1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn

1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn is in 16th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Cleanse the Causeway

On 30 Apr 1520 a skirmish took place on the High Street Edinburgh in which around five hundred supporters of James Hamilton 1st Earl Arran (age 45) fought with a similar number of supporters of Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus (age 31), chiefs of Clan Hamilton and Douglas respectively, over who had control over King James V of Scotland (age 8).

Around eighty of the Hamilton's were killed with the Douglases victorious as a consequence of around eight hundred more supporters arriving under the leadership of Angus' (age 31) brother William Douglas Prior of Coldingham (age 27).

John Montgomerie Master of Eglinton (age 37) was killed.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Field of the Cloth of Gold

Letters and Papers 1520. 26 March. [1520] R. O. Rym. XIII. 705. 702. Francis I.

Confirmation of the arrangements made for his meeting with Henry VIII. under the Great Seal. Chatelleraut, 26 March 1519; 6 Francis I. Signed.


R. T. 137. 2. Letters indented specifying, in accordance with the treaty of 12 March 1519, the number and rank of the lords, ladies and gentlemen to attend the King and Queen at the interview with Francis I., viz.:—

i. For the King: The cardinal of York, with 300 servants, of whom 12 shall be chaplains and 50 gentlemen, with 50 horses; one archbishop with 70 servants, of whom 5 shall be chaplains and 10 gentlemen, with 30 horses; 2 dukes, each with 70 servants, 5 to be chaplains and 10 gentlemen, with 30 horses. 1 marquis with 56 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 8 gentlemen; 26 horses. 10 earls, each with 42 servants, 3 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; 20 horses. 5 bishops, of whom the Bishop of Winchester shall have 56 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 8 gentlemen; 26 horses;—each of the others, 44 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; 20 horses. 20 barons, each to have 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; 12 horses. 4 knights of the order of St. George, each to have 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; 48 horses. 70 knights, each to have 12 servants, one to be a chaplain; 8 horses. Councillors of the long robe; viz., the King's secretary, the vice-Chancellor, the dean of the Chapel, and the almoner, each to have 12 servants, one a chaplain, and 8 horses. 12 King's chaplains, each with 6 servants and 3 horses. 12 serjeants-at-arms, each with 1 servant and two horses. 200 of the King's guard with 100 horses. 70 grooms of the chamber, with 150 servants and 100 horses among them; 266 officers of the house, with 216 servants and 70 horses; 205 grooms of the stable and of the armories, with 211 horses. The Earl of Essex, being Earl marshal, shall have, beside the number above stated, 130 servants and 100 light horses. Sum total of the King's company, 3,997 persons and 2,087 horses.

ii. For the Queen: 1 duchess, with 4 women, 6 servants and 12 horses; 10 Countesses, with 3 women and 4 servants, and 8 horses each; 12 baronesses, with 2 women, 3 servants and 6 horses each. 20 knights' ladies, with 1 woman, 2 servants and 4 horses each; 14 ladies, with 1 woman, 2 servants and 3 horses each; 6 ladies of the chamber, with 1 servant and 2 horses each; 1 earl, with 42 servants, 3 to be chaplains and 9 gentlemen; horses 20. 3 bishops, to have 44 servants, 4 to be chaplains and 6 gentlemen; horses 60. 4 barons, with 22 servants, 2 to be chaplains and 2 gentlemen; horses 48. 30 knights, with 12 servants, 1 to be a chaplain; horses 240; 6 chaplains with 3 servants and 2 horses each. Grooms 50, officers of the King's chamber, with 20 servants and 30 horses; officers of the King's stable 60, with 70 horses. Sum total of the Queen's company, 1,175 persons and 778 horses.

R. O. Rym. XIII. 710. 3. Names of those appointed to attend the king of England at the Congress.

Commissioners appointed to oversee those who shall accompany the king of France:—The Earl of Essex, Lord Abergavenny, Sir Edward Ponynges, Sir Rob. Wingfield. To give orders to the gentlemen:—Sir Edward Belknapp, Sir Nich. Vaux, Sir John Peche, Sir Maurice Berkeley. To give orders to the foot soldiers:—Sir Weston Browne, Sir Edward Ferrers, Sir Rob. Constable, Sir Ralph Egerton, Sir Thomas Lucy, Sir John Marney. To ride with the king of England at the embracing of the two Kings:—The Legate, archbishop of Canterbury, dukes of Buckingham and Suffolk, marquis of Dorset. Bishops:—Durham, Armagh, Ely, Chester, Rochester, Exeter, Hereford. Earls:—Stafford, Northumberland, Westmoreland (age 22), Shrewsbury (age 52), Worcester, Devonshire, Kent, Wiltshire, Derby, Kildare. Barons:—Maltravers, Montagu, Herbert, the grand prior of St. John of England, Roos, Fitzwalter, Hastings, Delavare, Dacres, Ferrers, Cobham, Daubeney, Lumley, Sir Henry Marney, Sir William Sandys, Th. Boleyn (age 43), Lord Howard.

The servants of the king of England shall march next their King, preceded by the nobles and gentlemen of the Legate, who shall follow the gentlemen of the other lords. The King's guard to follow him in their accustomed places.Fr., pp. 2. Endd.

R. O. Rym. XIII. 713. 4. The names of those who will be with the French king when he meets the king of England.

The king of Navarre; dukes of Alençon, Bourbon, Vendosme and Lorraine; count of Saint Pol; prince de la Roche Suryon; count of Dreux and Rhetel, Sieur Dorval and governor of Champaigne; count of Benon, sieur de la Tremoille, first Chamberlain, admiral of Guyenne and governor of Burgundy; count of Estampes and Caravats, sieur de Boysy, grand master and governor of the Dauphin; Bonnyvet, admiral of France, Lautrec, La Palisse and Chastillon, marshals; count of Guyse, brother of the duke of Lorraine; the bastard of Savoy, count of Villars and Beaufort, governor of Provence; count de Laval; mons. de Chasteaubriant; count of Harcourt; princes of Orange and Tallemont; mons. de Nevers; mons d'Esparrox, lieutenant of Guyenne, and count of Montfort; Mess. de Lescun and Montmorency; le Grand Escuyer; counts de la Chambre, Tonnerre, Brienne, Joigny, Bremie and Mont Reuel; mons. d'Albret. The other knights of the Order.

The king's household, 200 gentlemen; St. Vallier and the grand seneschal of Normandy, captains.

400 archers of the guard, and 4 captains; 100 Swiss, De Florenges, captain; maîtres d'hôtel, pannetiers, valets, &c.; gentlemen of the council and of the finances. The other pensioners will remain in their houses.Francis will bring with him the above company, if the king of England thinks it suitable; but if not, he will diminish it.

These noblemen will only have with them about 200 horses.Fr., pp. 3. Endd.: Noblemen's names that shall accompany the French king at the meeting at Calais.

In Jun 1520 Arthur Hopton (age 31) attended Field of the Cloth of Gold.

In Jun 1520 Henry VIII (age 28) hosted Field of the Cloth of Gold at Balinghem [Map].

Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 42) carried the Sword of State.

Bishop John Stokesley (age 45) attended as Henry VIII's chaplain.

Edmund Braye 1st Baron Braye (age 36), Gruffydd ap Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 42), Anthony Poyntz (age 40), William Coffin (age 25), William "Great" Courtenay (age 43), Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 37), William Paston (age 41), William Denys (age 50), Richard Cecil (age 25), William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton (age 37), Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 22), John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 40), Henry Guildford (age 31), Marmaduke Constable (age 40), William Compton (age 38), William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 42), Thomas Cheney (age 35), Henry Willoughby (age 69), John Rodney (age 59), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney (age 36), William Sidney (age 38), John de Vere 14th Earl of Oxford (age 20), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 49), Edmund Walsingham (age 40), William Skeffington (age 55) and Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West (age 63) attended.

William Carey (age 20) jousted.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 50) organised.

Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford (age 15) attended.

Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham (age 50), Robert Willoughby 2nd Baron Willoughby 10th Baron Latimer (age 48), Anthony Wingfield (age 33), William Scott (age 61), Thomas Wriothesley (age 32), Bishop Thomas Ruthall (age 48), Margaret Dymoke aka Mistress Coffin (age 20) and Edward Chamberlayne (age 36) were present.

After Jun 1520 William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 50) was created 1st Baron Sandys of The Vyne in Hampshire for having organised the Field of the Cloth of Gold.

Effigy of Sir John Peche. SIR JOHN PECHE, the most splendid amongst the gentlemen who figured in the court of Henry VIII., appears already to have advanced his fortunes in the reign of Henry VII., during Perkin Warbeck's unsuccessful rebellion. In the twelfth of that king's reign we And him amongst the foremost engaged in opposing the Cornish men in Kent, which led to their subsequent defeat on Blackheath. At the coronation of Henry VIII, Stow says, "the king ordained to wait on his person fiftie gentlemen to be speares, every of them to have an archer, a demilance, and a cistrall, and every speare to have three great horses to be attendant on his person; of the which band the earle of Essex was lieutenant, and Sir John Pechie captaine, which ordinance continued not long, the charges were so great; for there were none of them, but they and their horses were apparelled and trapped in cloth of gold, silver, and goldsmith's worke."

In 5th Henry VIII., 1513, we still find Sir John Peche employed in military achievements, accompanying the king as vice governor of the horsemen at the siege and destruction of Therouenne. In 1514 he again passed the sea from England to Calais, and was appointed Lord Deputy of that town; and the same year, in company with other nobles and gentlemen he attended to Paris the Lady Mary, sister to Henry, who was there espoused to the French King. In 1520 Sir John joined the gallant train of Henry, who exhibited at the celebrated Champ de Drap D'Or, a splendor and magnificence never exceeded in the court of any English monarcha. 14th Henry VIII, 1522, Sir John Peche terminated an existence which, as far as it appears connected with his sovereign and public life, seems to have passed in uninterrupted prosperity. The place of his death is not specified, but it is probable he was buried beneath the magnificent tomb erected to his memory at Lullingstone in Kent. Tradition there records the visits of Henry VIII. to Sir John Peche, and the Tilt-yard, the former scene of courtly splendor, is still pointed out in front of the castle gates.

Note a. At the justs and tournays held at the Champ de Drap d'Or, Hail says, Sir John Pechie, with three other knights, attended the king on horseback in his livery, which was white on the right side, and on the left side gold and russet, both hose and garment.

Archaeologia Volume 3 Section XXIV. An historical Description of an ancient Picture in Windsor castle, representing the Interview between king Henry VIII. and the French king Francis I. between Guînes and Ardres, in the year 1520. By Sir Joseph Ayloffe (age 63), Baronet, V. P. A. S. and F. R. S.

Read at the Society of ANTIQUARIES, March 29, 1770; and a second Time, by Order of the Society, March 7, 1771.

