Biography of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135

Paternal Family Tree: Norman

Maternal Family Tree: Gerberge Unknown Viscountess Anjou

1068 Coronation of Queen Matilda

1087 King William "The Conqueror" Dies King William II Succeeds

1100 Coronation of Henry I

1100 Marriage of Henry I and Matilda

1100 Death of William Rufus Accession of Henry I

1101 Christmas Court

1101 Treaty of Alton

1106 Battle of Tinchebray

1107 King Edgar of Scotland Dies King Alexander I Succeeds

1108 King Philip of France Dies Accession of Louis VI

1119 Battle of Bures-en-Bray

1119 Battle of Bremule

1120 Sinking of The White Ship

1121 Marriage of King Henry I and Adeliza of Louvain

1124 Battle of Bourgtheroulde

1127 Oath of Allegiance to Empress Matilda

1128 Death of William Clito

1129 Papal Schism

1135 Death of King Henry I

On 03 Jul 1035 [his grandfather] Robert "Magnificent" Normandy I Duke Normandy (age 35) died at Nicaea. His son [his father] King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 7) succeeded II Duke Normandy.

Before 1051 [his father] King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 23) and [his mother] Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 19) were married. She the daughter of Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders (age 38) and Adela Capet Duchess Normandy (age 41). He the son of Robert "Magnificent" Normandy I Duke Normandy and Herleva Falaise. They were third cousin once removed.

Around 1068 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England was born to King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 40) and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 37).

Coronation of Queen Matilda

Flowers of History. 11 May 1068. [his mother] Matilda (age 37), the wife of king [his father] William (age 40), was consecrated queen on the day of Pentecost, by Aeldred, archbishop of York, on the twenty-second of March. [Note. The date a mistake. Pentecost the fiftieth day after Easter so usually in May. Pentcost known as White Sunday, or Whit-Sunday.] This year also, William (age 40) had a son born in England, who was called Henry. For his first-born, [his brother] William Rufus (age 12), and also [his brother] Robert (age 17), were born in Normandy, before their father had conquered England.

On 02 Nov 1083 [his mother] Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England (age 52) died.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1086. This year the [his father] king (age 58) bare his crown, and held his court, in Winchester, Hampshire [Map] at Easter; and he so arranged, that he was by the Pentecost at Westminster, and dubbed his son Henry (age 18) a knight there. Afterwards he moved about so that he came by Lammas to Sarum [Map]; where he was met by his councillors; and all the landsmen that were of any account over all England became this man's vassals as they were; and they all bowed themselves before him, and became his men, and swore him oaths of allegiance that they would against all other men be faithful to him. Thence he proceeded into the Isle of Wight [Map]; because he wished to go into Normandy, and so he afterwards did; though he first did according to his custom; he collected a very large sum from his people, wherever he could make any demand, whether with justice or otherwise.

King William "The Conqueror" Dies King William II Succeeds

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1087. In the same year also, before the Assumption of St. Mary, [his father] King William (age 59) went from Normandy [Map] into France with an army, and made war upon his own lord Philip, the king (age 34), and slew many of his men, and burned the town of Mante, and all the holy minsters that were in the town; and two holy men that served God, leading the life of anachorets, were burned therein. This being thus done, King William (age 59) returned to Normandy. Rueful was the thing he did; but a more rueful him befel. How more rueful? He fell sick, and it dreadfully ailed him. What shall I say? Sharp death, that passes by neither rich men nor poor, seized him also. He died in Normandy, on the next day after the Nativity of St. Mary, and he was buried at Caen in St. Stephen's minster [Map], which he had formerly reared, and afterwards endowed with manifold gifts. Alas! how false and how uncertain is this world's weal! He that was before a rich king (age 59), and lord of many lands, had not then of all his land more than a space of seven feet! and he that was whilom enshrouded in gold and gems, lay there covered with mould! He left behind him three sons; the eldest, called [his brother] Robert (age 36), who was earl in Normandy after him; the second, called [his brother] William (age 31), who wore the crown after him in England; and the third, called Henry (age 19), to whom his father bequeathed immense treasure. If any person wishes to know what kind of man he was, or what honour he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then will we write about him as well as we understand him: we who often looked upon him, and lived sometime in his court. This King William (age 59) then that we speak about was a very wise man, and very rich; more splendid and powerful than any of his predecessors were. He was mild to the good men that loved God, and beyond all measure severe to the men that gainsayed his will. On that same spot where God granted him that he should gain England, he reared a mighty minster, and set monks therein, and well endowed it. In his days was the great monastery in Canterbury built, and also very many others over all England. This land was moreover well filled with monks, who modelled their lives after the rule of St. Benedict. But such was the state of Christianity in his time, that each man followed what belonged to his profession-he that would. He was also very dignified. Thrice he bare his crown each year, as oft as he was in England. At Easter he bare it in Winchester, at Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter in Glocester. And then were with him all the rich men over all England; archbishops and diocesan bishops, abbots and earls, thanes and knights. So very stern was he also and hot, that no man durst do anything against his will. He had earls in his custody, who acted against his will. Bishops he hurled from their bishoprics, and abbots from their abbacies, and thanes into prison. At length he spared not his own brother [his uncle] Odo, who was a very rich bishop in Normandy. At Baieux was his episcopal stall; and he was the foremost man of all to aggrandise the king (age 59). He had an earldom in England; and when the king (age 59) was in Normandy, then was he the mightiest man in this land. Him he confined in prison. But amongst other things is not to be forgotten that good peace that he made in this land; so that a man of any account might go over his kingdom unhurt with his bosom full of gold. No man durst slay another, had he never so much evil done to the other; and if any churl lay with a woman against her will, he soon lost the limb that he played with. He truly reigned over England; and by his capacity so thoroughly surveyed it, that there was not a hide of land in England that he wist not who had it, or what it was worth, and afterwards set it down in his book.110 The land of the Britons was in his power; and he wrought castles therein; and ruled Anglesey withal. So also he subdued Scotland by his great strength. As to Normandy, that was his native land; but he reigned also over the earldom called Maine; and if he might have yet lived two years more, he would have won Ireland by his valour, and without any weapons. Assuredly in his time had men much distress, and very many sorrows. Castles he let men build, and miserably swink the poor. The king (age 59) himself was so very rigid; and extorted from his subjects many marks of gold, and many hundred pounds of silver; which he took of his people, for little need, by right and by unright. He was fallen into covetousness, and greediness he loved withal. He made many deer-parks; and he established laws therewith; so that whosoever slew a hart, or a hind, should be deprived of his eyesight. As he forbade men to kill the harts, so also the boars; and he loved the tall deer as if he were their father. Likewise he decreed by the hares, that they should go free. His rich men bemoaned it, and the poor men shuddered at it. But he was so stern, that he recked not the hatred of them all; for they must follow withal the king's (age 59) will, if they would live, or have land, or possessions, or even his peace. Alas! that any man should presume so to puff himself up, and boast o'er all men. May the Almighty God show mercy to his soul, and grant him forgiveness of his sins! These things have we written concerning him, both good and evil; that men may choose the good after their goodness, and flee from the evil withal, and go in the way that leadeth us to the kingdom of heaven. Many things may we write that were done in this same year. So it was in Denmark, that the Danes, a nation that was formerly accounted the truest of all, were turned aside to the greatest untruth, and to the greatest treachery that ever could be. They chose and bowed to King Cnute, and swore him oaths, and afterwards dastardly slew him in a church. It happened also in Spain, that the heathens went and made inroads upon the Christians, and reduced much of the country to their dominion. But the king of the Christians, Alphonzo by name, sent everywhere into each land, and desired assistance. And they came to his support from every land that was Christian; and they went and slew or drove away all the heathen folk, and won their land again, through God's assistance.

On 09 Sep 1087 [his father] King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 59) died at the Priory of St Gervaise, Rouen. He was buried at Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen, Calvados, Basse Normandie at a ceremony presided over by Gilbert Arques Bishop Evreux. King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 19) attended. His son [his brother] William "Rufus" II King England (age 31) succeeded II King England. His son [his brother] Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 36) succeeded III Duke Normandy.

In 1090 [his illegitimate daughter] Juliane Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 22).

In 1092 [his illegitimate daughter] Sybilla Fitzroy Queen Consort Scotland was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 24) and Sybilla Corbet (age 17) at Domfront.

Around 1092 [his illegitimate daughter] Richilde FitzRoy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 24).

In 1092 [his illegitimate son] Fulk Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 24) and Ansfride Unknown.

In 1093 [his illegitimate son] Robert Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 25) and Edith Forne (age 13).

In or before 1099 [his illegitimate son] Robert Normandy 1st Earl Gloucester was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 30).

Marriage of Henry I and Matilda

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1100. Then, before Michaelmas, came the Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury (age 67) hither to this land; as the King Henry (age 32), by the advice of his ministers had sent after him, because he had gone out of this land for the great wrongs that the [his brother] King William (age 44) did unto him. And soon hereafter the king (age 32) took him to wife [his future wife] Maud (age 20), daughter of Malcolm, King of Scotland, and of Margaret the good queen, the relative of King Edward, and of the right royal132 race of England. And on Martinmas day she was publicly given to him with much pomp at Westminster, and the Archbishop Anselm (age 67) wedded her to him, and afterwards consecrated her queen. And the Archbishop Thomas of York soon hereafter died.

Note 132. This expression shows the adherence of the writer to the Saxon line of kings, and his consequent satisfaction in recording this alliance of Henry with the daughter of Margaret of Scotland.

On 11 Nov 1100 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 32) and Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England (age 20) were married. Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England (age 20) was crowned Queen Consort England at which time Edith was renamed Matilda. She the daughter of Malcolm III King Scotland and Margaret Wessex Queen Consort Scotland. He the son of King William "Conqueror" I of England and Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1100. During the harvest of this same year also came the [his brother] Earl Robert (age 49) home into Normandy, and the Earl Robert of Flanders (age 35), Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, from Jerusalem. And as soon as the Earl Robert (age 49) came into Normandy, he was joyfully received by all his people; except those of the castles that were garrisoned with the King Henry's (age 32) men. Against them he had many contests and struggles.

Coronation of Henry I

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1100. And after this the Bishop of London, Maurice, consecrated him king (age 32); and all in this land submitted to him, and swore oaths, and became his men. And the king (age 32), soon after this, by the advice of those that were about him, allowed men to take the Bishop Ranulf of Durham (age 40), and bring him into the Tower of London [Map], and hold him there.

