2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War

1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War is in 15th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Death of Dowager Queen Consort Catherine of Valois

Chronicle of Gregory 1437. 03 Jan 1437. Ande that same yere Quene Kateryn (age 35) dyde at Bredmonsey [Map] the iij day of Jany ver.

On 03 Jan 1437 Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England (age 35) died at Bermondsey Abbey [Map]. She had been married aged eighteen to King Henry V of England for two years three months. Their son was King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 15).

After Henry V died she disappears somewhat from the records other than for Parliament to legislate against her marrying without permission, which she then duly did, to Owen Tudor (age 37), and had two sons, the elder of which was father to King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Assassination of King James I of Scotland

On 21 Feb 1437 King James I of Scotland (age 42) was assassinated at Blackfriars. He was buried at Carthusian Charterhouse, Perth. His son King James II of Scotland (age 6) succeeded II King Scotland. His wife, Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland (age 33), managed to escape.

On 26 Mar 1437 Walter Stewart 1st Earl Atholl 3rd Earl Caithness (age 77) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Edinburgh Castle [Map] for having conspired to assassinate King James I of Scotland (deceased). He had unbarred the doors to the royal apartments, permitting assassins to enter the King's lodging. Earl Atholl and Earl Caithness forfeit by attainder.

Chronicle of Gregory 1437. Ande the same yere the Kynge of Schottys was trayturly slayne in hys owne londe, of a false squyr and the squyer ys sone, of the same londe, that was namyd Eobert Grame. The whyche squyer and hys sone were take anon aftyr, and there they were playnely put to dethe, as welle worthy was, to be traye any kynge or prynce.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Death of Sigismund King of Hungary Germany Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Douglas Black Dinner

On 24 Nov 1440 William Crichton 1st Lord Crichton arranged a dinner of reconciliation at the Great Hall, Edinburgh Castle. During the course of the dinner the young brothers William Douglas 3rd Duke Touraine (age 16) and David Douglas (age 10) was beheaded in front of the young King James II of Scotland (age 10).

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 1441. And in the same yere there were take certayne traytourys, the whyche purposyd to slee oure lege lorde the kyng (age 19) by crafte of egremauncey1, and there instrumentys were opynly shewyde to alle men at the Crosse [Map] in Powlys chyrche yerde a-pon a schaffolde i-made there-for. Att the whyche tyme was present one of the same traytours, whiche was callyd Roger Bulbroke, a clerke of Oxforde, and for that same tresoun my Lady of Glouceter (age 41) toke sayntwerye at Westemyster; and the xj day of Auguste thenne next folowynge she toke the way to the castelle of Lesnes.

Before 27 Oct 1441 Eleanor Cobham Duchess of Gloucester (age 41), wife of the heir presumptive Humphrey 1st Duke Gloucester (age 51), brother of the deceased King Henry V of England, uncle of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 19), was tried for predicting the future of the King; in reality a veiled attack on her husband who had over-reached himself. She had consulted two astrologers Thomas Southwell and Roger Bolingbroke. All three were arrested, tried and found guilty. Eleanor denied most of the charges but confessd to obtaining potions from Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" (age 26). She was sentenced to do public penance, divorce her husband and remain confined for the remainder of her life.

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 27 Oct 1441. And on Syn Symon and Jude ys eve was the wycche (age 26) be syde Westemyster brent in Smethefylde [Map], and on the day of Symon and Jude the person of Syn Stevynnys in Walbroke, whyche that was one of the same fore sayde traytours, deyde in the Toure [Map] for sorowe.

Note 1. Necromancy.

On 27 Oct 1441 Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" (age 26) was burned at the stake.

On 28 Oct 1441 Thomas Southwell died whilst in the Tower of London [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 13 Nov 1441. Ande in that same yere the Lady of Glouceter (age 41) for the same treson she was juggyde by the spyrytualle lawe to iij [3] sondyr or dyvers placys, that ys to wete, on Mondaye, the xiij daye of Novembyr, to Powlys; and on the Wanysday i-sygnyd unto Crychyrche; and on the Fryday nexte folowyng to Synt Mychellys in Cornehylle.

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 18 Nov 1441. And on the Satyrday next folowyng was Roger Bulbroke hanggyde, and drawe, and quarteryde at Tyburne.