Joseph Ayloffe 6th Baronet: In 1708 he was born to Joseph Ayloffe. Archaeologia Volume 3 Section XLIII. An Account of the Body of King Edward the First, as it appeared on opening his Tomb in the Year 1774. By Sir Joseph Ayloffe, Bart. V. P. S. A. and F. R. S. Read at the Society of Antiquaries, May 12, 1774. On 19 Apr 1781 he died.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

In Apr 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 43) was arrested and imprisoned at Tower of London [Map]. He was accused of listening to prophecies of the King's death and intending to kill the King. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 48) presided at his trial. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 43) and Henry Guildford (age 32) acted as judges. Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham (age 51), Anthony Poyntz (age 41) and Edmund Walsingham (age 41) as jurors.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1520-1529. 17 May 1521. This yeare, on Fridaye before Whitsonday, beinge the 17 day of Maye, Edward Duke of Buckingham (age 43)a was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Note a. Edward Stafford (age 43), Duke of Buckingham, was restored in 1486 by Henry VII. to his honours and estates. He commanded the select guard of Henry VIII (age 29) in the battle of the Spurs, 1613, but his observation, that the "Field of the Cloth of Gold" entailed ruin on the English nobles, so irritated the King that he determined on his ruin. It is also asserted that the King was jealons of his descent from Thomas of Woodstock and Edward III.

On 17 May 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 43) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for no specific reason other than his having a significant amount of Plantagenet blood and was, therefore, considered a threat by Henry VIII (age 29). He was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament on 31 July 1523, disinheriting his children. He was buried at St Peter's Church, Britford [Map]. Duke of Buckingham, Earl Stafford and Baron Stafford extinct.

His father Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham had been executed for his part in Buckingham's Rebellion, his great-grandfather Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham was killed at the 1460 Battle of Northampton, and his great-great grand-father was killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury, not forgetting his great-uncle Henry Stafford who was killed at the Battle of Barnet and his daughter Margaret Stafford (age 10) who was burned at the stake for her part in Bigod's Rebellion.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, 1522 Chateau Vert Pageant

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 04 Mar 1522. On Shrove Tuesday at night, the said Cardinal to the King and Ambassadors made another supper, and after supper they came into a great chamber hanged with Arras, and there was a clothe of estate, and many branches, and on every branch thirty-two torchettes of wax, and in the nether end of the same chamber was a castle, in which was a principal Tower, in which was a cresset burning: and two other less Towers stood on every side, warded and embattailed, and on every Tower was a banner, one banner was of three rent hearts, the other was a ladies hand gripping a man’s heart, the third banner was a ladies hand turning a man’s heart: this castle was kept with ladies of strange names, the first Beautie (age 32), the second Honor (age 19), the third Perseveraunce (age 21), the fourth Kyndnes (age 23), the fifth Constance (age 17), the sixte Bounty, the seventh Mercy, and the eight Pity: these eight ladies had Milan gowns of white satin, every Lady had her name embroidered with gold, on their heads cauls, and Milan bonnets of gold, with jewels. Underneath the base fortress of the castle were other eight ladies, whose names were, Danger, Disdain, Jealousy, Unkindness, Scorn, Malebouche, Strangeness, these ladies were tired [attired] like to women of India. Then entered eight lords in clothe of gold caps and all, and great mantel cloaks of blue satin, these lords were named. Amorous, Nobleness, Youth, Attendance, Loyalty, Pleasure, Gentleness, and Liberty, the King (age 30) was chief of this company, this company was led by one all in crimson satin with burning flames of gold, called Ardent Desire which so moved the Ladies to give over the Castle, but Scorne and Disdain said they would hold the place, then Desire said the ladies should be won and came and encouraged the knights, then the lords ran to the castle, (at which time without was shot a great peal of guns) and the ladies defended the castle with rose water and comfits and the lords threw in dates and oranges, and other fruits made for pleasure but at the last the place was won, but Lady Scorn and her company stubbornly defended them with bows and balls, till they were driven out of the place and fled. Then the lords took the ladies of honour as prisoners by the hands, and brought them down, and danced together very pleasantly, which much pleased the strangers, and when they had danced their fill then all these dis-visored themselves and were known: and then was there a costly banquet, and when all was done, the strangers took their leave of the King and the Cardinal and so departed into Flanders, giving to the King much commendation.

On 04 Mar 1522, Shrove Tuesday, at Cardinal Wolsey's York Place, a pageant known as Chateau Vert was performed. Believed to be the first public appearance of Anne Bolyen (age 21) since her return from the French Court, and the first time King Henry VIII (age 30) had seen her since her childhood. The pageant was part of the Shrovetide celebrations which began on 1st March 1522 and which also celebrated the negotiations between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and King Henry VIII (age 30) for a joint attack on France, which were to be sealed by the marriage of Charles V (age 22) and Princess Mary (age 6), Henry's daughter.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

In May 1522 Henry VIII (age 30) met with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 22) at Dover, Kent [Map]. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 44), William Compton (age 40), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney (age 38), William Scott (age 63) and John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 51) were present. Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1520-1529. 05 Jun 1522. This yeare th' Emperoure Charles (age 22)b came into England, and was receaved into the cittie of London the Thursdaye before Whit Sundayc at afternoone, the Kinge and he ridinge both together in one liverey; and there were diverse pagents made in divers places of the Cittie; and all the freers, priestes, and clerkes, standinge in copes, with crosses, sensures, and candlesticks, from the bridge foote to the crosse in Cheepe; and all the craftes, with the Majord and Aldermen, standinge in their liveries; and the King, with all the nobles of the realme, brought him to his pallace at Bridewell [Map],e where he continued three dayes, and after went to Greenewichf where was great justs, banquetts, with other goodlye pastymes. And, after, the King conveyed him to the sea side to passe into Spayneg which was his intent

Note b. This was the second visit of the Emperor Charles V (age 22) to England.

Note c. This woold be June 6, but Holinshed and Stow both say June 6, being Friday.

Note d. Sir John Milborne.

Note e. The Emperor was lodged at the Black Fryars, and all his nobles in the new builded house of Bridewell [Map].— Stow, p. 616.

Note f. This should probably be Windsor, as the Emperor's entertainment at Greenwich was previous to his reception in London.

Note g. He embarked at Southampton [Map] in his great fleet, and in ten days arrived in Spain.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Sacking of Morlaix

In 1522 Francis Bryan (age 32) was knighted for his taking part in the Sacking of Morlaix.

On 01 Jul 1522 Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 79) was present at Morlaix during the Sacking of Morlaix. Giles Hussey (age 27) was knighted by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 79).

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

Around 18 Jun 1525 Henry Clifford 2nd Earl of Cumberland (age 8) and Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland (age 6) were married at Bridewell Palace [Map]. King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33) was present. She the daughter of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41) and Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 29). He the son of Henry Clifford 1st Earl of Cumberland (age 32) and Margaret Percy Baroness Clifford (age 25). They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

On 18 Jun 1525 Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was taken by barge to Bridewell Palace [Map] where he was enobled by his father King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33).

In the morning Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

In the afternoon Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More (age 47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 47),

Henry Courtenay (age 29) was created 1st Marquess Exeter. Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 22) by marriage Marchioness Exeter.

Henry Clifford (age 32) was created 1st Earl of Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.

Thomas Manners (age 33) was created 1st Earl of Rutland. Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 30) by marriage Countess of Rutland. He was given the Earldom of Rutland to reflect his descent from Anne York Duchess Exeter sister of the previous Earl of Rutland. At the same time his arms Manners Arms were augmented with the Manners Augmented Arms

Henry Brandon (age 2) was created 1st Earl Lincoln.

Robert Radclyffe (age 42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter.

Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 48) was created 1st Viscount Rochford. Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Viscountess Rochford.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 52), William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 49) and John de Vere 14th Earl of Oxford (age 25) attended.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Battle of Pavia

On 24 Feb 1525 Richard Pole "White Rose" 5th Earl of Suffolk (age 45) was killed during the Battle of Pavia. Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny (age 55) fought.

Louis II de la Tremoille (age 64) was killed.

Unknown Painter. Battle of Pavia with the fallen Richard Pole "White Rose" 5th Earl of Suffolk (age 45) bottom left corner indicated by "Le Duc de Susfoc dit Blance Rose".

Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny: Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny succeeded 4th Lord Aubigny. Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny and Anne Stewart Lady Aubigny were married. She by marriage Lord Aubigny. He the son of John Stewart 1st Earl Lennox and Margaret Montgomerie Countess Lennox. They were second cousins. Around 1470 he was born to John Stewart 1st Earl Lennox and Margaret Montgomerie Countess Lennox. Around Apr 1544 Robert Stewart 4th Lord Aubigny died.

Louis II de la Tremoille: On 29 Sep 1460 he was born to Louis I de la Tremoille.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1520-1529. 09 Mar 1525. This yeare, the 9th day of Marche,c tidinges were brought to the Kinge (age 33) that Francis (age 30), the French King, was taken prisoner before the cittie Pavie, in Italie, by the Duke of Burbon (age 35), capteyn of the Emperoures (age 25) hoste,d and 14,000 French men slayne at the same feild.

And the Archbishop of Yorke (age 52), cardinall and legatt de latere, songe masse the same tyme in Paules churche [Map], in his "pontificalibus,"e and 11 bishopps and abbotts, with their miters, beinge present, the Duke of Northfolke (age 52) and the Duke of Suffolke (age 41), with all the nobles of the realme. And the saide Cardinall (age 52) grawnted the same to all manner of persons, beinge within the precinct of the churche in the tyme of the masse, plenary remission of their synnes, à pœná et culpá; and, after masse, Te Deum was sunge for the sayde victorie,a the Major,b Aldermen, with the head craftes of the cittie standinge in the bodie of the churche in theyr liveries; and that night great fiers were made in divers places of the cittie, with vessells of wyne at everie fier for the people to drincke.

Note c. Francis I was made prisoner on the 24th February.

Note d. Charles Duke of Bourbon (age 35), Constable of France, being persecuted by Francis I for refusing to marry Louisa of Savoy (age 48), the French King's (age 30) mother, sought the protection of the Emperor Charles V (age 25) by whom he was appointed his lieutenant in Italy.

Note e. After Wolsey (age 52) had been invested by Pope Leo X with the sole legatine power in England, he was wont to say mass on state occasions after the manner of the Pope himself.

Note a. The victory gained by the Imperialists over the French before Pavia so changed the aspect of affairs on the continent that Henry at first entertained a project forinvading France, and asserting his claim to that crown.

Note b. Sir John Allen.

René de Brosse was killed at the Battle of Pavia.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, 1525 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1525, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1525, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33) created four new Knights of the Garter:

285th. William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 49).

286th. Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 33).

287th. Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 5).

288th. Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 26).

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, 1526 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1526, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1526, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 34) created four new Knights of the Garter:

289th. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 48).

290th. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 36).

291st. Henry Guildford (age 37).

292nd. King Francis I of France (age 31).

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Battle of Linlithgow Bridge

On 04 Sep 1526 the Battle of Linlithgow Bridge was fought between supporters of Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland (age 36), the king's mother, commanded by John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox (age 36) and supporters of Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus (age 37) commanded by James Hamilton 1st Earl Arran (age 51), over who would have control over King James V of Scotland (age 14) in his minority.

John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox (age 36) was killed possibly after surrendering. His son Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox (age 9) succeeded 4th Earl Lennox.