On 05 Aug 1100 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 32) was crowned I King England by Bishop Maurice at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Around 1100 William Peverell (age 60) was granted Bakewell, Derbyshire [Map] by King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 32). The Anglo-Saxon Minster was demolished and a new church built.

Death of William Rufus Accession of Henry I

On 02 Aug 1100 [his brother] William "Rufus" II King England (age 44) was killed whilst hunting, not known whether accidentally or otherwise, in the New Forest, Hampshire. His brother King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 32) succeeded I King England. The brothers Robert Beaumont 1st Earl of Leicester Count Meulan (age 60) and Henry Beaumont 1st Earl Warwick (age 50), and Roger Clare (age 34) and Gilbert Clare (age 34) were present.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 02 Aug 1100. And thereafter on the morning after Lammas day was the [his brother] King William (age 44) shot in hunting, by an arrow from his own men, and afterwards brought to Winchester, Hampshire [Map], and buried in the cathedral.130 This was in the thirteenth year after that he assumed the government. He was very harsh and severe over his land and his men, and with all his neighbours; and very formidable; and through the counsels of evil men, that to him were always agreeable, and through his own avarice, he was ever tiring this nation with an army, and with unjust contributions. For in his days all right fell to the ground, and every wrong rose up before God and before the world. God's church he humbled; and all the bishoprics and abbacies, whose elders fell in his days, he either sold in fee, or held in his own hands, and let for a certain sum; because he would be the heir of every man, both of the clergy and laity; so that on the day that he fell he had in his own hand the archbishopric of Canterbury, with the bishopric of Winchester, and that of Salisbury, and eleven abbacies, all let for a sum; and (though I may be tedious) all that was loathsome to God and righteous men, all that was customary in this land in his time. And for this he was loathed by nearly all his people, and odious to God, as his end testified:-for he departed in the midst of his unrighteousness, without any power of repentance or recompense for his deeds. On the Thursday he was slain; and in the morning afterwards buried; and after he was buried, the statesmen that were then nigh at hand, chose his brother Henry (age 32) to king. And he immediately131 gave the bishopric of Winchester to William Giffard; and afterwards went to London; and on the Sunday following, before the altar at Westminster, he promised God and all the people, to annul all the unrighteous acts that took place in his brother's time, and to maintain the best laws that were valid in any king's day before him.

Note 130. His monument is still to be seen there, a plain gravestone of black marble, of the common shape called "dos d'ane"; such as are now frequently seen, though of inferior materials, in the churchyards of villages; and are only one remove from the grassy sod.

Note 131. i.e. before he left Winchester for London; literally "there-right"-an expression still used in many parts of England. Neither does the word "directly", which in its turn has almost become too vulgar to be used, nor its substitute, "immediately", which has nearly superseded it, appear to answer the purpose so well as the Saxon, which is equally expressive with the French "sur le champ".

Before 1101 [his illegitimate son] Richard Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 32) and Ansfride Unknown.

Christmas Court

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1101. In this year at Christmas held the King Henry (age 33) his court in Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester, Hampshire [Map]. And soon thereafter were the chief men in this land in a conspiracy against the king (age 33); partly from their own great infidelity, and also through the [his brother] Earl Robert (age 50) of Normandy, who with hostility aspired to the invasion of this land.

In Dec 1101 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 33) hosted his at Christmas Court at Westminster Palace [Map]. Gilbert Clare (age 35) attended.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1101. And the king (age 33) afterwards sent ships out to sea, to thwart and impede his [his brother] brother (age 50); but some of them in the time of need fell back, and turned from the king (age 33), and surrendered themselves to the Earl Robert (age 50).

Treaty of Alton

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Jun 1101. Then at midsummer went the king (age 33) out to Pevensey [Map] with all his force against his [his brother] brother (age 50), and there awaited him. But in the meantime came the Earl Robert (age 50) up at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] twelve nights before Lammas; and the king (age 33) with all his force came against him. But the chief men interceded between them, and settled the brothers on the condition, "that the king (age 33) should forego all that he held by main strength in Normandy against the earl (age 50); and that all then in England should have their lands again, who had lost it before through the earl (age 50), and Earl Eustace also all his patrimony in this land; and that the Earl Robert (age 50) every year should receive from England three thousand marks of silver; and particularly, that whichever of the brothers should survive the other, he should be heir of all England and also of Normandy, except the deceased left an heir by lawful wedlock." And this twelve men of the highest rank on either side then confirmed with an oath. And the earl (age 50) afterwards remained in this land till after Michaelmas; and his men did much harm wherever they went, the while that the earl continued in this land.

After 25 Jul 1101 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 33) and [his brother] Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 50), brothers, both sons of [his father] King William "Conqueror" I of England, signed the Treaty of Alton at Alton, Hampshire by which Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 50) agreed to renounce his claim to the English throne in exchange for a yearly stipend and other concessions.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1102. In this year at the Nativity was the king Henry (age 34) at Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester, Hampshire [Map]. And soon thereafter arose a dissention between the king (age 34) and the Earl Robert of Belesme (age 46), who held in this land the earldom of Shrewsbury, that his father, Earl Roger, had before, and much territory therewith both on this side and beyond the sea. And the king (age 34) went and beset the castle at Arundel [Map]; but when he could not easily win it, he allowed men to make castles before it, and filled them with his men; and afterwards with all his army he went to Bridgenorth, and there continued until he had the castle [Map], and deprived the [his brother] Earl Robert (age 51) of his land, and stripped him of all that he had in England. And the earl (age 51) accordingly went over sea, and the army afterwards returned home. Then was the king (age 34) thereafter by Michaelmas at Westminster; and all the principal men in this land, clerk, and laity.

On 07 Feb 1102 [his daughter] Empress Matilda was born to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 34) and [his wife] Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England (age 22).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1103. And then at Easter held the king (age 35) his court at Winchester, and afterwards went the Archbishop Anselm (age 70) from Canterbury to Rome, as was agreed between him and the king (age 35).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1103. This year also came the [his brother] Earl Robert (age 52) of Normandy to speak with the king (age 35) in this land; and ere he departed hence he forgave the King Henry (age 35) the three thousand marks that he was bound by treaty to give him each year. In this year also at Hamstead in Berkshire was seen blood [to rise] from the earth. This was a very calamitous year in this land, through manifold impositions, and through murrain of cattle, and deficiency of produce, not only in corn, but in every kind of fruit.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1103. In this year, at midwinter, was the King Henry (age 35) at Westminster. And soon afterwards departed the Bishop William Giffard out of this land; because he would not against right accept his hood at the hands of the Archbishop Gerard of York.

On 05 Aug 1103 [his son] William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy was born to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 35) and [his wife] Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England (age 23). The name Adelin an Anglo-Saxon term meaning Noble, or Prince, reflecting his mother's descent from the House of Wessex (her mother was Margaret Wessex Queen Consort Scotland ).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1104. This year also William, Earl of Moreton (age 20)134 went from this land into Normandy; but after he was gone he acted against the king (age 36); because the king (age 36) stripped and deprived him of all that he had here in this land. It is not easy to describe the misery of this land, which it was suffering through various and manifold wrongs and impositions, that never failed nor ceased; and wheresoever the king (age 36) went, there was full licence given to his company to harrow and oppress his wretched people; and in the midst thereof happened oftentimes burnings and manslaughter. All this was done to the displeasure of God, and to the vexation of this unhappy people.

Note 134. A title taken from a town in Normandy, now generally written Moretaine, or Moretagne; de Moreteon, de Moritonio, Flor.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1104. In this year at Christmas held the King Henry (age 36) his court at Westminster, and at Easter in Winchester, Hampshire [Map], and at Pentecost again at Westminster. This year was the first day of Pentecost on the nones of June; and on the Tuesday following were seen four circles at mid-day about the sun, of a white hue, each described under the other as if they were measured. All that saw it wondered; for they never remembered such before.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1104. Afterwards were reconciled the [his brother] Earl Robert (age 53) of Normandy and Robert de Belesme (age 48), whom the King Henry (age 36) had before deprived of his lands, and driven from England; and through their reconciliation the King of England (age 36) and the Earl of Normandy (age 53) became adversaries. And the king (age 36) sent his folk over sea into Normandy; and the head-men in that land received them, and with treachery to their lord, the earl (age 53), lodged them in their castles, whence they committed many outrages on the earl (age 53) in plundering and burning.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1105. And then before Christmas came Robert de Belesme (age 49) hither to the king (age 37). This was a very calamitous year in this land, through loss of fruits, and through the manifold contributions, that never ceased before the king (age 37) went over [to Normandy], or while he was there, or after he came back again.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1105. In this year, on the Nativity, held the King Henry (age 37) his court at Windsor Castle [Map]; and afterwards in Lent he went over sea into Normandy against his brother [his brother] Earl Robert (age 54). And whilst he remained there he won of his brother Caen [Map] and Baieux; and almost all the castles and the chief men in that land were subdued. And afterwards by harvest he returned hither again; and that which he had won in Normandy remained afterwards in peace and subjection to him; except that which was anywhere near the Earl William of Moretaine (age 21). This he often demanded as strongly as he could for the loss of his land in this country.

Before 1106 William Mortain Count Mortain 2nd Earl Cornwall (age 22) forfeit 2nd Earl Cornwall for having attacked the Normandy castles of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 37).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1106. At Easter was the king (age 38) at Bath, Somerset [Map], and at Pentecost at Salisbury [Map]; because he would not hold his court when he was beyond the sea.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1106. In this year was the King Henry (age 38) on the Nativity at Westminster, and there held his court; and at that season Robert de Belesme (age 50) went unreconciled from the king (age 38) out of his land into Normandy. Hereafter before Lent was the king (age 38) at Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map]; and the [his brother] Earl Robert (age 55) his brother came thither from Normandy to him; and because the king (age 38) would not give him back that which he had taken from him in Normandy, they parted in hostility; and the earl soon went over sea back again.

Battle of Tinchebray

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1106. After this, and before August, went the king (age 38) over sea into Normandy; and almost all that were in that land submitted to his will, except Robert de Belesme (age 50) and the Earl of Moretaine (age 22), and a few others of the principal persons who yet held with the [his brother] Earl of Normandy (age 55). For this reason the king (age 38) afterwards advanced with an army, and beset a castle of the Earl of Moretaine (age 22), called Tenerchebrai.136 Whilst the king (age 38) beset the castle, came the Earl Robert (age 55) of Normandy on Michaelmas eve against the king (age 38) with his army, and with him Robert of Belesme (age 50), and William, Earl of Moretaine (age 22), and all that would be with them; but the strength and the victory were the king's (age 38). There was the Earl of Normandy (age 55) taken, and the Earl of Moretaine (age 22), and Robert of Stutteville, and afterwards sent to England, and put into custody. Robert of Belesme (age 50) was there put to flight, and William Crispin was taken, and many others forthwith. Edgar Etheling (age 55), who a little before had gone over from the king (age 38) to the earl, was also there taken, whom the king (age 38) afterwards let go unpunished. Then went the king (age 38) over all that was in Normandy, and settled it according to his will and discretion.