On 18 Nov 1441, Saturday, Roger Bolingbroke was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map].

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, 1443 Beaufort Campaign

In Apr 1443 John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset (age 40) declared himself Lieutenant of Aquitaine and Captain-General of Guyenne. He was paid £25,000 attracting the enmity of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 31) whose significants debts remained unpaid by the Crown.

In Sep 1443 John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset (age 40) led 7000 men to Cherbourg [Map]. He returned around Dec 1443 having achieved nothing but the loss of all his funds and, possibly, half his men.

Chronicle of Gregory 1443. 08 Sep 1443. And on the same yere, the viij day of Septembyr, there was done a grete vyage yn Fraunce by the Duke of Somesette (age 40) and his retynowe; and at the same viage were slayne and takyn to the nombyr of iij M vij c [3700], whereof were ix lordys and a squyer, whyche that was a grete captayne.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Treaty of Tours

On 28 May 1444 the Treaty of Tours was concluded. The terms included the marriage of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 22) and Margaret of Anjou (age 14) in return for which England ceded the strategically important French County of Maine to France; she brought no dowry. The Treaty was negotiated by William de la Pole Duke of Suffolk (age 47). The cessation of Maine subsequently came as something of surprise to Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (age 38) who was its Governor. He, Somerset (age 38), was offered the Governorship of Normandy instead leading to a further rift between Somerset (age 38) and Richard Duke of York (age 32) who had already been offered Normandy. These seeds of the Wars of the Roses were falling on fertile ground.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Battle of Arbroath

On 24 Jan 1445 the Battle of Arbroath was fought between Clan Lindsay and Clans Ogilvy, Gordon, Oliphant, Seton and Forbes. David Lindsay 3rd Earl Crawford (age 40) was killed when attempting to prevent the battle by riding between the two armies in an attempt to call a truce. Unfortunately a member of the Clan Ogilvy, thinking the Earl was attacked threw his spear at the Earl, hitting him in the mouth, killing him instantly. Clan Lindsay victorious.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Richard of York meets Margaret of Anjou

On 18 Mar 1445 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 33) met Margaret of Anjou (age 14) at Pontoise [Map] on his mission to bring her back to Endland for her marriage to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 23).

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 01 Apr 1445. And a pon the fyrste day of Aprylle Quene Margarete (age 15) landed at Portysmowthe [Map], and a-pon the x day of the same monythe sche was weddyd at a lytylle velage [Map] in Hampsehyre i-namyd.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Coronation of Queen Margaret of Anjou

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 28 May 1445. And a-pon the morowe, the Satyrday, she was brought thoroughe London syttyng in a lytter by twyne ij [2] goode and nobylle stedys i-trappyd with whyte satton, and sche was conveyyde unto Westemyster. And apon the morowe the Sonday was the coronacyon, and ij [2] dayes aftyr there was grette revylle of justys of pes in the sayntewery at Westemyster, &c.

On 30 May 1445, five weeks after her marriage, Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 15) was crowned Queen Consort England by Archbishop John Stafford at Westminster Abbey [Map].

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Richard of York returns to England

On 20 Oct 1445 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 34) returned to England at the end of his five-year appointment in France.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

On 20 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 56) was arrested on a charge of treason by John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont (age 37), Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 44), Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke Somerset (age 41), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 47) and Ralph Boteler 6th and 1st Baron Sudeley (age 58).

On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 56) died at Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [Map]. He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke. He was buried at St Alban's Cathedral [Map]. Duke Gloucester, Earl Pembroke extinct. His death left England with no heir to the throne in a direct line. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 35) became heir presumptive until the birth of Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales six years later.

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 23 Feb 1447. Ande at Schroffe tyde nexte aftyr there was ordaynyd a Parlyment at Synt Edmondys Bury [Map]; ande att the comyng of the goode Duke Umfray, sum tyme Duke of Glouceter (age 56), uppon the Satyrday anon as he was a lyght of hys hors he was a-restyde of dyvers lordys for treson by commaundement of the kyng (age 25), and men sayde at that tyme. And uppon the Thursseday next folowynge he dyssesyd ande passyde owte of thys wrecchyde and false trobely worlde. And he ys buryde at Syn Albonys.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Richard York appointed Lieutenant of Ireland

On 30 Jul 1447 Richard Duke of York (age 35) was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. An attempt by the Council to isolate Richard (age 35).

