Culture, General Things, Dictionaries

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Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Animals

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Animals, Sea Creatures

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Animals, Sea Creatures, Buccinum Undatum

Buccinum Undatum. Common whelk.

Reliquiæ Diluvianæ. The entire mass through which the bones are dispersed appears to have been disturbed by ancient diggings, and its antediluvian remains thereby to have become mixed with recent bones and shells; the latter of which Mr. Dillwyn has examined, and refers to the following species: buccinum undatum, turbo littoreus, patella vulgata, trochus crassus, nerita littoralis; these are all common on the adjacent shore, and the animals that inhabit them are all eatable. That portion of the diluvial mass which lies on the east side of the cave (see Plate XXI. f.) adheres together in a loose breccia, and has been less disturbed than the rest, which it overhangs with a cliff about five feet high, and extending inwards from F to the interior extremity of the cave B, where it enters into and covers the floor of the small hole that terminates the cave. At the point B the recent shells and bones of birds are most abundant, and the earthy mass containing them is cemented to a firm breccia by stalagmite; and this is almost the only point within the cave at which any stalagmite or stalactite occurs. The two elephants' teeth were found in the small cliff F, at a distance from the head and tusk, which lay close together in the loose earth E, at the spot represented in the drawing. The anterior part of the skull, and the sockets of both the tusks, were found nearly entire, but have been much broken by removal. They were but slightly covered with earth, and very tender; the portion of tusk also, being about two feet long, is so much decayed that the whole of its interior has crumbled to small angular fragments, so soft as to be cut by the nail, whilst the outer laminae alone remain entire, and in the form of a hollow shell, which is preserved at Penrice; so also are the fragments that composed great part of the entire skull, and were broken in extracting them; and another portion of ivory, in which has been formed an irregular cavity, about two inches in diameter, similar to those produced by ossific inflammation in recent ivory by gun-shot wounds, and encircled with concentric laminae of bony matter, placed obliquely to the grain of the ivory: it is probably the effect of a blow or puncture received whilst this part of the tusk was yet in its pulpy state, and within the socket. No large bones of the skeleton have as yet been discovered entire; they seem to have been destroyed and broken to pieces by repeated diggings. The other ancient bones also have been much broken, and appear generally in the state of fragments dispersed irregularly through the earthy matrix, together with ancient teeth, and fragments of horns, and with the modern bones and recent shells above enumerated. None of these remains have any marks of having been gnawed or rolled, nor have the fragments of limestone, and of calcareous spar that occur with them, lost much of their angles. Among the horns I noticed the base of two that are separate from the skull, and appear to have been cast off by necrosis; and among the bones was the entire skull of a deer, from which the horns had been broken off by violence. In the centre of the cave, and about two feet deep, I found under and amongst the broken bones of elephant, bear, and other extinct animals, a portion of the scapula apparently of a sheep, which had been smoothly cut across as if by a butcher's saw; and, from its state of preservation, was decidedly not antediluvian. This mixture of ancient and comparatively modern bones must have arisen from repeated diggings in the bottom of the cave.

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Animals, Sea Creatures, Littorina Littorea

Littorina Littorea. Common Periwinkle.