Note 136. Now Tinchebrai.

On 28 Sep 1106 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 38) defeated his older brother [his brother] Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 55) at the Battle of Tinchebray at Tinchebray, Orne.

William Warenne 2nd Earl Surrey and Robert Beaumont 1st Earl of Leicester Count Meulan (age 66). Elias La Flèche De Baugency I Count Maine commanded the reserve. The following fought for Henry:

William "Brito aka Breton" D'Aubigny (age 20).

Alan Canhiart IV Duke Brittany (age 43).

Raoul Tosny (age 26).

William "Pincerna aka Butler" D'Aubigny (age 42).

Robert Grandesmil (age 28), and.

William Normandy I Count Évreux.

Robert Curthose Normandy III Duke Normandy (age 55) was captured and spent the next twenty-eight years in prison; never released.

William Mortain Count Mortain 2nd Earl Cornwall (age 22) was also captured. He spent the next thirty or more years in prison before becoming a monk. Earl Cornwall forfeit.

Edgar Ætheling II King England (age 55) was captured and subsequently released; Henry had married to Edgar's niece [his wife] Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England (age 26) in 1100.

Robert II Belleme 2nd Count Ponthieu 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 50) escaped.

Robert Stuteville was captured.

King Edgar of Scotland Dies King Alexander I Succeeds

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1107. This year died Maurice, Bishop of London, and Robert, Abbot of St. Edmund's bury, and Richard, Abbot of Ely. This year also died the [his brother-in-law] King Edgar in Scotland (age 33), on the ides of January, and [his brother-in-law] Alexander (age 29) his brother succeeded to the kingdom, as the King Henry (age 39) granted him.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1107. In this year at Christmas was the King Henry (age 39) in Normandy; and, having disposed and settled that land to his will, he afterwards came hither in Lent, and at Easter held his court at Windsor, and at Pentecost in Westminster.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Aug 1107. And afterwards in the beginning of August he was again at Westminster, and there gave away and settled the bishoprics and abbacies that either in England or in Normandy were without elders and pastors. Of these there were so many, that there was no man who remembered that ever so many together were given away before. And on this same occasion, among the others who accepted abbacies, Ernulf, who before was prior at Canterbury, succeeded to the abbacy in Peterborough. This was nearly about seven years after the King Henry (age 39) undertook the kingdom, and the one and fortieth year since the Franks governed this land. Many said that they saw sundry tokens in the moon this year, and its orb increasing and decreasing contrary to nature.

King Philip of France Dies Accession of Louis VI

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1108. In this year was the King Henry (age 40) on the Nativity at Westminster, and at Easter at Winchester, and by Pentecost at Westminster again. After this, before August, he went into Normandy. And Philip, the King of France (age 55), died on the nones of August, and his son Louis (age 26) succeeded to the kingdom. And there were afterwards many struggles between the King of France (age 26) and the King of England (age 40), while the latter remained in Normandy.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1109. In this year was the King Henry (age 41) at Christmas and at Easter in Normandy; and before Pentecost he came to this land, and held his court at Westminster. There were the conditions fully settled, and the oaths sworn, for giving his [his daughter] daughter (age 6)137 to the [his future son-in-law] emperor (age 27).138

Note 137. Matilda, Mathilde, or Maud.

Note 138. Henry V. of Germany, the son of Henry IV.

Before 1110 [his son-in-law] Guillaume le Jeune Gouët (age 30) and [his illegitimate daughter] Richilde FitzRoy (age 17) were married. She the daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 41).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1110. This year also died Earl Elias, who held Maine in fee-tail140 of King Henry (age 42); and after his death the Earl of Anjou (age 21) succeeded to it, and held it against the king (age 42). This was a very calamitous year in this land, through the contributions which the king (age 42) received for his [his daughter] daughter's (age 7) portion, and through the badness of the weather, by which the fruits of the earth were very much marred, and the produce of the trees over all this land almost entirely perished. This year men began first to work at the new minster at Chertsey [Map].

Note 140. That is, the territory was not a "fee simple", but subject to "taillage" or taxation; and that particular species is probably here intended which is called in old French "en queuage", an expression not very different from that in the text above.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1110. This year before Lent the king (age 42) sent his [his daughter] daughter (age 7) with manifold treasures over sea, and gave her to the [his future son-in-law] emperor (age 28).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1110. In this year held the King Henry (age 42) his court at Christmas in Westminster, and at Easter he was at Marlborough, Wiltshire [Map], and at Pentecost he held his court for the first time in New Windsor.

Around 1110 [his illegitimate son] Reginald de Dunstanville Fitzroy 1st Earl Cornwall was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 42) and Sybilla Corbet (age 35) at Dénestanville.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1111. This year the King Henry (age 43) bare not his crown at Christmas, nor at Easter, nor at Pentecost. And in August he went over sea into Normandy, on account of the broils that some had with him by the confines of France, and chiefly on account of the Earl of Anjou (age 22), who held Maine against him. And after he came over thither, many conspiracies, and burnings, and harrowings, did they between them. In this year died the Earl Robert of Flanders (age 46), and his son Baldwin (age 18) succeeded thereto.141 This year was the winter very long, and the season heavy and severe; and through that were the fruits of the earth sorely marred, and there was the greatest murrain of cattle that any man could remember.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1112. All this year remained the King Henry (age 44) in Normandy [Map] on account of the broils that he had with France, and with the Earl of Anjou (age 23), who held Maine [Map] against him. And whilst he was there, he deprived of their lands the Earl of Evreux, and William Crispin, and drove them out of Normandy. To Philip of Braiose (age 42) he restored his land, who had been before deprived of it; and Robert of Belesme (age 56) he suffered to be seized, and put into prison. This was a very good year, and very fruitful, in wood and in field; but it was a very heavy time and sorrowful, through a severe mortality amongst men.

Before 1113 [his son-in-law] Conan "Fat" Canhiart III Duke Brittany (age 17) and [his illegitimate daughter] Matilda Fitzroy Duchess Brittany were married. She by marriage Duchess Brittany. She the daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 44). He the son of Alan Canhiart IV Duke Brittany (age 49) and Ermengarde Anjou Duchess Brittany and Aquitaine (age 44). They were fourth cousins.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1113. In this year was the King Henry (age 45) on the Nativity and at Easter and at Pentecost in Normandy. And after that, in the summer, he sent hither Robert of Belesme (age 57) into the castle at Wareham, Dorset [Map], and himself soon142 afterwards came hither to this land.

Note 142. "Mense Julio".-Flor.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1114. In this year held the King Henry (age 46) his court on the Nativity at Windsor, and held no other court afterwards during the year. And at midsummer he went with an army into Wales; and the Welsh came and made peace with the king (age 46). And he let men build castles therein. And thereafter, in September, he went over sea into Normandy.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1114. In this year also the king (age 46) gave the archbishopric of Canterbury to Ralph, who was before Bishop of Rochester; and Thomas, Archbishop of York, died; and Turstein succeeded thereto, who was before the king's (age 46) chaplain.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1114. About this same time went the king (age 46) toward the sea, and was desirous of going over, but the weather prevented him; then meanwhile sent he his writ after the Abbot Ernulf of Peterborough, and bade that he should come to him quickly, for that he wished to speak with him on an interesting subject. When he came to him, he appointed him to the bishopric of Rochester; and the archbishops and bishops and all the nobility that were in England coincided with the king (age 46). And he long withstood, but it availed nothing. And the king (age 46) bade the archbishop that he should lead him to Canterbury, and consecrate him bishop whether he would or not.143 This was done in the town called Bourne144 on the seventeenth day before the calends of October. When the monks of Peterborough heard of this, they felt greater sorrow than they had ever experienced before; because he was a very good and amiable man, and did much good within and without whilst he abode there. God Almighty abide ever with him. Soon after this gave the king (age 46) the abbacy to a monk of Sieyes, whose name was John, through the intreaty of the Archbishop of Canterbury. And soon after this the king (age 46) and the Archbishop of Canterbury sent him to Rome after the archbishop's pall; and a monk also with him, whose name was Warner, and the Archdeacon John, the nephew of the archbishop. And they sped well there. This was done on the seventh day before the calends Of October, in the town that is yclept Rowner. And this same day went the king (age 46) on board ship at Portsmouth.

Note 143. We have still the form of saying "Nolo episcopari", when a see is offered to a bishop.

Note 144. i.e. East Bourne in Sussex; where the king was waiting for a fair wind to carry him over sea.

On 07 Jan 1114 [his son-in-law] Henry V Holy Roman Emperor (age 32) and [his daughter] Empress Matilda (age 11) were married. She by marriage Holy Roman Empress. The difference in their ages was 20 years. She the daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 46) and Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England (age 34).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1115. This year was the King Henry (age 47) on the Nativity in Normandy. And whilst he was there, he contrived that all the head men in Normandy [Map] did homage and fealty to his son [his son] William (age 11), whom he had by his [his wife] queen (age 35).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1116. And the king (age 48) soon after Easter went over sea into Normandy. And there were many conspiracies and robberies, and castles taken betwixt France and Normandy. Most of this disturbance was because the King Henry (age 48) assisted his nephew, Theobald de Blois (age 26), who was engaged in a war against his lord, Louis, the King of France (age 34). This was a very vexatious and destructive year with respect to the fruits of the earth, through the immoderate rains that fell soon after the beginning of August, harassing and perplexing men till Candlemas-day. This year also was so deficient in mast, that there was never heard such in all this land or in Wales. This land and nation were also this year oft and sorely swincked by the guilds which the king (age 48) took both within the boroughs and without. In this same year was consumed by fire the whole monastery of Peterborough, and all the buildings, except the chapter-house and the dormitory, and therewith also all the greater part of the town. All this happened on a Friday, which was the second day before the nones of August.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1116. In this year was the King Henry (age 48) on the Nativity at St. Alban's, where he permitted the consecration of that monastery; and at Easter he was at Odiham. And there was also this year a very heavy-timed winter, strong and long, for cattle and for all things.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1117. All this year remained the King Henry (age 49), in Normandy, on account of the hostility of the King of France and his other neighbours. And in the summer came the King of France and the Earl of Flanders (age 24) with him with an army into Normandy. And having stayed therein one night, they returned again in the morning without fighting. But Normandy [Map] was very much afflicted both by the exactions and by the armies which the King Henry (age 49) collected against them. This nation also was severely oppressed through the same means, namely, through manifold exactions. This year also, in the night of the calends of December, were immoderate storms with thunder, and lightning, and rain, and hail. And in the night of the third day before the ides of December was the moon, during a long time of the night, as if covered with blood, and afterwards eclipsed. Also in the night of the seventeenth day before the calends of January, was the heaven seen very red, as if it were burning. And on the octave of St. John the Evangelist was the great earthquake in Lombardy; from the shock of which many minsters, and towers, and houses fell, and did much harm to men. This was a very blighted year in corn, through the rains that scarcely ceased for nearly all the year. And the Abbot Gilbert of Westminster died on the eighth day before the ides of December; and Faritz, Abbot of Abingdon, on the seventh day before the calends of March. And in this same year….

