent him back to the count with some other messengers, namely, the bishops Hugh of Ely, and Robert of Hereford, and the brother of Robert de SANFORD, the master of the Knights Templars. These messengers were received by the count on their arrival in Provence with the greatest honour and respect, and from his hands received his daughter Eleanor, for the purpose of being united to the King of England; she was also attended by her uncle, William, bishop elect of Valentia; a man of distinction, and by the count of Champagne, a relation of the English king. The king of Navarre, on learning that they would travel through his territories, went joyfully to meet them, and accompanied them as a guide through his dominions during a journey of five days and more; he also, from his natural generosity, paid all their expenses, both for horses and attendants. Their retinue consisted of more than three hundred horsemen, not including the people who followed them in great numbers. On reaching the boundaries of France, they obtained not only a safe but honourable passage through that country, under conduct of the French king (age 21) and his queen (age 15), the sister of the lady about to be married to the English king, and also of Blanche (age 47), the French king's mother. They embarked at the port of Sandwich [Note. Should be Wissant], and with full sail made for Dover, Kent [Map], where they arrived, after a quick passage, before they were expected. Having thus safely landed, they set out for Canterbury, Kent [Map], and were met by the king, who rushed into the arms of the messengers, and, having seen the lady and received possession of her, he married her at Canterbury; the ceremony being performed on the fourteenth of January, by Edmund, archbishop (age 61) of that place, assisted by the bishops, who had come with the lady, in the presence of the other nobles and prelates of the kingdom. On the 19th of January the king went to Westminster, where an extra-ordinary solemnity took place on the following day, which was Sunday, at which the king wore his crown and Eleanor was crowned queen. Thus was Henry the Third married at Canterbury, and the nuptials were celebrated in London, at Westminster, on the feast of St. Fabian and St. Sebastian.

Chronica Majora. 19 Jan 1236. There were assembled at the king's (age 28) nuptial festivities such a host of nobles of both sexes, such numbers of religious men, such crowds of the populace, and such a variety of actors, that London, with its capacious bosom, could scarcely contain them. The whole city was ornamented with flags and banners, chaplets and hangings, candles and lamps, and with wonderful devices and extraordinary representations, and all the roads were cleansed from mud and dirt, sticks, and everything offensive. The citizens, too, went out to meet the king (age 28) and queen (age 13), dressed out in their ornaments, and vied with each other in trying the speed of their horses. On the same day, when they left the city for Westminster, to perform the duties of butler to the king (which office belonged to them by right of old, at the coronation), they proceeded thither dressed in silk garments, with mantles worked in gold, and with costly changes of raiment, mounted on valuable horses, glittering with new bits and saddles, and riding in troops arranged in order. They carried with them three hundred and sixty gold and silver cups, preceded by the king's trumpeters and with horns sounding, so that such a wonderful novelty struck all who beheld it with astonishment. The archbishop of Canterbury (age 61), by the right especially belonging to him, performed the duty of crowning, with the usual solemnities, the bishop of London assisting him as a dean, the other bishops taking their stations according to their rank. In the same way all the abbats, at the head of whom, as was his right, was the abbat of St. Alban's (for as the Protomartyr of England, B. Alban, was the chief of all the martyrs of England, so also was his abbat the chief of all the abbats in rank and dignity), as the authentic privileges of that church set forth. The nobles, too, performed the duties, which, by ancient right and custom, pertained to them at the coronations of kings. In like manner some of the inhabitants of certain cities discharged certain duties which belonged to them by right of their ancestors. The earl of Chester (age 29) carried the sword of St. Edward, which was called "Curtein", before the king, as a sign that he was earl of the palace, and had by right the power of restraining the king if he should commit an error. The earl was attended by the constable of Chester (age 44), and kept the people away with a wand when they pressed forward in a disorderly way. The grand marshal of England, the earl of Pembroke (age 39), carried a wand before the king and cleared the way before him both, in the church and in the banquet-hall, and arranged the banquet and the guests at table. The Wardens of the Cinque Ports carried the pall over the king, supported by four spears, but the claim to this duty was not altogether undisputed. The earl of Leicester (age 28) supplied the king with water in basins to wash before his meal; the Earl Warrenne performed the duty of king's Cupbearer, supplying the place of the earl of Arundel, because the latter was a youth and not as yet made a belted knight. Master Michael Belet was butler ex officio; the earl of Hereford (age 32) performed the duties of marshal of the king's household, and William Beauchamp (age 51) held the station of almoner. The justiciary of the forests arranged the drinking cups on the table at the king's right hand, although he met with some opposition, which however fell to the ground. The citizens of London passed the wine about in all directions, in costly cups, and those of Winchester superintended the cooking of the feast; the rest, according to the ancient statutes, filled their separate stations, or made their claims to do so. And in order that the nuptial festivities might not be clouded by any disputes, saving the right of any one, many things were put up with for the time which they left for decision at a more favourable opportunity. The office of chancellor of England, and all the offices connected with the king, are ordained and assized in the Exchequer. Therefore the chancellor, the chamberlain, the marshal, and the constable, by right of their office, took their seats there, as also did the barons, according to the date of their creation, in the city of London, whereby they each knew his own place. The ceremony was splendid, with the gay dresses of the clergy and knights who were present. The abbat of Westminster sprinkled the holy water, and the treasurer, acting the part of sub-dean, carried the Paten. Why should I describe all those persons who reverently ministered in the church to God as was their duty? Why describe the abundance of meats and dishes on the table & the quantity of venison, the variety of fish, the joyous sounds of the glee-men, and the gaiety of the waiters? Whatever the world could afford to create pleasure and magnificence was there brought together from every quarter.