Reliquiæ Diluvianæ. The entire mass through which the bones are dispersed appears to have been disturbed by ancient diggings, and its antediluvian remains thereby to have become mixed with recent bones and shells; the latter of which Mr. Dillwyn has examined, and refers to the following species: buccinum undatum, turbo littoreus, patella vulgata, trochus crassus, nerita littoralis; these are all common on the adjacent shore, and the animals that inhabit them are all eatable. That portion of the diluvial mass which lies on the east side of the cave (see Plate XXI. f.) adheres together in a loose breccia, and has been less disturbed than the rest, which it overhangs with a cliff about five feet high, and extending inwards from F to the interior extremity of the cave B, where it enters into and covers the floor of the small hole that terminates the cave. At the point B the recent shells and bones of birds are most abundant, and the earthy mass containing them is cemented to a firm breccia by stalagmite; and this is almost the only point within the cave at which any stalagmite or stalactite occurs. The two elephants' teeth were found in the small cliff F, at a distance from the head and tusk, which lay close together in the loose earth E, at the spot represented in the drawing. The anterior part of the skull, and the sockets of both the tusks, were found nearly entire, but have been much broken by removal. They were but slightly covered with earth, and very tender; the portion of tusk also, being about two feet long, is so much decayed that the whole of its interior has crumbled to small angular fragments, so soft as to be cut by the nail, whilst the outer laminae alone remain entire, and in the form of a hollow shell, which is preserved at Penrice; so also are the fragments that composed great part of the entire skull, and were broken in extracting them; and another portion of ivory, in which has been formed an irregular cavity, about two inches in diameter, similar to those produced by ossific inflammation in recent ivory by gun-shot wounds, and encircled with concentric laminae of bony matter, placed obliquely to the grain of the ivory: it is probably the effect of a blow or puncture received whilst this part of the tusk was yet in its pulpy state, and within the socket. No large bones of the skeleton have as yet been discovered entire; they seem to have been destroyed and broken to pieces by repeated diggings. The other ancient bones also have been much broken, and appear generally in the state of fragments dispersed irregularly through the earthy matrix, together with ancient teeth, and fragments of horns, and with the modern bones and recent shells above enumerated. None of these remains have any marks of having been gnawed or rolled, nor have the fragments of limestone, and of calcareous spar that occur with them, lost much of their angles. Among the horns I noticed the base of two that are separate from the skull, and appear to have been cast off by necrosis; and among the bones was the entire skull of a deer, from which the horns had been broken off by violence. In the centre of the cave, and about two feet deep, I found under and amongst the broken bones of elephant, bear, and other extinct animals, a portion of the scapula apparently of a sheep, which had been smoothly cut across as if by a butcher's saw; and, from its state of preservation, was decidedly not antediluvian. This mixture of ancient and comparatively modern bones must have arisen from repeated diggings in the bottom of the cave.

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Animals, Sea Creatures, Nerita Littoralis

Nerita Littoralis. Periwinkle shells.

Reliquiæ Diluvianæ. In another part (see Plate XXI.) I discovered beneath a shallow covering of six inches of earth nearly the entire left side of a human female skeleton. The skull and vertebras, and extremities of the right side were wanting; the remaining parts lay extended in the usual position of burial, and in their natural order of contact, and consisted of the humerus, radius, and ulna of the left arm, the hand being wanting; the left leg and foot entire to the extremity of the toes, part of the right foot, the pelvis, and many ribs; in the middle of the bones of the ancle was a small quantity of yellow wax-like substance resembling adipocere. All these bones appeared not to have been disturbed by the previous operations (whatever they were) that had removed the other parts of the skeleton. They were all of them stained superficially with a dark brick-red colour, and enveloped by a coating of a kind of ruddle, composed of red micaceous oxyde of iron, which stained the earth, and in some parts extended itself to the distance of about half an inch around the surface of the bones. The body must have been entirely surrounded or covered over at the time of its interment with this red substance. Close to that part of the thigh bone where the pocket is usually worn, I found laid together, and surrounded also by ruddle, about two handsfull of small shells of the nerita littoralis in a state of great decay, and falling to dust on the slightest pressure. At another part of the skeleton, viz. in contact with the ribs, I found forty or fifty fragments of small ivory rods nearly cylindrical, and varying in diameter from a quarter to three quarters of an inch, and from one to four inches in length. Their external surface was smooth in a few which were least decayed; but the greater number had undergone the same degree of decomposition with the large fragments of tusk before mentioned; most of them were also split transversely by recent fracture in digging them out, so that there are no means of knowing what was their original length, as I found none in which both extremities were unbroken; many of them also are split longitudinally by the separation of their laminae, which are evidently the laminae of the large tusk, from a portion of which they have been made. The surfaces exposed by this splitting, as well as the outer circumference where it was smooth, were covered with small clusters of minute and extremely delicate dendrites1; so also was the circumference of some small fragments of rings made of the same ivory, and found with the rods, being nearly of the size and shape of segments of a small teacup handle; the rings when complete were probably four or five inches in diameter. Both rods and rings, as well as the nerite shells, were stained superficially with red, and lay in the same red substance that enveloped the bones; they had evidently been buried at the same time with the woman. In another place were found three fragments of the same ivory, which had been cut into unmeaning forms by a rough edged instrument, probably a coarse knife, the marks of which remain on all their surfaces. One of these fragments is nearly of the shape and size of a human tongue, and its surface is smooth as if it had been applied to some use in which it became polished; its surface also is covered with dendrites like that of the rods: there was found also a rude instrument, resembling a short skewer or chop-stick, and made of the metacarpal bone of a wolf, sharp and flattened to an edge at one end, and terminated at the other by the natural rounded condyle of the bone, which the person who cut it had probably extracted, as well as the ivory tusk, from the diluvial detritus within the cave. No metallic instruments have as yet been discovered amongst these remains, which, though clearly not coeval with the antediluvian bones of the extinct species, appear to have lain there many centuries.