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1118. All this year abode the King Henry (age 50) in Normandy [Map] on account of the war of the King of France and the Earl of Anjou, and the Earl of Flanders (age 25). And the Earl of Flanders (age 25) was wounded in Normandy, and went so wounded into Flanders. By this war was the king (age 50) much exhausted, and he was a great loser both in land and money. And his own men grieved him most, who often from him turned, and betrayed him; and going over to his foes surrendered to them their castles, to the injury and disappointment of the king (age 50). All this England dearly bought through the manifold guilds that all this year abated not. This year, in the week of the Epiphany, there was one evening a great deal of lightning, and thereafter unusual thunder. And the Queen Matilda died at Westminster on the calends of May; and there was buried. And the Earl Robert of Mellent died also this year. In this year also, on the feast of St. Thomas, was so very immoderately violent a wind, that no man who was then living ever remembered any greater; and that was everywhere seen both in houses and also in trees. This year also died Pope Paschalis; and John of Gaeta succeeded to the popedom, whose other name was Gelasius.

On 01 May 1118 [his wife] Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England (age 38) died at Westminster Palace [Map]. She was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Battle of Bures-en-Bray

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1119. In this same year died the Pope Gelasius, on this side of the Alps, and was buried at Clugny. And after him the Archbishop of Vienna was chosen pope, whose name was Calixtus. He afterwards, on the festival of St. Luke the Evangelist, came into France to Rheims, and there held a council. And the Archbishop Turstin of York went thither; and, because that he against right, and against the archiepiscopal stall in Canterbury, and against the king's (age 51) will, received his hood at the hands of the pope, the king (age 51) interdicted him from all return to England. And thus he lost his archbishopric, and with the pope went towards Rome. In this year also died the Earl Baldwin of Flanders (age 26) of the wounds that he received in Normandy. And after him succeeded to the earldom Charles (age 35), the son of his uncle by the father's side, who was son of Cnute, the holy King of Denmark.

On or before 17 Jul 1119 at the Battle of Bures-en-Bray King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 51) fought against the army of Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 37).

Baldwin VII Count Flanders (age 26) who was killed. His first cousin Charles Estrigen I Count Flanders (age 35) succeeded I Count Flanders. Marguerite Clermont Countess Flanders (age 14) by marriage Countess Flanders.

In 1119 [his son] William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy (age 15) and [his daughter-in-law] Matilda of Anjou (age 8) were married. She the daughter of Fulk "Young" King Jerusalem (age 30) and Ermengarde La Flèche De Baugency Countess Anjou. He the son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 51) and Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1119. All this year continued the King Henry (age 51) in Normandy; and he was greatly perplexed by the hostility of the King of France, and also of his own men, who with treachery deserted from him, and oft readily betrayed him; until the two kings came together in Normandy [Map] with their forces. There was the King of France put to flight, and all his best men taken. And afterwards many of King Henry's (age 51) men returned to him, and accorded with him, who were before, with their castellans, against him. And some of the castles he took by main strength.

In Jun 1119 [his illegitimate son] Robert Normandy 1st Earl Gloucester (age 20) and [his daughter-in-law] Mabel Fitzhamon Countess Gloucester were married at Lisieux, Calvados, Basse Normandie. She by marriage Countess Gloucester. He the son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 51).

Battle of Bremule

On 20 Aug 1119 at the Battle of Bremule at Gaillardbois Cressenville King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 51) and his son [his son] William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy (age 16) defeated the army of Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 37) who had invaded Normandy in support of William Clito Normandy Count Flanders (age 16) who claimed the Duchy of Normandy.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1120. This year were reconciled the King of England (age 52) and the King of France (age 38); and after their reconciliation all the King Henry's (age 52) own men accorded with him in Normandy, as well as the Earl of Flanders (age 36) and the Earl of Ponthieu (age 27). From this time forward the King Henry (age 52) settled his castles and his land in Normandy [Map] after his will; and so before Advent came to this land.

In 1120 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 52) gave the Church of St Lawrence [Map] to his chaplain Richard de Aurea Valle. Upon his death, all four churches were given to and became part of the newly formed Diocese of Carlisle and would remain so until Newcastle became a separate diocese in 1882.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1120. This year came that light to the sepulchre of the Lord in Jerusalem twice; once at Easter, and the other on the assumption of St. Mary, as credible persons said who came thence. And the Archbishop Turstin of York was through the pope reconciled with the king (age 52), and came to this land, and recovered his bishopric, though it was very undesirable to the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Sinking of The White Ship

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 25 Nov 1120. And in this expedition were drowned the king's (age 52) two sons, [his son] William (age 17) and [his illegitimate son] Richard (age 19), and Richard, Earl of Chester (age 26), and Ottuel his brother, and very many of the king's (age 52) household, stewards, and chamberlains, and butlers, and men of various abodes; and with them a countless multidude of very incomparable folk besides. Sore was their death to their friends in a twofold respect: one, that they so suddenly lost this life; the other, that few of their bodies were found anywhere afterwards.

On 25 Nov 1120 the White Ship left Barfleur, Basse Normandie, with a party of young Normans. King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 52) had left earlier on another ship. A mile out the White Ship foundered on a submerged rock. [his son] William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy (age 17), his half-siblings [his illegitimate son] Richard Fitzroy (age 19) and [his illegitimate daughter] Matilda Fitzroy Countess Perche, William Bigod (age 27), Lucia Mahaut Blois Countess Chester, brothers Geoffrey Aigle and Engenulf Aigle, half-brothers Richard Avranches 2nd Earl Chester (age 26) and Ottiwel Avranches, brothers Ivo Grandesmil and William Grandesmil and Geoffrey Ridel were all drowned.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1121. This year was the King Henry (age 53) at Christmas at Bramton, and afterwards, before Candlemas, at Windsor was given him to wife [his future wife] Athelis (age 18); soon afterwards consecrated queen, who was daughter of the [his future father-in-law] Duke of Louvain (age 61).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1121. And the king (age 53) was at Easter at Berkley [Map]; and after that at Pentecost he held a full court at Westminster; and afterwards in the summer went with an army into Wales. And the Welsh came against him; and after the king's (age 53) will they accorded with him.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1121. This year came the Earl of Anjou (age 32) from Jerusalem into his land; and soon after sent hither to fetch his [his former daughter-in-law] daughter (age 10), who had been given to wife to [his son] William, the king's (age 53) son.

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 1121. Henry I marries Alice of Louvaine. Henry, king of England (age 53), having been a widower for some time, that he might not in future lead a dissolute life, by the advice of Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, and the barons of his realm, who assembled at London by his command on the feast of our Lord's Epiphany, resolved to marry [his future wife] Alice (age 18), daughter of Godfrey, duke of Lorraine (age 61)2, a young maiden of great beauty and modesty. Envoys being sent over, they brought the future queen with signal honours from parts beyond the sea to Henry's court.

Note 2. Ducis Lotharingoe (or Lorraine), the reading in the text of all the printed editions of Florence. It is a mistake into which several of the English chroniclers have fallen, but Henry of Huntingdon and Roger of Wendover, as well as Ordericus Vitalis and William of Jumièges, describe Adelaide, or Alice, the second wife of Henry I., as daughter of Godfrey, duke of Lorraine (age 61).

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 1121. Pope Calixtus, assembling forces from all quarters, captured Maurice, surnamed Bourdin, already mentioned, who had been intruded by the emperor and his adherents into the papal see by the name of Gregory, and thrust him in disgrace, stripped of all he possessed, into a monastery; he having been a monk before. King Henry (age 53) led an army against the Welsh, and, taking hostages from them, reduced the whole of Wales under his dominion. A certain clerk, whose name was Gregory, an Irishman by birth, having been chosen by the king of Ireland, with the clergy and people, to fill the see of the city of Dublin, came over to England that he might be ordained, according to former custom, by the archbishop of Canterbury, the primate of England; whereupon, by the archbishop's command, Roger, bishop of Salisbury, conferred on him the orders of priest and deacon at his castle of Devizes [Map] on Saturday the eleventh of the calends of October [21st September]. He was ordained bishop on Sunday the sixth of the nones [the 2nd] of October at Lambeth by Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury; the following bishops, Richard of London, Roger of Salisbury, Robert of Lincoln, Everard of Norwich, and David of Bangor assisting at the consecration. The mother church at Tewkesbury was consecrated with great ceremony by Theowulf, bishop of Worcester, Richard, bishop of Hereford, Urban (age 45), bishop of Glamorgan, and the before-named Gregory, bishop of Durham, on Monday the ninth of the calends of November [24th October].

Marriage of King Henry I and Adeliza of Louvain

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 29 Jan 1121. On the fourth of the calends of February the maiden (age 18) already mentioned as selected for queen was married to the king (age 53) by William, bishop of Winchester, at the command of Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury; and on the following day, the third of the calends of February (30th January), she was consecrated and crowned as queen by the archbishop in person.

Note. Some sources say 24 Jan 1121.

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 13 Mar 1121. After this, the archbishop, having accompanied the king (age 53) to Abingdon [Map], consecrated on Sunday the third of the ides [the 13th] of March, Robert, before named, as bishop of Chester, there being present and assisting at this sacrament William, bishop of Winchester, William, bishop of Exeter, and the Welsh bishops, Urban (age 45) and Bernard.