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Warwick "Kingmaker" Becomes Earl of Warwick

On 03 Jan 1448 Anne Beauchamp 15th Countess Warwick (age 4) died at Ewelme, Oxfordshire aged four whilst in the care of Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (age 44).

After a prolonged legal dispute between her three half-aunts, Margaret Beauchamp Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 44), Eleanor Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 39), Elizabeth Beauchamp Baroness Latimer (age 31) and her full aunt Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 21), the courts decided her full aunt Anne Beauchamp (age 21) should succeed. Anne Beauchamp  (age 21) succeeded 16th Countess Warwick. Her husband Richard Neville (age 19) by marriage Earl Warwick; the first step on his journey to becoming Kingmaker.

The decision of the court was not subscribed to by Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (age 42) who was married to Anne's (age 21) half-sister Eleanor (age 39); he wanted his share of the considerable Beauchamp inheritance.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Battle of Sark

On 23 Oct 1448 Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde commanded at during the Battle of Sark inflicting a heavy defeat on the English forces. Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 27) and Thomas Harrington (age 48) were captured. Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 55) escaped.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Battle of Formigny

On 15 Apr 1450 the Battle of Formigny was a descisive victory for the French that destroyed the England's last army in France bringing to end English control of Normandy.

Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon (age 49) and Arthur Montfort III Duke Brittany (age 56) commanded the French. The English commander Thomas Kyriell (age 54) was captured.

The battle is considered to be one of the first where cannon played a decisive role.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Murder of William de la Pole

Before 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) exiled for five years for having lost the English possessions in Northern France including Anjou and Maine which were part of Margaret of Anjou's wedding settlement. Before he left he wrote to his eight year old son John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 7):

My dear and only well-beloved son, I beseech our Lord in Heaven, the Maker of all the World, to bless you, and to send you ever grace to love him, and to dread him, to the which, as far as a father may charge his child, I both charge you, and pray you to set all your spirits and wits to do, and to know his holy laws and commandments, by the which you shall, with his great mercy, pass all the great tempests and troubles of this wretched world.

And that also, knowingly, you do nothing for love nor dread of any earthly creature that should displease him. And there as any frailty maketh you to fall, beseech his mercy soon to call you to him again with repentance, satisfaction, and contrition of your heart, never more in will to offend him.

Secondly, next him above all earthly things, to be true liegeman in heart, in will, in thought, in deed, unto the king our aldermost high and dread sovereign lord, to whom both you and I be so much bound to; charging you as father can and may, rather to die than to be the contrary, or to know anything that were against the welfare or prosperity of his most royal person, but that as far as your body and life may stretch you live and die to defend it, and to let his highness have knowledge thereof in all the haste you can.

Thirdly, in the same way, I charge you, my dear son, always as you be bounden by the commandment of God to do, to love, to worship, your lady and mother; and also that you obey always her commandments, and to believe her counsels and advices in all your works, the which dread not but shall be best and truest to you. And if any other body would steer you to the contrary, to flee the counsel in any wise, for you shall find it naught and evil.

Thirdly, in the same way, I charge you, my dear son, always as you be bounden by the commandment of God to do, to love, to worship, your lady and mother; and also that you obey always her commandments, and to believe her counsels and advices in all your works, the which dread not but shall be best and truest to you. And if any other body would steer you to the contrary, to flee the counsel in any wise, for you shall find it naught and evil.

Moreover, never follow your own wit in nowise, but in all your works, of such folks as I write of above, ask your advice and counsel, and doing thus, with the mercy of God, you shall do right well, and live in right much worship, and great heart’s rest and ease.

And I will be to you as good lord and father as my heart can think.

And last of all, as heartily and as lovingly as ever father blessed his child in earth, I give you the blessing of Our Lord and of me, which of his infinite mercy increase you in all virtue and good living; and that your blood may by his grace from kindred to kindred multiply in this earth to his service, in such wise as after the departing from this wretched world here, you and they may glorify him eternally amongst his angels in heaven.

Written of mine hand,

The day of my departing from this land.