William Cunningham 4th Earl Glencairn (age 33) was captured.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Sack of Rome

On 06 May 1527 Charles Bourbon III Duke Bourbon (age 37) was killed during the Sack of Rome.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Visit of the French Ambassadors

Diary of Edward VI. 23 May 1550. Mon. Chastil(lon) (age 31) and Mortier, and Bouchetel, accompanied with the Ringrave (age 46)1, Dandelot2, the constable's secound sone3, and Chenault the ligier4, cam to Durasme place, where in their journei thei wer met by mr. tresoror (Oheyne) and threscore gentlemen5 at Whulwhich [Map], and also saluted with great peales both at Whulwich, Dettford [Map], and the Towre [Map].1a

Note 1. The Rhinegrave John Frederick (age 46) was deprived of his electorate by the emperor after the battle of Muhlberg in 1547, and remained a prisoner at Innspruck until 1552. His nephew Otho-Henry, called the Magnanimous, whose proper title was only count of Neuburg until after his uncle's death in 1556, was at this time in the service of France, and was made a knight of St. Michael in Oct. 1550 (see Tytler, i. 325).

Note 2. The seigneur d'Andelot was François de Coligny (age 29), younger brother of the seigneur de Chastillon (age 31), already noticed in p. 250, and like him a zealous Calvinist and intrepid soldier. He became comte of Laval and Montfort in Britany; and in 1555 he was appointed colonel-general of the French infantry in place of his brother. He died in 1569. (Anselme, vii. 155; viii. 215.)

Note 3. The second son of the constable of France was Henry (age 15) afterwards duc de Montmorency, who now, during his father's (age 57) lifetime, bore the title of seigneur de Damville. (Anselme, Histoire Genealogique, vi. 229.) If the King writes with accuracy, he must have been one of the train; but if he meant one and the same person by "Dandelot, the constable's second sone," this may have arisen from d'Andelot being (by his mother's side) "the constable's nephew, and one of the (French) king's minions." (Tytler, i. 160.)

Note 4. Of Chenault no particulars have occurred. Among the illustrious visitors on this "occasion, or immediately after, appears to have been Claude de Lorraine, due d'Aumale, third son of the late due de Guise. On the 6th Oct. following sir John Mason (age 47) writes from Rouen to the council: "The due d'Aumale is much desirous to have a portrait of the King's person, which he says the King himself promised him at his departing out of England. He hath been in hand with me twice or thrice herein, praying me in my next despatch to desire your lordships to put his Majesty in remembrance hereof. If any shall be sent unto him, this is a very good time therefor, while yet he remaineth in Roan. He speaketh very much honour of the King and of the realm, and hideth not the courtesy he found the time of his being there. He is, as your lordships knoweth, of right good estimation, and therefore the remembring of him in this his request cannot be but well bestowed." (Tytler, i. 330.)

Note 5. In order that the court might make a good show of nobility when the Frenchmen arrived, the council had despatched, on the 17th of April, "Lettres severall to the earles of Rutland (age 23), Bathe (age 51), and Worcester (age 24), to the viscount Hereford (age 62), and the lord Fitzwalter, to repayre to the court out of hand, bringing with them their best apparell and furniture, for the receiving and entertaining of the ambassadors and noble men that came out of France."

On the 4th May, "For the receaving of mounsr Chastillion, and the rest of the Frenche ambassadors, the lord warden of the Cinque portes, thresorer of the King's Majesties household, was appointed to be the chief, and a nombre of lords and gentlemen apoincted to accompanie him by water with the King's barges, bicause th'ambassadors are determined to come from Bulloigne in their owne galleys up alongest the Teames [River Thames]."

"May xviij. A warrant to the master of the jewelhouse to deliver unto Benjamin Gonstone, threasorer of the King's shippes, one peir of potts, one peir of flagons, iij. nest of bolles, ij. basons and ewers, a garnish and a half of vessell, ij. dozen of plates, and ij. saltes of silver, for the furniture of the galley appointed for the lord wardeigne to mete the French ambassadors coming up by the Temes [Thames], to be restored again upon retorne of the same galley. A warrant to sir John Williams to delyver to the said John Gonstone xlli. in prest towards the furniture of the said galey." (Council Book.)

Note 1a. "On Friday was seven-night [May 23] the galley Subtle, with two other of the King's pinnaces, under the charge of sir William Woodhouse, mr. Brook, and others, were sent to the Thames mouth to meet with the French galleys, and to conduct them upwards, and at their first meeting received them with an honest banquet; so accompanied them along the Thames, where, passing by sundry of the King's ships, they were saluted by honest peals of ordnance; and, a little above Greenwich, I, the lord warden of the Cinque Ports (Cheyne), being accompanied with the earl of Worcester (age 24), the lord Grey of Wilton (age 41), the lord William Howard, with divers other young lords and gentlemen, to the number of sixty, in sundry barges, met with them upon the water, bade them welcome on the King's maties behalf, with other good words to the purpose, and so received them into those barges. They were conveyed by water through the bridge to their lodging, being appointed at Durham-place, which was furnished with hangings of the King's for the nonce: where, against their coming, was ready laid in a very large present of beer, wine, beeves, muttons, wild fowls, poultry, fish, and wax. By the way the King's ships at Deptford shot off; and at the Tower, as they passed, a great peal of ordnance was discharged to welcome them. As soon as they were landed, and in their lodgings, a gentleman was sent from the King's matie, willing me the lord warden, in the King's highness' behalf, to bid them welcome, and tell them that if they would aught, being signified, it should be provided; and so for that night left them." (Narrative of the council addressed to sir John Mason, the ambassador lieger in France, printed from Mason's letter-book in the State Paper office, by Tytler, i. 284.;

Diary of Edward VI. 24 May 1550. The embassadours came to me, presenting the ligier, and also delivering lettres of credaunce from the French king2.

Note 2. The next day being Saturday, early in the forenoon, we, the lord Paget and sir William Petre (age 45), went to visit them from the King's matie to know as well what time they would gladliest take for their access to his highness, as also whether they wanted aught; which if they did, order should be given for the supply thereof. They thanked us, and required their time of access might be appointed the self afternoon, which was done; and, by water in barges, we, the lord viscount Hereford, the lord admiral, the lord Cobham (age 53), and sir William Petre (age 45), being sent to accompany the four in commission, having with us also other lords and gentlemen to entertain mons. d'Andelot, the Rhinegrave, and others, brought them to the court, where, in the chamber of presence, the King's matie was ready to receive them, and at theire coming embraced them orderly, read their letters of credence, and in the rest used them with so good words and countenance as they rested very well satisfied." (Narrative addressed to sir John Mason (age 47), as before.)

Diary of Edward VI. 25 May 1550. The embassadours came to the court, where thei saw me take the oth for th'acceptation of the treaty1, and afterward dined with me; and after diner saw a pastime of tenne against tenne at the ring, wherof on th'on(e) sid(e) were the duke of Sowthfolk, the vice-dam, the lord Lisle (age 23), and seven other gentlemen, appareled in yelow; on the other, the lord Stra(nge), mons. Henadoy, and yeight other, in blew.

Note 1. "The next day, being Whitsunday, assigned for the taking of the oath and ratification, we, the marquesses of Dorset (age 33) and Northampton (age 38), the lord privy seal, and lord Paget, went again with barges to conduct them to the court, which then, what with our own nation and theirs, was very much replenished. The King's matie, after the communion and service in the chapel beneath, in the presence of mons. Chastillon, his colleagues, and us all of his highness' privy council, besides others standers-by, did read the oath and subscribe the same, with the circumstances thereto belonging; and that day the French commissioners, with their ambassador here resident, dined with the King, and were of his Matie most friendly entertained." (Narrative addressed to sir John Mason (age 47), as before.)

Diary of Edward VI. 26 May 1550. The embassadours saw the baiting of the bearis and bullis.2

Note 2. "Monday last, we, the duke of Somerset and divers others of us, were invited by them to dinner, where they feasted us as the market would serve, very honourably; and that afternoon they saw the pastime of our bear-baiting and bull-baiting." (Ibid.)

Diary of Edward VI. 27 May 1550. The embassadours, after thei had hunted, sat with me at souper.3

Note 3. "Upon Tuesday the King's matie had them on hunting in Hyde park, and that night they supped with his highness in the privy chamber." (Ibid.)

Diary of Edward VI. 28 May 1550. The same went to see Hampton court [Map], where thei did hunt4, and the same night retourne to Durasme place.

Note 4. "Wednesday, they were conveyed by me, the marquess of Northampton (age 38), to Hampton court, where they dined, hunted, and that night returned." (Ibid.)

Diary of Edward VI. 29 May 1550. The embassadours had a fair souper made them by the duke of Somerset (age 50), and afterward went into the tems (on the Thames) and saw both the beare hunted in the river, and also wilfier cast out of botis, and many prety conceites.

Diary of Edward VI. 30 May 1550. The embassadours toke ther leve2, and the next day departid.

Note 2. The ambassadors having spent the forenoon in riding about the town to see it, "in the afternoon were sent to them we, the lord Cobham (age 53), the lord Paget, mr. secretary Wotton, and sir Anthony St. Leger, to commune with them on certain matters, and afterwards to bring them to the King.... To the chief of them the King's highness caused rich and goodly presents and gifts to be sent ere they departed." (Narrative addressed to sir John Mason (age 47), as before.) The following passages in the council register relate to the presents: —

"May xxiij. A warrant to (blank) to deliver unto sir Anthony Awcher knt. xvC li. in part towards the provision of the rewarde appoincted for monsr Chastillion and other Frenche ambassadors nowe arryved here for the confermacion of the Peace.

"Maye xxviij. A warrant to sir Edmond Peckham to deliver unto sir Anthonye Awcher Cx oz. of gold towards the making of two cuppes provided for parte of the gifte to be made unto mounsr Rochepote and mounsr Chastillion, ambassadours for the French."

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, 1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

A Boke Or Counsel Against The Disease Commonly Called The Sweating Sicknesse. 1528. The fourth time, in the year 1528 the twentieth year of the said Kyng, beginning in the end of May, & continuing June and July.

Grafton's Chronicle. May 1528. In the very end of May began in the City of London the sicknesse called the sweating sickness, and afterward went through all the realm almost , of the which many died within five or six hours . By reason of this sickness the terme was adjourned and the circuits of Assize also . The King was sore troubled with this plague , for diverse died in the court, of whome one was Sir Francis Poyntz (age 43) , which was Ambassador in Spain , and other , so that the king for a space removed almost euery day , till at the last he came to Tyttenhangar [Map] a place of the Abbot of saint Albones , and there he with a few determined to bide the chance that God would send him , which place was so purged daily with fires , and other preservatives , that neither he nor the Queen nor none of their company was infected of that disease , such was the pleasure of God . In this great plague died Sir William Compton (age 46) knight , and William Carey (age 28) Esquire , which were of the kings privy chamber , and whom the king highly favoured and many other worshipfull men and women in England.

By reason of this plague the watches which were wont to be kept yearly in London on Saint John's eve [23rd June] at Midsummer and Saint Peter's eve [28th June] , whereby the king and his counsel commanded to be left for that year , wherefore the Armourers made great suit to the king and declared their great hinderance which was not so much considered as the mischief that might have ensued if that so great a number should have assembled together in the hot time , and the plague of sweating reigning . Now let us leave England all this summer season troubled and vexed with this sweating sicknesse , and let us return to the affaires of Italy .

In Jun 1528 Francis Poyntz (age 43) died of sweating sickness.