Around May 1121 Miles Gloucester 1st Earl Hereford and Sibyl Neufmarché Countess Hereford (age 21) were married. The marriage had been personally arranged by King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 53).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1122. In this year was the King Henry (age 54) at Christmas in Norwich, Norfolk [Map], and at Easter in Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map].

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1123. The while that the archbishop was out of the land, the king (age 55) gave the bishopric of Bath to the Queen's chancellor, whose name was Godfrey. He was born in Louvain. That was on the Annunciation of St. Mary, at Woodstock. Soon after this went the king (age 55) to Winchester, and was all Easter-tide there. And the while that he was there, gave he the bishopric of Lincoln to a clerk hight Alexander. He was nephew of the Bishop of Salisbury. This he did all for the love of the bishop.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1123. Then went the king (age 55) thence to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], and lay there all over Pentecost week. Then, as soon as he had a fair wind, he went over into Normandy; and meanwhile committed all England to the guidance and government of the Bishop Roger of Salisbury. Then was the king (age 55) all this year150 in Normandy. And much hostility arose betwixt him and his thanes; so that the Earl Waleram of Mellent (age 19), and Hamalric, and Hugh of Montfort (age 48), and William of Romare, and many others, went from him, and held their castles against him. And the king (age 55) strongly opposed them: and this same year he won of Waleram (age 19) his castle of Pont-Audemer, and of Hugh that of Montfort (age 48); and ever after, the longer he stayed, the better he sped.

Note 150. The writer means, "the remainder of this year"; for the feast of Pentecost was already past, before the king left England.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1123. Soon after this sent the king (age 55) his writ over all England, and bade all his bishops and his abbots and his thanes, that they should come to his wittenmoot on Candlemas day at Glocester [Map] to meet him: and they did so. When they were there gathered together, then the king (age 55) bade them, that they should choose for themselves an Archbishop of Canterbury, whomsoever they would, and he would confirm it. Then spoke the bishops among themselves, and said that they never more would have a man of the monastic order as archbishop over them. And they went all in a body to the king (age 55), and earnestly requested that they might choose from the clerical order whomsoever they would for archbishop. And the king (age 55) granted it to them. This was all concerted before, through the Bishop of Salisbury, and through the Bishop of Lincoln ere he was dead; for that they never loved the rule of monks, but were ever against monks and their rule. And the prior and the monks of Canterbury, and all the other persons of the monastic order that were there, withstood it full two days; but it availed nought: for the Bishop of Salisbury was strong, and wielded all England, and opposed them with all his power and might. Then chose they a clerk, named William of Curboil. He was canon of a monastery called Chiche.148 And they brought him before the king (age 55); and the king (age 55) gave him the archbishopric. And all the bishops received him: but almost all the monks, and the earls, and the thanes that were there, protested against him.

Note 148. St. Osythe, in Essex; a priory rebuilt A. 1118, for canons of the Augustine order, of which there are considerable remains.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1123. About the same time departed the earl's (age 34) messengers149 in hostility from the king (age 55), reckless of his favour. During the same time came a legate from Rome, whose name was Henry. He was abbot of the monastery of St. John of Angeli; and he came after the Rome-scot. And he said to the king (age 55), that it was against right that men should set a clerk over monks; and therefore they had chosen an archbishop before in their chapter after right. But the king (age 55) would not undo it, for the love of the Bishop of Salisbury. Then went the archbishop, soon after this, to Canterbury; and was there received, though it was against their will; and he was there soon blessed to bishop by the Bishop of London, and the Bishop Ernulf of Rochester, and the Bishop William Girard of Winchester, and the Bishop Bernard of Wales, and the Bishop Roger of Salisbury. Then, early in Lent, went the archbishop to Rome, after his pall; and with him went the Bishop Bernard of Wales; and Sefred, Abbot of Glastonbury; and Anselm, Abbot of St. Edmund's bury; and John, Archdeacon of Canterbury; and Gifard, who was the king's (age 55) court-chaplain. At the same time went the Archbishop Thurstan of York (age 53) to Rome, through the behest of the pope, and came thither three days ere the Archbishop of Canterbury came, and was there received with much worship. Then came the Archbishop of Canterbury, and was there full seven nights ere they could come to a conference with the pope. That was, because the pope was made to understand that he had obtained the archbishopric against the monks of the minster, and against right. But that overcame Rome, which overcometh all the world; that is, gold and silver. And the pope softened, and gave him his pall. And the archbishop (of York) swore him subjection, in all those things, which the pope enjoined him, by the heads of St. Peter and St. Paul; and the pope then sent him home with his blessing.

Note 149. i.e. Of the Earl of Anjou (age 34).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1123. In this year was the King Henry (age 55), at Christmastide at Dunstable [Map], and there came to him the ambassadors of the Earl of Anjou (age 34).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 10 Jan 1123. And thence he went to Woodstock, Oxfordshire [Map]; and his bishops and his whole court with him. Then did it betide on a Wednesday, which was on the fourth day before the ides of January, that the king (age 55) rode in his deer-fold;146 the Bishop Roger of Salisbury147 on one side of him, and the Bishop Robert Bloet of Lincoln on the other side of him. And they rode there talking together. Then sank down the Bishop of Lincoln, and said to the king (age 55), "Lord king (age 55), I die." And the king (age 55) alighted down from his horse, and lifted him betwixt his arms, and let men bear him home to his inn. There he was soon dead; and they carried him to Lincoln with great worship, and buried him before the altar of St. Mary. And the Bishop of Chester, whose name was Robert Pecceth, buried him.

Note 146. i.e. an inclosure or park for deer. This is now called Blenheim Park, and is one of the few old parks which still remain in this country.

Note 147. This may appear rather an anticipation of the modern see of Salisbury, which was not then in existence; the borough of Old Saturn, or "Saresberie", being then the episcopal seat.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1124. This same year were the seasons very unfavourable in England for corn and all fruits; so that between Christmas and Candlemas men sold the acre-seed of wheat, that is two seedlips, for six shillings; and the barley, that is three seedlips, for six shillings also; and the acre-seed of oats, that is four seedlips, for four shillings. That was because that corn was scarce; and the penny was so adulterated151, that a man who had a pound at a market could not exchange twelve pence thereof for anything. In this same year died the blessed Bishop Ernulf of Rochester, who before was Abbot of Peterborough. That was on the ides of March. And after this died the King Alexander of Scotland, on the ninth day before the calends of May. And David his brother, who was Earl of Northamptonshire, succeeded to the kingdom; and had both together, the kingdom of Scotland and the earldom in England. And on the nineteenth day before the calends of January died the Pope of Rome, whose name was Calixtus, and Honorius succeeded to the popedom. This same year, after St. Andrew's mass, and before Christmas, held Ralph Basset and the king's (age 56) thanes a wittenmoot in Leicestershire, at Huncothoe, and there hanged more thieves than ever were known before; that is, in a little while, four and forty men altogether; and despoiled six men of their eyes and of their testicles. Many true men said that there were several who suffered very unjustly; but our Lord God Almighty, who seeth and knoweth every secret, seeth also that the wretched people are oppressed with all unrighteousness. First they are bereaved of their property, and then they are slain. Full heavy year was this. The man that had any property, was bereaved of it by violent guilds and violent moots. The man that had not, was starved with hunger.

Note 151. The pennies, or pence, it must be remembered, were of silver at this time.

1124 Battle of Bourgtheroulde

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 26 Mar 1124. All this year was the King Henry (age 56) in Normandy. That was for the great hostility that he had with the King Louis of France (age 42), and with the Earl of Anjou (age 35), and most of all with his own men. Then it happened, on the day of the Annunciation of St. Mary, that the Earl Waleram of Mellent (age 20) went from one of his castles called Belmont to another called Watteville. With him went the steward of the King of France, Amalric, and Hugh (age 26) the son of Gervase (age 54), and Hugh of Montfort (age 49), and many other good knights. Then came against them the king's (age 56) knights from all the castles that were thereabout, and fought with them, and put them to flight, and took the Earl Waleram (age 20), and Hugh, the son of Gervase (age 26), and Hugh of Montfort (age 49), and five and twenty other knights, and brought them to the king (age 56). And the king (age 56) committed the Earl Waleram (age 20), and Hugh, the son of Gervase (age 26), to close custody in the castle at Rouen; but Hugh of Montfort (age 49) he sent to England, and ordered him to be secured with strong bonds in the castle at Glocester [Map]. And of the others as many as he chose he sent north and south to his castles in captivity.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. After 26 Mar 1124. After this went the king (age 56), and won all the castles of the Earl Waleram (age 20) that were in Normandy, and all the others that his enemies held against him. All this hostility was on account of the son of the [his brother] Earl Robert (age 73) of Normandy, named William (age 21). This same William (age 21) had taken to wife the younger daughter (age 12) of Fulke, Earl of Anjou (age 35): and for this reason the King of France (age 42) and all the earls held with him, and all the rich men; and said that the king (age 56) held his brother Robert (age 73) wrongfully in captivity, and drove his son William (age 21) unjustly out of Normandy.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1125. In this same year sent the Pope of Rome to this land a cardinal, named John of Crema. He came first to the king (age 57) in Normandy, and the king (age 57) received him with much worship. He betook himself then to the Archbishop William of Canterbury (age 55); and he led him to Canterbury; and he was there received with great veneration, and in solemn procession. And he sang the high mass on Easter day at the altar of Christ. Afterwards he went over all England, to all the bishoprics and abbacies that were in this land; and in all he was received with respect. And all gave him many and rich gifts. And afterwards he held his council in London full three days, on the Nativity of St. Mary in September, with archbishops, and diocesan bishops, and abbots, the learned and the lewd;152 and enjoined there the same laws that Archbishop Anselm (age 92) had formerly enjoined, and many more, though it availed little. Thence he went over sea soon after Michaelmas, and so to Rome; and (with him) the Archbishop William of Canterbury (age 55), and the Archbishop Thurstan of York (age 55), and the Bishop Alexander of Lincoln, and the Bishop J. of Lothian, and the Abbot G. of St. Alban's; and were there received by the Pope Honorius with great respect; and continued there all the winter. In this same year was so great a flood on St. Laurence's day, that many towns and men were overwhelmed, and bridges broken down, and corn and meadows spoiled withal; and hunger and qualm153 in men and in cattle; and in all fruits such unseasonableness as was not known for many years before. And this same year died the Abbot John of Peterborough, on the second day before the ides of October.

Note 152. i.e. Clergy and laity.