Your true and loving father

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 01 May 1450. Ande at hys passynge ovyr the see warde he was mette with by-twyne Dovyr and Calys by dyvers schyppys, of the whyche was here Admyralle Nycholas of the Towre; and yn that shyppe soo beyng in the see they smote of hys hedde of the fore sayde Duke of Sowthefolke (age 53), and they caste bothe body and hys hedde in to the see. And aftyr that hyt was takyn uppe and brought unto the towne of Dovyr [Map], and aftyr from thens brought unto Wynkylfylde [Map] in Sowthefolke, and there hyt ys i-buryde; whos name was Syr Wylliam Pole (age 53).

On 01 May 1450 William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) was beheaded at sea whilst travelling into exile his ship having been intercepted by the Nicholas of the Tower, or by Admiral Nicholas of the Tower. His son John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 7) succeeded 2nd Marquess Suffolk 1C, 5th Earl Suffolk. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 6) by marriage Marchioness Suffolk 1C. Earl Pembroke forfeit.

Paston Letters V1 120 William Lomner to John Paston. Also he asked the name of the sheppe, and whanne he knew it, he remembred Stacy that seid, if he myght eschape the daunger of the Towr, he should be saffe; and thanne his herte faylyd hym, for he thowghte he was desseyvyd, and yn the syght of all his men he was drawyn ought of the grete shippe yn to the bote; and there was an exe, and a stoke, and oon of the lewdeste of the shippe badde hym ley down his hedde, and he should be fair ferd wyth, and dye on a swerd; and toke a rusty swerd, and smotte of his hedde withyn halfe a doseyn strokes, and toke awey his gown of russet, and his dobelette of velvet mayled, and leyde his body on the sonds of Dover; and some sey his hedde was sette oon a pole by it, and hes men sette on the londe be grette circumstaunce and preye. And the shreve of Kent doth weche the body, and sent his under shreve to the juges to wete what to doo, and also to the Kenge whatte shalbe doo.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, 1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

From Apr 1450 to Jun 1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion was a popular revolt against the government of England which took place the south-east. Their leader Jack Cade led an army of men to London to force reform. When in the London the rebels, against the order of their leader, looted the city resulting in the citizens of London forcing them out culminating in a battle on London Bridge. Robert Poynings (age 31) joined the rebellion.

Polydore Vergil. Apr 1450. But when they perceived that the Kentishmen had turned to looting the city, they feared for their lives and thought they could not wait no longer to see how this fury turned out. But while the Kentishmen raged against the city like madmen, nobody dared resist them before they beheaded the Lord High Treasurer John Saye (age 55) and several noblemen.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. Apr 1450. Ande aftyr that the comyns of Kent a rosse with certayne othyr schyrys, and they chesse hem a captayne, the whyche captayne compellyd alle the gentellys to a-rysse why the hem. Ande at the ende of the Parlyment they come whythe a grete myght and a stronge oste unto the Blackehethe [Map], be syde Grene wyche, the nomber of xlvj M [46000]; and there they made a fylde, dykyd and stakyde welle a-bowt, as hyt ben in the londe of warre, save only they kepte ordyr among them, for als goode was Jacke Robyn as John at the Noke, for alle were as hyghe as pygysfete, unto the tyme that they shulde comyn and speke with suche statys and massyngerys as were sende unto hem; thenne they put alle hyr pouer unto the man that namyd hym captayne of alle hyr oste. And there they a-bode certayne days too the comyng of the kynge (age 28) fro the Parlymentte at Leyceter. Ande thenne the kyng (age 28) send unto the captayne dyvers lordys bothe spyrytualle and temporalle, to wytte and to have knowleche of that grette assembelynge and gaderyng of that grete a[n]d mysavysyd feleschyppe. The captayne of hem sendyng worde agayne unto the kynge (age 28), that hyt was for the wele of hym oure soverayne lorde, and of alle the realme, and for to dystrye the traytours beyng a-boute hym, whythe othyr dyvers poyntys that they wolde see that hyt were in schorte tyme a-mendyde. Uppon whyche answere that the kyng, a thedyr sent by hys lordys, dyd make a crye in the kyngys name of Engelonde that alle the kyngys lege men of Engelonde shulde a-voyde the fylde. And a-pon the nyght aftyr they were alle voydyd and a-goo.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. Jun 1450. The morne aftyr, the kynge (age 28) rode armyd at alle pecys from Syn Johnys be-syde Clerkynwelle [Map] thoroughe London; and whythe hym the moste party of temporalle lordys of thys londe of Engelond in there a beste raye. Aftyr that they were every lorde whythe hys retenowe, to the nombyr of x M [10000] personys, redy as they alle shulde have gon to batayle in to any londe of Crystyn-dome, whythe bendys a-bove hyr harnys that every lorde schulde be knowe from othyr.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 07 Jun 1450. And yn the fowarde, as they wolde have folowyde the captayne, was slayn Syr Umfray Stafforde (age 50) and Wylliam Stafford (age 30), squyer, one the mannylste man of alle thys realme of Engelonde, whythe many moo othyr of mene personys at Sevenocke [Map], in Kentt, in hyr oute ragyng fro hyr oste of our soverayne lordys the kyng, Harry the vj te . And the kyng (age 28) loggyd that nyght at Grenewyche [Map], and sone aftyr every lorde whythe hys retynewe rood home in to hyr contraye. [Note. The date sometimes given as the 08 Jun 1450 and 18 Jun 1850]