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, 1236 Battle of Galloway

Chronica Majora.

Apr 1236. About the same time, several nobles and powerful men from the various provinces of the West, namely from Galloway, the Isle of Man, and parts of Ireland, assembled at the instance of Hugh de Lacy (age 60), whose daughter had been married to Alan of Galloway, lately deceased, and they all united together for the purpose of restoring Galloway to the illegitimate son of the aforesaid Alan, and of annulling by force the just disposition made by the king of Scots (age 37), who had distributed the inheritance amongst the three daughters of Alan, to whom it belonged by hereditary right. In order, therefore, to revoke and annul his distribution, and to restore the territory to the aforesaid Thomas, or to the son of Thomas, Alan's brother, or at least to one of that family, these presumptuous chiefs flew to arms, and, bursting forth into insolence, endeavoured to free themselves from the authority of the king. And in order to bring their attempts to the desired result, they entered into a strange kind of treaty, by means of a certain mode of divination, yet according to an abominable custom of their ancestors. For all these barbarians and their chiefs and magistrates drew blood from a vein near the heart, and poured it into a large cup, they then stirred and mixed it up, and afterwards, drinking to one another, quaffed it off, as a token that they were from that time forth allied by an indissoluble and, as it were, kindred treaty, and indivisible both in prosperity and adversity, even at the risk of their heads. They therefore provoked the king and the kingdom to war, burning their own houses and those of their neighbours, that the king, when he arrived, might not find either shelter or food for his army, and indulged in rapine and incendiarism, heaping injury on injury. On hearing of this, the king of Scotland collected his forces from all quarters, and, marching to meet them, drew up his forces in order and engaged them in open battle; and the fortune of war turning against the Galwegians, they were put to flight, and the royal troops, pursuing them at the sword's point, slew many thousands of them, and those who were taken alive by the king and his soldiers were put to an ignominious death without any chance of ransoming themselves. Some threw themselves on the king's mercy, and were consigned to close imprisonment by him till he could consult as to what should be done with them, and all of them, together with their descendants, he, not without good reason, disinherited. Having gained this victory the king glorified God, the lord of armies, and listening to good counsel, he sent word to Roger de Quincy (age 41), earl of Winchester, John Baliol (age 28), and William, the son of the earl of Albemarle, that, as they had married the three sisters, the daughters of Alan of Galloway, they might now, as the disturbances were quelled, hold peaceable possession of the rights pertaining to them. This battle took place in the month of April, the fortune of war favouring the king of Scots.

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, Christening of Edward I

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, Synod of Worcester

In 1266 Bishop Walter de Cantelupe (age 75) convened the Synod of Worcester.

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, Henry VII King Germany Dies Conrad I Succeeds

On 12 Feb 1242 Henry VII King Germany (age 31) died. His half brother Conrad Hohenstaufen King Germany (age 13) succeeded King Germany.

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, Battle of Taillebourg

On 21 Jul 1242 the forces of King Henry III of England (age 34) and Hugh Lusignan XI Count Lusignan VI Count La Marche II Count Angoulême (age 21) fought against the forces of at King Louis IX of France (age 28) and his brother Alphonse Capet Count Poitou II Count Toulose (age 21) at Taillebourg [Map] during the Battle of Taillebourg. The battle was a decisive victory for the French. Henry thereafter signed a five-year truce with the French.

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, First Council of Lyon

On 15 Jan 1245 Archbishop Boniface Savoy (age 38) was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury at Lyon, France [Map] by Pope Innocent IV during the First Council of Lyon.

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, Battle of Fariskur

On 06 Apr 1250 the Battle of Fariskur was the last major battle of the Seventh Crusade. The Crusader army was defeated. King Louis IX of France (age 35) and his two brothers Alphonse Capet Count Poitou II Count Toulose (age 29) and King Charles Capet of Sicily (age 23) were captured.

On 08 May 1250 King Louis IX of France (age 36) and his two brothers Alphonse Capet Count Poitou II Count Toulose (age 29) and King Charles Capet of Sicily (age 23) with 12,000 fellow prisoners were allowed to leave for Acre after paying a ransom of 400,000 dinars.

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, Wedding of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile

On 01 Nov 1254 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 15) and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 13) were married at Abbey of Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas. She the daughter of Ferdinand III King Castile III King Leon and Joan Dammartin Queen Consort Castile and Leon (age 34). He the son of King Henry III of England (age 47) and Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 31). They were second cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

2nd Millennium, 13th Century Events, 1230-1259 Henry III, Battle of Bryn Derwin

In Jun 1255 Llewellyn "Last" Aberffraw (age 22) defeated his brothers Owain "The Red" Aberffraw (age 23) and Dafydd ap Gruffudd Aberffraw Prince of Wales (age 16) during the Battle of Bryn Derwin. Owain "The Red" Aberffraw (age 23) and Dafydd ap Gruffudd Aberffraw Prince of Wales (age 16) were both imprisoned.