Note 153. This word is still in use, but in a sense somewhat different; as qualms of conscience, etc.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1125. In this year sent the King Henry (age 57), before Christmas, from Normandy [Map] to England, and bade that all the mint-men that were in England should be mutilated in their limbs; that was, that they should lose each of them the right hand, and their testicles beneath. This was because the man that had a pound could not lay out a penny at a market. And the Bishop Roger of Salisbury sent over all England, and bade them all that they should come to Winchester at Christmas. When they came thither, then were they taken one by one, and deprived each of the right hand and the testicles beneath. All this was done within the twelfth-night. And that was all in perfect justice, because that they had undone all the land with the great quantity of base coin that they all bought.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1126. All this year was the King Henry (age 58) in Normandy-all till after harvest. Then came he to this land, betwixt the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas. With him came the [his former wife] queen, and his [his daughter] daughter (age 23), whom he had formerly given to the [his former son-in-law] Emperor Henry of Lorrain to wife. And he brought with him the Earl Waleram (age 22), and Hugh, the son of Gervase (age 28). And the earl (age 22) he sent to Bridgenorth [Map] in captivity: and thence he sent him afterwards to Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map]; and Hugh (age 28) to Windsor Castle [Map], whom he ordered to be kept in strong bonds.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1126. In this year the king (age 58) had his brother [his brother] Robert (age 75) taken from the Bishop Roger of Salisbury, and committed him to his son1 [his illegitimate son] Robert, Earl of Glocester (age 27), and had him led to Bristol, and there put into the castle. That was all done through his [his daughter] daughter's (age 23) counsel, and through [his former brother-in-law] David, the king of the Scots (age 42), her uncle.

Note 1. Illegitimate.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. After 29 Sep 1126. Then after Michaelmas came [his former brother-in-law] David, the king of the Scots (age 42), from Scotland to this land; and the King Henry (age 58) received him with great worship; and he continued all that year in this land.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1127. This same year he155 gave the abbacy of Peterborough to an abbot named Henry of Poitou, who retained in hand his abbacy of St. John of Angeli; but all the archbishops and bishops said that it was against right, and that he could not have two abbacies on hand. But the same Henry gave the king (age 59) to understand, that he had relinquished his abbacy on account of the great hostility that was in the land; and that he did through the counsel and leave of the Pope of Rome, and through that of the Abbot of Clugny, and because he was legate of the Rome-scot. But, nevertheless, it was not so; for he would retain both in hand; and did so as long as God's will was. He was in his clerical state Bishop of Soissons; afterwards monk of Clugny; and then prior in the same monastery. Afterwards he became prior of Sevigny; and then, because he was a relation of the King of England (age 59), and of the Earl of Poitou, the earl gave him the abbacy of St. John's minster of Angeli. Afterwards, through his great craft, he obtained the archbishopric of Besancon; and had it in hand three days; after which he justly lost it, because he had before unjustly obtained it. Afterwards he procured the bishopric of Saintes; which was five miles from his abbey. That he had full-nigh a week156 in hand; but the Abbot of Clugny brought him thence, as he before did from Besancon. Then he bethought him, that, if he could be fast-rooted in England, he might have all his will. Wherefore he besought the king (age 59), and said unto him, that he was an old man-a man completely broken-that he could not brook the great injustice and the great hostility that were in their land: and then, by his own endearours, and by those of all his friends, he earnestly and expressly entreated for the abbacy of Peterborough. And the king (age 59) procured it for him, because he was his relation, and because he was the principal person to make oath and bear witness when the son of the Earl of Normandy and the daughter of the Earl of Anjou were divorced on the plea of consanguinity. Thus wretchedly was the abbacy given away, betwixt Christmas and Candlemas, at London; and so he went with the king (age 59) to Winchester, and thence he came to Peterborough, and there he dwelt157 right so as a drone doth in a hive. For as the drone fretteth and draggeth fromward all that the bees drag toward [the hive], so did he.-All that he might take, within and without, of learned and lewd, so sent he over sea; and no good did there-no good left there. Think no man unworthily that we say not the truth; for it was fully known over all the land: that, as soon as he came thither, which was on the Sunday when men sing "Exurge quare o D-- etc." immediately after, several persons saw and heard many huntsmen hunting. The hunters were swarthy, and huge, and ugly; and their hounds were all swarthy, and broad-eyed, and ugly. And they rode on swarthy horses, and swarthy bucks. This was seen in the very deer-fold in the town of Peterborough, and in all the woods from that same town to Stamford [Map]. And the monks heard the horn blow that they blew in the night. Credible men, who watched them in the night, said that they thought there might well be about twenty or thirty horn-blowers. This was seen and heard from the time that he158 came thither, all the Lent-tide onward to Easter. This was his entry; of his exit we can as yet say nought. God provide.

Note 155. i.e. Henry, King of England.

Note 156. "A se'nnight", the space of seven nights; as we still say, "a fortnight", i.e. the space of fourteen nights. The French express the space of one week by "huit jours", the origin of the "octave" in English law; of two by "quinte jours". So "septimana" signifies "seven mornings"; whence the French word "semaine".

Note 157. Literally, "woned". Vid Chaucer, "Canterbury Tales", v. 7745. In Scotland, a lazy indolent manner of doing anything is called "droning".

Note 158. The Abbot Henry of Angeli.

1127 Oath of Allegiance to Empress Matilda

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1127. This year held the King Henry (age 59) his court at Christmas in Windsor. There was [his former brother-in-law] David the king of the Scots (age 43), and all the head men that were in England, learned and lewd. And there he engaged the archbishops, and bishops, and abbots, and earls, and all the thanes that were there, to swear England and Normandy [Map] after his day into the hands of his daughter [his daughter] Athelicia (age 24), who was formerly the wife of the [his former son-in-law] Emperor of Saxony. Afterwards he sent her to Normandy; and with her went her brother [his illegitimate son] Robert, Earl of Glocester (age 28), and Brian, son of the Earl Alan Fergan (age 27);154 and he let her wed the [his future son-in-law] son (age 13) of the Earl of Anjou (age 38), whose name was Geoffry Martel (age 13). All the French and English, however, disapproved of this; but the king (age 59) did it for to have the alliance of the Earl of Anjou (age 38), and for to have help against his nephew William (age 24).

Note 154. See an account of him in "Ord. Vit." 544. Conan, another son of this Alan, Earl of Brittany, married a daughter of Henry I.

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 1127. Fealty sworn to the empress Matilda. As soon as the feast days [of Christmas] were over, the king (age 59) went to London, attended by all the men of rank in the realm who had flocked to his court, and there, by the king's command, William (age 57), the archbishop and legate of the see of Rome, and all the other bishops of England, and the nobles of the land, swore fealty to the king's [his daughter] daughter (age 24); engaging to defend her right to the crown of England, if she should survive her father, against all opposers, unless he should yet before his death beget a son in lawful wedlock, to become his successor. On the death of the emperor Henry, who had lived in marriage with her many years, without leaving children, she had returned to her father's court, where she was surrounded with all the honours becoming her station. The king, therefore, having lost his son William in the manner already described, and there being as yet no other direct heir to the kingdom, for that reason made over the right to the crown to his daughter, under the provisoe just mentioned.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1127. And the King of France (age 45) brought William (age 24), the son of the [his brother] Earl of Normandy (age 76), and gave him the earldom; and the people of that land accepted him. This same William had before taken to wife the daughter (age 15) of the Earl of Anjou; but they were afterwards divorced on the plea of consanguinity. This was all through the King Henry (age 59) of England. Afterwards took he to wife the sister1 of the king's (age 45) wife of France; and for this reason the king (age 45) gave him the earldom of Flanders.

Note. Maternal half-sister; their mother Gisela Ivrea Countess Savoy (age 57).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1128. And this same year went the aforesaid Abbot Henry home to his own minster at Poitou by the king's (age 60) leave. He gave the king (age 60) to understand, that he would withal forgo that minster, and that land, and dwell with him in England, and in the monastery of Peterborough. But it was not so nevertheless. He did this because he would be there, through his crafty wiles, were it a twelvemonth or more, and come again afterwards. May God Almighty extend his mercy over that wretched place.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1128. This same year came from Jerusalem Hugh of the Temple to the king (age 60) in Normandy; and the king (age 60) received him with much honour, and gave him rich presents in gold and in silver. And afterwards he sent him into England; and there he was received by all good men, who all gave him presents, and in Scotland also: and by him they sent to Jerusalem much wealth withal in gold and in silver. And he invited folk out to Jerusalem; and there went with him and after him more people than ever did before, since that the first expedition was in the day of Pope Urban. Though it availed little; for he said, that a mighty war was begun between the Christians and the heathens; but when they came thither, then was it nought but leasing.159 Thus pitifully was all that people swinked.160

Note 159. "Thou shalt destroy them that speak 'leasing,'" etc. Psalms.

Note 160. i.e. Vexed, harassed, fatigued, etc. Milton has used the word in the last sense.

On 10 Jun 1128 [his future son-in-law] Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy (age 14) was knighted by King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 60) in preparation for his wedding to Henry's daughter [his daughter] Empress Matilda (age 26).

On 17 Jun 1128 [his son-in-law] Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy (age 14) and [his daughter] Empress Matilda (age 26) were married. She the daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 60) and Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England. He the son of Fulk "Young" King Jerusalem (age 39) and Ermengarde La Flèche De Baugency Countess Anjou.

1128 Death of William Clito

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 27 Jul 1128. All this year was the King Henry (age 60) in Normandy, on account of the hostility that was between him and his nephew (age 25), the Earl of Flanders. But the earl was wounded in a fight by a swain; and so wounded he went to the monastery of St. Bertin; where he soon became a monk, lived five days afterwards, then died, and was there buried. God honour his soul. That was on the sixth day before the calends of August.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1129. Soon after, by the king's (age 61) counsel, and by his leave, sent the Archbishop William of Canterbury (age 59) over all England, and bade bishops, and abbots, and archdeacons, and all the priors, monks, and canons, that were in all the cells in England, and all who had the care and superintendence of christianity, that they should all come to London at Michaelmas, and there should speak of all God's rights. When they came thither, then began the moot on Monday, and continued without intermission to the Friday. When it all came forth, then was it all found to be about archdeacons' wives, and about priests' wives; that they should forgo them by St. Andrew's mass; and he who would not do that, should forgo his church, and his house, and his home, and never more have any calling thereto. This bade the Archbishop William of Canterbury (age 59), and all the diocesan bishops that were then in England, but the king (age 61) gave them all leave to go home. And so they went home; and all the ordinances amounted to nothing. All held their wives by the king's (age 61) leave as they did before.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1129. In this year sent the King to England (age 61) after the Earl Waleram (age 25), and after Hugh, the son of Gervase (age 31). And they gave hostages for them. And Hugh (age 31) went home to his own land in France; but Waleram (age 25) was left with the king (age 61): and the king (age 61) gave him all his land except his castle alone.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1129. Afterwards came the king (age 61) to England within the harvest: and the earl (age 25) came with him: and they became as good friends as they were foes before.