On 29 Jun 1450 Bishop William Ayscough (age 55) was murdered at Edington, Wiltshire by an angry mob..

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 01 Jul 1450. Ande aftyr that, uppon the fyrste day of Juylle, the same captayne come agayne, as the Kenttysche men sayde, but hyt was a-nothyr that namyd hymselfe the captayne, and he come to the Blacke Hethe [Map]. And uppon the morowe he come whythe a grette hoste yn to Sowtheworke [Map], and at the Whythe Herte he toke his loggynge.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 02 Jul 1450. And a-pon the morowe, that was the Fryday, a gayn evyn, they smote a sondyr the ropys of the draught brygge and faught sore a manly, and many a man was mortheryde and kylde in that conflycte, I wot not what [to] a name hyt for the multytude of ryffe raffe. And thenne they enteryde in to the cytte of London as men that hadde ben halfe be-syde hyr wytte; and in that furynys they wente, as they sayde, for the comyn wele of the realme of Ingelonde, evyn strayght unto a marchaunte ys place i-namyd Phylyppe Malpas of London. Yf hyt were trewe as they surmysyd aftyr ther doyng, I remytte me to ynke and pauper - Deus scit et ego non [God knows and I am not]. But welle I wote that every ylle begynnynge moste comynly hathe an ylle endyng, and every goode begynnyng hathe the wery goode endyng. Proverbium: - Felix principium finem facit esse beatum [A happy beginning makes an end happy]. And that Phylyppe Malpas was aldyrman, and they spoylydhym ande bare a-way moche goode of hys, and in specyalle moche mony, bothe of sylvyr and golde, the valowe of a notabylle som, and in specyalle of marchaundys, as of tynne, woode, madyr, and alym, whythe grette quantyte of wollyn clothe and many ryche jewellys, why the othyr notabylle stuffe of fedyr beddys, beddyng, napery, and many a ryche clothe of arys, to the vale we of a notabylle sum - nescio, set Deus omnia scit [I don't know, but God knows all things].