Hall's Chronicle 1528. Jun 1528. In the very end of May began in the City of London the sickness called the sweating-sickness, and afterward went all the realm almost of the which many died within five or six hours. By reason of this sickness the term was adjourned and the circuits of Assize also. The king was sore troubled with this plague, for divers died in the court, of who one was Sir Francis Poyntz (age 43) which was Ambassador in Spain, and other, so that the King for a space removed almost every day, till at the last be came to Tyttenhanger [Map] a place of the abbot of saint Albans, and there he with a few determined to bide the chance that God would send him, which place was so purged daily with fires and other preservatives, that neither he nor the queen nor none of their company was infected of the disease, such was the pleasure of God. In this great plague dyed Sir William Compton (age 46) knight and William Carey (age 28) esquire which were of the Kings privy chamber, and whom the King highly favoured and many other worshipful men and women in England.

By reason of this plague the watches which were wont to be kept yearly in London on Saint John’s eve at Midsummer and Saint Peters eve were by the King and his counsel commanded to be left for that year, wherefore the Armourers made great suit to the King and declared their great hinderance, which was not so much considered as the mischief that might have ensued if that so great a number should have assembled together in that whole time and the plague of sweating reigning. Now let us leave England all this summer season troubled and vexed with this sweating sickness, and let us return to the affairs of Italy.

The Chronicle of John Harding: Henry VII. Jun 1528. In this nineteenth year was the sweatyng sickenesse, for the which cause there was no watch at Midsummer.

Letters and Papers 1528. 05 Jun 1528. Titus, B. I. 91. B. M. 4333. Tuke To [Vannes].

Cannot move, afoot or on horseback. Has a "wagon" that is accustomed to carry his children. Will come in that cart, and on his knees, rather than fail, if it be the King's pleasure; but his house has had the infection. It is not to be expected the Lady Margaret will make restitution for injuries done by the Spaniards. Discusses the point touching the right of the Spaniards to apprehend Englishmen in certain havens. Encloses his letter to the bishop of London concerning this matter. Sends him Gonson's letter, and one to the king of Scots, requiring haste. Stepney, Friday.

P.S.—Sends the treaties for the King's consideration.

Hol., pp. 4. Begins: Right Honorable Sir.

Letters and Papers 1528. 05 Jun 1528. Galba, B. VIII. 4. B. M. 4332. BRIAN TUKE to the BISHOP OF LONDON.

Have fled to Steponeth for fear of this infection, a servant of mine being ill at my house in London. Received last night a packet of letters from Wolsey, addressed to you and me. As it was late, and I dislike to come to London, I opened it, and found a letter likewise addressed, with others, which I send. The King and my lord Cardinal wish either you or me to come to court for information on certain points about the truce. If I go, I must go in my wagon, which is at my house in Essex, and cannot be here today, for I have a disease in vesica, of which Wolsey is aware, and was almost whole; but coming hither from London last night as softly as could be, has made me as ill as before. Besides, I doubt if it would be right to go to the King, having had such a visitor in my house. You could easily satisfy the King. As to the King's desire that my Lady should be bound to make restitution if any Spaniards took Englishmen, it is more than any Prince is or w[ould be] bound to make restitution of injuries done by their subjects, even in a treaty of perpetual peace. The King thinks, if his subjects may be taken on the coasts of Spain, why may they not do the like to the Spaniards ? The answer is, they may in any place, having once come as far as the Spanish harbors, where the truce has no force; "in such wise as when the Lady Margaret's folks had agreed thereunto, the French ambassador, talking with my lord Legate in the garden at Hampton Court late in an evening, I being present, and the Lady's folks absent, gave great thanks to my said Lord for that point," as both the French and English might pass to the havens of Spain to do exploits of war; and whenever they wished to return, the Spaniards could not hurt them, when once they got on this side the said havens. The French ambassador expected that by this means his master would work the Spaniards sorrow on those seas. For everything on this side it must be provided that redress be made as in time of peace, so that no man may rob on land or sea. In haste, at Stepney, 3 o'clock, a.m., in my bed.

P.S.—The letter to Gonson came to me open; that to my Lady I will send to her secretaries, who left early yesterday morning. I send also all the treaties and writings, that you may take with you such as you think good. Will forward Gonson's letter, if the King think fit, and you send it to me, and will seal it with my own seal; for my lord Cardinal, when I was at Hampton Court, ordered that it should be sent open to Fitzwilliam, but I see Mr. Peter has sealed it by mistake.

Hol., pp. 3, mutilated. Add.: To my lord of London, lord Privy Seal.

Titus, B. I. 82. B. M. 2. Copy of the preceding, in Tuke's own hand.

Pp. 3.

Letters and Papers 1528. 11 Jun 1528. Vit. B. XII. 4. B. M. Burnet, I. 103. 4360. Anne Boleyn (age 27) to Wolsey (age 55).

My Lord, in my most humble wise I desire you to pardon me that I am so bold to trouble you with my simple and rude writing, proceeding from one who is much desirous to know that your Grace does well, as I perceive by this bearer. The great pains you take for me, both day and night, are never likely to be recompensed, "but alonely in loving you, next unto the King's grace, above all creatures living," as my deeds shall manifest. I long to hear from you news of the Legate, and hope they will be very good.

Added by the King:-The writer of this would not cease till she had called me likewise to set to my hand. Both of us desire to see you, and are glad to hear you have escaped the plague so well, trusting the fury of it is abated, especially with those that keep good diet, as I trust you do. The not hearing of the Legate's arrival in France causeth us somewhat to muse; but we trust by your diligence shortly to be eased of that trouble.

Letters and Papers 1528. 16 Jun 1528. Love Letters XII. 4383. Henry VIII (age 36) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

There came to me in the night the most afflicting news possible. I have to grieve for three causes: first, to hear of my mistress's (age 27) sickness, whose health I desire as my own, and would willingly bear the half of yours to cure you; secondly, because I fear to suffer yet longer that absence which has already given me so much pain, God deliver me from such an importunate rebel!; thirdly, because the physician I trust most is at present absent when he could do me the greatest pleasure. However, in his absence, I send you the second, praying God he may soon make you well, and I shall love him the better. I beseech you to be governed by his advice, and then I hope to see you soon again!

Annales of England by John Stow. 17 Jun 1528. The 17 day of June, the terme was adjourned to Michael because of the sweating sicknesse that then reigned tn the city of London, and there was no such watch at Midsummer, as before time bad bene accustomed. Of this sickness died many suddenly tn the kings court, namely Sir William Compton (age 46), Sir Francis Poyntz (deceased), and other, who died with little warning. The King for a space removed almost every day till be came to Tittenhanger [Map], a place of the abbot of Saint Albans, anv there be with the queene, and a small company about them, remained till the sickness was past.

Letters and Papers 1528. 18 Jun 1528. 4391. On Tuesday one of the ladies of the chamber, Mademoiselle de Boulan (age 27), was infected with the sweat. The King, in great haste, dislodged, and went 12 miles hence, and I hear the lady (age 27) was sent to her brother (age 51) [Note. A mistake for father] the Viscount in Kent ("Cainet"). As yet the love has not abated. I know not if absence, and the difficulties of Rome, may effect anything. This sweat, which has made its appearance within these four days, is a most perilous disease. One has a little pain in the head and heart; suddenly a sweat begins; and a physician is useless, for whether you wrap yourself up much or little, in four hours, sometimes in two or three, you are despatched without languishing, as in those troublesome fevers. However, only about 2,000 have caught it in London. Yesterday, going to swear the truce, we saw them as thick as flies, rushing from the streets and shops into their houses to take the sweat whenever they felt ill. I found the ambassador of Milan leaving his lodging in great haste because two or three had been suddenly attacked. If all the ambassadors are to have their share of it, you will not have gained your cause; for you will not be able to brag you made me die of hunger, and the King will only have gained nine months of my service for nothing. In London, I assure you the priests have a better time of it than the doctors, except that the latter do not help to bury. If the thing goes on, corn will soon be cheap. It is 12 years since there was such a visitation, when there died 10,000 persons in 10 or 12 days, but it was not so bad as this has begun.The Legate had come for the term, but immediately bridled his horses again, and there will be no term appointed. Every one is terribly amazed.

Letters and Papers 1528. 20 Jun 1528. Love Letters III. 4403. Henry VIII (age 36). to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

The doubt I had of your health troubled me extremely, and I should scarcely have had any quiet without knowing the certainty; but since you have felt nothing, I hope it is with you as with us. When we were at Waltham [Map], two ushers, two valets de chambre, your brother (age 25), master "Jesoncre" (Treasurer), fell ill, and are now quite well; and we have since removed to Hunsdon, Hertfordshire [Map], where we are very well, without one sick person. I think if you would retire from Surrey, as we did, you would avoid all danger. Another thing may comfort you:-few women have this illness; and moreover, none of our court, and few elsewhere, have died of it. I beg you, therefore, not to distress yourself at our absence, for whoever strives against fortune is often the further from his end.

Letters and Papers 1528. 20 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. II. 134. 4398. Norfolk To Wolsey.

Yesterday at Esterforde heard that Wolsey had broken up the term, because of the infection in London. Returned hither, and intends to go to Kenynghale. Asks how long he may stay here before being sent for by the King or Wolsey. Is well amended of his sickness, not having been ill since Thursday week. Sends letters which he has received from Ireland. Unless Wolsey remedies the great danger of "that poor land," fears it will not be recovered without great expense. If the land is overrun and spoiled by the Irish, there will not be victuals to support the force the King will send to punish the rebels, and his Grace will be forced to begin a new conquest as Henry II. did. The only cause is the malice between Kildare and Ossory. Stoke, 20 June.

Hol. Add.: To my [lord] Legate's good grace.

On 22 Jun 1528 William Carey (age 28) died of sweating sickness. He was buried at Compton Wynyates [Map].

Letters and Papers 1528. 23 Jun 1528. R. O. 4413. R. Lord Fitzwater to Wolsey.

Care (deceased) died on Monday last, leaving vacant the stewardship of the duchy of Lancaster in Essex, the constableship of the Castle of Plashe [Map], the keeping of the two parks, and other offices in the King's gift. Asks Wolsey to obtain those above mentioned for him, as they are near his house. Signed.

Letters and Papers 1528. 23 Jun 1528. 4408. Thomas Hennege to Wolsey.

"Laud be Jesu, the King's grace is very merry since he came to this house, for there was none fell sick of the sweat since he came hither, and ever after dinner he shoth (shooteth ?) to supper time. This morning is told me that Mistress Ann (age 27) and my Lord of Roxfort (age 25) had the sweat, and was past the danger thereof." Mr. Carre (deceased) begs you to be gracious to his sister, a nun in Wilton Abbey, to be prioress there, according to your promise. Mr. Tuke is here, and lies in the court under the King's privy chamber, so that he may come at the King's pleasure. At every meal the King sends him a dish from his table. The King will tarry here 14 days. Hunsdon, 23 June.

This night, as the King went to bed, word came of the death of William Care (deceased).