1129 Papal Schism

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1129. This same year died Pope Honorius. Ere he was well dead, there were chosen two popes. The one was named Peter, who was monk of Clugny, and was born of the richest men of Rome; and with him held those of Rome, and the Duke of Sicily. The other was Gregory: he was a clerk, and was driven out of Rome by the other pope, and by his kinsmen. With him held the Emperor of Saxony, and the King of France (age 47), and the King Henry (age 61) of England, and all those on this side of the Alps. Now was there such division in Christendom as never was before. May Christ consult for his wretched folk.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 25 Jan 1129. This same year died the Bishop William Giffard of Winchester; and was there buried, on the eighth day before the calends of February. And the King Henry (age 61) gave the bishopric after Michaelmas to the Abbot Henry of Glastonbury, his nephew, and he was consecrated bishop by the Archbishop William of Canterbury (age 59) on the fifteenth day before the calends of December.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 08 May 1130. On the fourth day after this was the King Henry (age 62) in Rochester, when the town was almost consumed by fire; and the Archbishop William consecrated the monastery of St. Andrew, and the aforesaid bishops with him.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. After 08 May 1130. And the King Henry (age 62) went over sea into Normandy [Map] in harvest. This same year came the Abbot Henry of Angeli after Easter to Peterborough, and said that he had relinquished that monastery161 withal. After him came the Abbot of Clugny, Peter by name, to England by the king's (age 62) leave; and was received by all, whithersoever he came, with much respect. To Peterborough he came; and there the Abbot Henry promised him that he would procure him the minster of Peterborough, that it might be subject to Clugny. But it is said in the proverb, "The hedge abideth, that acres divideth." May God Almighty frustrate evil designs. Soon after this, went the Abbot of Clugny home to his country.

Note 161. The monastery of Angeli.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1131. And the King Henry (age 63) came home to England before harvest, after the mass of St. Peter "ad vincula".

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1131. This same year went the Abbot Henry, before Easter, from Peterborough over sea to Normandy, and there spoke with the king (age 63), and told him that the Abbot of Clugny had desired him to come to him, and resign to him the abbacy of Angeli, after which he would go home by his leave. And so he went home to his own minster, and there remained even to midsummer day. And the next day after the festival of St. John chose the monks an abbot of themselves, brought him into the church in procession, sang "Te Deum laudamus", rang the bells, set him on the abbot's throne, did him all homage, as they should do their abbot: and the earl, and all the head men, and the monks of the minster, drove the other Abbot Henry out of the monastery. And they had need; for in five-and-twenty winters had they never hailed one good day. Here failed him all his mighty crafts. Now it behoved him, that he crope in his skin into every corner, if peradventure there were any unresty wrench163, whereby he might yet once more betray Christ and all Christian people. Then retired he into Clugny, where he was held so fast, that he could not move east or west. The Abbot of Clugny said that they had lost St. John's minster through him, and through his great sottishness. Then could he not better recompense them; but he promised them, and swore oaths on the holy cross, that if he might go to England he should get them the minster of Peterborough; so that he should set there the prior of Clugny, with a churchwarden, a treasurer, and a sacristan: and all the things that were within the minster and without, he should procure for them. Thus he departed into France; and there remained all that year. Christ provide for the wretched monks of Peterborough, and for that wretched place. Now do they need the help of Christ and of all Christian folk.

Note 163. "Any restless manoeuvre or stratagem." Both words occur in Chaucer. See "Troilus and Criseyde", v. 1355, and "Canterbury Tales", v. 16549. The idea seems to be taken from the habits of destructive and undermining vermin.

In 1132 [his illegitimate son] Fulk Fitzroy (age 40) died.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1132. This year came King Henry (age 64) to this land. Then came Abbot Henry, and betrayed the monks of Peterborough to the king (age 64), because he would subject that minster to Clugny; so that the king (age 64) was well nigh entrapped, and sent after the monks. But through the grace of God, and through the Bishop of Salisbury, and the Bishop of Lincoln, and the other rich men that were there, the king (age 64) knew that he proceeded with treachery. When he no more could do, then would he that his nephew should be Abbot of Peterborough. But Christ forbade. Not very long after this was it that the king (age 64) sent after him, and made him give up the Abbey of Peterborough, and go out of the land. And the king (age 64) gave the abbacy to a prior of St. Neot's, called Martin, who came on St. Peter's mass-day with great pomp into the minster.

In or before 1135 [his son-in-law] Roscelin Beaumont Sarthe 7th Viscount Beaumont and [his illegitimate daughter] Constance Fitzroy Viscountess Beaumont were married. She by marriage Viscountess Beaumont. She the daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 66).

Death of King Henry I

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1135. In this year went the King Henry (age 67) over sea at the Lammas; and the next day, as he lay asleep on ship, the day darkened over all lands, and the sun was all as it were a three night old moon, and the stars about him at midday. Men were very much astonished and terrified, and said that a great event should come hereafter. So it did; for that same year was the king (age 67) dead, the next day after St. Andrew's mass-day, in Normandy. Then was there soon tribulation in the land; for every man that might, soon robbed another. Then his sons and his friends took his body, and brought it to England, and buried it at Reading. A good man he was; and there was great dread of him. No man durst do wrong with another in his time. Peace he made for man and beast. Whoso bare his burthen of gold and silver, durst no man say ought to him but good. Meanwhile was his nephew come to England, Stephen de Blois (age 41). He came to London, and the people of London received him, and sent after the Archbishop William Curboil, and hallowed him to king (age 41) on midwinter day. In this king's (age 41) time was all dissention, and evil, and rapine; for against him rose soon the rich men who were traitors; and first of all Baldwin de Redvers, who held Exeter, Devon [Map] against him. But the king (age 41) beset it; and afterwards Baldwin accorded. Then took the others, and held their castles against him; and [his former brother-in-law] David, King of Scotland (age 51), took to Wessington against him. Nevertheless their messengers passed between them; and they came together, and were settled, but it availed little.

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 01 Dec 1135. Henry, king of England (age 67), died on the fourth of the nones [the 20th] of December [Note. Other sources say 01 Dec 1135? The nones of December is the 5th so the fourth of the nones is the 1st?], in the sixty-ninth year of his age, after a reign of thirty-five years and four months;

On 01 Dec 1135 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 67) died. The succession fell between Henrys daughter [his daughter] Empress Matilda (age 33) and Henry's nephew King Stephen I England (age 41), son of [his sister] Adela Normandy Countess Blois (age 68) daughter of [his father] King William "Conqueror" I of England. The period from 1135 to 1153 during which the succession was fought over is known as The Anarchy.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1137. This year went the King Stephen (age 43) over sea to Normandy, and there was received; for that they concluded that he should be all such as the uncle was; and because he had got his treasure: but he dealed it out, and scattered it foolishly. Much had King Henry gathered, gold and silver, but no good did men for his soul thereof. When the King Stephen (age 43) came to England, he held his council at Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]; where he seized the Bishop Roger of Sarum, and Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, and the chancellor Roger, his nephew; and threw all into prison till they gave up their castles. When the traitors understood that he was a mild man, and soft, and good, and no justice executed, then did they all wonder. They had done him homage, and sworn oaths, but they no truth maintained. They were all forsworn, and forgetful of their troth; for every rich man built his castles, which they held against him: and they filled the land full of castles. They cruelly oppressed the wretched men of the land with castle-works; and when the castles were made, they filled them with devils and evil men. Then took they those whom they supposed to have any goods, both by night and by day, labouring men and women, and threw them into prison for their gold and silver, and inflicted on them unutterable tortures; for never were any martyrs so tortured as they were. Some they hanged up by the feet, and smoked them with foul smoke; and some by the thumbs, or by the head, and hung coats of mail on their feet. They tied knotted strings about their heads, and twisted them till the pain went to the brains. They put them into dungeons, wherein were adders, and snakes, and toads; and so destroyed them. Some they placed in a crucet-house; that is, in a chest that was short and narrow, and not deep; wherein they put sharp stones, and so thrust the man therein, that they broke all the limbs. In many of the castles were things loathsome and grim, called "Sachenteges", of which two or three men had enough to bear one. It was thus made: that is, fastened to a beam; and they placed a sharp iron [collar] about the man's throat and neck, so that he could in no direction either sit, or lie, or sleep, but bear all that iron. Many thousands they wore out with hunger. I neither can, nor may I tell all the wounds and all the pains which they inflicted on wretched men in this land. This lasted the nineteen winters while Stephen (age 43) was king; and it grew continually worse and worse. They constantly laid guilds on the towns, and called it "tenserie"; and when the wretched men had no more to give, then they plundered and burned all the towns; that well thou mightest go a whole day's journey and never shouldest thou find a man sitting in a town, nor the land tilled. Then was corn dear, and flesh, and cheese, and butter; for none was there in the land. Wretched men starved of hunger. Some had recourse to alms, who were for a while rich men, and some fled out of the land. Never yet was there more wretchedness in the land; nor ever did heathen men worse than they did: for, after a time, they spared neither church nor churchyard, but took all the goods that were therein, and then burned the church and all together. Neither did they spare a bishop's land, or an abbot's, or a priest's, but plundered both monks and clerks; and every man robbed another who could. If two men, or three, came riding to a town, all the township fled for them, concluding them to be robbers. The bishops and learned men cursed them continually, but the effect thereof was nothing to them; for they were all accursed, and forsworn, and abandoned. To till the ground was to plough the sea: the earth bare no corn, for the land was all laid waste by such deeds; and they said openly, that Christ slept, and his saints. Such things, and more than we can say, suffered we nineteen winters for our sins. In all this evil time held Abbot Martin his abbacy twenty years and a half, and eight days, with much tribulation; and found the monks and the guests everything that behoved them; and held much charity in the house; and, notwithstanding all this, wrought on the church, and set thereto lands and rents, and enriched it very much, and bestowed vestments upon it. And he brought them into the new minster on St. Peter's mass-day with much pomp; which was in the year, from the incarnation of our Lord, 1140, and in the twenty-third from the destruction of the place by fire. And he went to Rome, and there was well received by the Pope Eugenius; from whom he obtained their privileges:-one for all the lands of the abbey, and another for the lands that adjoin to the churchyard; and, if he might have lived longer, so he meant to do concerning the treasury. And he got in the lands that rich men retained by main strength. Of William Malduit, who held the castle of Rockingham, he won Cotingham and Easton; and of Hugh de Walteville, he won Hirtlingbury and Stanwick, and sixty shillings from Oldwinkle each year. And he made many monks, and planted a vine-yard, and constructed many works, and made the town better than it was before. He was a good monk, and a good man; and for this reason God and good men loved him. Now we will relate in part what happened in King Stephen's (age 43) time. In his reign the Jews of Norwich bought a Christian child before Easter, and tortured him after the same manner as our Lord was tortured; and on Long-Friday164 hanged him on a rood, in mockery of our Lord, and afterwards buried him. They supposed that it would be concealed, but our Lord showed that he was a holy martyr. And the monks took him, and buried him with high honour in the minster. And through our Lord he worketh wonderful and manifold miracles, and is called St. William.