Note 1. A superficial stain of oxyde of iron, assuming the form of branches of trees, or extremely delicate moss; hut almost invisibly minute.

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Animals, Sea Creatures, Patella Vulgata

Patella Vulgata. Common Limpet.

Reliquiæ Diluvianæ. The entire mass through which the bones are dispersed appears to have been disturbed by ancient diggings, and its antediluvian remains thereby to have become mixed with recent bones and shells; the latter of which Mr. Dillwyn has examined, and refers to the following species: buccinum undatum, turbo littoreus, patella vulgata, trochus crassus, nerita littoralis; these are all common on the adjacent shore, and the animals that inhabit them are all eatable. That portion of the diluvial mass which lies on the east side of the cave (see Plate XXI. f.) adheres together in a loose breccia, and has been less disturbed than the rest, which it overhangs with a cliff about five feet high, and extending inwards from F to the interior extremity of the cave B, where it enters into and covers the floor of the small hole that terminates the cave. At the point B the recent shells and bones of birds are most abundant, and the earthy mass containing them is cemented to a firm breccia by stalagmite; and this is almost the only point within the cave at which any stalagmite or stalactite occurs. The two elephants' teeth were found in the small cliff F, at a distance from the head and tusk, which lay close together in the loose earth E, at the spot represented in the drawing. The anterior part of the skull, and the sockets of both the tusks, were found nearly entire, but have been much broken by removal. They were but slightly covered with earth, and very tender; the portion of tusk also, being about two feet long, is so much decayed that the whole of its interior has crumbled to small angular fragments, so soft as to be cut by the nail, whilst the outer laminae alone remain entire, and in the form of a hollow shell, which is preserved at Penrice; so also are the fragments that composed great part of the entire skull, and were broken in extracting them; and another portion of ivory, in which has been formed an irregular cavity, about two inches in diameter, similar to those produced by ossific inflammation in recent ivory by gun-shot wounds, and encircled with concentric laminae of bony matter, placed obliquely to the grain of the ivory: it is probably the effect of a blow or puncture received whilst this part of the tusk was yet in its pulpy state, and within the socket. No large bones of the skeleton have as yet been discovered entire; they seem to have been destroyed and broken to pieces by repeated diggings. The other ancient bones also have been much broken, and appear generally in the state of fragments dispersed irregularly through the earthy matrix, together with ancient teeth, and fragments of horns, and with the modern bones and recent shells above enumerated. None of these remains have any marks of having been gnawed or rolled, nor have the fragments of limestone, and of calcareous spar that occur with them, lost much of their angles. Among the horns I noticed the base of two that are separate from the skull, and appear to have been cast off by necrosis; and among the bones was the entire skull of a deer, from which the horns had been broken off by violence. In the centre of the cave, and about two feet deep, I found under and amongst the broken bones of elephant, bear, and other extinct animals, a portion of the scapula apparently of a sheep, which had been smoothly cut across as if by a butcher's saw; and, from its state of preservation, was decidedly not antediluvian. This mixture of ancient and comparatively modern bones must have arisen from repeated diggings in the bottom of the cave.