Letters and Papers 1528. 23 Jun 1528. 4409. His Highness marvellously commends the French king's religious demeanour on Corpus Christi Day against the damnable behavior of those, worse than Jews, that would do such despite to the blessed images; and he told the gentlemen of his Privy Chamber the whole manner of it, and desired me to read to them the clause concerning it in the Bishop of Bath's letter. When in the Bishop's letter I read the clause, that many noblemen in France were right sorry the king of France had not such a councillor [as Wolsey], the King said, "Yea, by God! I blame them never a deal." He liked the rest of the letter, and the French king's letter to the Pope, and to his ambassador resident in Rome, but thought the latter more effectually worded. He said he would send copies of them to Mistress Ann for her consolation. He likes the French king's letters to the Venetians for Ravenna and Cervia; and thinks, if they are put into the hands of Francis, the Pope will be more compliant, who, he is afraid, is now sticking for fear of the Emperor, by the tarrying of Mr. Stephen's letter. All being read by 11 o'clock at night, he said he would see the news about Spain today; but he has not yet come down. Generally, in going and coming, he turns into my chamber to talk with me about his book.

At this word his Highness came in, asking me how far I had done. Thereupon I put him in mind of the news from Spain, and to sign the king of Scots' letter, which he said he would do soon; and he is gone a-walking. Mr. Cary (deceased), whom I met after he had been with his wife (age 29) at Plashey [Map], is dead of the sweat. Will repair to Wolsey by short stages of ten miles, going by water through London Bridge. No earthly riches could persuade him to travel much now, as nothing causes the sweat more than much travel and the sun. Is worse than he was. Hunsdon, Tuesday, 23 June 1528.

Letters and Papers 1528. 23 Jun 1528. Love Letters IX. 4410. Henry VIII (age 36) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

The cause of my writing at this time, good sweetheart, is only to understand of your good health and prosperity, whereof to know I would be as glad as in manner mine own; praying God that (and it be His pleasure) to send us shortly together, for I promise you I long for it, howbeit trust it shall not be long to; and seeing my darling is absent, I can no less do than to send her some flesh representing my name, which is hart's flesh for Henry, prognosticating that hereafter, God willing, you must enjoy some of mine, which, He pleased, I would were now. As touching your sister's (age 29) matter, I have caused Water Welze to write to my Lord my mind therein, whereby I trust that Eve shall not have power to deceive Adam; for surely, whatsoever is said, it cannot so stand with his honor but that he2 must needs take her his natural daughter now in her extreme necessity. No more to you at this time, mine own darling, but that a while I would we were together of an evening. With the hand of yours, &c.

Note 1. So in the Harl. Misc. copy, which seems there to give the right reading. The Pamphleteer reads: "that we shall not have poure to dyslave Adam."

Note 2. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 51).

Letters and Papers 1528. 25 Jun 1528. R. O. 4417. The Commissioners Of Kent To Wolsey.

This Thursday, the 25th, met at Deptford, and were informed that Edmund Tebbe, in whose house they should have lodged, has had the new sickness, and is not yet recovered. Divers have been sick at Greenwich and at Eltham; of which towns great numbers would have appeared if the sessions had been held, with other prisoners from Southwark. As Baron Hales (age 58) also has fallen ill at London, they have, "in a croft nigh unto the street of Deptford," adjourned the sessions to Monday next before the feast of SS. Simon and Jude. Deptford, 25 June. Signed: Richard Broke—Henry Guldeford—Edward Guldeford—Alex. Colepeper—Edward Wotton—T. Nevyle—Thomas Willughby—Christopher Hales. Scaled.

P. 1. Add. Endd. by Wolsey: Sir William Drury, Sir William Carent, Venerys (?) die doca Passionis, in domo Ichekoc.

Letters and Papers 1528. 26 Jun 1528. R. O. Ellis, 3 Ser. I. 251. 4418. John Bishop Of Lincoln (age 55) To Wolsey.

Was at Court on Trinity Sunday (7 June), Corpus Christi Eve, and Corpus Christi Day (11 June), according to your advertisement. On the eve the King was shriven, and the next day shriven and houselled. "I ministered, as my weakness would serve, in pontificalibus," and found the King very gracious. Whilst I was at London, many were dying of the sweat. I tarried till it came to my house, and was then forced to flee, and therefore did not presume to come into your presence. Reached Woburn in a litter; sometimes on horseback. Several are dead there. As the sweat is in my house I dare not tarry, and therefore I wish leave to go to Buckeden [Map]. I have promised a pilgrimage to Our Lady of Walsyngham. I have two Lutherans in my house, one of whom wrote the letter I sent you. He is a very heretic, and has done hurt in my diocese. I purpose to abjure them both, and after they have done open penance to commit them to two monasteries. I beg you to remember and punish the infect persons in Oxford; for if sharpness be not used, many will do ill. There are more in Oxford, as appears by libels set up at night on the church doors. I gave one of them to my lord of London. As they are in my diocese, I intend to ride to Oxford myself, about Michaelmas, with your leave, and reduce them to order. Woburn, 26 June.

Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 26 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 301. 4422. Sir J. Russell (age 43) To Wolsey.

Sends letters received by the King, from my lord of Ossory, concerning the taking of the Vice-deputy and the misrule in Ireland. The King thinks none so meet for the government as my lord of Ossory, or Master Butler, his son, and wishes Wolsey to dispatch them as soon as possible. Wolsey knows the son's activity. The father is an honorable man, wise and hardy, but stricken in age, and not so able to follow the wars. The King is much troubled with this disease of sweat. Tonight there have fallen sick my lord and Lady Marques, Sir Thos. Cheyney (age 43), and Mrs. Croke. Norres and Wallop are recovered. Poynes (deceased) is dead. Today the King removes to Bishop's Hatfield, accompanied only by the Privy Chamber and Master Kyngeston. Last night he took Master Bryan into the Privy Chamber. Hartford, 26 June. Signed.

Letters and Papers 1528. 28 Jun 1528. R. O. 4429. HENNEGE to WOLSEY.

The King removed this day from Hertford to Hatfield because of the sweat. My Lord Marquis, his wife, Mr. Chene, the Queen's almoner, Mr. Toke, are fallen sick, and the Master of the Horse (age 32) complains of his head. Nevertheless, the King is merry, and takes no conceit (?), but heartily recommends him to you, and prays you to [do] as he does. Yesterday the King sent Wolsey [as a] "preservative, manws cresty" (manus Christi), with divers other things.

Hol., p. 1. Sealed and add.

On or before 30 Jun 1528 John Stanley (age 18) died of sweating sickness; probably, the sweating sickness given there was an outbreak at the time. See Letters 1528 1440.

On 30 Jun 1528 William Compton (age 46) died of sweating sickness. His son Peter Compton (age 5) became a ward of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 55).. In his will he left Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon (age 45) a life interest in property in Leicestershire and founded a chantry where prayers would be said daily for her soul.

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 303. 4438. Hennege to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 55).

The King (age 37) begs you to be of good comfort, and do as he does. He is sorry that you are so far off, and thinks that if you were at St. Alban's [Map] you might every hour hear the one of the other, and his physicians attend upon you, should anything happen. News is come of the death of Sir William Compton (age 46). Suits are made for his offices, and the King wishes to have a bill of them. All are in good health at the Court, and they that sickened on Sunday night are recovered. The King (age 37) is merry, and pleased with your "mynone house" here. Tuesday.

P.S.-I will not ask for any of those offices for myself, considering the little time I have been in the King's service. The King sent for Mr. Herytage today, to make a new window in your closet, because it is so little.

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 304. 4439. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 55) to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 37).

Is glad the King has escaped the plague. Has just heard of the death of Sir William Compton (age 46), and advises the King to stay the distribution of his offices for a time. Is sorry to be so far away from the King, but will at any time attend him with one servant and a page to do service in the King's chamber. Hampton Court [Map], 30 June. Signed.

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Jun 1528. 4440. The young lady (age 27) is still with her father. The King (age 37) keeps moving about for fear of the plague. Many of his people have died of it in three or four hours. of those you know there are only Poowits (deceased), Carey (deceased) and Cotton (age 46) dead; but Feuguillem, the marquis [Dorset] (age 51), my Lord William, Bron (Brown), Careu, Bryan [Tuke], who is now of the Chamber, Nourriz (Norris), Walop, Chesney, Quinston (Kingston), Paget, and those of the Chamber generally, all but one, have been or are attacked. Yesterday some of them were said to be dead. The King (age 37) shuts himself up quite alone. It is the same with Wolsey (age 55). After all, those who are not exposed to the air do not die. Of 40,000 attacked in London, only 2,000 are dead; but if a man only put his hand out of bed during twenty-four hours, it becomes as stiff as a pane of glass.

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Jun 1528. 4440. P.S. There have died at Wolsey's house the brother (age 18) of the Earl of Derby (age 19) and a nephew of the Duke of Norfolk (age 55); and the Cardinal has stolen away with a very few people, letting no one know whither he has gone. The King has at last stopped twenty miles from here, at a house built by Wolsey, finding removals useless. I hear he has made his will, and taken the sacraments, for fear of sudden death. However, he is not ill. I have not written this with my own hand, as you do not read it easily when I write hastily.

Letters and Papers 1528. 01 Jul 1528. R. O. 4450. Sir William Sandys (age 58) to Wolsey.

Does not presume to visit the King or Wolsey, as he has had the sweat in his house. Desires to have some of the offices of the late Sir William Compton (deceased). He was steward to Cicester, Malmesbury, and many other religious places. Desires Wolsey would write letters to them, willing them to give the said stewardships to Sandys. At the Vyne, 1 July.

P.S.—Begs some of the offices for his poor brother, who has much chargeable business. Sends a schedule of the vacant places.

Letters and Papers 1528. 02 Jul 1528. R. O. 4453. Richard Broke To Nich. Townesley.

Received his letters dated at Hampton Court, 1 July, requiring him to attend my lord's Grace that day or else tomorrow. Would have done so if he had not been sick of the sweat; from which one of his clerks at London is newly recovered, and another who yesterday wrote divers letters for him fell ill shortly after 12 o'clock at afternoon. All his horses are in Mortlake Park, beside Putneyth. Has ordered his servant, the bearer, to take them out, and get ready his saddles and harness at London that he may ride the circuit. Will be with my Lord whenever his servant brings his horses. Sutton, in Kent, 30 miles from Hampton Court, about midnight before the 2 July.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: Master Nicolas Townesley, clerk. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 02 Jul 1528. Titus, B. I. 320. B. M. 4452. John Mordaunt (age 20) To [Wolsey].

Asks him to obtain him the place of under-treasurer, void by the death of Sir William Compton (deceased), about which he spoke to Wolsey at the last vacancy. Last Lent, at Hampton Court, asked him for Sir Harry Wyat's (age 68) room, but he said he had determined to give it to Tuke, though he answered favorably his request to promote him to some such place. Thanks him for all his kindness. Asks his acceptance of 500 marks for the college at Oxford. Will give £100 to the King, if Wolsey pleases, "for his gracious goodness to be showed to me therein."

Asks for the wardship of one of the sisters of the late Mr. Browghton, for his younger sons, as their lands lie in Bradford, in which Mordaunt dwells. Will give £200 more than any other will give. Cannot pay ready money, owing to his expence in buying the heir of Sir Richard Fitzlewes (age 73) and in marrying his daughters, but he will give Wolsey a manor or two instead. Would have attended on Wolsey in person, but dares not presume to do so, in consequence of the sickness. When he first heard the premises, was busy in viewing the King's forest of Rockingham, where the King suffers daily great loss. His servant, the bearer, will attend on Wolsey daily to know his pleasure. 2 July.