Note 164. Now called "Good-Friday".

In 1138 William D'Aubigny 1st Earl Lincoln 1st Earl Arundel (age 29) and [his former wife] Adeliza of Louvain Queen Consort England (age 35) were married. She the daughter of Godfrey Reginar I Count Louvain (age 78) and Ida Chiny Countess Louvain.

On 23 Apr 1151 [his former wife] Adeliza of Louvain Queen Consort England (age 48) died. She was buried at Reading Abbey [Map].

In Apr 1156 William Plantagenet IX Count Poitiers (age 2) died at Wallingford Castle [Map]. He was buried at Reading Abbey [Map] at the feet of his great-grandfather King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Monumental Effigies. Statue of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England on the West Front of Rochester Cathedral [Map].

Monumental Effigies. Statue of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England on the West Front of Rochester Cathedral [Map].

Minutes of the Society of Antiquaries. 25 Mar 1719. Mr President brought an old deed of King Stephen's remarkable for the finesse of its character and largeness, dated MCXXXVII [1137] and likewise another deed of King Harry Ist's time as singlular for its minuteness and laconic style, and likewise the deed of William Albini founder of Belvoir Castle [Map], likewise the Royal Arms impressed in Rye dough which came from Hampton Court [Map].

Mr Director brought a sketch of a design of a plate to be printed as a headpiece or Emblem of the Works of the Society at the beginning of any publications, which he was ordered to to have [?]. Mr President made a Report in the name of those gentlemen who were ordered to revise Mr Samuel Gale's dissertation upon Ulphus's Horn and what alterations they hinted at, are submitted to the Author pleasure, and the work is ordered to be published and printed in a good manner in Quarto by Mr Gossin [?] at the charges of the Society with a print of the Horn before it, whereof a sufficient number are likewise ordered to be printed off. It was ordered by the Society that a manuscript of the Cotton Library being [?] Registrum Honors de Richmond with the Illuminations therein, be printed at their charges, and Mr Roger Gale (age 46) is disposed to get it transcribed, in order thereto, and the Director to have the drawings therein copied to be engraven, the whole to be done in the same form and magnitude with the original.

[his illegitimate daughter] Sibyl Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate daughter] Mabel Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate son] Gilbert Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate daughter] Isabel Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate son] William Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England and Sybilla Corbet.

[his illegitimate daughter] Matilda Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate daughter] Matilda Fitzroy Countess Perche was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate daughter] Gundrada Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate son] Robert Fitzroy and Matilda Avranches were married. He the son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England and Edith Forne.

[his illegitimate daughter] Rohese Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate daughter] Constance Fitzroy Viscountess Beaumont was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate daughter] Emma Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England and Nest ferch Rhys Dinefwr.

[his illegitimate daughter] Aline Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate daughter] Matilda Fitzroy Duchess Brittany was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate daughter] Adeliza Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England and Edith Forne.

[his illegitimate daughter] Wife Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

[his illegitimate son] William de Tracy Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Marlborough Mound [Map]. Historic England 1005634.

This monument includes a motte castle situated on the summit of a ridge surrounded by a meander of the River Kennet and within the grounds of Marlborough College within a Grade II Registered Garden (2247). The motte survives as a circular mound of up to 85m in diameter and 18m high. Excavations in 1912 found layers of charcoal and antler picks which have long caused speculation as to whether this was a prehistoric earthwork which was re-used as a motte, although a survey in 2001 did not prove the castle to be anything other than medieval in origin. Further excavations in 1936 found the footings for a curtain wall and the buttress for a shell keep on the summit together with 12th to 13th century pottery. Speculation of this having once been part of a much larger castle with baileys was apparently fuelled by the discovery of a V-shaped profile ditch to the north of the motte in 2000 and it has long been believed that much of the bailey extended to the south although the extent of this is not known. In 2005 further excavations indicated the spiral path which winds its way up to the summit was in existence from 1654. Marlborough was part of a royal borough which was visited often by sovereigns, there is no documentary mention of a castle prior to 1138, but it is thought significant that William I imprisoned Bishop Aethelfric of Selsey in Marlborough and that Henry I held an Easter Court there in 1110. Also, several charters were signed in Marlborough which implies the castle did already exist. The first definitive documentary record was in 1139 when it was held by King Stephen from the Empress Matilda. There was further building work during the reign of Henry II which included the 'Great Tower' and continued from 1175 to 1179. King John had the castle repaired and a ring wall built around the motte in 1209-11. Henry III spent £2000 on works between 1227 and 1272 which included work on two chapels, the hall, the keep, two barbicans, a curtain wall, two bridges, gatehouse, and the Queen's apartments. From 1273-1369 it formed part of the Queen's possessions as her 'Dower House'. However, by 1403 it had deteriorated significantly and subsequently remained neglected. Allegedly the black marble font now in Preshute Church came from the castle chapel and was supposedly used to baptise King John and Edward the Black Prince. The winding path, a grotto (listed at Grade II) and a water tower on top of the motte were all landscape garden features from the 17th to 18th centuries. The grotto was originally part of a canal and cascade feature associated with the mound.

King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King William "Conqueror" I of England 1028-1087

Royal Ancestors of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135

Kings Wessex: Great x 6 Grand Son of King Alfred "The Great" of Wessex

Kings England: Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Kings Franks: Great x 8 Grand Son of Louis "Pious" King Aquitaine I King Franks

Kings France: Great Grand Son of Robert "Pious" II King France

Royal Descendants of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135

Agnes La Marck Queen Consort Navarre x 2

Sybilla Fitzroy Queen Consort Scotland x 1

Empress Matilda x 1

Ermengarde Beaumont Sarthe Queen Consort Scotland x 1

John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland x 1

Isabel Bruce Queen Norway x 2

Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland x 2

Joan of Burgundy Queen Consort France x 1

Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France x 1

Philip "Noble" III King Navarre x 2

Joan Évreux Queen Consort France x 2

Blanche Valois Holy Roman Empress Luxemburg x 1

Blanche Dampierre Queen Consort Norway and Sweden x 2

Joan Auvergne Queen Consort France x 2

Joanna Bourbon Queen Consort France x 1

Blanche Bourbon Queen Consort Castile x 1

Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal x 2

Yolande of Bar Queen Consort Aragon x 2

Henry IV King England x 2

King Louis of Naples x 1

King Henry V of England x 3

Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Denmark x 3

Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland x 2

Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford x 3

Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland x 2

Charlotte Savoy Queen Consort France x 2

King Edward IV of England x 12

King Richard III of England x 12

Anne Neville Queen Consort England x 25

King Henry VII of England and Ireland x 5

Louis XII King France x 2

Jean III King Navarre x 1

Bianca Maria Sforza Holy Roman Empress x 2

Anne of Brittany Queen Consort France x 2

Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile x 5

Germaine Foix Queen Consort Aragon x 2

Marguerite Valois Orléans Queen Consort Navarre x 5

King Francis I of France x 5

Queen Anne Boleyn of England x 25

Anne Jagiellon Holy Roman Empress x 6

Queen Jane Seymour x 37

Catherine Parr Queen Consort England x 31

Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England x 6

Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland x 14

Antoine King Navarre x 11

Queen Catherine Howard of England x 30

Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland x 47

Louis VI Elector Palatine x 2

Louise Lorraine Queen Consort France x 8

King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland x 8

Maximilian "The Great" Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria I Elector Bavaria x 8

Maria Anna Wittelsbach Holy Roman Empress x 8

Electress Louise Juliana of the Palatine Rhine x 3

Ferdinand of Spain II Holy Roman Emperor x 2

Margaret of Austria Queen Consort Spain x 2

Eleonora Gonzaga Queen Consort Bohemia x 3

Maria Leopoldine Habsburg Spain Queen Consort Bohemia x 2

Marie Françoise Élisabeth of Savoy Queen Consort of Portugal x 18

Victor Amadeus King Sardinia x 21

Maria Anna Neuburg Queen Consort Spain x 6

Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor x 6

Charles Habsburg Spain VI Holy Roman Emperor x 6

Francis I Holy Roman Emperor x 6

Elisabeth Therese Lorraine Queen Consort Sardinia x 6

President George Washington x 14

King George III of Great Britain and Ireland x 6

Caroline Matilda Hanover Queen Consort Denmark and Norway x 6

Caroline of Brunswick Queen Consort England x 6

King Christian I of Norway and VIII of Denmark x 12

Frederick VII King Denmark x 18

Queen Louise Hesse-Kassel of Denmark x 12

Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom x 12

Queen Sophia of Sweden and Norway x 6

Victoria Empress Germany Queen Consort Prussia x 36

King Edward VII of the United Kingdom x 36

Frederick Charles I King Finland x 12

Alexandrine Mecklenburg-Schwerin Queen Consort Denmark x 18

Victoria Eugénie Mountbatten Queen Consort Spain x 36

Louise Mountbatten Queen Consort Sweden x 36

Ingrid Bernadotte Queen Consort Denmark x 36

Philip Mountbatten Duke Edinburgh x 36

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 4058

Carl XVI King Sweden x 72

Queen Consort Camilla Shand x 1418

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 13371

Catherine Middleton Princess of Wales x 44

Ancestors of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England 1068-1135

Father: King William "Conqueror" I of England -2 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Father of Beatrix and Herleva

GrandMother: Herleva Falaise

King Henry I "Beauclerc" England Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England