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 03 Jul 1450. Ande in the evenynge they went why the hyr sympylle captayne to hys loggynge; botte a certayne of hys sympylle and rude mayny a-bode there alle the nyght, weny[n]ge to them that they hadde wytte and wysdome for to have gydyde or put in gydyng alle Ingelonde, alsosone at they hadde gote the cytte of London by a mysse happe of cuttynge of ij sory cordys that no we be alteryde, and made ij stronge schynys of yryn unto the draught brygge of London. But they hadde othyr men with hem, as welle of London as of there owne party. And by hem of on parte and of that othyr parte they lefte noo thyng unsoffethe, a and they serchyd alle that nyght.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 04 Jul 1450. Ande in the morne he come yn a-gayne, that sory and sympylle and rebellyus captayne why the hys mayny; that was Satyrday, and hyt was also a Synt Martyn ys day1, the dedycacyon of Synt Martynys in the Vyntry [Map], the iiij day of Juylle. And thenne dyvers questys were i-sompnyd at the Gylhalle [Map]; and ther Robert Home beynge alderman was a-restydeand brought in to Newegate. And that same day Wylliam Crowemere (age 34), squyer, and Scheryffe of Kentt, was be-heddyde in the fylde whythe owte Algate at the mylys ende be-syde Clopton ys Place. And a nothyr man that was namyde John Bayle was be-heddyd at the Whytte Chapylle. And the same day aftyr-non was be-heddyd in Cheppe a-fore the Standard [Map], Syr Jamys Fynes (age 55), beyng that tyme the Lorde Saye and Grrette Treserer of Ingelonde, the whyche was brought oute of the Toure of London [Map] unto the Gylde Halle [Map], and there of dyvers tresons he was exampnyd, of whyche he knowlachyd of the dethe of that notabylle and famos prynce the Duke of Glouceter. And thenne they brought hym unto the Standard in Cheppe [Map], and there he ressayvyd hys jewys and hys dethe. And so forthe alle the iij [3] heddys that day smetyn of were sette uppon the Brygge of London [Map], and the ij othyr heddys takyn downe that stode a-pon the London Brygge by-fore. And at the comyng of the camptayne yn to Sowtheworke, he lete smyte of the hedde of a strong theff that was namyd Haywardyn.

Note 1. The Translation of St. Martin of Tours.

On 04 Jul 1450 ...

James Fiennes 1st Baron Saye and Sele (age 55) was beheaded at the Standard in Cheapside [Map]. His son William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele (age 22) succeeded 2nd Baron Saye and Sele.

His son in law William Cromer (age 34) was beheaded.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 05 Jul 1450. And uppon the morowe the Sonday at hyghe mas tyme a lette to be heddyd a man of Hampton, a squyer, the whyche was namyd Thomas Mayne. And that same evyn Londyn dyd a rysse and cam owte uppon hem at x [of] a the belle, beyng that tyme hyr captaynys the goode olde lorde Schalys (age 53) and Mathewe Goughe. Ande from that tyme unto the morowe viij of belle they were ever fyghtynge uppon London Brygge [Map], ande many a man was slayne and caste in Temys, harnys, body, and alle; and monge the presse was slayne Mathewe Goughe and John Sutton aldyrman. And the same nyght, a-non aftyr mydnyght, the Captayneof Kentte dyde fyre the draught brygge of London; and be-fore that tyme he breke bothe Kyngys Bynche [Map] ande the Marchelsy [Map], and lete owte alle the presoners that were yn them.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 06 Jul 1450. And uppon the morowe by tymys came my lorde the Cardynalle of Yorke (age 70), and my Lorde of Cauntyrbury, and the Byschoppe of Winchester (age 52), and they tretyde by twyne the Lorde Schalys (age 53) and that captayne, that the sore conflycte and skarmasche was sessyde, ande gaffe the captayne and hys mayne a generalle chartoure for hym and for alle hys company in hys name, callyng hym selfe John Mortymere, and thoroughe that mene they were i-voydyde the moste partye. And the vj day aftyr that, the Satyr-daye at evyn 3 the iij heddys were takyn downe of London Brygge, that ys to say, the Lorde Say (deceased) ys hedde, Crowmers (deceased), and the Bayleyes, and the othyr ij [2] heddys sette uppe a-yenne that stode a-pon London Brygge be-fore, and the body whythe hedde were i-burydde at the Gray Fryers at London.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 12 Jul 1450. And uppon the xij day of Juylle, the yere a-fore sayde, the sayde camptayne was cryde and proclaymyd traytoure, by the name of John Cade, in dyvers placys of London, and also in Sowtheworke, whythe many moo, that what man myght or wolde bryng the sayde John Cade to the kyng, qwyke or dede, shulde have of the kynge a thousande marke. Also who som evyr myght brynge or wolde brynge any of hys chyffe counsellourys, or of afynyte, that kepte any state or rewle or governansse undyr the sayd fals captayne John Cade, he schulde have to hys rewarde of the kynge v. c. [500] marke. And that day was that fals traytoure the Captayne of Kentte i-take and slayne in the Welde in the countre of Sowsex, and uppon the morowe he was brought in a .earre alle nakyd, and at the Herte in Sowetheworke there the carre was made stonde sty lie, the wyffe of the howse myght se hym yf hyt were the same man or no that was namyd the Captayne of Kente, for he was loggyd whythe yn hyr howse in hys pevys tyme of hys mys rewylie and rysynge. And thenne he was hadde in to the Kyngys Bynche [Map], and there he lay from Monday at evyn unto the Thursseday nexte folowynge at evyn; and whythe yn the Kynges Benehe [Map] the sayde captayne was be-heddyde and quarteryde; and the same day i-d[r]awe a-pon a hyrdylle in pecys whythe the hedde by-twyne hys breste from the Kyngys Benehe thoroughe owte Sowthewerke, and thenne ovyr Londyn Brygge, and thenne thoroughe London unto Newegate, and thenne hys hedde was takyn and sette uppon London Brygge.