Asks him to burn this letter.

Hol., pp. 2.

Letters and Papers 1528. 04 Jul 1528. R. O. 4464. Clerk And Taylor To Wolsey.

Wrote on the 1st. Hear that the lanceknights have not gone to Genoa, but are at Lodi. The King is hunting at Fontainebleau, and will stay there all this month. My Lady is at St. Germain's; the Council at Paris. Much rain has fallen, and destroyed the corn and the vines. It is to be feared that a universal decay and dearth will prevail through the whole of France. We are told the plague is very bad in England. Paris, 4 July. Signed.

Letters and Papers 1528. 05 Jul 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 308. 4467. Hennege To Wolsey.

When the King was advertised this morning that you intended to visit him, he begged you to defer your coming till the times are more propitious. He is glad to be so nigh to you, and is well contented with the air and site of this your place. He wishes general processions to be made through the realm for good weather and for the plague. Tittenhanger [Map], Sunday. Signed. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 07 Jul 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 310. 4476. Dr. Bell To Wolsey.

In consequence of the notice from Cooksey, under-sheriff of Worcestershire, of the state of the shire, left destitute by Compton's (deceased) death, the King desires you will direct a commission to Sir Edward Feres (or Ferrers), of Warwickshire, "for the finishing of this present year," unless you know of any more suitable person. He will make a further arrangement at your next repairing here. He desires you, by virtue of your legatine prerogative, to bestow the vicarage of Thaxted on his chaplain, Mr. Wilson, and the prebend in the college of Tamworth on his chaplain, Dr. Dyngle, vacant by resignation of his chaplain, Mr. Stapulles, for whose preferment he thanks you; and that the small benefice held by Forest, servant to the duke of Richmond, named Covyngton, in Huntingdonshire, be also given to Dyngle. He wishes the high stewardship of Salisbury to be given to his servant, Sir Edward Baynton. He desires the rest of Compton's offices to be stayed; among others, the office of Furnesse, which he intends for Mr. Treasurer (Fitzwilliam) and Mr. Chancellor of the Duchy (More), as joint patentees. He orders me to tell you that himself, the Queen, and all others here are well, and the plague so far ceased that none have had the sweat these three days, except Mr. Butt. He is very desirous for your health, and that you will put aside all fear and phantasies, make as merry as you can, put apart all cares for the time, and commit all to God. Though he commends your virtuous and religious disposition, yet he ofttimes wishes your Grace's heart were as good as his is. He desires to have an answer to my former letter to you, concerning the election at Wilton. Tittenhanger [Map], St. Thomas's Day.

Letters and Papers 1528. 07 Jul 1528. Love Letters XIII. 4477. Henry VIII (age 37) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Since her last, Walter Welshe, Master Browne, Thomas Care, Yrion of Brearton, John Coke the potecary, are fallen of the sweat in this house, and, thank God, have all recovered, so the plague has not yet quite ceased here. The rest of us are well, and I hope will pass it. As for the matter of Wylton, my Lord Cardinal has had the nuns before him, and examined them in presence of Master Bell, who assures me that she whom we would have had abbess has confessed herself to have had two children by two different priests, and has since been kept, not long ago, by a servant of Lord Broke that was. "Wherefore I would not, for all the gold in the world, cloak your conscience nor mine to make her ruler of a house which is of so ungodly demeanour; nor I trust you would not that neither for brother nor sister I should so distayne mine honor or conscience. And as touching the prioress or dame Ellenor's eldest sister, though there is not any evident case proved against them, and the prioress is so old that of many years she could not be as she was named, yet notwithstanding, to do you pleasure, I have done that nother of them shall have it, but that some other good and well-disposed woman shall have it, whereby the house shall be the better reformed, whereof I ensure you it hath much need, and God much the better served. As touching your abode at Hever [Map], do therein as best shall like you, for you know best what air doth best with you; but I would it were come thereto, if it pleased God, that nother of us need care for that, for I ensure you I think it long. Suche (Zouch) is fallen sick of the sweat, and therefore I send you this bearer because I think you long to hear tidings from us, as we do in likewise from you.".

Letters and Papers 1528. 07 Jul 1528. Otho, C. X. 218. 4480. B. M. Burnet, I. 104. 4480. Anne Boleyn (age 27) to Wolsey.

In most humble wise that my poor heart can think, I thank your Grace for your kind letter and rich present, which I shall never be able to deserve without your help; "of the which I have hitherto had so great plenty that all the days of my life I am most bound, of all creatures, next the King's grace, to love and serve your Grace." I beseech you never to doubt that I shall ever vary from this thought while breath is in my body. As to your Grace's trouble with the sweat, I thank God those that I desired and prayed for have escaped,—namely, the King and you. I much desire the coming of the Legate, and, if it be God's pleasure, I pray Him to bring this matter shortly to a good end, when I trust partly to recompense your pains.

Letters and Papers 1528. 09 Jul 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 312. 4486. Hennege (age 48) to Wolsey.

I delivered the King your letters, for which he thanks you, especially for the good news out of Italy from Dr. Stevyns. He has heard that my Lady Marquese of Exeter (age 25) is sick of the sweat, and he will therefore remove upon Saturday to Ampthill [Map]. He has ordered all who were in the Marquis's company to depart. He is glad you have made your will, "and ordered yourself anenst God," as he has done. He intends to send his will to you, by which you will perceive his hearty mind towards you above all men living. By the death of one of his chapel, divers gifts have fallen, which he desires may be stayed until you have further knowledge of his pleasure. "Also he desireth your Grace that he may hear every second day from you how you do; for I assure you every morning, as soon as he cometh from the Queen, he asketh whether I hear anything from your Grace." He has told Herytage what alterations he desires here. Tittenhanger [Map], 9 July.

Letters and Papers 1528. 10 Jul 1528. R. O. 4489. Tunstal, Bishop of London (age 54), to Wolsey.

Master Staples, the King's chaplain, has been put in possession of the hospital, after election, confirmation, &c., in accordance with Wolsey's letter and the King's pleasure signified to Tunstal (age 54) before his departure from Greenwich. Dares not come to Wolsey, though he is anxious to see him, as nearly all his servants are troubled with the sweat. Had 13 of them sick at once, on St. Thomas's Day. I pray Jesu keep the King and your Grace from it! Has caused general procession to be made, and prayers offered for its cessation. Fulham, 10 July.

Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 10 Jul 1528. R. O. 4492. Sir Rob. Wingfield (age 64) To Tuke.

Wrote on the 8th, sending a letter from one of his spies. Sends him another of the same, showing that the people of these parts were more afeared than needed. The French merchants taken at St. Omer's were released within 24 hours. Calais, 10 July 1528, at 4 in the morning.

P.S.—The sweat has arrived, and has attacked many. Two only are dead: one, a gentleman of Lancashire, named Syngilton, "who was toward the religion of the Rhodes," the other a fisherman.

Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.: "First."

Letters and Papers 1528. 10 Jul 1528. R. O. 4493. Sir Rob. Wingfield (age 64) to Tuke.

Wrote at 4 in the morning, and sent a letter received yesterday from a spy. Was informed by the scourer of the West Pale that, notwithstanding the great storm, the inhabitants were driving their cattle to the Marches, and conveying their goods to Guisnes and to this town, by reason of a report that war should be proclaimed between England and France, at Boulogne, at 7. Sent out horsemen to inquire the grounds of it, and comfort the people, assuring them they had nothing to fear. A man has come from Abbeville, who said that upon Wednesday morning, at the opening of the gate, the peasants came and said with a loud voice that the Burgundians had broken the truce, and the Emperor refused to ratify it with England on that account. All this has arisen from the taking of prisoners at St. Omer's. Sends his spy's letter in proof. This morning 20 horsemen armed came from Boulogne to Guisnes, conveying a prisoner, who had been taken by the Burgundians and escaped; and if the writer had not sent horsemen, the inhabitants would have removed their goods and chattels. Four more are dead of the plague. One of the men was of the number of the two sent by my lord of Bath from Paris, named Denham, "a personage of goodly fashion, and marvellously well learned, both in Latin and Greek, but was also right excellent in musical instruments." The other was the keeper of the water-house, excellent in the science of geometry. Both of them were in good health yester even when they went to their beds. Calais, 10 July 1528.

Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.: "Second."

Letters and Papers 1528. 11 Jul 1528. R. O. 4501. Sir Edward Guldeford (age 54) to Wolsey.

On Sunday last, 5 July, Roger Horne, of Kenerton, and John Bell, of Apuldre, came to me at Hallden, and showed me the lewd sayings of Sir John Crake, parish priest of Brensett in Romney Marsh. Sends a bill of it. Has committed the priest to Maidstone gaol until Wolsey's pleasure be known, as it was not meet to trouble him with strangers in the time of this plague. Has been ill of it himself. Would be glad to have one of the late Sir Wm. Compton's (deceased) offices. Hallden, 11 July. Signed.

P. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 11 Jul 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 315. 4497. HENNAGE to WOLSEY.

Received your letter this morning at 4, and showed it to the King as soon as he was up. His Highness is glad to hear of your health, and recommends you, as the plague is near, to remove to Anworth, thence to Dicton, and so to Easthampstead. He is not best content with the election of the abbess of Wilton, as you will learn by Dr. Bell's letters, for of all women he would not have had her, nor Caryys eldest sister. He has showed Mr. Herytage such buildings as he desires at Tittenhanger [Map], and is sorry for the death of Mr. Redman, his mason. 11 July. Signed and sealed.

P. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 14 Jul 1528. Titus, B. XI. 356. B. M. 4510. Brian Tuke to Peter Vannes.

much consoled by Vannes' last letters, showing my Lord's great goodness to him.

His wife has "passed the sweat," but is very weak, and is broken out about the mouth and other places. Tuke "puts away the sweat" from himself nightly, though other people think they would kill themselves thereby. Has done this during the last sweat and this, feeling sure that as long as he is not first sick, the sweat is rather provoked by disposition of the time and by keeping men close than by any infection. Thousands have it from fear, who need not else sweat, especially if they observe good diet. When a man is not sick, there is no fear of putting away the sweat, in the beginning, "and before a man's grease be with hot keeping molten." Surely after the grease is heated, it must be more dangerous for a man to take cold than for a horse, which dies in such a case. His belief that the sweat in men who are not sick "proceeds much of men's opinion," is confirmed by the fact that it is prevalent nowhere but in the King's dominion. In France and Flanders it is called the king of England's sickness, and is not thought much of there. It does not go to Gravelines when it is at Calais, though people go from one to the other. It has only been brought from London to other parts by report; for when a whole man comes from London, and talks of the sweat, the same night all the town is full of it, and thus it spreads as the fame runs. It came in this way from Sussex to London, and 1,000 fell ill in a night after the news was spread. "Children also, lacking this opinion, have it not," unless their mothers kill them by keeping them too hot if they see them sweat a little.

Does not deny that there is an infection, which he takes to be "rather a kind of a pestilence than otherwise, and that the moisture of years past hath so altered the nature both of our meats and bodies to moist humours, as disposeth us to sweat." Does not think that every man who sweats is infected, and believes that the disposition to sweat may be, by good governance, relieved. Wishes him to show this to my lord's Grace, to satisfy his mind. Dr. Bartlot, his physician, cannot deny this.