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Archaeology Dictionary

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Archaeology Dictionary, Everted

Everted. Turned outwards.

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Computing Dictionary

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Computing Dictionary, Optical Character Recognition

Optical Character Recognition. Automatic reading of text.

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, English

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, English, Naval Terms

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, English, Naval Terms, Coach

Coach. A sort of chamber or apartment in a large ship of war, just before the great cabin. The floor of it is formed by the aftmost part of the quarter deck, and the roof of it by the poop: it is generally the habitation of the flag-captain. Smyth's Sailor's Word-Book.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Apr 1690. This morning many or most of the commanders in the Fleet came on board and dined here, so that some of them and I dined together in the Round-house, where we were very merry. Hither came the Vice-Admiral to us, and sat and talked and seemed a very good-natured man. At night as I was all alone in my cabin, in a melancholy fit playing on my viallin, my Lord and Sir R. Stayner came into the coach and supped there, and called me out to supper with them. After that up to the Lieutenant's cabin, where he and I and Sir Richard sat till 11 o'clock talking, and so to bed. This day my Lord Goring returned from France, and landed at Dover, Kent [Map].

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, French Dictionary

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, French Dictionary, méchanceté

méchanceté. wickedness.

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Greek Dictionary

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Greek Dictionary, λαινον χιτωνα

λαινον χιτωνα. Literally a stone tunic ie a coffin. From Homer's The Illiad Book 3:

αλλα μαλα Τρωες δειδημονες: η τε κεν ηδη λαινον χιτωνα κακων ένεχ' όσσα εοργας.

But the Trojans are very cowardly; indeed you would have been wearing a tunic made of stone because of the many evils you have done.'

Archaeological Journal Volume 3 Page 39. A great step has been made in the history of Celtic Monuments by the researches of antiquaries among the traditions and the monuments of ancient Britain, as well as by those acute observers, who, like Mr. Lukis (age 57) and some of his contemporaries, have had the good fortune to find cromlechs almost untouched by the hands of the vulgar, and who have shewn them, by their contents, to have been places of sepulture, not of barbarous sacrifices and ceremonies. The quantity of conjecture and of guess work, that was issued during the latter end of the last century upon this subject, was astonishing: no antiquary of that time could be said to have fairly won his title unless he had advanced some new hypothesis, or suggested some new idea as to the destination of the cromlechs. They were proved to be altars, temples, houses, any thing in fact that their examiners,-or rather those that had not examined them,-thought proper to conjecture: the fact of their being in wild parts of the country went for a good deal, and the circumstance of the top stone sloping generally to one side or the other, enabled the clear-sighted to see streams of blood running off them from the quivering limbs of unhappy victims. Even bones were found near them-sometimes under them-and (the victims having been slaughtered above,-at least in the imaginations of the enquirers) they were of course the remains of the wretched creatures who had been immolated to the false gods of our heathen ancestors. Capital theories! excellent discoveries!-until in some luckless hour, an observer more far-sighted than the rest bethought himself of digging into a tumulus, and then he disinterred-not a body,-but a cromlech full of bodies:-and another dug under a cromlech divested of its original earthen envelope, and he too found bodies;-in fact they turned out to be enormous coffins, or cistvaens, or vaults, (if it were not an anomaly so to style them,) houses in good truth,-houses not of the living, but the dead:-the true λαινον χιτωνα of Homer;-the "narrow home" of a later poet [Note. Possible a reference to "Into the Narrow Home" by Branwell Brontë]. In few instances has the value of accurate searching enquiry, and of good common sense, in antiquarian affairs been more strikingly demonstrated: and we consider the public to be most especially indebted to Mr. Lukis (age 57) for his interesting researches in this line in the Channel Islands.

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Hebrew

Culture, General Things, Dictionaries, Latin