On 12 Jul 1450 Jack Cade was captured at which time he was wounded and died of his wounds.

On 23 Sep 1450 William Tresham was killed by a group of men as a result of a propery dispute before he was tried for treason.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Harvest of Heads

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 1450. Ande at Rochester [Map] ix [11] men were be-heddyd at that same tyme, and hyr heddys were sende unto London by the kyngys commaundement, and sette uppon London Brygge [Map] alle at one tyme; and xij [12] heddys at a nothyr tyme were brought unto London at a sette uppe undyr the same forme, as hysa was commaundyd by the kyng. Men calle hyt in Kente the harvyste of hedys. Willb

Note a. So in MS.

Note b. The Christian name "Will." is added by a somewhat later hand. The date " 1451 " is also added in the margin in a hand decidedly more modern.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Battle of Brechin

16 Apr 1130. The Battle of Brechin took place around three miles north of Brechin. The rebellion was led by two pretenders to the Scottish crown, Malcolm Mac Alexander illegitimate son of Alexander I of Scotland, and Angus of Moray who was the grandson of King Lulach who had been deposed and killed by David (age 46) taking advantage of King David I of Scotland (age 46) being in England.

On 18 May 1452 the Battle of Brechin was fought between supporters of King James II of Scotland (age 21) and his rellious nobility including the Black Douglases. Alexander Gordon 1st Earl Huntley defeated the rebels led by Tiger Earl 4th Earl Crawford (age 29) on behalf on the King. John Lindsay (age 29), and the brothers William Gordon and Henry Gordon, were killed.

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Knighting at Greenwich

On 05 Jan 1453 brothers John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 22) and Thomas Neville (age 23), William "Black William" Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 30), brothers Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (age 22) and Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 21) and Roger Lewknor were knighted by King Henry VI (age 31) at Greenwich, Kent [Map]

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Battle of Heworth Moor

On or before 24 Aug 1453 Thomas Neville (age 23) and Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell Baroness Willoughby Eresby were married. Maud Stanhope 4th Baroness Cromwell Baroness Willoughby Eresby was the niece and heiress of Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 50) meaning traditional Percy lands would become Neville lands. The Percy's, being the older family, especially Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 30), took umbrage with the ensuing two year feud known as the Neville Percy Feud. He the son of Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 53) and Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury (age 46). He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 24 Aug 1453 John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 22) was ambushed at Heworth Moor York by Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 30) leading a force of 700 or more men when returning with his brother's wedding party from Tattershall Castle [Map] to Sheriff Hutton [Map].

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Battle of Castillon

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Henry VI's first Illness

In Aug 1453 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 31) suffered his first bout of illness; a mental breakdown. He was unresponsive for a year. His paternal grand-father Charles VI of France suffered a similar illness; his sobriquet "Mad".

2nd Millennium, 15th Century Events, 1436-1453 End of the Hundred Years War, Birth of Edward of Westminster

On 13 Oct 1453 Edward of Westinster Prince of Wales was born to Henry VI (age 31) and Margaret of Anjou (age 23) at Westminster Palace [Map]. When King Henry (age 31) recovered from his catatonic state in Jan 1455, he greeted the child as a 'miracle'. There is some speculation as the child's actual father since King Henry (age 31) and Queen Margaret (age 23) had been married for eight years before the birth. Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke Somerset (age 47) was suggested at the time.