The infection is greatly to be feared and avoided, which cannot be, if men meet together in great companies in infect airs and places.

Wishes him to exhort Wolsey not to run any danger. Was sorry to see by Vannes' letters that he was doing so much with so small assistance. Can do nothing to assist him, now that his house is thus visited, and he himself is in extreme perplexity, and soon cast down by the least transgression of his diet. If he were with Wolsey, would be more likely to bring danger and trouble than do any good. Has not strength to write much or study. Writes this at his waking after midnight, fearing to be still for the sweat, with an aching and troubled head.

Remembering that, as Vannes wrote, Wolsey said that Ireland was in great danger if speedy order were not taken, sends the following news. The prior of Kilmainham, who lies within three miles of Tuke, has been with him twice or thrice. He thinks that the best thing to be done until the King and Wolsey take other order is that some fit man, as James Butler, son of my lord of Ossory, "be subrogate in the lieu of the deputy prisoner," and that raids be made to destroy the corn of the wild Irish, which is the chief punishment of the rebels. The neglect of doing this encourages and enables them to offend the English. He thinks nothing would be necessary but the King's letters to whomever it pleases him to entrust the affair to, and to the Council, to assist and to do anything else beneficial. Will draw up any minutes needed, if Vannes will send instructions, but he does not wish to come to Wolsey, considering the precarious state of his health.

Encloses letters from the deputy of Calais. Portgore, 14 July 1528.

Hol., pp.5. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 16 Jul 1528. R.O. 4522. The Abbot Of Furness to Wolsey.

Received on the 14th his letter dated 2 July, blaming his negligence in delaying to answer Wolsey's first letters; requiring also a grant of the stewardship of their monastery, duly sealed, to be sent by the bearer. According to his promise, was coming to Wolsey by the space of forty miles and more, when he heard of the plague and the adjournment of the term. Since his return, he and the monastery have made a grant of the stewardship to the earl of Derby; but as a former grant was delivered to the late Earl by the pretensed abbot, John Dalton, they desire to have it returned, and will deliver the Earl a substantial one in the place of it. Furness, 16 July. Signed.

P.1. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 18 Jul 1528. R.O. St. P.I.314. 4528. Thomas Benet, Priest, to Wolsey.

Repaired to Wilton [Map], and used every effort to bring over the nuns to Wolsey's wishes. Found them untoward, and put three or four of the captains of them in ward. Has closed up the doors, that none might have access to the nunnery. Found only the new elect and her sisters compliant. As they are now visited by the plague, and much straitened in their lodging by the burning of their dormitory, thought it best to advertise Wolsey before taking further proceedings. Wilton, 18 July.

Hol., p.1. Add. Sealed. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jul 1528. R. O. 4538. Hennege To Wolsey.

I have this day put the King in remembrance of the letter of his own hand, which he said he would write, but he complains of his head, and therefore is not disposed to write at present. Tomorrow he intends to go to Grafton, to stay the Thursday, and return on the Friday. I will get him to write without fail, when I can. I beseech you continue gracious to my poor brother the archdeacon of Oxford, for whom I thank you. Ampthill, 21 July. Signed.

P.S.—There is no news here. The King is well, saving his head. My Lady Rocheford (age 23) and Mrs. Anne (age 27) cometh this week to the Court. My lord Rocheford (age 25) was to have come, but because of the sweat he remains at home.

P. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jul 1528. Le Grand, III. 150. 4542. Du Bellay To Montmorency.

Has informed Wolsey, by long letters directed to Vannes, of the contents of Francis's letters of the 9th and 13th. He is very glad of the news from Naples, and from Italy generally. The point of all my letters, Sir, is the contribution. The first time I sent to him he determined that it should commence in the middle of June. I applied to him again, and I think if I can speak to him tomorrow I shall gain my purpose, for he has consented that I shall go to the village of Hampton Court, when he will consider whether I shall speak by trumpet or by myself. I will do what I can about the advance of money, for I have not had a word yet in answer; but you must know the Angelots are worth here 69 sous, and I think they will deliver them to you for the weight, for they have no other money except these escus à la couronne, which are still worse. Let me know how to remit, or send a man to receive them. If you desire it I will try and get Wolsey to send the money to Calais free of cost.

The danger in this country begins to diminish hereabouts, and to increase elsewhere. In Kent it is very great. Mademoiselle de Boulan (age 27) and her father (age 51) have sweated, but have got over it. The day I sweated at my lord of Canterbury's there died 18 persons in four hours, and hardly anybody escaped but myself, who am not yet quite strong again. The King has gone further off than he was, uses great precautions, confesses himself every day, and receives Our Lord at every Feast. So also the Queen (age 42), who is with him, and Wolsey for his part. The notaries have had a fine time of it. I think 100,000 wills have been made off-hand, for those who were dying became quite foolish the moment they fell ill. The astrologers say this will not turn into a plague, but I think they dream. Has no doubt the King and Wolsey will be gratified with Francis's condolences on this visitation.

I have determined to send off this despatch, not to keep you in suspense till I have seen the Legate; but till next voyage I do not mean to put hand to pen (n'ay voulu mectre la main à la plume), that I may not cause suspicion to any one; for this is a regular pestilence (n'est que belle peste), and the moment a man is dead "il en devient tout couvert sur le corps1."

Thanks for remittances, &c. I am quite content to stay here, or even in Turkey, if the interests of Francis require it, and to spend all my goods if need be. All I have is but 4,000 livres of rent, and the expence being here so great, you will have to provide for the excess after I and my friends have done what we can. If I were as rich as some other bishops, or were I at a place of small expence like Venice, you should hear no complaint from me. London, 21 July.

Fr. Add.

Note 1. he becomes all covered on his body.

Letters and Papers 1528. 22 Jul 1528. R. O. 4546. Hennege to Wolsey.

This day I received your letter, with one to the chapter of Lincoln, in favor of my brother, the archdeacon of Oxford, for the deanery of Lincoln; which, without your aid, had not taken effect. As the plague is at Grafton [Map], the King will not go there. As for your wish that Wilson should have some promotion, the King is in doubt whether he shall give the archdeaconry of Oxford to Mr. Wilson or Dr. Bell. The King cannot write, in consequence of his head, and begs you will send him the presentation of the prebend of Ripon, as you promised him. The vicarage you gave to Dr. Wilson was resigned to Dr. Daycots for a pension five years ago. The King wishes you to dispatch the earl of Angus's servant. He will not fail to send you "these letters of Ireland" in two or three days, but his head is not the best, or he would have dispatched them now. He desires you to be good lord to his barber Penne, for the daughter and ward unto your Grace, of one Chevall, within the liberties of St. Alban's, for his money. It is not in value above £12 a year, her father hath tangled it so, and laid it to mortgage for £60. Cade can inform you of the truth. Ampthill [Map], 22 July, about 7 in the afternoon. Signed.

Pp. 2. Add. Endd. Wolsey has written at the back "intangellyd."

Letters and Papers 1528. 22 Jul 1528. R. O. 4547. Magnus to Wolsey.

The King has written to my lord of Richmond for two stewardships in the Duke's gift by the death of Sir William Compton (deceased);—the one of Canforde and Corffe, and my Lord's lands in Dorsetshire, fee 100s.; the other of my Lord's lands in Somersetshire, fee £6 13s. 4d.;—which he wishes given to Sir Giles Strangwisshe (age 42) and Sir Edw. Seymour (age 28). The King's letters mention only the first office, which cannot well be given to two persons. Sir Edw. Seymour (age 28) writes that both are intended for him. My Lord, however, had already given the stewardship of Canford and Corffe to Sir Will. Parre (age 45), his chamberlain, and of the Somersetshire lands to Geo. Cotton (age 23). Encloses copy of my Lord's letter. The sweating sickness is bad in these parts, and has carried off two of Mr. Holgill's company, the surveyor of Wolsey's lands, who was at Beverley. The Duke (age 9) has removed hither from Pontefract. Sheriff Hutton [Map], 22 July. Signed.

P. 1. Add.: To my lord Legate. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 27 Jul 1528. R. O. 4560. John Chekyng To Cromwell.

His son Gregory (age 8) is not now at Cambridge, but in the country, where he works and plays alternately. He is rather slow, but diligent. He had been badly tutored, and could hardly conjugate three verbs when committed to Chekyng's care, though he repeated the rules by rote. If this is Palgrave's style of teaching, does not believe he will ever make a scholar. Will have to unteach him nearly all he has learned. He is now studying the things most conducive to the reading of authors, and spends the rest of the day in forming letters. The plague, happily, is abating. Pembroke Hall, 27 July.

Hol., Lat., pp. 2. Add.: Clarissimo viro et domino suo optimo, D. Crumwello in ædibus Remi (Wolsey). Ex Cantabrigia.

Letters and Papers 1528. 06 Aug 1528. R. O. 4610. Pasqual Spinula to Wolsey.

Was unwilling to wait upon him during the prevalence of the sickness, to explain to him the loss of his alum, which had been sequestrated and sold, and the papal briefs he has received on the subject. Now that matters are quiet, begs that Wolsey will take his case into consideration. London, 6 Aug. 1528. Signed.

P. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 14 Aug 1528. R. O. 4633. The Sweating Sickness.

Number of the persons who died with the plague, or otherwise, in the city of London, from 5 to 12 Aug. Also, of the parishes clear from the infection.

ii. Similar list for the 14th Aug.

Pp. 10. Endd.: "So appeareth there be dead within the city of London, of the plague and otherwise, from the 6th day of this month of August to the 14th day, which be 8 days complete, the full number of 152 persons. And this day se'night your mastership shall be certified of the number that shall chance to depart in the meantime. Yours, as I am bound, John Champeneys."

Letters and Papers 1528. 31 Aug 1528. R. O. 4679. Clerk and Tayler to Wolsey.

Yesterday Francis sent us word of the death of Lautrec, and wishes us to be at court today, to prevent the inconveniences that are likely to follow. Spoke with him after dinner, with the ambassadors of Venice, Milan and Florence. His Majesty told us he had heard from the Marquis of Saluce that Lautrec died of the plague, after 24 hours' sickness. Francis greatly regrets his loss. He has ordered his captains to pay obedience to Saluce, who thinks he shall be able to take Naples. In that town there are not more than 5,000 or 6,000 foot and 300 horse, and in Lautrec's camp 10,000 foot and no horse. When we marvelled, he assured us there were not 80 horses in the camp. Francis also assured us that St. Poull should march forwards to Naples, as if that should keep Naples from rebellion. Their affairs are in some disorder. He has written to the Florentines for reinforcements, and sent Morette with ships from Marseilles. The French army in Normandy has been much beaten by weather, and he reckons it of little account. At this time of the year he thinks that Andrea Doria can do little hurt. The Venetians wish to detain part of St. Poull's army. No resolution was come to at their conference. St. Germain's, 31 Aug. Signed.

P.S. in Clerk's hand.—The Cardinal leaves Lyons today or tomorrow. "I have borrowed for him of the Pope's legate a fair well-trimmed and furnished mule, and four carriage mules; the which, with 20 horses of mine own, and four carriage mules also of mine own, and 10 horses of the Master of the Rolls, I shall send forwards tomorrow towards Orleans." St. Germain's, 31 Aug.

Letters and Papers 1528. 25 Sep 1528. Cleop. F. VI. 343. B. M. 4772. Tunstal To [Wolsey].

Intended to have come to Wolsey today to inform him what he had done in his progress in the diocese of London, but will not do so, as a servant of his has fallen ill, it is feared, of the great sickness. Has summoned all the clergy of his diocese, and taken their oaths as to their substance and has taken the valuation of the benefices of men who are not resident in the diocese. Has deputed collectors in every deanery for levying the King's loan. In London, the collector has paid Mr. Wiat 450l., and is collecting the rest. In the country they are likewise busy, but many of them write that few of the priests can pay ready money till after Michaelmas, when they have thrashed and sold their tithe corn; and, as the loan touches every man, none will lend money. Has taken the substance of many persons and monasteries which were excepted by a bill in his first instructions. As to those of whom he discovered that the King's demand by his letters was under the fourth part, has put the residue of the said fourth part in the collector's books, to be levied by them. In the case of some monasteries, he does not know for what the King has written, for the bill of exceptions does not always mention the sum. The abbots of St. Osythes and Bylegh, and the lady abbess of Barkyng, have received no letters, though he knows that letters were ordered to be sent to them. They have given him bills, by which it appears that the fourth part of the lands of St. Osythes amounts to 150l.; of Barking, to 155l. 2s. 4d.; and of Bylegh, to 49l. 10s.

Advises Wolsey to send letters to them for these sums, deducting what has been paid in accordance with former letters. Could not put these sums in the collector's books, not knowing for what the King had written. Will call upon the collectors to bring up the money as soon as levied. London, 25 Sept. Signed.

Pp. 2.

Letters and Papers 1528. 27 Sep 1528. R. O. 4782. SIR EDWARD GULDEFORD to WOLSEY.

Has sent to Calais four passengers (ships) for transporting cardinal Campeggio. Among the others "the Peter Baily, for his own person, which is the ship that your Grace hath passed in divers times, and hath a bed in her, and the cabin, appareled after the best fashion." Wishes to know whether the charge is to be at the King or Wolsey's cost. The Legate cannot stay more than one night at Dovor, as it is infected with the sickness, and as the priory is in that quarter of the town, has appointed the bailiff's house for the reception of the Legate. The town is prepared. Dovor, Sunday, 27 Sept. Signed.

P. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 28 Sep 1528. Cal. B. I. 84. B. M. 4790. Henry Earl Of Cumberland (age 35) to Wolsey.

Reminds him that he was appointed by the King last term to settle the differences that arose between himself and lord Dacres (age 35) touching his office of warden of the West Marches. The term being adjourned in consequence of the sweating sickness, he received a summons for this next term; but, fearing that Dacres would ill treat the King's tenants in these parts, he procured a letter from the King to Dacres, commanding him not to interfere1; nevertheless, Dacres sends bailiffs, with from 10 to 400 persons, to cut down their corn, has imprisoned some of the tenants in the castle of Naward, and would show no authority for so doing. Would have been glad to defend the tenants, but it seemed to touch the honesty of himself and his brother Sir Thos. Clifford. Obtained letters from the duke of Richmond (age 9) to Dacres (age 35), commanding him in the King's name to desist, but to no purpose. A sessions of peace was appointed by warrant addressed to Sir Edw. Musgrave, the sheriff, in the names of Sir Thos. Clifford, Sir Christ. Dacre, Sir John Lowther, and Geoffrey Lancaster, justices; but Dacres wrote to the sheriff, commanding him to repair to Naward castle for the King's affairs, so that he should be absent on the day appointed, and also kept the said Geoffrey, justice of the quorum and custos rotulorum of the county, at the said castle, as appears by Lancaster's letters to Sir Thos. Clifford, the bearer of this. Begs Wolsey not to give credit to evil reports against him. Will be with him at the beginning of next term. Carleton, 28 Sept. Signed.

Pp. 5. Add.: "To my lord Legat." Endd.

Note 1. See 26 Jun 1528.

Letters and Papers 1528. 31 Oct 1528. R. O. 4891. Henry Duke Of Richmond (age 9) To Henry VIII.

Has passed this last summer without any peril of the rageous sweat that hath reigned in these parts. Thanks the King for the preservatives he sent. There are now with him my lord of Westmoreland (age 30) and his wife (age 29), and their son lord Nevell. Sheriff Hutton [Map].

Hol., p. 1. Add.

Letters and Papers 1528. 08 Nov 1528. R. O. 4916. John Chekyng to Cromwell.

Various reports were spread here about Cromwell, which he is glad proved false. Gregory (age 8) is well, et reliqui tui have now got cloaks to shield them from the cold. They have also a blazing fire to keep them comfortable. Little Gregory is becoming great in letters. Christopher (fn. 7) does not require much stirring up. Acknowledges a bundle of cloth received yesterday from Cromwell. Pembroke Hall, 8 Nov.

P.S.—The plague which sent us into the country has nearly consumed our money.

Hol., Lat., p. 1. Add.: Suorum studiorum nequaquam vulgari patrono, D. Thomæ Crumwello, viro ut claro ita multis nominibus inclyto. Ex Cantabrigia.

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Aug. 4656. If he arrive at Paris before the Cardinal, he is to visit the bishop of Bath and Master of the Rolls, and go with them to the French king, to whom he shall deliver letters from the King and Wolsey, thanking him in both their names "that it would please the same to send a gentleman of his privy chamber hither into England to see, know and understand of the prosperous estate and health of them both; which (lauds be given unto God!) have escaped the great and furious danger of the pestilent plague of sweat lately visiting the realm of England; which plague at this day is well assuaged, and little or nothing heard thereof in any place."

Letters and Papers 1528. 28 June. R. O. 4428. J. RUSSELL to WOLSEY.

Since the King's coming to Tittenhanger [Map] he has been very well, and merrier than he was since his departure from Greenwich. He likes your house very well; "and where he was to fore in great fear and trouble for this plague, and that he left some of his chamber in every place where he went, and as this night, thanked be God, there was none sick, whereof his Majesty is very well recomforted. I would not for all the good in England but that he had come to your Grace's house; and this day he has received the good Lord, and so has the more part that be about him, and he rejoices much that he has done so, and says that he is armed towards God and the world." He has eaten more meat today than he did three days before. When he heard you were coming hither, he was sorry that you should come in the "efexseon" (infection), especially as there is no lodging for you. Tittenhanger [Map], 28 June.

Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, 1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

On 17 Oct 1529 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 56) surrendered the Great Seal to Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 56) and Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 45).

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (age 46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (age 38) at Windsor [Map], on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Henry Norris (age 47), Thomas Heneage (age 49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thomas Hall, of the Hanaper.

On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thomas More (age 51), in the presence of Henry Norres (age 47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall [Map] at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), Th. marquis of Dorset (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter (age 33), John Earl of Oxford (age 58), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 27), George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 31), John Bishop of  Lincoln (age 56), Cuthbert Bishop of  London (age 55), John Bishop of  Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, Viscount Fitzwater (age 46), Sir Tho. Boleyn, Viscount Rocheforde (age 52), Sir WilliamSandys, Lord (age 52) and others.

Close Roll, 21 Henry VIII. m. 19d.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

On 01 Dec 1529 ...

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 62) was created 1st Baron Windsor of Stanwell in Buckinghamshire. Elizabeth Blount Baroness Windsor (age 60) by marriage Baroness Windsor of Stanwell in Buckinghamshire.

John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (age 64) was created 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford. Anne Grey Baroness Hussey Sleaford by marriage Baroness Hussey of Sleaford.

On 02 Dec 1529 ...

Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth (age 28) was created 1st Baron Wentworth. Margaret Fortescue Baroness Wentworth (age 27) by marriage Baroness Wentworth.

Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh (age 41) was created 1st Baron Burgh. Agnes Tyrwhitt Baroness Cobham, Strabolgi and Burgh (age 48) by marriage Baroness Burgh. This is regarded as a new creation rather than a continuation of the previous creation Baron Burgh since Thomas's father was never summoned to Parliament due to his insanity. Some sources refer to Thomas as the 3rd Baron Burgh.

On 04 Dec 1529 Edmund Braye 1st Baron Braye (age 45) was created 1st Baron Braye.

In early Dec 1529 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland created five Baronies ...

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Death of Cardinal Wolsey

On 04 Nov 1530 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 57) was arrested by Henry Percy 6th Earl of Northumberland (age 28) on a charge of treason.

On 29 Nov 1530 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 57) died in Leicester, Leicestershire [Map]. Just before his death he reputedly spoke these words: "I see the matter against me how it is framed. But if I had served God as diligently as I have done the King, he would not have given me over in my grey hairs".

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1520-1532 Field of the Cloth of Gold and Anne Boleyn, Anne Boleyn Attacked by a Mob

Calendars. Nov. 24. [1531] Sanuto Diaries, v. lv. p. 168. 701. Advices from France, received by the French Ambassador in Venice.

On the day of All Saints the King gave most gracious greeting at Compiegne to the Vice-Chancellor (Vice gran Canzelier) of England, who was accompanied by Sir Francis Bryan (age 41). On the morrow of All Souls the King went out of mourning for his mother, as did the princes, lords, and gentlemen. The Queen and the King's children did not put themselves into mourning. The Queen of Navarre and the children of the King [of Navarre] wore it from beginning to end, spontaneously. The King chose to have an exact list of all the lords, gentlemen, officials, and servants of his mother, and has provided for all of them, from the highest to the lowest, giving them the same amount of salary as they received from the deceased; placing some in his own household, others with the Dauphin and his brothers, the rest in the household of the Princesses, his daughters. The ladies of his mother's household are placed in that of the Queen, and the maids of honour with his daughters. The act was that of a magnanimous prince, such as he is.

On the 5th instant the Bishop of Bayonne returned to the Court from England, and says that the King, on hearing of the death of the late most illustrious “Madame,” made all the English princes and great lords go into mourning; and when the Bishop told this to the Legate, there was present the Emperor's ambassador, who declared that his master had done the like, which is a demonstration of great friendship.

It is said that more than seven weeks ago a mob of from seven to eight thousand women of London went out of the town to seize Boleyn's daughter (age 30), the sweetheart of the King of England, who was supping at a villa (in una easa di piacere) on a river, the King not being with her; and having received notice of this, she escaped by crossing the river in a boat. The women had intended to kill her; and amongst the mob were many men, disguised as women; nor has any great demonstration been made about this, because it was a thing done by women.

To prevent the exportation of grain from France a proclamation has been issued forbidding all millers, bakers, and usurious wheat merchants, any longer to raise the price of corn. No corn may be sold save at market, and no baker, miller, or corn merchant can purchase it two hours after the close of the market, so that the people may be enabled to buy their supply; and the granaries of Paris are to be inspected by competent and worthy men, who are to acquaint themselves with the number of persons forming the household of each proprietor, whether noblemen, councillors, citizens, or merchants, and the annual amount of grain required for their consumption; which being set apart, they will be bound to take all the rest to market and sell it to the people, by reason of the King's just fear lest the people of Paris lack the means of subsistence.

La Fère, 24th November 1531. Registered by Sanuto 18th Dec.